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UNIV% ROLL NO% - &'()*+)


I am Sandeep Kaur here by declare the project report entitled Study Employees Health and Safety at Verka Milk Plant Ltd ! has been carried out and submitted to the P"#$%& 'E(H#I(%L "#IVE)SI'* by me I undertake responsibility for the contents of this report

+ate,,,,,,,,,, -Sandeep Kaur. //////


% bi0 task of under takin0 such as project is not sin0ly possible Indeed the project could not ha1e taken its present shape2 but for 3holesome inducement2 sense of accommodation and purposi1e 0uidance I 3ould like to e4press my deep sense of 0ratitude and indebtedness to 3orthy Mr Sukhde1 Sin0h trainin0 pro1ider at Verka Milk Plant Ludhiana for their 0uidance and help durin0 the project I ha1e carried throu0h the s3eet touches of the e4perience of 1ision and filed of research My thanks are also to all respondents in Verka Milk Plant Ltd! for their co5operation assistance in completin0 my project report 6ithout them this report could not ha1e taken its place

San !!" Ka#$


In order to achie1e practical kno3led0e2 the classroom kno3led0e of the situation2 e4istin0 outside the classroom 'he In my theoretical kno3led0e is useless 3ithout practical conduct a project report I

sur1ey of 78 employees from this plant It 3as a

0reat e4perience to deal 3ith 1arious aspects of industries

S$% N2% &% '% -% 5% 6% )% (% 7% +% &*% (ompany profile Introduction to the project 9bjecti1e of study )esearch methodolo0y +ata analysis and interpretation :indin0s Limitation of study Su00estions &iblio0raphy %nne4ure T2"1. Na4!

CHAPTER 8 & INTRODUCTION Milkin0 has its ad1ent in the 1ery e1olution of placental mammals 6hile

the e4act time of its appearance

not kno3n2 the immediate ancestors

of modern mammals 3ere much like monotremes includin0 the platypus Such animals today produce a milk5like substance from 0lands on the surface of their skin2 but 3ithout the nipple2 for their offsprin0 to drink after hatchin0 from their e00s Like3ise2 marsupials2 the closest cousin to placental mammals2 produce a milk5like substance from a teat5like or0an in their pouches 'he earliest immediate ancestor of placental mammals kno3n seems to be eomaia2 a small creature superficially resemblin0 rodents that is thou0ht to ha1e li1ed ;<7 million years a0o2 durin0 the (retaceous era It almost certainly produced 3hat 3ould be considered milk2 in the same 3ay as modern placental mammals %nimal milk is first kno3n to ha1e been used as human food at the be0innin0 of animal domestication (o3 milk 3as first used as human food in the Middle East =oats and sheep are ruminants> mammals adapted to sur1i1e on a diet of dry 0rass2 a food source other3ise useless to humans2 and one that is easily stockpiled 'he animals? dairyin0 pro1ed to be a more efficient 3ay of turnin0 unculti1ated 0rasslands into sustenance> the food 1alue of an animal killed for meat can be matched by perhaps one year@s 3orth of milk from the same animal2 3hich 3ill keep producin0 milk A in con1enient daily portions A for years %round B888 &(2 cattle 3ere bein0 herded in parts of 'urkey 'here is e1idence from +#% e4traction of skeletons from the #eolithic period that people in northern Europe 3ere missin0 the necessary 0enes to process lactase 'he use of cheese and butter spread in Europe2 parts of %sia and parts of %frica Milk 3as first deli1ered in bottles on $anuary ;;2 ;CBC 'he day is no3 remembered as Milk +ay and is celebrated annually 'he to3n of Har1ard2

Illinois also celebrates milk in the summer 3ith a festi1al kno3n as Milk +ays 'heirs is a different tradition meant to celebrate dairy farmers in the DMilk (apital of the 6orld D &EHI#+ VE)K%

:ar a3a

y from the

din and maddenin0 pace of the city2 there rests2 near %mritsar sleepy 1illa0e called Verka Peaceful in its seclusion2 life cra3ls on its o3n pace 'he cool breeEe2 rustle of the banyan lea1es2 the chirrupin0 of the birds2 the Fuite flo3 of the shimmerin0 3ater besides those soft folds of lush 0reen2 nestlin0 a healthy cattle 0raEin0 a3ay to 0lory % perfect picture of health and happiness 'oday2 Verka has out5stripped its o3n boundaries to reach our homes Verka 3as there lon0 before it came to MILK:E+ &ut then2 it 3as the difference bet3een bein0 there and makin0 it bi0 6hen 3e at MILK:E+ took it on2 3e belie1ed that it had potential to do a lot more %nd it did 6ith little more of a consumer oriented approach2 Verka became a brand to reckon 3ith 6ith its 0ro3in0 outlets and thus easier a1ailability2 it reached far and 3ide across the state and beyond 'o people today2 Verka is part of their daily li1es I#')9+"('I9# 9:> 'HE VE)K% MILK PL%#' L+H

Verka milk plant2 Ludhiana is kno3n Ludhiana distt5 co5operati1e milk produce union It is situated on :eroEepur road It is fully eFuipped 3ith modern fluid milk plants facilities VMP2 Ludhiana is a presti0ious milk plant of Punjab state famous all o1er the country and abroad for the supply of Fuality milk products It has 0ot first position in #orthern Gone It@s functionin0 stone 3as laid by Sh Prakash Sin0h &adal2 the (hief Minister of the Punjab on $une << ;HB8 'his plant 3as inau0urated by our referred Prime Minister Smt Indira =andhi Milk plant is a co5operati1e society and farmers -producers. share all its profit and losses =o1t does not pro1ide any financial assistance to milk plant Ludhiana &ut =o1t Super1isor and control is there La3 and policy maker is Punjab =o1t here there is no dishonesty in the milk plant It is 1ery neat and clean or0aniEation 'he handlin0 capacity of the milk plant per day is I Lac Litre In the year ;HCJ2 P++( mer0ed into milk fed and control of milk plant transferred to milk fed in year ;HCJ &ut the efforts of the +irectors and milk

producer@s control of milk plant producers.

transferred to milk union2 -union of milk

Milk plant Ludhiana produces 1ariety of milk products like Milk cake2 cheese2 &utter2 =hee skimmed milk po3der and standardiEed milk@ Milk plant sells better Fuality of pasteuriEed milk to people =hee manufactured by this plant is not only sold in country but also supplied to forei0n countries like #epal2 +ubai 'he ne3 achie1ements of this milk plant is to achie1e the International Fuality certificate IS9 H88< 'o 0et this IS9 5H88< certification the follo3in0 clauses are reFuires ; < J I 7 L B C H ;8 ;; ;< ;J ;I ;7 ;L ;B Mana0ement )esponsibility Kuality Systems (ontract )e1ie3 +ocuments and data control Purchasin0 Purchase5 Supplier product Product 5 Identification and tractability Process (ontrol Inspectin0 and testin0 Inspection2 Measurin0 and test eFuipment Inspection and test status (ontrol of non conformin0 products (orrecti1e action Holdin02 Stora0e2 packa0in0 and deli1ery Kuality )ecords International Kuality %udits 'rainin0

;C ;H <8 <;

Statistical 'echniFues +esi0n and control Ser1icin0 &etter utiliEation of manpo3er

Profits of milk plant are distributed to 3orkers and milk produces as increase in rate of fat and S#: and to 3orkers as bonus In the year <88;5<88< the milk plant achie1ed the =ross profit -6ithout Interest M +ep . for )s 72B<88888 and net profit for )s J2J;88888 "nder the operation flood dairy pro0ram the =o1t of India selected the Ludhiana district of Punjab as one of the milk shed to de1elop %nand pattern 'op m0t In milk plant Ludhiana is controlled by =o1t 'he =o1t does not 0i1e any assistance to the milk plant but milk plant can recei1e loans etc 3ith the 0uarantee of =o1t policymaker is the =o1t but milk produces spend money

Machinery of best technolo0y has been installed in the milk plant 'he machinery is a1ailable for the productions of follo3in0 milk products ; < J I 7 L B C H ;8 PasteuriEed fluid milk SteriliEed fla1oured milk Milk5cake Paneer Lassi Ice (ream &utter =hee Skimmed milk po3der 6hole milk po3der

;; ;<

&aby food Infant milk food

&ut accordin0 to the demands from the open market the follo3in0 milk products are produced>5 ; < J I 7 L PasteuriEedN Sterlised milk Milk cake Paneer &utter =hee Skimmed milk po3der

Lured by hi0h profits some ne3 concerns in pri1ate sector also try to set up their o3n plants So2 the present mar0in of the milk plant has become less and future is lookin0 hard 'he milk plant is still standin0 ahead and not loosin0 coura0e 'o meet the 0lobal competition milk fed (handi0arh has taken steps in the field of ad1ertisement of products and has set aside )s2 ; crore for this purpose Milk plant Ludhiana is playin0 a 1ital role in Socio Economic de1elopment of real merses of Ludhiana +istt #ormally middlemen and traders dominate the market 'he milk plant steadily marched to3ard fi4 0oal of becomin0 a stron0 and 1iable milk plant and no3 is at #o ; in #orthern Gone %ll its officer as 3ell as 3orkers are assets to milk plant Ludhiana 3ho are performin0 their duties deli0ht and 3ith full Eeal and ener0y %lso the buildin0 of milk plant Ludhiana is nicely planned

and maintained 'here is 0reat system of 3ork 6e hope it 3ill maintain its reputation and 0ood3ill DMay it pro0ress by leaps and boundsD

PROFILE ; < J :ull #ame )e0istered 9ffice Head 9ffice 5 5 5 'he Ludhiana +istt2 (o5 9perati1e Milk Produces "nion Ltd Ldh Milk plant2 :eroEepur )oad2 Ludhiana5;I;88I Punjab State (o5 operati1e milk producers federation Ltd S ( 9 ;7J5 ;77 sector JI5%2

(handi0arh I 7 L B C H ;8 ;; ;< +ate of )e0istration +ate of Inau0uration (ommencement of product (onstitution &ankers Product &rand #o of Milk %0encies #o of Societies #o of Employees Permanent 'emporary ;J ;I ;7 Milk (hillin0 (entres Milk Handlin0 (apacity Products Marketed by 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 ;HB< 3ith P++( J;st 9ct ;HBI :eb ;HBH (o5 9perati1e Punjab State (entral (o5operati1e &ank Verka JJ< B7; C<J IH; JJ< L I2882888LN Per day 'he Punjab State (o5operati1e Milk Producers :ederation Ltd (handi0arh ;L ;B ;C ;H <8 <; =eneral Mana0er +eputy Mana0er %ccount Mana0er Production Mana0er Marketin0 Mana0er Kuality (ontrol Mana0er 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mr Harinder Sin0h =re3al Mr %marjeet Sin0h Mr % K =upta Mr = P Sharma Mr Parminder Sin0h Mr & ) Madaan

SALIENT FEATURES ; < J I 7 L :irst milk plant in India to 0et IS9 5H88< International Kuality (ertificate for milk Milk rate paid to the producers amon0 all the unions hi0hest in the rate Milk procurement hi0hest amon0 all the unions in the state Milk procurements per society one day amon0 all the union hi0hest in the state ;88O milk producers co5 operati1e societies are in profit %00re0ate profit of the societies in any year is the ma4imum amon0 all the B C H ;8 ;; ;< ;J ;I ;7 ;L ;B ;C union state e1er since inception2 customer satisfaction and consistency in Fuality are the key5 thrust area of this or0aniEation #umbers of % I cases ma4imum amon0 all the unions in the state #umber of sick animals treated hi0hest amon0 all the unions in the state (attle feed sold to societies is ma4imum amon0 all the unions in the state : M + 1accination ma4imum amon0 the all unions in the state2 Milk transportation cost lo3est amon0 all the unions in the state Milk chillin0 cost lo3est amon0 all the unions in the state %1era0e daily city supply ma4imum amon0 all the unions in the state Embryo transfer technolo0y introduced in the field for the first time in northern India Milk products sellin0 at premium rates and 0hee e4ported to 0ulf countries and Philippines (apacity utiliEation is ma4imum on yearly basis :uel cost per K0 Milk is lo3est amon0 all the union in the state Electricity cost per K0 Milk is lo3est amon0 all the unions in the state


Leadin0 union to


co5 operati1e


pro0ramme is

stren0then the cooperati1e base at 1illa0e le1el and to introduce arro0ance testin0 pro0rmame for impro1ement of animal breed <8 <; %nnual turn o1er more than )s ;88 88 crores of rupees Hi0hest amon0 all the unions in the state %nnual profitability hi0hest amon0 all the unions in the state

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE 9r0aniEation structure is a systematic combination of people2 functions and physical facilities It constitutes a formal structure 3ith defined authority and clear responsibility Each and e1ery person is 0i1en a job and then authority is assi0ned to him for the job He is made responsible for the job 'he structure and process by 3hich a co5operati1e 0roup of human bein0s allocate its task amon0 its members2 identifies relationship and inte0rates its acti1ities to3ards the common objecti1es 'hus or0aniEin0 structure aims and the sayin0 D Each one for a job and job for each oneD 9r0aniEation structure of milk plant2 Its board consist of ;H +irectors2 'hey appoint =eneral Mana0er and chairman 'hen there are different departmental heads like mana0er %ccounts Mana0er2 Production Mana0er2 Purchase and mana0er marketin0 etc 'hese heads ha1e deputies for their assistance 'he each department has different employees at departmental le1el Verka milk plant is 3ell or0aniEedD It helps in efficient @runnin0 of concern

MILK PROCUREMENT SECTION Milk procurement business is bein0 looked after mainly by milk union Ludhiana Procurement section is headed by mana0er milk procurement 3ho is assisted by technical officers and supportin0 staff for obtainin0 the objecti1es Milk is collected by milk procurement co5 operati1e societies at the 1illa0e le1el and purchased by milk union 3hich further supplies that milk to milk plant after char0in0 commission from milk union Milk union Ludhiana procure ; 88 lac liters of milk per day at the time of commission0 of milk plant &ut at present milk union procure I lacs lit of milk per day I *ear <88858; <88;58< <88<58J <88J58I <88I587 <88758L <88L58B <88B58C MILK H%#+LI#= (%P%(I'* 9: 'HE PL%#' >5 +etail of milk Milk handlin0 capacity - utiliEation . percenta0e CL I H< 7 ;J7 H ;I; L ;LC B ;B7 < ;CL H <;H C milk plant at the rate specified by the

handlin0 capacity in O a0e is as under>5

250 219.8 200 186.9 168.7 150 135.9 141.6 175.2

100 86.4



0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08


(I'* S"PPL*

Milk union2 Ludhiana in addition to supplyin0 the surplusD milk to national milk and +elhi also meet the social obli0ation of city supply to urban population of Ludhiana :our different types of milk that are 5 Milk fat ; < J I Milk S#: -More than. 8 7O ; 7O I 7O C BO H 8O C 7O C 7O PasteuriEed skimmed milk-SKM. Pasteurised +ouble tonned milk -+'M. PasteuriEed standarised milk -Std .

PasteuriEed buffalo N :ull cream milk -&MN:(M. L 8O

'hese four types of milk are packed in half liter2 ; liter M 7 liter poly sachets 'here are <; routes for city supply Verka milk plant has its o3n 7 milk bars at different places Sale or city supply milk durin0 last C year is as under>5 *ear <88858; <88;58< <88<58J <88J58I <88I587 <88758L <88L58B <88B58C Sales of milk -Percenta0e per day. ;78 I ;J7 L ;7I J ;LC H ;CI 7 ;H< C <;; H <I8 C

250 211.9 200 168.9 150 150.4 135.6 154.3 184.5 192.8




0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

III *ear

%VE)%=E (9LLE('I9# 9: MILK PE) +%* -P888K=. %1era0e (ollection -888 k0 . <;L ;BH <;L <I< <LH <7L B <L; L <H7 7

Last H years record of a1era0e collection of milk per day is listed as under>5 <88858; <88;58< <88<58J <88J58I <88I587 <88758L <88L58B <88B58C

300 269 250 216 200 179 150 216 242 256.7 261.6


I#(EP'I9# 100

0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

Milk Production is a 1ery important part of the a0ricultural economy in the State of Punjab Punjab is one of the smallest States in Indian "nion 3ith a total area of 782JL< SF Kms 2

3hich is ; 7O of the Indian landmass +airy :armin0 is an a0e5old subsidiary profession in the rural areas of Punjab Punjab is the second lar0est milk producin0 state in India2 producin0 around ;8O of the countries Milk Production i e C million tones annually ; <

:irst Milk Plant2 of the State 3as setup at Verka near %mritsar 'he brand name of Milk and Milk Products 3as adopted as Verka 'he :oundation stone of Milk Plant2 Ludhiana 3as laid by Hon S Parkash Sin0h &adal2 the then (hief Minister of Punjab in ;HB8 (ommissionin0 of the Plant 3as done by Punjab +airy +e1elopment (orporation in ;HBI Inau0uration 3as done by Late Smt Indira =andhi the then Prime Minister of India 'he capacity of the plant 3as ; 88 lac Litre per day2 Includin0 po3der plant of B M' %nd no3 the milk handlin0 capacity is I 88 Lac Liter per day

I 7 L

; 'o stren0then dairy sector2 Milk fed came into e4istence in ;HBC and Simultaneously +istt Milk unions 3ere formed < Villa0e le1el cooperati1e societies 3ere also formed on D%nand PatternD 'he system 3as run by the farmers2 of the farmers and for the farmers J 'o 0i1e remunerati1e prices to farmers and to ensure permanent market for the 3hole year I 'o pro1ide technical inputs like artificial insemination2 to impro1e the breed of animals2 animals health ser1ices2 pre1enti1e disease treatment and

a3areness re0ardin0 farm mana0ement etc 7 'o pro1ide ISI marks 0ood Fuality balanced (attle feed and fodder seeds to the farmers


; Milk production in the area increased manifold 3ith the result )esultantly started recei1in0 daily < 78 LP+ of milk < 'o increase the participation of 3omen ;<8 e4clusi1ely 3omen societies are or0aniEed 3ith ;7J88 3omen members 'hrou0h Punjab 6omen +airy Project a (entral =o1t sponsored scheme J Milk Production in the area increased manifold 3ith the result

)esultantly started recei1in0 daily < 78 Lac LP+ of Milk and Peak procurement I 7 Lac LP+ I 'o cater to the increased demand2 necessity of e4pansion of milk plant arose 7 (apacity of Milk Plant enhanced from ; lac to I lac liters 3ith additional po3der Plant of J8 M's L Plant is ha1in0 latest State of %rt 'echnolo0y 3ith MV) -Mechanical Vapour )eprocesses. alon0 3ith a drier 3ith fluidiEed bed throu0h 3hich a00lomerated Po3der is manufactured B 'his impro1ed the socio5 economic conditions of mar0inal and poor

farmers C H 'he profitability of the plant and turno1er of the plant impro1ed a lot #o of societies increased from HI to B7; and its membership from 7I88 to BC888 H %ll the societies are in net profit and distributin0 bonus to its members


; 'o impro1e the Fuality of ra3 milk2 (lean Milk Production pro0ram started in L78 1illa0es and resultantly the Fuality of products increased < Milk Plant2 Ludhiana 3as the :irst in India in +airy Sector to 0et IS9 (ertification J "nder IS9 (ertification and H%((P -IS ;7888. Milk "nion started e4port of =hee2 SMP to =ulf (ountries Philippines2 Manila2 South %frica2 Sin0apore2 &an0la +esh etc 'he e4port is more than 7 7 crore durin0 the last year I 'o further impro1e the Fuality of )a3 Milk2 Milk "nion started JL7 %utomatic Milk collection Stations at 1illa0e le1el 7 'o meet the (hallen0es of 6'9 Milk "nion started 'I:%( pro0ram 3ith the help of Ministry of information L << &ulk Milk (oolers ha1e been installed at 1illa0e le1el to chill the milk on this spot and to check bacterial count B <C model dairy demonstration farms ha1e been established includin0 milkin0 machines in distt 9f Ludhiana 3hich has encoura0ed the farmers

to adopted dairy on lar0e scale C Milk "nion2 Ludhiana is first in India 3hich has installed &ectoscan 3orth B8 lacs and Somatic cell count machine ha1e been installed at milk plant2 Ludhiana


; #o of societies increased from HI to B7; and its membership from 7I88 to BC888 < J Milk Procurement has increased from ;8<88 LP+ to <2782888 LP+ Hi0hest milk price is bein0 paid to the milk producers as compare to other plants in the states I Products bein0 manufactured by Ludhiana Plant are sold at premium rates throu0h out of the country and in the International Market 7 L (ity supply has increase from LL888 LP+ to ;2L82888 LP+ 'urno1er the plant touched to ;C8 crores Profit of the union has increased manifold B C (apacity utiliEation of the plant is more than C8O Milk products like =hee2 'able &utter2 Skimmed Milk Po3der2 6hole Milk Po3der2 (urd2 Paneer2 Milk (ake etc are bein0 manufactured by Milk Plant Ludhiana

'he milk plant has become less and future is lookin0 hard 'he milk plant is still standin0 ahead and not loosin0 coura0e 'o meet the 0lobal competition milkfed (handi0arh has taken steps in the field of ad1ertisement of products and has set aside )s2 ; crore for this purpose
; < J I 7 L B

Pro1idin0 impro1ed technical input ser1ices to farmers Settin0 up bi0 commercial farms More stress on clean milk production pro0ramme )ural 3omen empo3erment Massi1e 3omen empo3erment Stren0thin0 market base 3ith specific stress on consumer market +ynamic enhancement in Verka product mi4

C:a"0!$- '


Various human resource de1elopment techniFues may not help in achie1in0 or0aniEational de1elopment2 unless the persons 3orkin0 in the or0aniEation are healthy Professional efficiency2 0ood health and

producti1ity are interrelated =ood health can promote hi0h labour morale and producti1ity i e a healthy 3orker can 3ork full time and has a 0reater

producti1ity potential =ood health is also associated 3ith better capability an /!a !$<:1"% G22 :!a/0: /!a < 02 "2<101=! a0010# !<% I0 1< .2n #.01=! to economic 0ro3th and moderniEation 'he people 3ith 0ood health are

0enerally enthusiastic and try to achie1e hi0her and hi0her 0oals in life

MEANING OF HEALTH Health is a sta0e of complete physical2 mental and social 3ell bein0 and not merely the absence of any disease % person is considered healthy if he is 3ell adjusted to the en1ironment in 3hich he 3orks A..2$ 1n> 02 0:! ?21n0 I%L%O93%H%O .244100!! 2n 2$>an1@a012na/ H!a/0:, 1n #<0$1a/ :!a/0: 1< -i. the pre1ention and maintenance of physical2 mental and social 3ell bein0 of 3orkers in all occupations -ii. pre1ention amon0 3orkers of ill health caused by the 3orkin0 conditions -iii. protection of 3orkers in their employment from risks resultin0 from factors a1erse

to health and -i1. placin0 and maintenance of the 3orker in an occupational en1ironment adapted to his physical and psycholo0ical eFuipment ! T:! 32$/ H!a/0: O$>an1@a012n (3HO) defines health %s a state of complete physical2 mental and social 3ell bein0 and not merely an absence of disease of disease or infirmity OBJECTIVES OF INDUSTRIAL HEALTH 'he basic objecti1e of industrial health is the pre1ention of disease and injury rather than the cure of the disease C/a# ! =!1/ has specified the follo3in0 objecti1es of industrial health> -i. 'he pre1ention and maintenance of the hi0hest de0ree of the physical mental and social 3ell bein0 of 3orkers -ii. 'he pre1ention of factors 3hich make for ill health in their 3orkin0 conditions -iii. 'he protection of 3orkers in their occupations from risks arisin0 from factors 3hich are ad1erse to the maintenance for the health -i1. 'he placin0 and maintenance of 3orker in an occupational en1ironment 3hich is adapted to his psycholo0ical and physical

eFuipment and 'he adaptation of 3ork to man on his job


%ccordin0 to Labour &ureau2 =o1ernment of India one the one hand2 efficiency in 3ork is possible only 3hen an employee is healthy> on the other the industry -in 3hich he is employed. e4poses him to certain haEards 3hich he 3ould not meet else 3here and 3hich may affect his health It is 3ith the intention of reducin0 these haEards and impro1in0 the 3orker?s health that the discipline of industrial health came into bein0 as a branch of public health in its o3n ri0ht ! 'he industrial health is si0nificant because of the follo3in0 reasons>5 -i. -ii. -iii. -i1. -1. -1i. 'o maintain and impro1e producti1ity and Fuality of 3ork 'o minimiEe absenteeism and labour turno1er 'o reduce industrial unrest2 indiscipline and accidents 'o impro1e employee moti1ation and morale 'o reduce spoila0e and cost of operations 'o preser1e the physical and mental health of employees


In India2 the )oyal commission on labour -;HL;.2 the labour in1esti0ation committee -;HLL.2 the health sur1ey and de1elopment committee -;HLJ.2 the commission labour 3elfare committee -;HBH. and national

on labour -;HBH. all emphasiEed upon the creation and

maintenance of as healthy an en1ironment as possible2 in the homes of the people as 3ell as in all places 3here they con0re0ate for 3ork2 amusement or recreation as essential ! 'he 0o1ernment of India2 since independence has taken se1eral steps to protect the health of the 3orkers 'he 0o1ernment has enacted se1eral labour le0islations protectin0 the health of the industrial 3orkers Such le0islations are the factories act ;HIC2 the mines act ;H7<2 the Indian dock labourers act ;HJI2 the motor transport 3orkers act ;HL; 'he coal mines -conser1ation and safety act.2 ;H7< etc "nder these acts2 se1eral pro1isions of the concerned acts


Section ;;5<8 of the act contains pro1isions to



the conditions

under 3hich the 3orkers ha1e to 3ork in factories do not ha1e an ad1erse effect on their health 'hese pro1isions are as discussed belo3>5

&% C/!an/1n!<< (<!.%&&)% %ccordin0 to sec ;;2 the factory shall be kept clean
and free from foul smell arisin0 form any drain2 toilet or any other nuisance +irt and refuse shall be remo1ed daily by s3eepin0 or 3ashin0 the floor2 benches2 stairness and passa0es 'he floor of e1ery 3ork room shall be cleaned at least once a 3eek by 3ashin02 usin0 disinfectants 3here necessary or by some other effecti1e method 6here a floor becomes 3et durin0 the

manufacturin0 process2 effecti1e means of draina0e shall be pro1ided for %ll inside 3alls and partitions2 all ceilin0s or tops of the rooms and all 3alls2 sides and tops of passa0es and staircases shall be kept 3hite 3ashed2 colour 3ashed or painted as the case may be from time to time as per pro1isions of the act %ll doors and 3indo3 frames and other 3ooden or metallic frame 3ork and shutters and shall be kept painted or 1arnished and paintin0 or 1arnishin0 shall be carried out a least once in e1er fi1e years '% D1<"2<a/ 2A Ba<0!< an !AA/#!n0<% %ccordin0 to sec ;<2 effecti1e

arran0ement shall be made in e1ery factor for the disposal of 3astes arisin0 due to the manufacturin0 process carried on therein2 so as to make them harmless

'he state 0o1ernment may make rules prescribin0 the arran0ements to be made in this re0ard

-% V!n01/a012n an 0!4"!$a0#$!% %ccordin0 to sec ;J2 e1ery factory must

pro1ide for in e1ery 3ork room adeFuate 1entilation by the circulation of fresh air It 3ill also ensure in the 3ork room such a temperature as 3ill secure to 3orkers therein reasonable conditions of comfort and pre1ent injury to health 'hus the 3alls and roofs of the 3ork rooms shall be of such material and desi0n as are helpful to keep the temperature and make rules pro1idin0 for the keepin0 of thermometer in supecified places and the adoption of method 3hich 3ill keep the temperature lo3

5% D#<0 an A#4! %ccordin0 to sec ;I2 effecti1e arran0ements must be

made in e1ery factory for the pre1ention of the inhalation or accumulation of may be injurious to the health of the 3orkers If any e4haust appliance is necessary for this purpose it shall be installed as near as possible to the point of the dust2 fume or other impurity #o internal combustion en0ine 3hich is stationary shall be operated unless its e4haust is conducted into the open air

6% A$01A1.1a/ :#41 1A1.a012n %ccordin0 to sec ;72 in respect of all the

factories2 in 3hich the humidity of air is artificially increased2 the state

0o1ernment may rules re0ardin0 the permissible standards of humidity2 tests for

determinin0 humidity and methods to be adopted for securin0 adeFuate 1entilation and coolin0 of the air in the 3ork rooms humidification shall be purified before actual use 'he 3ater used for

'he inspector factories may

also specify measures in this re0ard 3hich should be carried out before the specified date

)% O=!$.$2B 1n>% %ccordin0 to sec ;L2 no room in any factory shall be

o1ercro3ded to an e4tent 3hich is injurious to the health of the 3orkers employed therein %t least H H cubic metres of space per 3orker shall be

pro1ided in a factor 3hich 3as in e4istence on the date of commencement of this act

(% L1>:01n>% %ccordin0 to sec ;B2there shall be sufficient and suitable li0htin0

arran0ement2 natural or artificial or both2 in e1ery part of a factory 3here 3orkers are 3orkin0 or passin0 throu0h "nder this pro1ision2 all 0laEed 3indo3s and sky li0hts used for the li0htin0 of the 3orkroom shall be kept clean or both the inner and the outer sides to allo3 free flo3 of li0ht

7% D$1nC1n> Ba0!$%

%ccordin0 to sec ;C2 in e1ery factory2 effecti1e

arran0ements shall be made to pro1ide sufficient and pure drinkin0 3ater to all the 3orkers employed therein 'he 3ater points should be con1eniently situated and properly maintained %ll such points shall be le0ibly marked +rinkin0 6ater! in a lan0ua0e understood by majority of the 3orkers employed in the

factory #o such point shall be situated 3ithin si4 metres2 ofany 3ashin0 place2 urinals2 latrine2 open drain etc

+% S"10022n<% %ccordin0 to sec <82 a sufficient number of spittoons must be

pro1ided at con1enient places in e1ery factory 'hey must be maintained in a clean and hy0ienic condition 'he state 0o1ernment may make rules re0ardin0 their number2 locations and maintenance #o person shall spittoons If a person does so he may fined up to )s 7 MENTAL HEALTH OF THE EMPLOYEE: 'he employees should adopt the follo3in0 measures to impro1e the mental health of the employees because a mentally tense2 an4ious and sick person has a tendency to de1elop 1arious symptoms of or0anic disorders> -i. Ensurin0 all facilities to employees in time to a1oid tensions and di1ersion of mind -ii. -iii. Prompt decision makin0 re0ardin0 the cases of the employees Ensurin0 transparency in administration to de1elop confidence and commitment amon0 employees -i1. Encoura0in0 honest and hard3orkin0 employees to create mental happiness Psycholo0ists ha1e pro1ed the moti1ational 1alue of the

non5monetary factors Such moti1ation to self actualiEe 3ould lead to mental happiness -1. Locatin0 shirkers and pro1idin0 consultin0 to them2 to protect the mental Health of the or0aniEation -1i. -1ii. Inculcation of ethical 1alues Stimulatin0 leadership of create Fualities of head and heart amon0 employees and remo1in0 mental tensions and fears -1iii. Modify the pressure placed on the 3orkin0 people by creatin0 a

healthy En1ironment and sound mana0ement policies and practices


Social health is another dimension of the employee?s health Social health means ho3 an indi1idual can ha1e healthy relations 3ith persons 3ith 3hom he comes in contact 'he follo3in0 measures may be initiated to ensure the social health of the employees> -i. Pro1ision of 0ood staff clubs 3ith all amenities of indoor and

outdoor 0ames 'his informal relationship amon0 employees and their families can 0enerate bonds of friendship2 lo1e and affection and these feelin0s can be transferred to 3ork situations -ii. %rran0in0 meetin0s in office time to in1ol1e the employees2 so that a sense of belon0in0ness can be created in them -iii. :ree access to seniors to remo1e a lar0e number of tensions and "nnecessary references -i1. %rran0in0 cultural pro0rammes durin0 festi1als or others occasions so that employees can 0et rela4ed and feel char0ed -1. %rran0in0 tours to nearby scenic places or hill stations to refresh the minds of the employees and to accelerate the rate of social interactions


Health has its base in spiritual po3ers 9r0aniEations can arran0e different lectures on spiritually 3hich can keep the health of the employees in 0ood "S% are offerin0 courses in spirituality2 re0ion and health Studies ha1e found that reli0ious folks ha1e lo3er blood pressure2 less depression and

an4iety2 stron0er immune system and 0enerally spend less money on medicines than people 3ho do not belie1e in the e4istence of 0od and are less in1ol1ed in reli0ious acti1ities Scientists cannot pro1e that 0od heals but they can pro1e that belief in 0od has a beneficial effect 'here is little doubt that healthy reli0ious facts and practices can help people 0et better

Lar0e scale industrialiEation has been the result of mechanism and automation 9n the other hand2 it has resulted in mass production of 0oods for the 3elfare of the society2 on the other hand it has brou0ht in industrial haEards2 like accidents etc industrial accidents may occur on account of a number of factors e1er since the be0innin0 of this century2 employee safety and accidents ha1e been attractin0 the attention of the psycholo0ists and2 sociolo0ists and industrial en0ineers Psycholo0ists are concerned 3ith the theoretical

considerations of accident causation and the research into accident control 'he

Fuestions that ha1e interested psycholo0ists in studyin0 accidents in industry are +o accidents really happen due to accidental causes or are there any specific 1ariables or factors 3hich cause themQ! En0ineers and safety officers usually render necessary practical ad1ice on certain aspects of safety in industry 'hey look upon pre1ention of accidents basically as an en0ineerin0 problem to be tackled throu0h proper be0innin0 of mechanical safety de1ices In fact2 accident pre1ention and safety are interested and2 therefore2 reFuire multidimensional approach

MEANING OF ACCIDENT %n industrial accident may be defined as an occurrence 3hich interrupts or interferes 3ith the orderly pro0ress of 3ork in an industrial establishment !

THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 defines accidents as an

9ccurrenc in an industrial establishment causin0 bodily injury to a person 3hich makes him unfit to resume his duties in the ne4t IC hours! %s per this acte1ery occurrence 3hich may injure a 3orker is not an accident 'he injury inflicted on a 3orker should be serious 3hich makes him unfit for 3ork at least for t3o days %ny casual injury is not co1ered under Paccident?

'here are se1eral 3ays by 3hich accidents can be pre1ented The National Safety Council, U.S.A. says that accident pre1ention depends on three E?s R PEn0ineerin02 Education and Enforcement2 the job should be en0ineered for safety2 employees should be educated in safe procedures and safety rules should be properly enforced :ollo3in0 steps may be taken to pre1ent industrial accidents> ; P$2"!$ <aA!0D 4!a<#$!<% 'here should be proper safety measures to a1oid accidents =o1ernment also 0i1es 0uidelines for enactin0 follo3ed

measures for checkin0 accidents2 these should be properly Physical haEard should be a1oided2 machines should 0uarded2 dan0er are should be fenced etc '%

be properly

P$2"!$ S!/!.012n% %ny 3ron0 selection of employees 3ill


problems later on Sometimes2 employees are accident prone2 they may not be properly suitable for the job etc the selection of employees should be based on properly de1ised tests so that their suitability of the job is determined -% SaA!0D C2n<.12#<% 'he employees should be made conscious of se1eral measures 'here should be proper 3orkin0s2 slo0ans and ad1ices to the employees for makin0 them conscious 'he slo0ans like the follo3in0 3ill keep the 3orkers thinkin0 about safety measures

E%ccidents means +isablement! ESafety sa1es! E%lertness is the best precaution! B EnA2$.!4!n0 2A D1<.1"/1n!% 'here should be disciplinary action a0ainst those 3ho flout safety measures 'here may be ne0ati1e punishments like 3arnin0s2 fines2 lay offs2 terminations etc proper enforcement of discipline 3ill force 3orkers to follo3 the 1arious safety instructions 6% In.!n01=!<% 6orkers should be 0i1en incenti1es for maintainin0 safety 'here may also be safety contents amon0 3orkers 'hose 3ho follo3 Safety instruction should be 0i1en monetary and non5monetary

incenti1es )% SaA!0D C244100!!<% Safety measures are in the interests of both 3orkers and mana0ement 'here should be committees ha1in0 representati1es of 3orkers and employees for de1isin0 and enforce safety pro0rammes Such committees 3ill be more effecti1e in implementin0 safety de1ices because 1arious measures 3ill ha1e the consent of 3orkers throu0h their representati1es (% P$2"!$ Ma1n0!nan.! 2A Ma.:1n!< an EF#1"4!n0% %ccidents may

occur due to the fault in the machines or eFuipment 'here should be proper maintenance of machines 'hese should be re0ularly 0reased2

safety de1ices checked and freFuently inspected department personnel

by en0ineerin0


SaA!0D T$a1n1n>% 'he 3orkers should

be 0i1en trainin0 in safety

measures 'hey should kno3 the haEards of the machines2 the areas of accident proneness and the likely precautions in case of some accident 'he trainin0 pro0ramme should be arran0ed both for the 3orkers and super1isors


'he :actories %ct2 ;HIC deals 3ith the safely of factory 3orkers in India <; to I; of the %ct deal 3ith safety pro1isions 'he safety of the 3orkers is 'he prime responsibility of the o3ner of the factory 'he reFuirements

pro1ided under the %ct are absolute and are in no 3ay dependent upon pre1ious notice or 3arnin0 from the Inspector of factories 'he pro1isions

dealin0 3ith the safety of 3orkers in different States are supplemented by )ules framed by each state 0o1ernment So in relation to a factory in a particular state2 the rules of the 0o1ernment of that state must be referred to 'he safety pro1isions 0i1en under the :actories %ct2 ;HIC are described as follo3s>5

&% F!n.1n> 2A Ma.:1n!$D (S!. '&) In e1ery factory2 e1ery mo1in0 part of a prime mo1er and e1ery 3heel connected to a prime mo1er2 e1ery part of an electric 0enerator2 motor or rotary con1ertor2 e1ery part of transmission machinery and e1ery dan0erous part of any other machinery shall be securely fenced by safe0uards of substantial construction 3hich shall be constantly maintained and kept in position 3hile the parts of machinery they are fencin0 are in motion or in use Ho3e1er2 such fencin0 may be remo1ed to a safe e4tent for an e4amination2 lubrication or other adjustin0 operation 3hile the machinery is in motion2 the state

0o1ernment is empo3ered to frame rules in this re0ard '% 32$C 2n 2$ n!a$ 0:! 4a.:1n! 1n 42012n (S!. '') 6ith a 1ie3 to secure the safety of the 3orkers 3hen it is necessary to e4amine the machinery 3hile in motion2 it is reFuired that such e4amination or operation shall be made or carried out only by a specially trained adult male 3orker 3earin0 a ti0ht fittin0 dress 3hich shall be

supplied by the occupier of the factory Such 3orker shall handle a mo1in0 pulley under safe conditions only as per the pro1isions of the %ct

-% E4"/2D4!n0 2A D2#n> "!$<2n< 2n an>!$2#< 4a.:1n!< (S!. '-) #o youn0 person shall be reFuired or allo3ed to 3ork at any dan0erous machine unless he has been fully instructed and trained re0ardin0 the dan0ers arisin0 from the machine and the necessary precautions ha1e been taken 5% S0$1C1n> G!a$ an D!=1.!< A2$ C#001n> OAA P2B!$ (S!. '5) In e1ery factory suitable strikin0 0ear or other efficient

mechanical appliances shall be pro1ided and maintained and used to mo1e dri1in0 belts to and from fast and loose pulleys 3hich form part of the transmission machinery Such 0ear or appliances shall be so constructed2 placed and maintained as to pre1ent the belt from creepin0 back on the fast pulley +ri1in0 belts2 3hen not in use shall not be allo3ed to rest or ride upon the shafts in motion In e1ery factory2 suitable de1ices for cuttin0 off po3er in emer0ence2 from the runnin0 machinery shall be pro1ided and maintained in e1ery room Ho3e1er2 the abo1e pro1ision shall apply only to 3ork rooms in 3hich2 electricity is used as po3er 6hen a de1ice 3hich can inad1ertently shift from P9:: to 9#? position is pro1ided In the factory to cut off po3er2 arran0ements shall be made for lockin0 the de1ice in a safe position to

pre1ent accidental startin0 of the transmission machinery or other machines to 3hich the de1ice is fitted

6% S!/A A.01n> Ma.:1n!< (S!. '6) #o part of a self actin0 machine 3hich mo1es side3ays in any factory and no material carried thereon shall2 if the space o1er 3hich it runs is a space o1er 3hich any person is likely to pass2 3hether the cause of his employment or other3ise2 be allo3ed to run on its out3ard or in3ard mo1ement 3ithin a distance I7 cms from any fi4ed structure 3hich is not a part of the machine )% Ca<01n> 2A N!B Ma.:1n!$D (S!. ')) It is an important duty of the seller or hirer or their a0ents to encase2 sunk or other3ise effecti1ely 0uard e1ery scre32 bolt or key2 re1ol1in0 shaft2 spindle2 3heel or pinion of the machine to pre1ent dan0er to the 3orkers %nybody 3ho does not comply 3ith the pro1isions of this subsection shall be punishable 3ith imprisonment upto J months or 3ith fine upto )s 788 or 3ith both 'he state 0o1ernment may also make rules specifyin0 further safe0uard to be pro1ided in respect of any other dan0erous part of any particular machine or machines

(% P$2:1G1012n 2A E4"/2D4!n0 2A 324!n an C:1/ $!n n!a$ C2002n O"!n!$< (S!. '() #o 3omen or child shall be employed in any part of a factory 3here pressin0 cotton openers is at 3ork Pro1ided that if the feed end of the cotton

openers is in a room separated from the deli1ery end by a partition e4tendin0 to the roof or to such hei0ht as the inspector may in specific case specify in 3ritin02 3omen and children may be employed on the side of the partition 3here the feed end is situated 7% H21<0< an L1A0< (S!. '7) In e1ery factory>5 -a. -i. -ii. e1ery hoist and lift shall be > of 0ood mechanical construction2 sound material and adeFuate stren0th Properly maintained and shall be thorou0hly e4amined by a

competent person at least once in e1ery period of si4 months and re0ister shall be kept containin0 the presidential particulars of e1ery such e4amination -b. e1ery hoist 3ay and lift shall be sufficiently protected by an enclosure fitted 3ith 0ates and the hoist or lift and e1ery such enclosure shall be so constructed as to pre1ent any person or thin0 and any fi4ed structure or mo1in0 part

+% L1A01n> Ma.:1n!<, C:a1n<, R2"!< an L1A01n> Ta.C/!< (S!. '+) In any factory2 the follo3in0 pro1isions shall be complied 3ith respect to e1ery liftin0 machine -other than a hoist and lift. and e1ery chain2 rope and liftin0 tackle 0oods or materials> -a. %ll parts of e1ery liftin0 machine2 chain2 rope or liftin0 tackle shall be of 0ood construction2 sound material and adeFuate stren0th It shall be free from defects and properly maintained It shall be thorou0hly e4amined by a

competent person at least once in e1ery period of ;< months or at such inter1als as the (hief Inspector may specify in 3ritin0 % re0ister shall be kept

containin0 the prescribed particulars of e1ery such e4amination -b. #o liftin0 machine2 chain2 rope or liftin0 tackle shall2 e4cept for the purpose of test2 be loaded beyond the safe 3orkin0 load 3hich shall be plainly marked thereon -c. 6here any person is employed or is 3orkin0 on or near the 3heel track of a tra1elin0 crane in any place 3here he may be struck by the crane2 effecti1e measures shall be taken to ensure that the crane does not approach 3ithin si4 metres of that place

&*% R!=2/=1n> Ma.:1n!$D (S!. -*) In e1ery factory2 in 3hich the process of 0rindin0 is carried on2 there shall be permanently affi4ed to or placed near each machine in use2 a notice indicatin0 the ma4imum safe 3orkin0 speed of e1ery 0rindstone or abrasi1e 3heel2 the speed of the shaft or spindle and the diameter of the pulley upon 3hich sue shaft or spindle and such speeds shall in no case be e4ceeded &&% P$!<<#$! "/an0 (S!. -&) If any factory2 any part of the plant or machinery used in a manufacturin0 process is operated at a pressure abo1e atmospheric pressure2 effecti1e measures shall be taken to ensure that the safe 3orkin0 pressure of such part is not e4ceeded &'% S0a1$< an M!an< 2A A..!<< (S!. -') In e1ery factory2 all floors2 steps2 stairs2 passa0es and 0an03ays shall be of sound construction and properly maintained and shall be kept free from obstruction and substances likely to cause persons to slip and 3here it is necessary to ensure safety2 steps2 stairs2 passa0es and 0an03ays shall be pro1ided 3ith substantial handrails &-% P10<, S#4"<, O"!n1n> 1n F/22$< !0.% (S!. --) In any factory2 any fi4ed 1essel2 sump2 tank2 pit or openin0 in the 0round or in a floor 3hich by reason of its depth2 situation2 construction or

contents is or may be a source of dan0er shall be either securely co1ered or securely fenced particular case &5% EH.!<<1=! 3!1>:0< (S!. -5) #o person shall be employed in any factory to lift2 carry or mo1e any load so hea1y as to be likely to cause him injury 'he state 0o1ernment may make rules prescribin0 the ma4imum 3ei0hts 3hich may be lifted2 carried or mo1ed by adult men2 adult 3omen2 adolescents and children employed in any factory ;7 P$20!.012n 2A ED!< (S!. -6) In respect of any such manufacturin0 process carried on in any factory as may be prescribed bein0 a process 3hich in1ol1es -a. )isk of injury to the eyes from particles or fra0ments thro3n off in the course of the process or -b. )isk to the eyes by reason of e4posure to e4cessi1e li0ht2 the state 'he state 0o1ernment may e4empt compliance in any

0o1ernment may by rules reFuire that effecti1e screens or suitable 0o00le shall be pro1ided for the protection of persons employed on or in the immediate 1icinity of the process

&)% P$!.a#012n< a>a1n<0 Dan>!$2#< F#4!< (S!. -)) #o person shall be reFuired or allo3ed to enter any chamber2 tank2 1at2 pit2 pipe2 flue or other confined space in any factory in 3hich any 0as2 fume2 1apour or dust is likely to be present to such an e4tent as to in1ol1e risk to persons bein0 o1ercome thereby2 unless it is pro1ided 3ith a manhole of adeFuate siEe or other effecti1e means of 0ettin0 out #o person shall be reFuired or allo3ed to enter any confirmed space referred to abo1e unless all practical measures ha1e been taken to remo1e any 0as2 fume2 1apour or dust 3hich may be present so as to brin0 its le1el 3ithin the permissible limits and to pre1ent any entry of such 0as2 fume2 1apour or dust etc unless -i. % certificate in 3ritin0 has been 0i1en by a competent person2

&ased on a test carried out by him that the space is reasonably free from dan0erous2 0as fume2 1apour or dust or -ii. Such person is bearin0 suitable breathin0 apparatus and a belt

securely attached to a rope2 the free end of 3hich is held by a person outside the confined space ;B P$!.a#012n< $!>a$ 1n> 0:! #<! 2A P2$0aG/! E/!.0$1. L1>:0< (-) A) In any factory>5 -a. #o portable electric li0ht or any other appliance of 1olta0e

e4ceedin0 t3enty four 1olts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber2 tank2

1at2 pipe2 pit2 flue or other confined space2 and -b. If any inflammable 0as2 fume or dust is likely to be present in such

chamber2 tank2 1at2 pipe2 pit2 flue or other confined place2 no lamp li0ht other than that of flame proof construction shall be permitted to be used therein

;C EH"/2<1=! 2$ InA/a44aG/! D#<0, Ga< !0.% (S!. -() 6here in any manufacturin0 process produces dust2 0as2 fume or 1apour of such character and to such e4tent as to be likely to e4plode on i0nition2 all practicable measures shall be taken to pre1ent any such e4plosion by>5 -a. Effecti1e enclosure of the plant or machinery used in the process -b. )emo1al or pre1ention of the accumulation of such dust2 0as2 fumes -c. E4clusion or effecti1e enclosure of all possible sources of i0nition

&+% P$!.a#012n< 1n .a<! 2A A1$! (S!. -7) %ll practicable measures shall be taken in e1ery factory to pre1ent any outbreak of fire and its spread both internally and e4ternally Safe means of escape for all persons in the e1ent of fire and necessary eFuipments and facilities for e4tin0uishin0 the fire shall also be pro1ided and maintained %ll the 3orkers shall also be adeFuately trained and make familiar 3ith the means of escape in case of fire 'he state =o1ernment may make rules

reFuirin0 the measures to be adopted for the abo1e pro1ision If the (hief Inspector is of the opinion that the measures pro1ided in the factory are inadeFuate he may by an order in 3ritin0 reFuire that such additional measures as he may consider reasonable and necessary be pro1ided in the factory before such date as specified in the order <8 P2B!$ 02 $!F#1$! S"!.1A1.a012n 2A !A!.01=! Pa$0< 2$ T!<0< 2A S0aG1/10D (S!. -+) If it appears to the Inspector that any buildin0 or part of a buildin0 or any part of the 3ays2 machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it may be dan0erous to human life or safety2 he may ser1e on the occupier or mana0er or both of the factory an order in 3ritin0 reFuirin0 him before a specified date> -a. 'o furnish such dra3in0s2 specifications and other particulars as may

be necessary to determine 3hether such buildin0 3ays2 machinery or plant can be used 3ith safety -b. 'o carry out such tests in such manner as may be specified in the

order and to inform the Inspector of the results thereof '&% SaA!0D 2A B#1/ 1n> an 4a.:1n!$D (S!. 5*) If it appears to the Inspector that any buildin0 or part of a buildin02 or any part of the 3ays2 machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition

that it is dan0erous to human life or safety2 he may ser1e on the occupier or mana0er or both of the factory an order in 3ritin0 specifyin0 the measures 3hich in his opinion should be adopted and reFuirin0 them to be carried out before a specified date << Ma1n0!nan.! 2A B#1/ 1n>< (S!. 5* A) If it appears to the Inspector that any buildin0 or part of a buildin0 in a factory is in such a state of disrepair as is likely to lead to conditions detrimental to the health and 3elfare of the 3orkers he may ser1e on the occupier or mana0er or both of the factory an order in 3ritin0 specifyin0 the measures 3hich in his opinion 3ould be taken and reFuirin0 the same to be carried out before such date as is specified in the order <J SaA!0D OAA1.!$< (S!. 5* B) In e1ery factory 3here in one thousand or more 3orkers are ordinarily employed or 3here in the opinion of the State =o1ernment2 any manufacturin0 process or operation is carried on2 3hich in1ol1es any risk of bodily injury2 poisonin0 or disease or any other haEard to health2 to the persons employed in the factory2 the occupier shall if so reFuired by the state 0o1ernment by notification in the 9fficial =aEette Employ such number of safety officers as may be specified in that #otification 'he duties2 Fualifications and conditions of ser1ice of the safety officers shall be such as may be prescribed by the state

0o1ernment <I P2B!$< 02 4aC! R#/!< 02 <#""/!4!n0 0:! aG2=! P$2=1<12n< (S!. 5&) 'he state 0o1ernment may make rules reFuirin0 the pro1isions in any factory or in any class or description of factories of such further de1ices and measures for s securin0 the safety of persons employed therein as it may deem necessary In addition to the :actories %ct ;HIC2 there are a fe3 more %cts 3hich pro1ide measures for the safety of 3orkers2 as 0i1en belo3>


'he +ock 6orkers

-)e0ulation of Employment.

%ct ;HIC2

pro1ides for measures for ensurin0 the health and 3elfare of the dock 3orkers and the +ock 6orkers -Safety2 Health and 6elfare. scheme ;HL; under the %ct of ;HIC 3hich pro1ides safety measures for those 3orkers 3ho are not co1ered under the re0ulation of ;HIC -ii. 'he Indian +ock Laborers %ct2 ;HJI takes care of 3orkers

en0a0ed on board the ship and alon0side the slip -iii. 'he Mines act ;H7< applies to mines of all types includin0 mines

of atomic minerals and oil fields 'he +irectorate =eneral of Mines Safety has been entrusted 3ith the function of enforcin0 the pro1ision of Mines %ct ;H7< and the rules and re0ulations framed therein

C:a"0!$- OG?!.01=! 2A E4"/2D!! H!a/0: I SaA!0D

; 'o study 1arious health and safety pro1ision implemented at Verka Milk Plant < 'o study the satisfaction le1el of employees re0ardin0 health and safety pro1isions J 'o study ho3 often eFuipments are checked I 'o find 3hether employees are Induction trainin0 or not pro1ided 3ith health and safety


Methodolo0y makes the most important contribution to3ards the enrichment of the study In a research there are number of methods and procedures to be applied but it is the nature of the problem under in1esti0ation that determines the adaptation of a particular method for all studies method selected should al3ays be appropriate is the problem under in1esti0ation

M!0:2 2/2>D a 2"0! >

'he research is aimed at studyin0 the analysis of or0aniEation culture at VE)K% Milk Plant 'he city co1ered under the research 3as Ludhiana

Sa4"/! <1@!>
'he sample siEe 3as so selected to 0i1e the true picture of the culture 'he lot Sample siEe for the Plant is 78 #umber of employees in Verka Milk Plant 'otal lot siEe S 78 S 78

Samplin0 techniFues> (on1enience samplin0 3as used to conduct this study "nder this techniFue sample of respondents 3ere chosen accordin0 to the con1enience of the respondents

M!0:2 < 2A a0a .2//!.012n>

+ata may be obtained either from the primary sources or the secondary sources by seein0 the objecti1e to be achie1ed % primary source is one in 3hich one itself collects the data % secondary source is that makes in 3hich one a1ailable data 3hich 3ere collected by some other a0ency

P$14a$D a0a>
'he main research instrument is the primary data 'HE K"ES'I9##%)E! 'his is the most common instrument in collectin0 the primary data2 3hich 3as used for fulfillin0 our objecti1es 'he data 3ill be collected 3ith the help of the Fuestionnaire that 3ill be administrate on employees of 1erka milk plant2 L+H

S!.2n a$D a0a>

'he secondary data 3ill be obtained from Internet and from 1arious books

Da0a ana/D<1< I 1n0!$"$!0a012n>

%fter a complete identify of Fuestions asked from respondents2 calculatin0 the freFuency of response2 tabulated data and percenta0e 3as 3orked out 3here1er necessary 'he conclusions 3ere dra3n on the basis of freFuency of responseNpercenta0e


Q&% D2 D2# Cn2B aG2#0 :!a/0:D B2$C1n> .2n 1012nJ

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses I8 ;8

Oa0e C8O <8O

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes Yes No No

In0!$"$!0a012n 'his table sho3s that C8O of employees kno3 about healthy 3orkin0 condition and <8O do not kno3

Q'% A$! D2# aBa$! 2A Fa.02$1!< A.0 &+57J

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses B IJ

Oa0e ;IO CLO

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No

Yes No

In0!$"$!0a012n 'his table sho3s that ;IO employees a3are about :actory %ct ;HIC and CLO do not %3are

Q-% A$! 0:! !4"/2D!!< "$2=1 ! B10: :!a/0: an <aA!0D 1n #.012n 0$a1n1n>J

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses C I<

Oa0e ;LO CIO

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No No Yes

In0!$"$!0a012n 'he table sho3 that ;LO employees pro1ide 3ith health and safety induction trainin0 and CIO not pro1ide

Q5% I< 0:!$! anD $!<0$1.012n A2$ <42C1n> a0 B2$CJ

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses IC <


120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Yes No No Yes

In0!$"$!0a012n %bo1e dia0ram sho3s that HLO person ans3ered that there is restriction to smokin0 at 3ork and IO ans3ered in ne0ati1e

Q6% IA n2, 2 D2# "$2=1 ! a <42C! A!!< $!<0 a$!aJ

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses ; ;

Oa0e 78O 78O

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No No Yes

In0!$"$!0a012n 'he table sho3 that 78O employees says that they are pro1ided a smoke free rest area and other 78O do not a0ree

Q)% I< 0:!$! anD "$2=1<12n A2$ "$!>nan0 B24!n I n#$<1n> 420:!$ 02 $!<0 1A 0:!D n!! Q

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses IL I

Oa0e H<O CO

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No No Yes


'his table sho3 that H<O employees says that there are pro1ision for pre0nant M nursin0 mother to rest if they need and CO employees are not a0ree Q(% A$! 0:! 4a.:1n! $!"a1$! I $!>#/a$/D 4a1n0a1n! Q

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses J; ;H

Oa0e L<O JCO

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No No Yes

In0!$"$!0a012n 'he table sho3 that L<O employees says that machines are repaired M re0ularly maintained and JCO are not a0ree

Q7% A$! a// 0:! !F#1"4!n0 #<! a0 B2$C"/a.!, <aA! 02 #<!J Sr no ; < 9ption *es #o )esponses JH ;; Oa0e BCO <<O

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No No Yes

In0!$"$!0a012n 'he table sho3s that BCO employees says that all the eFuipment used at 3orkplace safe to use and <<O employees not a0ree

Q+% A$! D2# "$2=1 ! B10: :!a/0: I <aA!0D 1nA2$4a012nJ

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses ;7 J7

Oa0e J8O B8O

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No No Yes

In0!$"$!0a012n< 'he table sho3 that J8O employees says that they are pro1ide 3ith health M safety Information and B8O are not a0ree

Q&*% I< 0:! A1H! !/!.0$1.a/ 1n<0a//a012n $!>#/a$/D 1n<"!.0! I 4a1n0a1n! J

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses IB J


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No

No Yes

In0!$"$!0a012n 'he table sho3s that HIO employees a0rees 3ith fi4ed re0ularly inspected M maintained and LO employees do not a0rees

Sr no ; < J Q&&% IA D!<, :2B 2A0!n

9ption Monthly *early

)esponses <7 <

Oa0e 7<O IJO 7O

%fter si4 months <8

Monthly After six months Ye rly

In0!$"$!0a012n 'he table sho3 that 7<O employees a0ree 3ith monthly2 IJO a0ree 3ith after si4 months and 7O a0ree 3ith yearly

Q&'% I< 0:!$! anD <aA!0D 2AA1.!$ a""21n0! 1n D2#$ 2$>an1@a012nQ

Sr no ; <

9ption *es #o

)esponses I7 7

Oa0e H8O ;8O

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No

No Yes


'his table sho3s that H8O employees says that safety officer appointed in their or0aniEation and ;8O employees do not a0ree

C8O employees kno3 about healthy 3orkin0 condition M <8O do not kno3 9nly ;IO employees a3are about :actory %ct ;HIC

More employees are satisfy re0ardin0 1entilation2 li0htin02 drinkin0 3ater

'he ;LO employees 1ie3 they are pro1ided 3ith health and safety induction trainin0 %ccordin0 to HLO employees there is restriction to smokin0 at 3ork L<O employees ans3ered that machine are repaired M re0ularly maintained %ccordin0 to BCO employee?s eFuipment used at 3ork place safe to use and <<O are not a0ree

B8O employees says that they are not pro1ided 3ith health and safety information M J8O are pro1ided %ccordin0 to HIO employees the electrical installation re0ularly maintained monthly and after si4 months 'he H8O employees says that safety officer appointed in the or0aniEation

;. <. 3hich J. I. +ue to time constraint2 only one company are selected for the study (on1enient samplin0 techniFue is used to select the data chances of biasness are there Error durin0 calculation and tabulation may arise +ue to personal biasness of the respondent in1ol1ed in the study2 the +ue to

result thus obtained may not be 1ery much accurate 7. L. there B. =enerally the respondents 3ere busy in their 3ork and 3ere not Some to the respondent 3ere educated %s per kno3led0e data 3as collected and analyEed2 error may be

interested in respondin0 out ri0htly

; #e3 trainin0 pro0ram should be introduced < )e0ularly health checkup should be necessary J Proper facility to the rest room should be a1ailable I #eed for proper hy0ienic food 7 'o pro1ide health and safety induction trainin0 L Make pro1ision for pre0nant 3omen and nursin0 mother to rest if they need B 'he machine repaired and re0ularly maintained C 'o pro1ide health and safety information H Proper facility to the li0htin02 seatin02 drinkin0 3ater2 spittoons and latrines


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QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AGE GENDER -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


+o you kno3 about healthy 3orkin0 conditionQ *es #o

! %re you a3are of :actories %ct ;HICQ *es KJ %re you satisfied 3ithQ
Hi0h satisfy Satisfy #eutral +issatisfy Hi0h dissatisfy


Ventilation )oom temperature Li0htin0

(leanliness Seatin0 arran0ement )est rooms +irkin0 3ater Spittoons Latrines

KI %re the employees pro1ided 3ith health and safety induction trainin0Q *es #o

K7 Is there any restriction for smokin0 at 3orkQ *es #o

KL If no2 do you pro1ide a smoke fees rest areaQ *es #o

KB Is there any pro1ision for pre0nant 3omen M nursin0 mother to rest if they needQ *es #o

KC %re the machine repaired M re0ularly maintainedQ *es KH %re you satisfied 3ithQ
Hi0h satisfy Satisfy #eutral +issatisfy Hi0h dissatisfy


Hoist M lifts

Liftin0 machine2 ropes :loor M stairs :ire e4tin0uishers K;8 %re all the eFuipment used at 3orkplace2 safe to useQ *es #o

K;; %re you pro1ided 3ith health M safety informationQ *es #o

K;< Is the fi4ed electrical installation re0ularly inspected M MaintainedQ *es K;J If yes2 ho3 often Monthly %fter si4 months *early K;I Is there any safety officer appointed in your or0aniEationQ *es #o #o