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Contents

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . ". #. *.

Topics Introduction Aim of the Project Air Pollution Air Pollutants Sources of Air Pollution !ffects of Air Pollution Control of Air Pollution $%ser&ation ' (indin)s Conclusion

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INT+$,-CTI$N. Environment can be defined as the sum total of materials and forces surrounding the living organism. Environment regulated the life of the organisms including human beings. an being the most intelligent creature! interacts "ith the environment more vigorousl# than does an# other organism. $here is no end of human needs. %ith the gro"th of human civili&ation! there has been an e'(onential increase in the demands for materials. As a result! man has started e'(loiting nature mercilessl# to meet the demands of his comfort and to feed the mouths for increased (o(ulation. $hrough deterioration of environmental condition is brought about b# e'treme events li)e natural catastro(hes and calamities! manmade ha&ards! (h#sical (ollution and social! man has a ma*or role in it. $o feed the ever gro"ing human (o(ulation! efforts are being made to increase the food (roduction and that led to +,reen Revolution-. $he ammunitions of green revolution are the chemical fertili&ers and (esticides "hich have been used indiscriminatel# to (rovide more nutrients to cro(s and to control (ests res(ectivel#. No doubt! these chemicals have increased the food (roduction manifold but side b# side have given rise to man# health and ecological (roblems. %ith the gro"th of human (o(ulation and urbanisation! number of automobiles and other vehicles has increased. ore vehicles mean more air (ollution . noise (ollution. $he causative agents of o&one la#er de(letion are chlorofluroccarbons "hich "e use as refrigerants and (ro(ellants. Automobiles and industries are res(onsible for increased /0 1 in air leading to green house effect and global "arming "e (ollute the soil b# dum(ing garbage. AI/ $( T0! P+$1!CT.

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$o stud# the environmental (rofile of 2hordha 3istrict in res(ect of (o(ulation densit#! green cover! education at level of residences! social (roblems and sources of (ollution and their effect on air! "ater and soil. 4ollution is defined as an undesirable change in the (h#sical! chemical . biological characteristics of air! "ater . soil that ma# harmfull# affect the life or create a (otential ha&ard for living organism. 3egradation of environment "ith the introduction of man-made e'traneous materials to air! "ater or land is also called 54ollution6. $he e'traneous agents "hich cause (ollution are called as +4ollutants.- $he (ollutants ma# be material or energ# "hich cause (ollution "hen added to the environment in 7uantities and at a rate "hich are determental to the life of the organisms. $hus! a 54ollutant6 is defined as 5an# material 8solid! li7uid or gas9 or energ# 8heat! sound! radioactivit#! etc.9 that (roduces harmful effects "hen added to the environment.6 :asing on different t#(e of (ollutants the (ollution is of follo"ing t#(es; 1. Air Pollution 2. Water Pollution 3. Soil Pollution 4. Noise Pollution. Air 4ollution is more effective to the environment.

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AI+ P$22-TI$N
Air gaseous (ollution emissions results from from mainl#

industr#! thermal (o"er stations! automobiles! domestic combustion etc. the natural com(osition of Air is as follo"ing. 1. Nitrogen < =>? 1. 0'#gen < 11? 3. /arbon 3io'ide < 0.03? to 0.04? 4. 0thers ,ases < 0.01? @. Argon < 0.93? A. Bolid 4articles < $race Amount. $he agents causing air (ollution are called air (ollutants.

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AI+ P$22-TANTS. 1. Carbon compoundsC there are mainl# /01 . /0. 1. Sulphur CompoundsC these

include B01! D10 . D1B01. 3. Nitrogen OxidesC these include chiefl# N0! N01! DN03. 4. HydrocarbonsC $hese are bene&ene! ben&(hrene! etc. @. Ozone (O3). Its level ma# rise in atmos(here due to human activities. A. Fluorocarbons C $here come from industries! insecticides s(ra# etc. =. etals. $hese include chiefl# lead! nic)el! arsenic ber#llium! tin! vainadium! titanium! cadmium! etc. >. !hotochemical products. $hese are the (hotochemical smog! 4AN! etc. 9. !articulate atter. $hese are fl# ash! dust! grit! sus(ended

(articulate matter 8B4 9. S$-+C!S $( AI+ P$22-TI$N. 1. Industrial Chimney Waters; $here are a number of Industrials "hich are source of (ollution. $he chief gases are B0 1 . N01. /ement factories emit (lent# of dust! "hich is (otential health ha&ard. Btone crusher and hot mi' (lants also create a menace.

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1. Thermal Power Stations; $hese are at Bingrauli in E.4. 2orba in .4. Rmgundam in A.4. and Fara))a in %. :engal. $he National $hermal 4o"er /or(oration 8N$4/9 is setting u( four mammoth coal-(o"ered chief (ollutions are fl# ash! B0 1 . other gases . h#drocarbons. 3. Automobiles; $he ever increasing

vehicular traffic densit# (osed continued threat to the ambient air 7ualit#. India is li)el# to have over @ million vehicles b# 1010 of "hich more than A@? "ill be t"o-"heelers o(erating on (etrol. In the ma*or h#drocarbons! 30-40? of all o'ides and 30@ of all B4 . 4. Burning o word ! ossil uels; Bmo)e . carbon dio'ide are (roduced during burning of "ood for coo)ing in homes! hotel and other (ublic (laces. :urning of fossil fuels li)e coal! 2erosene! (etrol! etc. (roduce carbon dio'ide! carbon mono'ide! sul(hur dio'ide! o'ides of nitrogen! h#drocarbons! (articulate matter and metallic traces. @. Ioni" #adiation; Air and "ater are contaminated b# radioactive dusts generated from nuclear test "hich find their "a# into the food chain. Ioni&ing radiations emanated from radioactive "astes of nuclear reactions ioni&e (roto(lasm in the living organisms. A. Natural Pollutants; 4ollens and s(ores (roduced b# seasonal (lants cause allergic reactions "hen reach us carried b# air. :rea)do"n of (hotos#nthetic (igments in natural organic carbon dio'ide. Golcanic

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eru(tion! forest fires! decom(osition of natural organic and inorganic materials (roduces harmful (article and gases "hich also (ollute air. =. Agri"ulture; Air 4ollution is also caused b# (esticides b# . fertili&ers used indiscriminatel# in the agriculture fields. A ma*orit# of the (esticides don6t degrade into sim(le forms. As the# remain stable in the environment! the# enter the food chain. Air is also (olluted b# s(ra# dusts and granules of (esticides (roduced during s(ra#ing of (esticides. !((!CTS $( AI+ P$22-TI$N. 1. $lobal Warming % &$reenhouse ' e"t(% $he heat balance of the earth gets affected "ith the increase in the concentration of /0 1 in the tro(os(here. Esuall# "hen solar radiation enters atmos(here! most of it (asses do"n and reaches earth. %hen heat from the earth is reflected bac)! the thic) la#er of /0 1 in the atmos(here does not allo" it to radiate out. ost of the heat reflected from the earth is absorbed b# /01 la#er and the "ater va(ours (resent in the atmos(here. As a result! atmos(here gets heated u(. $here is an atmos(here "ith the increase of /01 concentration in the tro(os(here. In this (rocess the earth becomes "arned. $his is also called 5,reen Douse Effect.6

1. )*one +ayer de,letion. 0&one gas is mostl# (resent in the stratos(here la#er of atmos(here. It acts as a shield (rotecting the living organisms from the harmful effects
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of ultraviolet radiation. $he concentration of 0&one in the stratos(here is a((ro'imatel# 10 mgH)g of air. :ut "hen air becomes (olluted! the o&one la#er in the stratos(here becomes de(leted. At (resent the de(letion of 0&one la#er due to air (ollutant li)e /F/ "hich causes the formation of a big hole. As a result of this the Eltra Giolet Radiation from the Bun can reach the Earth directl# and can cause man# health ha&ards. Nitrogen-o'ide and h#drocarbons are the other agents of o&one la#er de(letion. 3. A"id #ain. /ombustion of fossil fuels li)e coal! mobile and (etrol (roduce sul(hur dio'ide 8B019 "hich is o'idi&ed Acid9 to in D1B04 humid 8Bul(huric

conditions. Nitrogen 0'ides are a grou( of (rimar# (ollutants "hich are (roduced b# automobile e'hausts. :oth sul(hur dio'ide and nitrogen o'ides react "ith moisture in the air to (roduce sul(huric acid and nitric acid. $hese t"o acids come do"n to earth along "ith rain affecting the lives of (lants . animals. 4. Photo"hemi"al Smog. %hen the air (ollutants li)e h#drocarbons and nitrogen o'ides react "ith one another in the (resence of sunlight! the# (roduce nitrogen dio'ide 8N019! 0&one 8039 . a com(ound called (ero'#lacet#l nitrate 84AN9. All these three together form a #ello"ish bro"n ha&e called < 4hotochemical Bmog. @. Carbon -ono.ide Poisoning. Demoglobin @0 times more affinit# for /0 than that of 01. $hus in (resence of ver# small amount of /0
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in (olluted air! hemoglobin binds "ith this com(ound irreversibl# "hich is to'ic to our bod# tissue. $his is called /arbon mono'ide (oisoning. C$NT+$2 $( AI+ P$22-TI$N; From the above data it becomes a((arent that the air has been (olluted for last five #ears due to increase of vehicular. Number of different industries . number of (esticides users! lac) of re7uired green cover! cutting a large number of trees! (oor (lantation drive . above all due to lac) of re7uired a"areness among (eo(le regarding the cause and effects of air (ollution. As a result the disorders of res(irator# s#stem! s)in! e#e! blood! etc. are on the rise in this area. $he onl# satisf#ing develo(ment is the rise in the number of families using I4, as fuel for coo)ing . increase in the literac# rate. $hough it is not (ossible to stall the (rocess of industriali&ation use of (esticides and number of vehicles for trans(ortation! the follo"ing remedial measures can be ta)en to reduce the degree of (ollution as "ell as the e'tent of (ollution related health disorders. ". #ndustrialists should be ca$oled to use smo%eless &uels ' de(elop green co(ers around the &actories. ). #ndustries should be shi&ted to places &ar &rom human habitations. 3. #ndustries should be compelled to use precipitators scrubbers ' &ilters to chec% the production o& particulate matter. *. O+ners o& automobiles should use positi(e cran% case (entilation ' catalytic con(erter to reduce emissions. ,. -se o& lo+ sulphur &uel should be made compulsory.

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.. /ntipollution de(ices and alternate &uels should be used in automobiles. 0. No big tree should be cut do+n &urther ' steps should be ta%en &or ade1uate plantation. 2. !ublic should be made a+are o& air pollution through electronic media3 print media3 road sho+s3 symposia3 etc.

$3S!+4ATI$N ' (IN,IN5S


$he follo"ing data about the 2hordha 3istrict is collected b# direct observations! from ,overnment records b# intervie"ing senior citi&ens and local (eo(le including farmers. $he collected #ear "ise data are (resented in the follo"ing tables.
$able -1; Numbers of industries to 2hordha 3istrict in last @ #ears. Type of Industry Textile Industry Paper Industry Scrap Iron Industry Plastic Industry Sugar Industry Cement Industry Total 2009 01 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 01 2010 01 Nil 02 01 Nil Nil 04 2011 03 Nil 02 01 Nil Nil 0 2012 05 01 03 02 01 01 13 2013 07 02 04 04 01 02 20

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Ta!le "2# Num!ers o$ %e&icles plying on t&e &ig&'ay passing t&roug& (&ord&a )istrict at a particular &our* Type of Vehicles T'o +&eelers Car. /eep. etc* T&ree +&eeler 0uses 1 Truc2s Numbers of Vehicles 2009 10 04 005 2010 25 07 212
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2011 4, 15 47 25

2012 72 21 1 30

2013 -, 35 ,3 42

Ta!le "3# Num!ers o$ &ig& trees existing. cut do'n ne'ly planted in (&ord&a )istrict in last 3i4e years 5Collected $rom records o$ 6$$ice o$ t&e 3orest )epartment. 7o4t* o$ 6dis&a8* Trees 9xisting Cut )o'n Planted Numbers of Trees 2009 700 50 ,00 2010 450 250 150
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2011 2,0 170 -0

2012 200 ,0 70

2013 150 30 50

Ta!le "4# Num!ers o$ $armers using pesticides in t&eir plants Numbers of Farmers in % 2009 Pesticides :sers 5; 2010 15;
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2011 30;

2012 55;

2013 ,5;

Ta!le " 5# Num!ers o$ $armers using <P7 as $uel $or Coo2ing in last $i4e years Numbers of L ! user Familiar in % 2009 <P7 ,; 2010 30;
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2011 ,5;

2012 7,;

2013 -1;

Ta!le " # Num!er o$ people su$$ering $rom &ealt& disorder caused !y air pollution at (&ord&a 5Collected $rom (&ord&a )istrict 7o4t* =ospital records8 Numbers of eople 2009 15 2010 30 2011 5, 2012 15 2013 230
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Name of the disease >espiratory )isorder

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S2in disorder 9ye )isorder Cancer 0lood )isorders


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1, 25 02 03

25 3 10 0,

37 414 11

4, 5 22 1,

115 130 3 2

C$NC2-SI$N After the detail stud# of air (ollution! I found that the environment level goes on decreasing. Bo! "e have to create a"areness among the (eo(le . ta)e (recaution to control different t#(e of (ollution 8(articularl# Air 4ollution9 to save the environment. 0ther"ise it "ill s(oil . as the result "e "ill also suffer as "ell as "e "ill res(onsible for the difficulties of our future generation.
+Nature provides a free lunch, but only if we control our appetites.-

Plant A Tree ! Sa/e )ur 'arth.

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