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( I ) Classifiers are words denoting the counting units of various objects and actions' in :.neral, they can be classifiedas two categories: noun classifiers and verb classifiers. 1. Noun classifiers are for persons or objeces' used between a numeral and a noun' .,.-::ich can be classifiedas individual classifiers(+, 5K), collective classifiers(E*, ), meass-b), etc. -:e cl a s s if ier s( X , F ) , i n d e fi n i te c l a s s i fi e rs (,F ., 2. Verb classifiersare for actions, used after a verb. Common verb classifiers are ft, 'E. ryq. t H. lE l. E et c . ( Ii )Grammatical characteristics of classifiers 1. They cannot be used alone, and usually placed after a numeral or a demonstrative :i o n o u n , { or ex am ple , -4 S, ::cns, etc. For example: U s u a l l y a cl assi fi eri sfol l ow edbyanounorapro:-run. It cannot be followed by verbs, adjectives, auxiliary words, adverbs and preposifl l 3 f{ .

( wro nel'ffi +kEE . il,+Vffih tEfrFlK ( correctl,ffi +kE E" flFlK+&#,h 18,
2. Monosyllabic classifiers can be duplicated, denoting "every" or"many".

For exam-

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is good), -ff|+'d+(many

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( I ) Numeralsare words denotingnumber, which can be classifiedas cardinalnumber, ordinal, etc. 1. Cardinalnumber, 4, -, f , H, T, T, lL, ffi, #. Cardinalnumberis indicated by a definite number of basicnumber.

-+W ,,331 m', 14& 6 fl 15 ' 2 E 5 H, f f i-' * -E l. 2 .Or d in a l: -ffi, = , RA f f i' = h Z (Z / l> , t rt lZ [ lt fraction and decimal, 3 .M ulti ple, G 0% ) , = ,fi ,- E (3. 14). number,IL, &, *, EE ' tT' A. 4.Round of the prefix "ffi" anda of numbers,usuallyconsists the sequence The ordinaldenotes
cardinalnumber. Sometimes,the ordinal may appear in the form of cardinal number, but implying the meaningo1 "ffi". For example: when we expressthe hierarchyof family members, "H" is not used, and we may simply sa|: -{H.r =ffi,X{jfr, The word "ffi" canbe =ffi equals addedin the way of synonymoustransformationin the following cases' such as When an ordinal is usedwith a equals equals HAft. ffiW+ffi,trff ffi=E&,E+ffi is usuallyaddedbetweenthem, for example, H-WfrE'ffi: verb or a noun, a classifier +14+. In fact multiples and fractionsare "numeral-classifirs"r Dot pure "numerais", for is equal to"xhZ* instance:u=n in'=ffi"is a numerul,"B"i" a classifier;"xh|-" j),"herein "i"and a1snumerals,"il"is a classifier.An around number denotesan approximatenumber. There are there ways to indicate around numbers, @ two neighbor after A' etc'" are placed areusedconsecutively; numbers @"*' *' t'T'ts,6' cardinal "-" the cardinalnumber; @ " IL" is added before or after the cardinal number. Some of the -=f , ]L, i+*, fiWtsome are not round numbersare numerals,for instancerftri, etc. which are "a numeralplus a noun of and -f1-5', numerals,for instance , =+EE location". ( Ii )Grammaticalcharacteristics of numerals Whether 1. A numeral is often usedtogetherwith a classifier, for instance, -4'Eh. it can combinewith a classifierto indicatea number is a criterion to judge the parts of speech as numerals. of numbers. of numbersbut not the decrease 2. Multiples can only expressthe increase of numbers. The increaseor deFractions can denote both the increaseand the decrease crease of numbersshould be basedon the original number.

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6*E C 6*Ec

A(

f{,B4fl-hr +*,_,trFtfr. A, EE B. HTtr C.TT D. tr'I. 6#E A (4)m" )L","#" ,"*"#trrr4Bt&. 6rJ,lfi,Hg}.fll'|,ffi-.AfBEcl;EDtfrEWx-M. + 6+EB E.iilEi+ffi, 1.+kE++_El^Ff Eeil*FlJBSB! " A. B.m CH_ D.ffiW (1)" - " FI tf+ffiI "W"fn"*' #IBryia,nID)*.r;" z"Bfry H. {E It +iL,l[, -. _. = " " " ;"ffi"6fr8 Q)"2"{i]y+ (+ (1 tr': ) ;T B{i*fF "- ", tn. 72 * |nry.ffJ +{i ) . 502 " s)Jiry.4'W., ftAi* W'" < hry+ " z" RFAL*" z(,fi : ), W"" ln,H -1R,0. -', 6 frAi*" 2/5(nbz )s" (4)"H', ,"+" ,"n" ."lL'Et,m":"f,il"W"ArEllr,{E,,t,,Bf,.R . frAH"-" (5)A B ItJ ffJ * E . +:E ; F.frYL.*" #.^ +, i*" 1", 98, " =" =',6 ffi" . m F-trW., F.EHW" gAEj"l, ln,ffi_-t E " HW" l' "ffi"Mffiftr, 118 &5 hiAiSHFf+ IEl EffiiFHE. EXF_ "
- )2.E_4fl#FEft+X#XB!"

A.B.m c.n D.{ m (ilF#I "lX'EiFl,triAT+*i"J "4 " " " IW" #8" W + ", E fuH&hn & A, 6ffi F t * p;T in1" + " " IE" " FE " 5 i-"l ) ffiEE {F H (h L-W. ll " Effi til Elnl ffi E ; FtJ l W&E i"iE0, &FtutkaH{t'if,Bfi ,ln,wt*fr ,wR,wH)1. 6*E B(m) 3.+k n*T,BE+t_lH,iFE+tll{H"
A. -

-,ts. S.-l*; "W"T.fte" (i+ffiI "--"FII/'t\A*trf6lSklEfE ,#7rffW.,fun, "ffi trfslIIfil6J"+" . "mW"F;ffiiFHfA" -" 58f,1"iH"i5ffiBt', 6*E A( )
lZ-

B. E

C.H-

D. ffiW

+.@Ft*EItlW-EH Hff4r HSK Aid. D.-f c. ffi B.HA.ffi=+ gAE iaJ" ( i+ffi +" . EXE A(ffi EH E"i5HHt tr I'El I ff Win1" ffi:" 5 Ain1" -+) A ft BEr c*ft,w DtEF. 5."Nlk-&6ffiN"861i+& ffi-w (i+ffi , 6frV, EB' EH " "tR E 6)JEfr 5 $iA1# W H! I "m-l{ Eff W m-" 5 A.n1" RFE5 U ffi|r.dJin1" Ffi * ffi. E+F B Aif,HWt, j tH F! -EAxf JbH H0 F{{R, 6.,ffi tr /t44LB3i',Hit . s_+F* D.ffiw c. ffi A. s. ffi( i+ffif "W" ,#7r:2- e 7-l4tu16nhft.W., ; tEYT ")1"' H ffiffiffi*, ffiE&If,EIi'lBfr .( ;eE] ffiT -]g El fi&rt +, 9n, fsHHmT +' + diA . EXF_c E ) 7. &ll1-Bffinnts-' AzJ'FJr&-E " D.xf c.,fffi B.A.m jF] ,&dt ffiA'ft . trIiJ+B\ tr H'.fi ' ft ti+ffiI '[W" E"ffi+" Vl&E, ffiErfHf*lntr;el M.nfl4,nWlW+" EXE c({m) ''1ff.{ ffm.'f6'fil'fE.Jaf
roos B. 1008. Di*fF B. *TFt\,fi,-Fzt A. -at\,F.-442\. D. -*t\,F.*fzl c. -fz\,F,-z\ (. }I (i+ffiI zj'&trli***E&zJ'fi,fi ) E ffiH!'Hl*i* fi ry+, A )Li* L' g + iqjSr4,U - . "s-'1, ,ffiffiW+fflfnEi*/Lf n+ )LH JL+' E + lhl#i AtL +"ry"]*lLf ;4zJ'&,RBfrEH0 "0"F{,.F,i**f . EXE A(-+4/\,fi -Fzi.l = + S t[ H0

s.ejmix rc_.
B. xltn*/rlZ_ -\. iffi:tl2_ D.xfi_t_ c. xX=437._ j:H\W+)' *.fiMX'.Z ( i+ffiI tl&ffi i** Ehe 6W&T tul&?)h Zh + (tl Wt*. .-4lrnryff ,H"y" )E+* " E#E C(x_X.-rlZ-) to. zs%l*lF B._HhLtf.rt .\. t+/\tlL*H D.-b+/\*HhZ c, trhZ1-tt\ B0 11. 20LR,WXWT 4,+xffiffie,-" +x.R,ffiT 0.75'{# B. lfi,'',tT 1/4 {. EtrFXHo 1/4IE D.EF',F^ffi c. w/)'T 1/4 B,DEffiiFP! (i+fiBl ffiWRfrA#,lry . ll}WF*' ,AA2#.AWtrfr1JW',,,FfrU) HH!}BIN Jg wH h #w, T frv . = T& HHtJglH, &,rIH f ryHfrlw't" tbry HH0 idd'nu IF.*tul c 3/4,Ffru) ffiFt" E+E A(EPF^Ht ,+xw/'-T =-ldtrBtryHh&w" &ffiffiH tz. #*ffi BKa4ft+#,E t * fi,nfr,-Y " -+/t.:+/\ D. -+/\.-tlL c. -+/\/L B. -\.-+/1.=+ (i+ffiI fHfFry+*zsffiryBf J: ryH)rffi#.E'lH':= 1 + " " t" u) ' WHA,*laeBt'
- 13-

B! ryia isH,tr - + wia*ffi 'ffi5 Bfr -f ryjEfH *[ r], Rl* w6 FJ lEH! ffJ # h,in, = 1 pq u n ry" trWE"JL" +" &" + " " + -" *1WZ^frE.E'ffi . 6 ft?in, \t g ; -l tr . f x i* fi ; t = =+A,F ; Et. E+-Afl " 6+E c( +/\i) -t ; -tlL. 13.atJl(".)t rh*i8+*+t,f[ H!E-{n_ rywz,w . A. Aa_=X B.A+*.fi+: c. T^+** D. fif-(i+ffir "*/*"t^4ffi&n{'trnR&HHtRtr -lnBw+ 1- e,f6rtE"ryi-"1+Eif,+ 4/*+(Einl ",A.C tffiiFH*" Btffii4,H!*,fi,t2 ffi" :+E D(I+-*) | 4. ilE+ tr fiIfi E R4t9+fr4tt_i4+*. A. =ru]T B. V!=n C. =n..EZ't'T D. =.Wnffitr 12 ti+ffiI B.c tffi iFffir*, -tL ffi" " ffiE " HEE{ Hia,tr t B M,W., 6 frV. ffiE W. H:e1 tr,Dhffi1flffif*" 6*EA(=EU) 1 5. fr ,Pt H! z Ff,,@ x4 vzt{ r rufRA, d,F.-+ 4 A'lR w+nxt -tr A. H|]iE' B.+ C. JL D.iT ^tuI ( i+ffiI "mE".R, FE ffilrlt l44 iatr, #B Lr, + - E{ |{ + &w,,6 fru, ffia fr E j"lFtd E, tuk6frAffitrE n "ffi" Wjr,1" +" 6ftAH&)JnWiA, D t "+ + iA+ (A t;l " W t&, ln,# t- ia + + + (tr r4) f ++ ;er"&iEJ " #lt#fr ,l[, mx + . wld")L H = ffit6rt, ( 1),,,f1 * + ( j"f)", !8, ILt E . Q)" (lL/ n / + / tr / f + tL+ E ia+ (E td)", tn,-H n+ )L e-=irl

rc. hlrltfrT -+_K+, rt*iA fi rUtiBSfI. A. tT+ B,+)L C.EE+ D. ( i+ffiI " -LT"ffi"EE "Frt ffir' 'L+ f, FIHftw-i-"]tr tzr tffi w, 6 Bv ffi ftw.aFffi ,Frt:) j"f A.cEffiiFffi W""Win1+ +^"Effi iFHf*,")LE&rr;'tr,6FE5EtFillBkn1tl+,Ff t:) BtffiiFHE" 6+E D(rL+) 17. EE&*rl&E- Jttu_+# H! "
A.* B ,*
CF

D. / L

(i+ffiI EJ+ -jL/\"T#.m" -E Jtf-t\", FlltZ^frU,ffi" fuT" *"," 4" *.^MW" "E" - 1ese+ + H! *rT + I4, tFHMry.ffiI* . ")L"#,r " + " D-I T Z^frhF*ful W,- )t tVLF+F1e80 +_+" 6*E D(A) ,ftrft-,F,JLfttrr4r 18. frHEtr#E F*rl--+&T "
A. -4r B .-.X 4

(i+ffiI A.Ciffi iRHW," EE " ffi' -LT" fr.ffi fflE ffi,lH,so fl J:T / E &ryi-"] 10WffiWGil:10.40.210 E . tnRW.FlE ^ #)at ,p"4/*+7-^wryF!4efrE"Wia1+*/*
- 74-

(i+ffir w.Hw&.F-ftEW+1- e(lH .7,14,316 ) nt,H" 4 /X" *.ZIth&.ffJ+&fr, ( + + E"ryifl fd * / *+ htn]) " " A,BEffi i+ Hl* " "EE"4 "t T " *zi fffi ryff , ffiie& EiFIE,{Eff+ryEiamt+*trjFlEf ,*tt4 hFtr ,tfru) D 'e;ffiW,Mtg-h"-t}s+kE_E" . c(*4X) 6*E rs. lft* l:+,?ar_w,xRT ,{^,H,,ft,H.rE " t. ao 8.460Ej EtrE C.60 D. 60*E TTE

c. -4*

U. -DTE.E

4++

04 fr " "7 + E iA+ 4 I X + (& jrd) 6 - F, FtJln' + E i-"1 ", {E H,B' + (A if,)"& Wi-"] t * H! /*fr?"FIHEE,10 ^ i0zarffqlo AF<10 fulH,E'E: 4*fr<20 ^/ +4 + EtaJ ^fl&<lr ffi" Winl tuI + ) FiT AAIFE F (fi ,,,\. S .'fH h^fr;"10 fr . + HE- f g {4.T fr?hFX*f tri ++4" B iffiiFffirA, +*L,1,00H4tlln,1oo0 *+(Ei;i)" Htt#fr,!az^ftVifr,,20 ,,*,"4"ZK6EHtryEi"1Efr. *E) .*E D(60 20.BtK^A_fr" D. ffiXtT c. ffi)KX B. W4* A. ffiXX g ( i+ffiI r Z fsl + 4r/ *' + EiiJ 0 PJ 'fi E 1 eW+Z"-ftYfA Fil Wr,1 t BOf Pl W+fi, 1 U)A,Bt ffiiFffirA" " EE " )", Ffi + (E n1) " Wf6 rt "F, FE t6rI "ryiA+ r4+ I / * + (A n1 - W5gfiH /EE +, 4 *. + * &ffi']', ts F ",LT "{F,ffi f[ "I T "- M.ffi &Weir]tr t m bLH ^ c(Ex*) * tuffi1pffira. ff$.EffiH E ,m"EE"-n{trFR,ttrUo 21. ww*E+e,4H_T. D.-+E c.-+F4 B.-+fB A. -f+E ( i+ffiI "#" #fr --h Z-, - ffiE "+ + E i"l+ ( irl)", E ffi* t u;pffi 7"D) t ilIW *X. in' #s. - +,-++; #IfJ' -JE' -JEJ+; ?F{,46rtt"&if,firl+++ (Etn1)", +'S+ + + (E id)", lA, - x, - x + . 5 {FH "+ " Et, E i-"1 mfr t "+ + + + (tr fil "," Wnl _f zJ, n{._f #zJ, Ht'. . _f Etr . _f + ES ; #f zJ, ++ E. _f B ._f+B ;*f E$B tr-,J" 6+E A(-f+E ) 22'+\E++rtFT -tr, tt l:T rFtr/t+Plffin+-.

B.-++ A . -+ f+ (i+ffiI n2rw" tr#F-D(-++)

c .* + f +

D. - + +

23. T*tf A)KBlkf,flLT- clfBtf4,EETXIDfnE+IF" + + + + (h iA)", ( i+ffif Wirrtr" + (tr tA)" & ryiA+ E i-"1 tt E "+ + i-"1 m+& + " fflf# A.c.DtffiiFH**" 6+E B 5hffi_#iFg9l. 24. +&H/fftrH',4p.)8,g6+ D. plfiE c. tT B. EE A. Ettr )frffi tr, T ffi Ftif,E, !8,tr F.FFIE I'El,S. Atzi F{ ti+fi4l'BtE "tfr {ffi ryff ',ffi -4 i-"1 E' c t ffiiFH tE" |e.Bt I'Hl - t E ffiE . A,F, T "T AVffi ,6. "_h + Ef W.tuI tr, 9n, A tzi Fi14 ( je,F' "W iFl F! tr . E * E B EE ) HE#rr F{lhl )n m&t zr Ht E, 6 AU' E in1 zs.nt'fslff{*'R, . trA-di4i$+T D.-+EEF c.-+EEE B.-f-LTE A. -+.E-LT 10.E+E'(-+FEE) (i+ffiI 13"B.D tffiiRffir*,rLffi ^hffiiRffiFA,rLff 26. E+ffi,{&effi_" D.20 c.zoEEy t.T B.2o A.20 6|rl, EtE (i+ffif A tffiiFHF*,-tLffi 76." Fttf"*zrfl'Hlffi &tr 6tF. E 6tl'. #.fi+ El,4tl' 20 ff+Ht'^68{F ffi"hgf",B/]ffii+Hra. c !ffiiFHrE,rLff . EM+E %inw"EFffi",Ffr
iT) D)"\\"EIIEW" 9" " EXF_D(20 A *tr 8 4 c +l D" Etr 27. tr " E ( i+ffi r4 6 " " tr, A2a+*iil'trW-E.r4 ^t'.6,5jJjtFpt^+F/ttffi ffiL+* tr iillt, EE 4 nFft4 I tE iRrytr i-"1
1( -

m. 6+E B(n)

*E n. 28.KStBtfE niff A -n Bffi c +ffi D. ttr ( i+ffiI "?tJ - w H&airl Efr " ftEtJlFJ, tm JtM,a ff & ffiHfr tr r, q til'a' w dJirl, H +* ffi&ryi-"lBf A 46FpEBffi'FR,EWTAtf,d" " " EXft 2e. +xf,tJ+/\&_-tr " A. * B. A C.8fr,6 D.EE (fFffi I "4" ."E6'tz\fffi ff Ht',6frAffi&Wiflffi . "Efr tr"t,triffi fi Ht', f FE EryidH

30. AA Bffi+ C D. JLHA+*++ELIFWffi*E A (i+ffi I Wifl" *" ffi6 + . tr'. + +#W tr, #.B'W,- fift ffirt t " W)n1+ A + irl+ (tri4)",FhfrffiE. 6*E c fi,.5jruHflJ, 1.+tBf xX T _&A dyffiH, thT -&T-+&." A. ffi B. c.ffiw D.ftr
2.3010. ooz i*tF_"

A. -f+-f,H,: c. =f+-+,fi3. ttr*l[frts.E*edi _y -t. A. B.-+-+4.2+Mi*tF A. -1 4 2 =


?

B.=-,fi+4m D.=++,fi4: FE " C.+1.:+


B . - f f iW 4 z =

D.-+-*

c. -xw1}z=
A. -fE+
5. l&,EMWiftSf ,,R,Aig )LET _"

D.-r[ET=
B.+fE c.-+E
c. m=+f c.fttr c. fifAf

D.-E+
o. =ffitf D.Efr D. frxE6+ o .Hw

6. itfBHlF/t,S{+f_/\. A. -=tf e. =-ff 7. vF'F.ry'_Lfe+-,fi_tr8*. A. tT B.* B.+t fR,'-,FH-^. e. aA1' B. Arf

e.&trE'H,nkE-.+EWDn. B.+* +* ^. n. ffiIt4fifli*n/t*ffi

A. e.ffi c.ffigtd-+_B+JIfi4T 10.H+gBfi*ffiffiftf E "

c. *+

D.EE+
D. EE g D. _LT

A. & B. ttJ 12.4fi,8fu*-&,Fir=+_. P'.EE B. tfr,6

15oo "

C. tfr,tr c. Fitl.

- 16-

13." + /\1S . F ffi . & ft,+ + _ffi * A - ffi. fuM,UE{: F fsl ffift mft}'\AtS, ffiffi*. D. tT A. a B. BfE c. jr,E

zJ' f4Hd

14. lz++P,4T*.R,a._8"
A. tT S. -EEfl

C. =*.F

D. =fi*

$. *.4)tnLL#W +EA fr " RHH+_ B.EtE c. tT A. * r0.&HEHnFE-+sffi+. c. ttr-+X A. -+Efr B. -.+* 17. i*ffi#4vfr,F6-8" gtfr c.20 A.21 B.20 4^fr AFIT 18.n+JLthHa)La_.
A.2o 4^EW c.zo 1e. ^EW' +X+tEflE*r_fl.
A. 10AtL 8.1,0 +4

D.EE D.-*t D.2r *.^fr

8.25 *E&^E D.25 ^EEEW


C.104* D.10 4+

20. trtrAfr . 4)n4tLrtf t# H'l+A+f,ft* p\'_tr.A -HEE C.4.H E. ^. 21.w &fnfF-fT _l+f$r$"
A. -t*{'flt s. -4t4'Et .. **.1zhBf

D.-tr'Bfrtr
o. -[Ht&t

22. *+xffiEHt-xfrEEP_+nEffi

p, . EE D.4 C./L B.X 23.& ffi-ffi',++-AIffiiHPzKfH. D.*- H C.= EA B. A . =HEE * -EX 24. + +hlFlffix\lVr +X&*T -RH, " D.,fm c.r y e.ffi A.25. -+ A *,'f&NB6i+EiAfl/t'r. c ru+=H+fD" 4 -{S cRHT o. 26. *H#&,8,A T|F*\4BrLDrBfi 27. n +XtuWr,ii.*j8gjr A+Brlcf+D" D/\. Brtr cf A4t+T 28. x ffeHti*ft*.fiJTF/(,FE D" AfrlEBzlc 2e.&H:frT-iIl1.4^+,fStl-WAF9tT ^fr D. so.*istr A,FrAfn*+,fB*,-XIZT +tfi+- c * '^

"

.' t7-

-. f E h#, i F J
= . F *Ei R ,
( I )Nouns are the words that denote a person or an object.

o prSon3 1.Nounsdenoting l4r4' +\t)fr,++,, ie' EtF. an object:i'=iA^'E 1-+, \+)1",WR ' lJ. 2. Nounsdenoting a location:X',t#, Wlh, +\8, frFL, EE.. 3. Nounsdenoting time,4X ,W+,FltJt,Yft 'qE. 4. Nouns denoting orientation: W, F,t,T'-8. denoting 5.Nouns Theymainlyinclude:R, ffi, ffi' lL' location. that denote ^, wordsarenouns Location i- . T, E, E, B t,.E ,8,91, +, *, fi. T h e s e wo rd s ma y b e u s e d a lo n e o rb e f o re " i! ' Table1-3-1. See wordof location. z"to forma compound s. f, H, *"o. after"D),
Table 1-3-1 Simple Words of location and Compound Words of location.
1'+ .TYJ

_!il Itr p

r+ ' fn

-I

IEI

_LIL

Y)\

l \l r |

.<_-T

/l\

E
1?

t
T
-t_. 1f:
n

o o o o o o
C

o o o
C

o
C

EU
tE1

H _ &t
/l

+
T

o o o o
C
X

o o o o o
o

o o
C

o o
o
X

o o
X X

o o
x

o o o o o o o o o o o o
X X
X

o o o
C

o
C

o o
X X

o o o o
X

o o
o

o o o
X

o o o o
X
X

o o o o
X
X

o
C
X

o o
X

AJ
In the table, "C"

stands for valid collocation and "X"

stands for invalid collocation.

( II )Grammatical characteristics of nouns 1. A noun is mainiy used as the subject or the object in a sentence. 2. A noun can be modified by a classifier but not by an adverb' 3. A few monosyllabic nouns with the characteristicsof classifiers(For exampler $, .t .Jt,/\, K) ,un be duplicated, meaning "f noun". 4. The plural {orm of the nouns denoting persons is a noun followed by "'fll". When a noun is followed by"ll1" , it can be modified neither by a numeral-classifier phrase deno:ing a definite number nor by the words implying "many; much", for example, we cannot

"fr*++fi1". sa),..+f+4.1.11,,or

of the nounof localityseeTablel-3-2 usage Amplification


- 19-

= .IISK#i'tE,fi,

A. /\ill B. /\ B 6*E a. fi{tvfr#tBl +Hi*. Il,t t-s-z


Meaning 1. above; on top/sur{ace of

r. Etaiax4*tfi " fr{,EffiEfiUB!{FH-E 1+. A. 6'c B. &.ft c. +ft' 2. 4is1 5 dttA,MEiA+BlHm " r,l&dJ6AnkF._" Ftl A. f14 B. ,i&t# c. >l,F 2,4L6lyffifffiEE FtJ , m'-E +Z_?RE if;" A. +& B. iE c. itirj 3.&laltulFW.. frU, Ei'{H F,*iIJLiFn.{,HH0_AF++friJ*"
c. -rLb

D. ,tt.ft D. i4-r D. E,H


D. 4{*^li]

S*C c 6*E I 6*E e

#1_3_2
Examples

{r'.....I
2. in a certain respect

1.+NffiE"H+r.T" 2. tr ffift+Jffir#-ff,=8"

1.l&tr!z,_L4F-i#x"
2. tKZt)FE*tiAt./\ffi tfFE-mHt.
1. +tftstr,fH+EE*H&T.
L.

1. below ; under; beneath;

*ffi&&tewaruf

"

tt"""

l.

2. under a certain circumstance, nouns as"f;f

Er.tF+. 4>F. 64. # qt.E E. AH'.{F4,.


ft{*.tf,E"uttd so on are often used"

r. E&+ffiH E^T,&*+ffi,tTAxEg. 2. E+K[FlH.Vtff Fif ,fi {F,R +*T +#.


t.
L.

1, in; among; amid;

4. . . . . . +
2. in the processof; in the course of

ft fEi* fJitr{Hnntrffi a,r,+ . &fr{uy{E++,ffiE A 1/3.

1.EfrFffifif.ffiftiJ+. 2. A FE EIF# *148,+t$EEffi fi E'EF!


rE\,U\ o

E.ifrEi#ffi, L FHraWf+J_*,8IL4'IT. A. B$.ft B. NZI c. Bt'{F D. Bt'H (i+ffiI " Et l\ ffin g.t u4#. 4i6 . r 4L +ffirnh ffiffimfl ,) ffiEf H, -f,ft &K ; & ffil\*4 + ffJH+W e., -fift 6H "K. ffi . - . JF H, ffixF"+lbw " " NrtJ" EE +#,F ffi* - ++E Ft' lHl, H ffi Rwffit)J ffi xlp trB!+ - r'J n{ Iq,fi .' E{,fF " Efffi FtffiE,fi ru4,fi & ttr6 iF' -flft ffi K ffiFf|4,Bf[-ffi a F;iE, tam - wlt lR" Hffi " " Eiffi"ffiRH xffi ++|tI.ffJ trJ ^t -& n-'J PJ fal, H K . ffi . - . lFH'. WxE+ . S+E c (E,J,fF Lbffi r 2. Iiffi,&.lbt)L#, Fh tLk4_.
-2 0-

+ft DJ (i+ffiI " s4+" ElFs, &J] uF-4+ . " F.i'."ffiHtl'H',i ,($'ffi, HJ ffiTFH B! "+*"fFs'HHtE*jHn" trKF ^B ft&EEgflls',lH. 4Rift ,4F6# " "siD"+F,ffitffi

A.+{+

tJ. +E[

C. Srd

D.sq

(s&)

E,INE+'' s. { l^zl'iT-'KtqED. ffiTA C.Ftr B. fitr A. ,L')R "'L'R" 4ft-ffi6lAR*ffla* ' -ffi65"nT 'fir (i+ffiI ",L'8"5"frIilfjffi1.Fi14.. n.ffi.EI+.63U"+diF]+Am{FH""f;E"&E#)trfuI.81ffiwft]:4.K+-fru'9-il'ffiffirA iA'ffi He ffiH' fAmF ffi. " HE " E dJ . :E,fltJ" + thi-"] trH, trItlt5 "iT .ftfi,ffi fr . W.# n]HH-i {FH' 6 * E B + dJ E . ft + . iEaltJ" frI#R, T 5 " i. T . ftfn . fifi "ffiE "+F,E 1+ t Ffr (fim) 4. Effi+tftiAitEIE T 4?.*lt,T.tr't\ " f,r ffi ; "fi ilE 4 m"Hry-I*'&"+M E tf,16 ++'l+, W 4 +n &/\A ff /* B! ffi"+F t i+ffiI "ftE LH ts/*fr tljH! drW "Xffi"YqAiIffi ft!/*fr,4 EA E tfr " " Xffi''R H E. ".Fil8'fF'RF lf,W trJ }& 5 "B' 6|E' F 4 " + dJ - & H{ *1 #M ll.H!, lnJ futtW *W, * ftA ff n6 |E d 4 rS H' Y* "ff8 A X ffi,m ffi" Yg ;" F ffi" f,fi " "'L'H' fEXf/\ B!'lE DJ &,FI 5 "f ,W +Md irl# Hd EE,, 6+E c(Xilts) 5. i*&Kft4pdffifr-" D, IftTE c. ,ftff B. UIffi ^.ut&"\l&#XffiWaffitrffi ,5" Ult& +FHT ni+' " Ult&"tFffi {E +tlE, H,E (i+ffiI . /ffi 7:4 h.&+ . fFl lt'ffi illH{ "# ffiq+Xffi Ffr ffi" " RUt F^ fr fr #flA,9nffiffiPl,f/| ArG;Vt ., 2000 ft . "Ul E 6H tFH. H X ; ^ffi ffig ffitt^y@fr t|, 9nit&+.%,fftffi At E ffi Wr[Affi j*#ffi E. 6*E D($IE) "fft&," ut+&" frr" RIJI"YAA 6.,f67li41$x4, 4xf **Rffi---. D' {HH c. F"ltp ,fH,L' B. 'fH'ff A. itl" {H l'6H'4P"-. 4, {Effi B!'L' (i+ffiI "{H',1"' " "Fa ffifE'fHm4-EBEqt[ ' "H lt" +F'FH g e { {'= ffiffiA E' 4:55 ffiF" . + X e* &+ " "l+^8" +F IF HfH {H++, * ffi+ xt)\. + 9K
,L.)

A. il8ffi

B. ,GilB

C. XflE

D. ,L.H

50oo 4tr l\Pltr ffiI-K' D.+2e C.+*JL B.+,ft A. +ffi m''6 5 " #" #fu EirlfA +W,- W45 i\, tJ'" ( i+#I "+ft+ e 4.EE#J "+F l\ &a +rJ " " " " e"ffit 4' d,+F .-U 2e+ " "" 0"9J -eSK H{ fFJ, #m. "+{t"*Ft4'ftElil*H0 9H+E ^" Fffi^H!+ff+, E triF" " +n" *+ffiEt|EJ, ln,ao 441. "+* )L"ffi+{A.Ff,ft4 . EXF D(+n) +MElFlWm{Fffi frIh+,fi 5"t -zJ'.E" ,|fi'%+t\ET-' 8. %:)!f,xffi+l5Bi D' ExS c' ffiiF B. A. 99,fi m,-flt5' ft ,R,ffiiR + A tp]'6qt' . ffiXtr + & raffi "Bg,fi ^iF. (i+ffiI "1fr,8" A H E E'WWffi tF& :AAt', i;l ffiE in1' . "x& FJah ER" E "fl\{+.tr ^iF "HmffiA iFl H fi "59,F, -hfrV5 7. frila lu,-#*]:ffJ, tnF*xa

rn1 E h.+.,f + + . Hff " ExE "+S i-"1 mF!dJ E "HfiR . fiiflt"S . 6 *E c (H iF) e. {8_+H, Ert4H thfrrJ^ffri9;.ffi^)tF " (r+ffi r' #.'ffi " ffiw*[444t *]r fi * H! E ffiE,H,trr UFH f* i/tffiF!,& HI v)FH H'ffiH*ftl "?F'H"ffiE*[ff.flffifi*H! 6,L.ffidJ, {FHy*6ElI^tE'#,ffi"ffi,?ftH " f lfiffi s*Ht. "4+8"ffi++jHfrFc,,9EiEE.E4ru,L.if;drHtHR?FfrE*F#jF" "iF^:"ffiE*[?F,|F 6+E A(t,tH) 10.+ tr+.}Utr tEJ, &ffi&FH&jeH!_ " A.tFIx" B.Fttr c. Ft(d D. [L-i. ,ti ti+ffi I' lFN ffi TtFffi+.ffi + tr4,fi * F0 #E fi h, !n,E H.fflxl. rtF ff N " " NE"ffi ^E a . " N(d"F x<4 rd,ffiir4 KwM lr.wNt#r. B0+rh44 E,lfi . il.fx+ . ^+F ' r( 5 "E x g tff>l5, ffif/.*4tft 4 + 44 + tfr/rtul. fr 6 H! F *7,4,w, H #:wMFr n FJ r-l fi ,FrIA4iH HIHE . *E c(X{A ) 11.t#ffit4Bt_tr&u. ^
A. H}U A. I,IH B. ?F,IH C. ?F, D. ?FA

(i+ffi I " ffit&" ffir,rF.+ ffi+iE9J F!jFR, H Tffi^+ W.' w,li"ffi.A4 E {44,4r.+ F Ffi FLffi fvR,4 H T ffi " +rJ E" li ffi +rJ Fn ft.ffJ rt lnd.,fr,F,, * ffiT H t+# vJ " " "ft.til" 4lffi EFfr ^q,# +rJ ^# (,fiE ffi,tu, 4ffi Z"fiiJ tuI,Fn, H Tffi c . EXF_ ) *_FtrFUEfiiA ^+ n. furt8f6zJ',1', 2*.tT+ t . A.H B. X*p c. tk D.+ (i+ffiI "-*fffllH /t4T,1...".-ffiHF.#+A. tVHA.B.D ffiHr*" 6+E c(*) 1 3. ft{fl,f*itrfi Ft$I+t h ft! _. B. Htz\ C.''?+ D. *I+ ^i+ .ff* ( " ffiI ft,FR T 5" Fl ar. rt'+, R l+"+ airl *aHd "1A &ri mH0 a i-"1 E "E i . " H E' El 3U " "'f,p'+ s s " H5 "fAmH! i-"1 dJ . f i^ .,f E "FFA i{ "+ . H 5 "* l+" WEtffJ dJin1g* tS . 1 4. &,'WEWtt tuI _fr.
A ^. ,L*_ElFF.

B. XU{i

C. {iH

D. &!H

J:T +nYe.
C. ,L"lH D. F,F

ile\

,lF (i+ffiI "jFF"ffi n. R^ " "'ffi M"+E+WJ ilfr,fultrT.,,,1.,F " ffi HIEEffiffi A " " F'ffi "ffi4 4 Etr /S "'14" F! BjF. dri-"] T 5''ffiF:ffi M,E ffi"+ e ifl+EAt ^,i, . l* E c(,L.
l H)

B .'ffi V

rs. Bn T lbfr\ffi ,+t_


A. ,L.IE

B. ,L'E

ffi friJha1 "

C. ,L.E

D. ,L.'H

ti+ffiI ",L.IE"fF-[ B! * ffiE.4 Exnf],* ffiff ffi& +F H0 H ffi/*,H+ 6,1, ffiA . ",1. ..,L,jF',ffi E"ffi,L' + 4,B.ffi tr . ",L',H."ffi A*EI,[,+ Afl {fi#S klH* " frlB,lH)trA "A +E B(,L'E) ^,t, 16. &K EEA&+Hfit_-*&T +fr, "
A. f f i B .H
C. HR
-22-

D.H[+

A.c.DffiHrx" EXE: (i+ffiI ,,E......8"+Faffiffi4ffixfH(,ffi+s)plH,E, . ttsH B (m ) 17.Z,t)FiXH+\+-'*.RW-,Ht**wn(q#+,frtJEr"tfi .


A. FIIi B. Wfr c. /qzJi D. H{ft

(i+ffiI ftv5"-*+ffircB!i-"1E"r+r^" " +E B(4Frli) 18.aH!_TE1RW#. D. -$J/\ C./\iil B. /\R a. ,,\ &-h tr Ft frA+EF L, ltrZK t i+fi4 I " + H ol#7s';i&,4 I) in ffi.4l " . "- l\ "& E W ,,;1"6&trI" ^" . E+F A(u\) R'd,,,qffi" 1e. dK_. tsrtrE6pfr6fttfrtt,*E 2000 D. ffi^ c. 9ffiR 8.4F.FffiR A. ffif^{il (i+ffiI FA+E^Whtn1Ffin"Il1"# FW,"ffiR"ZKft2hn"Il1" 'A ffiiFHlX" A H B. C ", tffi i+Hra. E *F D(trR ) 4" lbtfr" ffiJfr E" 1R.4"," iK"E{Ziffi ww+" 2oo0 20. zt)fi,Rffi_fr\+frF'trffiT . D.+ c.t B.g A.A (i+ffiI "" "''t'4*fr "ft" " " fuI#ffi"& +, EtrRffifrlJ#.ffitr 8 ""'tE" " {RffiAH' .St .}&t .^t .+t +. F+E c(t ) +Rrftt ffi^EARd[gH" 4{UH!Hr*tra' +\+%h " 21.. T DE ffiW tMtrJLt + ffl+\+*H-,H.t+"T D.A c.T B.+ A. t (i+ffif "8 ""'+"trJdl +" F h"f+:""fiE+"" 4RffiH,ffi8)L++H0A+jiffi EXE-B(+) T iL*Ttultrt+. 22.rV'WEtl'Hl,4P*E)-h+t'fll'ffiH D.tl c.g B.-L A. T j "tr].5lF ts(t) (i+ffiI "8...... hfi.H=-fiH. tRffiGlH'6+E zz.EZl)fr FXffi +\W.r+T fit+ fr\ E\Ft#4*-, " D.T C.+ B.,I A. E (i+ffi tuI P+h4>FEB1+II tr H, zt)fr *l+T " . 4Rffi 9IF h "8" " " tuI I "4 " " "T "trI rhfrtJfut+. E*p-D(T) z+.91tut4,1f;i6glJtr_S " D.T C.* ts.TI A.E (i+ffiI "...... rA6A' filE. LlA . tRffi trH, Eff .i.tr+ " +lI))tuTffi 8 "*,r,-,FFR {frf E.ff+tr.EtqB+. EX+:A(E) 25.lE )'." F.rBn+ W,Z..AV, Miatrtl+# +D. Z.E c. Z+ B. 2.A A. Z'fgl FtfE . ffiE lJA, ffltrlAmilIhFJtrlUEf- N.Etr. "#ig'ffiffitul$EH 2fE1 ti+ffif "...... t' ,ln,1Ltll2la1.'f&,'fllZl'Hl h\trrt,&EIuB#B^tu14:n14{tifl -- Ezldl+ . " """7-'Ft* m" +A H!,6 ftV'ffi #-fi,,\trli-"1 . rdE . B+ lhl E+B FLFfi f.frZ h 1A EW zr6ft6fi +- f6ffi, pR y" 'zH"EffiiFHm. EX 'E+Z+"HiiE"lE++ " ,Z^A2#*eH+q8fll"qfH"F!H
E A(Z'l'Hl) _12._

26.I++_,+*,8 %.*T4tfrffi+T , A. Url B. U* c. U6J D. DtT (i+ffi ...... f " "' "' D) tf"trrrffiS - fdE, 5 "fi +'fA m" " rt 1p"*/trild tJEfi Ht +- Bt' r'lg[ilE, "r+ ^frE + u*" t B +gJilE . " I frJ " #/r-T ffi,!J - E ffiE, 6 frE 5 " fr +"Hgd"" D)T "#.&fft ^fr ,Z^AA5" T4trf+-.,fi fi+'+am. 6* B(DJX) 27 . _&ZrXT 4.frffil&, &F{fnt Flf*fiS, t 6WT ffilt.. A. ZBT B. ZE C. D-IF' D. UE ( i+:ffi ... f "Zffi"ffi" Z E " T frU,+trgl. H,,y, riitgnl "... ZEfr " ffi" ......Z E ", #B X + B{,fi FlEfr 4 E, tnu)A.Btffi iFffi }* " " rjtFt" *.8 Lv,wE + tulF{ . " r^tr " #8 bv,w# 14 ffi H!FfI4 +RffiAH, Aftlffi" C(t]{Hfr) Utr" " " ERE 28. 4 ilftT*h,_E/ail,t A. ,tr* B. UE c, ZE D.fttr ti+ffiI "E *" *.^r,r.tr**-E{ t4s|J tnE' .F, FEtsdq{F H " " rt E " tfr" zE " artrJ t)t t zris* . tE a 4:m* m+ - sil4,#TsbvfAie.Er Hl Bf F4, al Ft' " + t Bt t4 ; 0) 8 " N)ts I4&ffi4 t6 F\"" " " U) E " i "Z E "6fiE +r4{H,,I,'rt!ffi F\"......Z E " . B + E B(t) tr ) 2e.ufi ifisfvfr fr r_, +Flrl{&f[x T, E|q?.

A. trX

8.trtu

.E*" H! ti+ffi I' E* tB B-u +*Ft'I4gJq&,.R, ,tFH'..... 6E+IA tffi HB, A tffi i+Hr*" "tr fr */i li'Eatr ^ttl H!, . "f*E"EErl 5 hJHZKrf i-"1, HEtfr ,tlTg " A* D( zE ) 30. 6t--, E-ffiE4ti-rt&7tffi &F. A. IT B.Efr t-.E U i rr' D.fttr (i+ffir + ffiffDi ptHr*, xt+ ffi4r4]61, iH,rr. EtE.aa. EtF.ru tF+. "rr " *B#vJfr+Jt*sfrT*F,lil ftt r+rE{&; *m tL#-. wtrfF*q,ffiDrt+n*win]'ffiM&. ' ifl"*Fr|);#E J:T ?&EIK+ 5 ffi,#,lF,ffigJ Af iH,g, e&t T + hffi.6. "EE " #.^# gn, g hrl +rJ E)Lffi h tu, I+E E ffiE ; #.mtL+ -- rytr ffi4 frffi ,)'o+n" w.idfr{ffi ryia" *F tl) . "ffiE "#B++ttffiffi tu&, E )b,lE,+tH0 Et E #F d ?HA T ;tm tt H * FflqffiEt Er ffi E ,-WHE.#ziE{tflJ,fi k\&lFlE, in,AfifiBttr ,&,ElffiT Aia.&,4,Htr ,#^tt+*S{+ fBf 4Ht,ln'#!LBfE."fE" EFUi-"],HfFI E,*.f#l+N.+.VttrttriE. "88", 'tT"5'm E" ffJl.l-#fl* 1-3-3. E+F.c(Bttr)
7E _r-J-J
+1r.

c. f*,6

D.Ztr

+-HTIHJ

frEi-"1
EIJ
frm

4iiJ
t4/ ll

-&E{f4

+ff$ 20ry
C C
X

TE

+ FitFJ )t-

5,fifl C

-+EH

JU llu

1X

c
X

tT
F[/E

o
X

o
C

x H + ot4 ri{#im&.H, x t^FE#f m&H. E. Hil||. 'E r. 4fi,tu1_F51p'tdMRffi.


- z +-

B.++flj A. ++,*, 2.Tixill_Ttlr,x l+,ep1 "


A. Ft'I4 B. IT

c. ++,14
C. E{H

D.++fE
D. HIdJ

n. H* c. ,f#H B. FIH! A. ,f#n 4. ffiifi,H -a-ril,E B{ fttriEf+ iHi6 " frl_, D.IHF C. XIF B. F A. F 5. zJr{ft1ffi-diEgHltH" D.ffiffi c. F'lE B.Rffi A. ffi ux a{Extl&. 6. {tBf/\^{Exf/\*'H, mfl_ Xt.+, Ffi
A. ,L'HR B. ,L'fl]fi C. ,L'E

3.nffiF+t _T,+taFfrT.

fr1 V!+rnRlN," 7. +\Ht1,4+E4tr, FE. Bxffift ],6ffi" X ttJRxFH! D. H{ft c. lq,,Jr B. frt^ A. FI& B.iE#+{ffi bLfr++vF.f^ RDA ffi_ " D. +nf|J c. B. A. tyh t|Jffi ++& e. zJitfi i{fg wxn + w-.--itr+t " D. s',H c. si4 B. +iL A. +q . rc. rZ,t)fr *tr, + +ll14VElRl&'Wi+ W +\+ -f,ifr D. t** c. tgi* B. &t A. t rE n.'& R- + + +ilrfrfr ' Z.6A ffitF F,,HFI " D. Bffi c. 4,5t& B. 4Fffi A. HH! 12. E PI-. S,IHEE3IJAtrJffi, D. ffitr c. zKS B. itR A. trF ,F{4BilHl 13. trE+^ I ++11ilI*@)t# _iEfi BBfr}.r^ffi " D. Utr c. trfl B. ZE A. trE 'flldi*Hta:Eaawq-ffi 14.g fr-, axe n f{ " D. t){* c. utr B. til* A. |)JFf %if {H R ffi rs. 4 D 4*, {llZ'l9t *.dr*:ffi 4t* fr!ffiEffi utW T u rytJ D. c. H{ft FR )t B. /qzJi A. trfi rc. ErfF -i,&4tJ# , [fi.fr T'4PXFl.ffi, +hffi " D' f lsl C.t e. ZT A. ZJ: . 7L+ 17 x,4\H X. l( B!,B'^H E+ EE'-q.-ff
A. t ' B .T C.g D.FI

D. 'L"fF

'&E' f;'fi +r|*t{ " 18.Er&W+-, tfr t c.r u B.T A.t ^+h re.&+ 4 ffiE t il.l lbi^trr E HHE4 " X6 -' c.r l B . g A.T H!+JtlR 20. FRpnflLfiA {&,*H4,1' + 4+ -, " c. u* B. LlEfr A. r]* ^.

D.g D.t D. Utr

p\;(F Et,k r, 21. fiF p\{fi.-E * MffifiHt H*_f , E +tfE +" A. t r B._L c.T D.tfi 22.tfr,E&t)|"*$-- :xl[tu T.|FE , ELll&,*T JLF 4&,elgw n. Z* B. u* c.*tu D.Fffi ^. 23.ffiXt;)fr*HF#;roE A. fttr B. tT c. tf,tr D. rurF 2a's /"*frH!'L'4@R 14ffi ' e44l Eatr-H0*Eie " B. frrl c. 84. D. tT ^.EE 25. ptt &bV,# +.T FtIg *t*|J H! tr,14${+. -E A. * B.ru C.+ D.T 26.(r_j4ifrF 9,1., trF,H.E'+SE/\. A. z'Ffr B. Utr c. uHfi D. ZE 27.ftinBibe*tr+E ++fiffi_tertfi,*+J " A. ,trH B. Utr c. ,tr* D. &tr 28')*u+-EkNEn )L' fr'trtr+ts s & ffie'tr --.di# H* r . A.A B.t c.g D.tr 2e.Effiffltd s n4)t,_Zr.-+^FJiffiT 2nn" A. Zl4 B.Ztr c.H+ D.Ht4 30._ IM+4Fnffir4r ,iAffis|lis+Htr+tF,F " A. r_lFfr B. DIX c. zx D. z.Ef

-26-

-.6H *r#'ftiFJ =.FfiiR,


( I )Pronouns are words that play a replace role. They include personal pronoun,interrogative pronoun,demonstrative pronoun.

1.Personal pronoun,,ffi ({ll), E d, )tX, fr\ ,,$,ft,,{,M, *M,ffi 2 . I n t e r ro g a ti ve p ro n o u n ,E (4 F ),flF( E= b) ,EE( ts.r 1) flFJL) ^, ,flFE( ^X. ,*.A,flF/a,) *t*, flFH. 3.Demonstrative pronoun ,iE , BF ,WFI! , frIJfr! ,H& ,lnlo .
( I )Grammatical characteristics of pronouns 1. Generally speaking, no modifier can be added before a personal pronoun. 2. Pronouns cannot be used in the form of duplication. 3. Apart from making questions, interrogative pronouns also have extended uses. See Tablel-4-1. Table 1-4-1
Characteristics It is an interrogative sentence , but in {act it Negation does not pose any questions. The postive form indicates a negative meaning and the negativeform indicatesa positive meaning. The interrogative pronoun can indicate any Generic Reference persons, things or manners, the common structure is "interrogative pronoun +AF/&, Examples

1.iEAHXT,+ TF,EHT" 2.t*HIt/a,fr,&*[fi3.,f64 E E r,4\ry/FfrA6*-#,lF\n? 1. IBlt /aaiIR* & #Fxtiry " 2. TEEAFl,{&BtEnii,. 3' id-H{tGB JL. WJL#F&frU" ,Wffitr,F.lt/aHT friJUET 2. l Exkryjl+,ffidiE,f ry[+ 3. frE MIli ffJ, ltrBJb* +tiErE
i.

Indefinice Re{erence

The interrogative pronoun refer to indicate an indefinite person, thing or manner.

terms of syntactic functions, pronouns can function as any sentence elements, such as syntactic functions of nouns, verbs, adjectives, numerals, classifiers, adverbs, etc. In terms of the logical relations, the relation between rourrsr verbs and adjectives is horizontal parataxis, while the relation between pronouns and nouns, adjectives in the sentence is vertical parataxis.

(ll)In

= .rrsK#fitEH, 1.{ti"]j"fX#+ffi. ffiJ, IB Fl,)t/a- * )LI*di* f = Er^. -Z*W A. tIla B. IB{FJ C. GH

2.I\iA&H+trH0{nE.

D. EA

6*E o S*E C 6* e

7, ANiEffiie 4i4 B EBTg itfi, EIJ C BOflFf D . EFN,E+K 2,WE&.EIES A,BS{&#F*c k#D 6}*. FtJ lt/a
-28-

+ -.rFltr!5lFffif*. e - ' =.-E4')uHF,-S#FT6FI" _, E B. ry[JL

C. ,E/a

;1- ,_,f+FHtJtx

D. lf/a

6*E D

_l+

"

D. ry[ HF . = : .E/a 649 D(HFry[) ,ftir]. 20 = === frilffiBffiEtrl f,ftirl'i+ffifiFff*,2. E * 2. 8[ . ry FR JL .,fintT. d . E . t t j f i l.5 tJ . A.+ .tx.H4 e ,@ .6 .S.flF . tz H
h*

i:

m *EEg , arF-qiH+,A *pB 6it c E D. lM ( = EI ffiffiA H, /\fifi.ftif," lM &a + ff h 6l w+i*, ffia E{ "*tl"Ef" /| id "il" E ial s re- a -, E*E A A-&-bBE ctrt DtEYqffitrffi+1F" ft - "=;6!AFE ( = E I ffiffi A H, " i$ " " " & " " " " t&iFJ + iE# +8 PlEthIiJF F-'tt" Yq F" i+. ffi ", E ffi 9E :- i t, - &.+lk / T + zhlFJ" " +t" 5 " iqffit|J " H0 "fAE-C, E iE. #6J + lF"S1H " ,,\f6.{tifl =B TtF*W.l&,trJ C tL D E*T " .=l,-:r,+WltlYT*, AfE?h 4lf ( = E I lf6,ft i-"1 ",ffi xt . 6 # E D " H|eil lA"bL" E, (FLL#.fr+J =. -ES -+H'TFE,H'Ef4frUlR/alt,. ^ D. HH c . H+ t i=B ..f& t # ffiI ;\f8.{tif," H e " F# ffiWffiHirl el,ftid, 5 " fril tlxt' ?l&lBZrl# Wrl rt . ' - .- i=r,fHa 4+-f H DJ ^" f&xLBtt d irlBf' *,T t tt' Ht E{&I' 5 A H Tr . " H+\ ' {' == E H fi , IEJ F{X}JE e hxt^,qn, H+t+ihi+ tuI$t'h, . " fr H"lfrjBiF5[,,\4fitJ 9n A( He) = = 'ii." S*E D ftHtS9Z? . ifi A R/a B fitr c -EftFlnry B (#fi+I +F,rs'fti-"1"i$"|e6J+ B!+iF. E+E c tFh "J :. rr+,ffilEH,A +t Bffi&tBc {t DtLX" AJL (i+fi+I +Fzs,ftiA"B )L#8H ffrtrH!4lrtrH{ ' lr ' 9J ' Efril-ffiA ifl4'{tiflil t) PRftU

-*" 6+Ec -. ifitr-lHlf, *TJ LHJi+t 4lj-}trH

HlrfF.

D. ltlz B. B/a C. E \. EAJL (i+ffif *Fz\'fti"1"EAJL"+F'ftH{ ,6reAHH " l4 ,Zr,tr+AEJH " "E"+F'ftffitfi4! Ffr = ti"l"'ft /a"frH#*lt '-M.ffifi&j"1ffi4dli'1E ,6frV5V61d"t8ffi"8,H. *Fm'ftirl *: -: "fE"ft'lt*t+, - W.ffitc'drtn],&MdrAffi " 4 +E B(Ea ) Bp1t'a\Br5ftft6!cE D? :. A F'Fx iE (i+f;+I Btioj,ftid"iE" ffite/Jr^1" E E " EXe- D &hJ+ (F^B1E' I . 8A L<fr!7-Bft , "r-tr frlfr ?
-2 9 -

A. ryFJL B. It/a c. iE D. 4D (i+ffiI AffiEst l"l'ftir] " iE"PlEI F H *, " ffi" trEJ +*z\ 68, ffilk H " wF )L frJ /A" r)'" i,f " l'"1 ; It rqJl4#vl ;"* rfJ lol f E, = in1f 6 f At H . 6 + E c (iE) ^. 10. A * B&,c ffi*DzFTEfl{W,1Fi.lts*Z^HI i& " i+ffi t I Affi Effi f"],rc iA"i.8" H! ltffi ffit*, *,ri +L&H + tF l'iF. 6+ E A 11. iEffi+E r]IJgIKfrF )LH]T. --di A. iE B. ItA c. ryFJL D. E/a (i+ffir AtrEFfqftiFtB0nffiffiffir*,"iF'ffiM.*B!+f,A.B.c.D qflH,l^trf. "E R,EnriEr tz.t,ltr,BKct 4lrJRR/atrS D? lllz (i+ffif AtrEFttd4\.tn1"ft/a" H0dl FHfA,tziAEHX, AH} ,lts^XK. E# EC 13.+xT+ A EIF B yt c SJLn, pH,f[_E*ryK#rE i+A " ti#ffiI AtrFr tE 4\1n1" It A" F!5| F H *, +F,ft ZiffiE B!SjF, EH + ff EiE. 6*
EL

14.+\EXl+ltT zo+, 4Ehr Xffi+&w )E u^ _aFiq*it " A. lt/a B. ryFJL C.E/a n. B[ ( i+ffiI AffiE Ftf"l,ft " ryF i-"1 JL" F!.ff +F H fA,tB -B + tuF " e. c. n E H HT tr+ .E XE B(ryIJL) 15. 16 -4JL&&. +.,rHfi _XH

E. ffi C, TTA D. RA ^,AA ftl"l/ti-"1"H\"5"x"#.,H,if,|{F{r'q. (i+:ffiI +E'zr.itiFl"B/a"EziJtf,d..frt6ir1w f""{t1ltfi,6ft85&id"X"jS,E" "ItA"T.54jn1"X"E-H,-fit5"Ft'fq"jS,H,iEf{Bt'tE " E A" 5 m, ifiJ 14 i{, 6 5 B jn]" X"SH " A*E B(ry[ ) "hid+A 16.--ffiAfl8trH,+tdix_ff" A. It/a ll/a B. ryFJL c. HF ry[ WVL D.E/z E/a ( i+fi4I htf"l'ftirl " HF q " & 6 6'g H t* ffi 6.E rdffi, F I ffi F E-= i{ E f*, t z\ ifutbl tr + d 'ltrt+ . "It A" E Ht*+*tr1f,, + t46 E'EA iFl . " ry[ " ffif{ ru,F., JL 6 rcA H H . " R /A"flft5dirlEH. 6# c(ffi ry[) t7. 9/4f44H! A l{ffi.{fi Btr c EEFDt*? EA ( i+ffiI 6tl4'ft id " fr /a" tFJ z;JJi-"l FJ E E, - M. ffi E irl " E " Bf; Et, El1 dJ iE-.. E A * rtr\ F!E{iA"6" ,FfiD}"8^"m4:l5"ffi" e 6*E rB. Wihllrg Fttr T, #i_ ftV;f*tttlsVtz A. iE B. ItA C. E/z D. 4,t ( i+ffiI Ftf"l.ft .....nn # ffi , H ft.fit " fr A ffiEdJi,4" i-"1 EJ frV' ffi " Affi Etr l"l " E AfrA. tt *m 6 B,X-, 6 frVrt*m H E H X . A H rr, +\6 frVZ" *#iB GkN^V.X#iN . E R E.C (RA) 1e. $r+it+t It1 R A\fr., +\fi Fn_,ffi . A. EA B. *A C. 4/a D. flBza
- 30"-

. IEfr!a i-{+H Ef, (i+ffiI "w A" E.6.rr f, *.7sffi# *.a " " * /a"- w 5 M 6ia 4 t z\,L. /a"*^ HAffi - h 6J,+ 6J h 4 ffiEffi I\, Ffi tuI fRffiEfi +E'ft, {E fllS . +E zr.{ttnJ" 4 AY 5 " l& WHd :p1" /A" " R /a"ffi Ifr ffi , F ffi Effi,ft' t a\' & 4I+ E S ffil&* * lfi. fllS uT Afift?+" " " A(R/a) E*F -ff.th 5,30 /EF{E^" zo.++_^+E D. C. A*F B. FfrH A.& trJ +W,IE&'HT (i+ffiI "@"ffi" tziHf fi ffiFtP!fnP. &" ffitrtrid. i-"lBt ' AF DJ g gEtF :6tE " " &WE . " &"fi tl E T IAB{ " Q) BRiF] FtJ+ E Try fi - +q.* lfl , ( 1) " ",f[U

Ex if,Gn, -+..8 .EH .tr . H.t + )Wrl, lnzKa?in, ,DWtr tr n1ffi Ffr At ffi)nE FI + & *.+ ^,X ],#A, tnTAAin, fi ryie-]r' T tr Affi' T FE ffi ifi,'-er E ;.R, + xE " "& " IrH+* E'E ryF) 4*1++..6+-ftc{W$
21.Atr_Rffi'RMW#&-ffi"
A. B .&

D. TTIE c. -+)l trffi H A H\ efl + ryx, (i+ffiI " -q;" ffi" "-t)J"ffil\-ffi E tr Pl 5" &" ffihffi n 20 - t)J " T ?+ U)" A 6]H . "4Ilrl" ffiT it 4t rsD, iElE#'f4,4 6 H t l&1H + w, Ffr ii]"a["5 u fH lEigH MtJ H' E X E B rl, 6 rcA EJ D, 9E "fiF' i.rl 4 " &" 5 E'ffirY tr ffiH H HU A (&) ^&4+rJ, T-Hoxf+. 22. +w#+, xi+p\ffirt p\fitffi D. & c. B. AfH &H g.fE ^ . ffiI "& H"ffil\& HAfi,&fr + W in1, "E EtJ 6 fr?|e hirl "xfS "Bt (i+ -e-n " " & ^ EliA" ffi", ffiV)c. DEffiiF* . 61p e'{ 6 62H f fsl ff EiE. "E" 5 "&" 5 tr in]r&t*n{,
H)

n. * *N^H{UH ts}eE,(trF^/afrVlLt---ry4? D. C. 4 B.v.^ A. Ifrrh ^x F'tr( +F'ft' ( i+ffiI "lFtLL" &" trX}" " "jA --L f ',\ffiI f irl, +E E T "XF EE*u''ft " ^ n.e.c frZNF+eElH" ^" )\X FI Hts. ffiA+^. "+^"ffiYS/\ HA&ffituFfit3lJFl^ H f l\ EI+ /\ fflffiifr ffliEH0 tl.Fl/\, ffi" He" mff ;tr nIffitFifi,ifi ffi /\ ffiifr +F.{tix,ifi H lnrt *'B ++ E l! fEE T " lfi," ^t IMI:1" E + ffi1 T "ffi . + H h " ffiifr'ffi ; fr--T &" ^ ^X ^, Y T"t&"' E#F D( fflffi#f,\fitHB, fH ^x) fr * " 24.*e.ixlpfr , 18.6.H-.-tL' trE . " ++ " F 4 ryx (i+ffi h Utl ilI EH e ii, S *1*F H'l u\4 S rytJ, I "++" ffifrJT B. fl E* pd',Hn. jA" "tsq"EE|J Ffrii, -ffi Af*-LI5 |fi *+rHX, # trffi^&+ i-"1, if,,+FIFE ) 6!HrL. E+F A(F'f& fitJ E+Et+ +E' "ffintJill c,DT F+ AE H " "H{& F!ffif^ " tr ,frr+tYg fiafE IFJ 25. F.a-8f+-n',ln ^&#+h, D.trt'+ c. fl|3ffi B.&tr ^,E A. r54=F " E H{'t (i+ffiI "Bffifl13ffi H! i6ffi,R T h+fr+pft B " f,r"nF "+E &ffi&tr, E*F'm'ftirl "' A'B'DTAU'5 ,tntrHie++/gE ,l^IE# TffiE+F'it 4,,EfEIfM ^fr+ft-AHlHX" "BF"*AHC. ryxF-c(xl3f+) _7,t_
A. 4.f&

B.+A

C. ^H+

D.H+

26.{fi,--Atr6fii*{+S, E4itxf,f&"qffilrsF " 4. lfr. B.# c. 1a D.A (i*ffiI "IF" ffi* +,,flF",,,,(R )\" ffi{tflF +I " "X L ffii\6 W ffiffifr &FfrVffi EW '{tt Ii4,[ kl^ A.B.c fr .hfrA+-d/\ffi ia * ,ftif, "{&, E " " + L H Alf6.{t if, ^.' "lME,t^'lMH ^ffi d"" EED(A) 27.fiME1RH e,EAEtr ,T*tnFJ_"
A. EUl\ B. A71 c.V,^ D. H (i+ffif "fr\^ffilffH EqEfiX "A71,Effi4ti4,ffi7. HA ",,A7 ,E Atffi,ft,ffiE+/\. "N^ffiflFf^. ^t))fiffJ^" A+E A(f|J ) 28. .WxffJrtF+ t, l&ll1 t _w)nH A. [t/a B. hIt/a c.*r ) ' D. RAffi ti+ffif " hlt A" #,rsiil4trE. A.B.DfrlnftAEdJiFl#m. *E B(hftA)

H" S+E C(4n1'Fl) E. tffHiltf ,

WUL ( i+ffiI Bt "ft A"M, f{'ftj"1 lnliff 5 dJ m& H, if,tEl }.rt d IF.W HT if,EryR, "' *,}." TrB a 6JH, . "WVL , H Tif, rE tr,fi,Tre + HH, !nM,' ffig T' ft ffi &"E Affi',re ",, A 6l

A- Ela

2e.IMsn, &SFJiFE,fi )Lz5;4. ryt. i+ffi--H0 " A. iE B. It/a c. RA D. + (i+ffiI "ff /A" )tn" ffJ" H#.-+ Frfi&JL++y\ F\htr, ffig f "s+,. 6*E Bgf.,,ay 30.ffi{A-T, g&i6a- +WHA*trff}6H+, lhfr+J ffiffi+----_-?
B. *,'' C. lnfpl D.

L lE n,F^Asf;n c il&EEjX.Er oE6E{&#iftIlsffit ft 2. t*+lkfr.T ,Aft-Bf BffinECELIftAA+D*f frfi " 3. Ar5B&,rtx&+t c r D,ftggfi]ffifzJrnt'. AjL 4. A 3U/R BE,Affi* c E{+s ,De,%ET_+*trffiT l&, " 5. 4IS-H A Zcifiifr,B c 6f{jE{&Eo E/ag.#s. # #F 6. A E{+Sit't#sH,fiiLc ltii,6d*f D. its 7.A *&, BiL[Ec^T lM,D 1FtF.i/s*:f.dI . tE 8._,tE T w++,,R,F.JL?I,t . A. J8E B .E F c.itHt D.Xa e. {&iHtrffi ,{E+Bf6_r6iH.
A. It/a

1 0.fiffin s E_A. *A

B.E/a

c. lFH c. lt/a

1 1. ^fi_,1&inainaffi9erft*. A. It/a B. hltla


A. iE

n a.ffi.fugJr aH FgHtr, tr 6Eir, fi E#A{H,L. F!i6*" B. E;L


D. WF)L

D. *,f;J1

12. fr\W,T, IEflF,FJL+S--trAfi 13.l&,U _ffift


B. ryF4.1

C.EAtr iE"
C.
- 32-

D. ,EIE
D. ry[E

dsffi,4&rfi|J/\ ff tr " 'iNN

c. VJ" B. Ha A. ^X 14. _fi:E,u,+xE,ffiqiSu+xKK "

D.Jtr
D. Rla o. *D D. ryFE D. E/a D' &H&E o. 'tfr.tlt' D' */a D. XFF

c. ryF.Jt B. i& A. tl/a 1b._=ffi iFHaFnEE.nil u+*Tffr" c. -+lJ B. & A. ,f1fit ro. { -E:EgJ-f,1'ST '6* *dJ6Af'Fn4<* C.tlA B. R/a A. *,'' 7t6 &ffiT . 17.ltr--fl,fi 19 Hfr++Fri*f#+' c. H[ B. ltA A. is,lEl 1s. EiEl&{&ffiEEnBHA,&f:4+lbffl-" c. fHEfHE B. flFtaflFla A. :tB.n$.M . 1e.FU A4S lb-rxfiFfrlF WWW, C. F e B. VL A. j Lzj's9t*, N'y'Fftl ^x zo. **lfrh-,fi C. E/a B. )t/a A. ttL T" zt. t*&A,-EFEdt6ffl iEgFJ--* C. XFE B. ryPJL A. JTJL

22.Ezw+H{HiETT---++4ffi4 E" c.'vJ s. tfrE A. /atLlugrfrKt 23.4AE 6EB!,ffi|t -r

D.Eftl
o' HFJL D' FUB! D.tl/a D'hntJ D' */a D' EA D. qE'lEI D. lnft

C.tl/a B. E/a e. iE 24. H-T,tFlfr*.R/ai'ffi-r:'rE 'lUlE&T" c. fiFI B. E/a A. ttA + *4 5 B!" zs.tFal 6BV-IL,T*+ C.4/a B. EA A.t*/a ffi. uil'fiF.4F.T za.tE&*#T:tFT)n 10 +, xf-nffiffi c. -+lJ B. & A. . fl tast 27 4{U,,fUBi---r'l{F S 4 " 44ffi C.ttla B. *,)A. flFA 2s.&ffi4++X7F-.--ffif8. c. tt/a e. EFJL A. 5[Ht ffiTt*i'X,ifr . ,-AFIF' 2e.zJr ffi|[f c. +H ^tfr B. iE ttA q E'frI ^. rff' /a&,-K,L' zo.E lfiWlt$flF c. Hfr S. '&.jt, e. iE

-33-

t
I.

-.68 F r#, dlifl


: . HF *E i R .
( I ) Verbs refer to words that indicate actions, behaviors,mental activities or existence, change, disappearance,and so on.

,zr.

l.Verbsindicating actions, behaviors' E, E, +f ,41n, +IE, hV, hU), t)1. 2.Verbs indicating mental activities: E, M, E\R, ftw, +fH, ,fH,tR. change, anddisappedrdnc: 3.Verbsindicating existence, H, &, frlfi, E+,, +K,
,,,

(Modal verbs), frY,*,4, 4. Verbs expressing likelihood'willingness, necessity

trJDJ, trH, Mia, 1+.


( II )Grammatical characteristics of the verbs 1. A verb can be modified by adverbs. However, except the verbs indicating mental activities and the modal verbs, verbs cannot usually be modified by adverbs of degree. For example, we may say "RH, 1REH", but we cannot say"'4F'il,,tfr'. T or ff", expressing continua-

2. A verb can be followed by the auxiliariy words "E, tion, completion and experienceo{ actions.

3. Most verbs may be used in the form of duplication, denoting, transitory or tentative actions. The duplication of the monosyllabic verbs take the form of 'AA'or"AA", for

example: The duplication formof mostdisyltr,F..6.[[ffi or 1F,-IF,.A-4.rtr-Pf. labicverbsis ABAB, for example, +>l+>l ,EJff-Elf':|I,]6dJj6A.
4. Modal verbsare usually used beforea verb or an adjective,and they cannotbe followed directlyby a noun. For example,6EE, FH*.

= .HSK tnfiEH, 1. dJj"li-"lJtlj+ff" ffi|, ffi+ Elt ffilj^E+ tr ft +_

^.Fil 2. d1fr5&i-"1+H!+AEI"

B. EHA

F!"

C.F fr .

D.k+

# + EB

i+- r- f je#iF T tqttJ B!ffi . ,ffi B. A. fft c. 4v z,rltltr +ft1-+EHi6'H'R.+ Z _" FrJ B. KE c. ttf F\ r, lM{lE+^_

D.+

6*EC

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D.Eftr

4+E A

FE rK Frl, tr\lt +v.trI'El _{,fi " A. 4tfA4th c. &ffi4th-TJL 4.fru,trihr4F!ffi*"


ffiE0:c^h F!-f FtJ, fit* tuI
A.A
T1. EE

B. &4tffiffi D. 4thT4tffi

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rc $ ffi FtfAft 100,( .


u. E'
- 35-

D. EH

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E.ifirui+ffi, r. tfftE6frAff ft _-T{&


A. iAiA

( r+ffiI "i iR" ffiftaw .+,e 4 x+rJ h+)+iF.fr\+-A Xfs * d E E Ht - flt,lt?,\ " "N E *n" iR. " T ffi"ffixfs *4tr IEfia E t^ H! LL" N..6" lfr, f6E r, A'Effi.,81+ ffi,tr H0 H trIffifit+ gEiExf E, 'Wffi"ffitrflE#+rttuIff.q, ^iA, S WJAW,W.*Iil]A, " ffitr&H. f " ffi"6ffi +fEfr .iEA,Aff Bp E lS#H * ; "flliE" . "i iA","Wffi" lFHitffiH,E, Iifl . " T ffi',,,, trI j.FFt', ffi" ltH+*ffi?FiF ;"fff' . "ili.A'ffi71. ffiryWtn1" 1+", lr, N )E / i iy,.'F'4FtE . A+ ftC(Tffi) 2. HTFftf, HttrE,6f+6_iti{.
A. *.4-y,

B. friE

H01HR "

C, Tffi

D. &ffi

B.++4

(i+ml "A.ll," FI ffi *+JN.dr, &ffi E*ffJ*.dJ, 6 68ffi Rig" "Wy ffin Frt rA W g ^rr FF.,^EE 4 "E m.A E,M* .,H W +ffi W"' Wll,"ffi +rJ w ln&,y+. v^A,^B iF ,W ffi g pJ xnft * F' .M* .ffili + ffi +rJ . " rhL ^+ ffi+ Wffitr n +N.dr, ft h ffJ, iEtrI E ^B "'l+.f., XA. rt .f f . ittlJ" ^ E,M W.,FB ^# &q UF" 4f,,1 FJ +f^# +tt, . r E . UI "+ D(&A) HI++VJ. 6+E 3. +xEE *, tfr, ]:4W lL+#, ffi{fl_-Tei6 . ' 7h#'ffitfrtr* B! )ftA, *4+ft,#, - fft.H T "* l+.qiH. 4 ffi. r fF. )ftn . ie6 . f+jE" +ffi^ #+rJ ffJ - fit,H 4 +rJ fift Ek,* ++ @,fi fi 6 E, ME E-fif{T, T,,F ffi. t " "rt t ffixtzr.*T g " &. ft VJ, .rE"+ Hffi+ryn Frffi &ffi, _LiE E Bt,Md Ffr fr.+, 4 H T "r " &)t ffi4.tr.H tF,tFr .frfA.ffim"+ffi +VJ"+ffiffil.4.i6F-,*Jl " EXFB(&#) 4.,ffi -T )1,E E 6H tt Aw?hnB! +Ei*ffi'IFF_ " A. lbrfr B. qLIE C.EIE D. I^TE ti+ffiI "lb& ffixt"tF. fFffi,ffiS .*e .iti{ "+I? i W#J&A frfl EW,ffi.ffiffiffi tt&fr . " 4IIE" ffi"tfrE"fr ffi+EffiiF B! . " tqE" 4 mT "E M,t1h,tE " + f &FtE ffifrtJ Efi ;irB! fr ,fifi ffiiF" " tf-r" 4 ffiT - ffttt ffiiFffift ,fi" "lbw"ffi ffiffifl" fr+J V,*E-m*ffJMW..#fA &fi ft84, * mT" T,f,.trl#"+F{4 + VJ . +ffiA H, E xfI H Ft ^tr tr,8 H A+t V Ek"E*E ^qb&) 5. tU lrE _Z^H!,AEi*hffrhtf+4VF.
B. c. &R. D. Thit 'TS 'Iff ( !f ffir "e\#" ffi&is rE ;F g +rJ H! . A 4 Hg *Ftt, MH.+ Wft#, ^H iE*E /t mF {+#J . A.

c.wty,

D. & A

A.+

B .ffi

( i+ffiI *" ffi"{H" fr ffilkwiF.gJ, ln, 4til*w$ ) Lffi / +gJffJ iB"ffi. F . H,***t tr E & ?f. jE, * . BE H .iF .E .iB. H* "+ Bf' H-X' e& tn,&,% T fH / +# reT " IE" iF5 m"ffiH! ^H ... ... ...... ( ' #" 6H, " tH" 1)fH I tF@ fH 4 D) SEiFrgFI, @ filxt Affi *A( 3)ffi i6dJ ( "ffiZ/R" # /tsZf-TtF . "+"ffiFiFH'J-f,tttr\,1 )H+H+ fr,fr,+ Q> \frffi#(, ^" M *ffi g ** EIffi gn, "B!HX+H, tr{ R. ",ffi . rl.S . R . ffi{fi. F&+, RiE- flft E;\ d # Mt, {fir.e . "IF"B!HJ[S,],-Mffi+ft .fr:fr&qff,R.F.WB-ffi1-h ,!n,lFI&E " '*E B(ffi) 6. +4ti T _na#,wz,t)F+tri+T -+n.
-36-

C. Tffi

D. (F

D.trflE (i+ffif " flfr. ffi&,5|J ftlq m* il', 6 fr?, . ,^. RIE4 E"''t+ . /+m. ffi+4 5 " te'$"+EW, " ^ " " iE+ 4" +ffi^+ +n, &4 UE/l " + ffil&Hq#',&. fi|J tr + fl, 7]', tr ffiE rE e . FE +. iJH .*Lf .RiL"+ " "+E EI " iB, mE +F fR $I 6 . f I&.FR,6 f?tF1H f+A MH 8 Ef f ( it, F B ^i-"1, 9l tr* iA tr fiz . iS 4 * h, E J[ E tr *ill )r * ttr'|L+, RiE EXffr + +) 7./tffidE ' te-T-*mtu1*tgr. (dr l+ A. fita, D, /Y-'! L. trti:r. D.FYA ( i+: fi4l " fr lfl"+E fr,flIL S*, E ffiT ^E,fA ffiffi^+ +n . "E +" +F + +rJ tr * Yff 6J B! s',lF HILT, RrE 4^ftr\d h ^H I+4I+,ln,F.4.:)<R, + "V W" F - ffiffi*, T E# l+,fr\6 " S 4 "+F +-5" I6JL&T*,XffiT , T 6EH T+ W. "FW # %fiWf E+WE-C. ^W* +tU4+tgUEf,,\YqE'9t1tu1#+h&f/.l+ Fil" ' ELE*ffiEl\' A + SiFE"*F." ,Z.-ftV5" :SEd" 6*E A(S4,) B.\& Ht+ZFt+, +k1F'.h.f&,f[_.
A. flFA
I]
u. J3

itrd .J

c. &fl(

44

A. ,,Jr,f,'

B. +E,L'

C. E,L.

D. JE,L'

(i+ffif "rl.,1,""15y,6i-"1Bt',+Fig'H4Di4itHH!;tFthn1nt,+FBH4B,L',5"* "}E,1."+Fxf =-{.1*iE" tEtffi}FftA+#+rJl:,AFHE5IJ Lfr++n6it,L'."*,1'"+Fit5lJ /''zjr,1l'ffi xf 4+A[4ffi ' &,trJH "ffiH4n.fr\A,L't, T H xf Hts' H& ffiPf H,E" "J,1' B(+E,L') +RiF,7l5h)n1" h"Wm. 6*E e. +tffi9] ,E)trX#tffi o f,lFJ AdiEA$r,trHWF&6JAYFA+EfIJ B. ?l.fi c. 71.4fi D' ?l'Ej A. ?I'H
ti+ffir "+fH"ffixt H E H!ffiiF&ffi*fr1-H6, ^Ri+*8"+fr*..iHffi"+""i\frffi 1f6,eH! tt?Ti 71. , Eth:n1,EiF/6E{Rf , "H-F,. tt$,+fJKfDfH!68"#FdIU. - ?l. ( B " . " fl ] I'E "HXl* iE,# h# J:klffiWJ E*E fifi ?l'fi ) 1

10. +lEflrtFF,+t,fu_Twtt\Fn"
A. ,Ti

D.ftfn q u E" tg"g,, ( i+ffiI " Fli]!." tErlffi a|l e, F iFnx +Il, + fr th&e. " le]r'." ffiLEg,,uLfq ll iA &EIu E" ts-iil, X4 -rh!L"+ ffi +n fi,l:etr 4 *F "+F-'f4S +tJ, " "Wi" ffiWtr'i ^4 *, ^aiE*F BH.IEffi.Fl . "N]-*"ffi%trH#+tsS +rtffinf t, . fH,L'" E^e.I+il1tTg,,tJL+4 +. !*E B(ei) rr' ffiVtuls s:n *'1xn^. FX+ .ffi -T
A. DTSI B. lhft C. F&ry

B.en

c .wn

D.ry'|{

(i+ffi . B!*ffi. i}H+ 5|tr X. " 41ifi" +F 5I+,,\* {,ffiffF' EEXi"1 ffi+EElJ',\ I " F&41" " EhWffipN.LlFXB ,FiE- W+*" %h.&1[f'+ffi^#+tt " " WLlfffi++rJt9tf n-+rJ ffi.WflJtJ t, Effi & FIPJ . 6* E A {4ffiL*,# +rJ +rJ, E ^E #&nzA. m{4S+*rlt# rt ft ' F iFtrJ (w4l) ^4 12.EiftlF*f{riH,H., . ft--aar
A )l 4

B. +E{f

c. l^s

D. T F h

(i+ffi rtF, 6ffi Uh,i h, !n,tk\4/tr4 Ht 4AIt4 RE 4 EH{A I " Y"ffi+EI+4FIi, En " ffi&. 9J +ff S x *T " "+El+" RE * F*BFtr., !8,{,gltT.fiK. ffi+EYHffiWf., -3 7 ^+"

)lu +, ^Hi"i 4 /t F!,ffi%ffJ 6 6, zi F',E E HWWrtF, !a, )jvfl4\6 r fF" " lFh " ffi 3 lF, i\ di,,\ffi+ ffiH Ih&+ +rJ kl+ ffi'l+ E *ix,, gn, ff h - tr ailfi , -ffi. M1alE+ e 1*+ Frxfii a a,ffi H!/\. tRffiEH,Dt" Fxh&A"ffiHE" 6+E A(g) 13. +tf{ Tif )UR,IM:EI.,F.6+E}Uft_+I " A. i4 B. i4 c. w D. +itr (i+ffiI Ei'f HX+*)8,wffi inffid **E ig {E " fi . i#. 1h"ffJ Rtr * M6 " Ei6 lEl, EF E" in/ ifr/ tk+ ru6 ; ffi"EiB"fultri#4DJ Fll, E EIS1H, #iF + ;\ ( + fr E ) " " in + ^, nta "ffii+Er fi 6+/\" H! HX "'if "[ f*oif:ffiinffi- H, ln, i+i4 " " w" 6ffi l.lfi. ^ Effi filr*,!A,WNE."6+E D(giF) ^gE 14. Fg.tult1z^-W* h, Flr-EFE-&t. Ft A. R'+ B. flj* C. EglJ D. ts'|J ( r+fi4l " W1+" ffi4+f]tJ, 4 h " F\tfi, tr rh..ELtJ " +, 6 5 " FlH! " H m . " gl * " ffi gJ ^R.uE +-F-'fA B!&,fi. "E g["Eir]tfl , + 5 " (FH fAm,ffiP + #ffifFffi . "i^ gJ -E H! " ffi 4ltJf q ffiE 4zKY,RE * E" tk+, +W^ffi.tr . H&n . *" +ffi^hjFt " +E D(* FJ ) 15.4XEEHH._g. A. T B . TE C. T T D. T - T ( i.+ ia" H H " tbtfra :et$,*B 1.F'l+ffi*nff . g" H H " lbrfrffJ ffiI E{ a iatr 6 EVH.H 16.+tillE_Hlpf,fF, ,ifrf$**nET . B. WWEWffi C. W-hW D.EWE ^. (i+ffir whEJ+HBtrqEtJia"E" jFlEaMfi,t, A.c EffiiFHE" ,Ffru6ftElfr.ffidl " EWE " EffiiFHrA'dJ n1" A Bh iAE, F.fthBO E " Mle.A H rAD' WEw" . E xF B(6ffi) 17.+iE]*E{,E)\ffil,+e%_T . A. ffi-ffiffi B. ffirffifi c. ffifr D. ffiffifr (i+ffiI wiJH+dFt'IqEUid"E 4" ,Ffrrt ftaffi.Haia],@a/l-7\,fil A.B.DEffii+H E. 6+E c(ffifi) 1B. pJi inlfiryr"\wT, ft_ " A. ,ffiE e. lEE,f,3 c. hltr:B D.W.tBffiE ( i#fi4r " g "E i-ol tE,E ffiT EE H +*ffiR iF, &6 frEEE f,r' 8 " F lsl iF, .R, fffi ^H fi8 jt ffi tn]" fri"& h" 4Ifi ^B iE" *I A. B.D Effi i+ffirA" E+F c( h IB.EE) 1e.+t _t1A+fJ6FZ,R'fEZ,f". A. ,IH B. +HtH C. ,Hr D. ffi*,IH ( i+ffiI */rs,L']E.B'F PldJ q' ia " ffi" x E El| " R" lbtfr,{E",lH i-"l " E+ * zi,L. }tri6 dJ H! ifl iqA E AM *,, tfi U B.D Effi i+ ffi. n ",ifr dJ "B fFtrtr\,i, Igif;dJ WdJ a4 9cpf lslFRffil, +9tr1#^ru *. vntrfi,w *, E hJ+ fF Ft',6 frU, ^,i.B ffi tB fi FXplFt' A ",lH T ". E X EA(,ffr) D. iFJA (i+ffiI dJin1"fr,t1" |EZ^AU,ffiEAM;I.,, *,trrA$++*,y+WffidJ , Mffiz;lin1E-:4.^ , tfrD)
- 38-

20. x+ tnlqF.rr wn Efr tn%lfi 6FiEt1w ' +t'fit A. iEA-'IEA ^ B. iEA-TJL C. iFJAT,EA

"

HT"ff fr\Mrt.,*t:""ffiE"ffiH++&'Y+"fE \.c EffiiFP! " "itflA-T )L"Eahl1ffifffsl?l'iF ,- "ffiA l.f,EiE A) ui.hEFT, 6 tr+ e EJH Ft'A Ffi &'W, I ffiA ++ " 6 + E D(i,rFl t H!'|FR -rR*, iftt&h+\=-tsE WW 21. +kEjH D.irffi"jfry c. +-4 B.+^fr% lr++ra ^. fiIEHiFFlM*,.E*E A6nil ti+ffir nBjsdif, ffiEavfr,E ABAB,B.C.D
tE)

*. :+EB(m4rp)

D. -ajLq44fl c. 4rpw-a]L B. ryT4tp A. 4r[4r[-T g " ?l'iE T " . " - + )L +, Ffi ( i+ffiI aJJtn-,F:AVfr 4+* Ftl'El t, r fE fr\"nrc, ffi iiJZ^ffi jr' - + ) LW1W " Effi tR D)" ffi fff 'fF {,tiE,Ffi id, T AA&ih B.Ctffi iFH f* " " - + )L F;Bt' |FJ ;J, 23.+t Fl6 j.dT* T " -fi'1 D' W-vh c' rhTlh Ai4 -,4+Elb1ltlt B' i^ih (i+fi4l -6hjn1":/-#.M+tFF-i9,Znffitr.&Vtt" 6+t B(i ) uEsJ&'t'fr lw" *EW,E ffi , Ffi 24. Zlfr, +tfi+++5{R,-D. 1 + c . * B .H A.6 E (i+ffiI "fr|# HfrUlq,Rffi'ffi+S. "H"*z\JBH' "A"tzilHf+F ffiI&&HftZ d6i)*zi'lH}tr-L.+*t'4HfriH!ffi4,fE\T"M^i4 '"'I'^" " E+ i{fi+S" "1+"(E

22. tnRt'4.il&A H{ ht, +tH fi 1S--.

c D(i+) c ifi{Dtiffiffi" frz 25. ffilrtit,A9|]-t- ftnf-,/\+ B'}{+ jlflffi - EfF iHiE' ( i+ffiI EJ iil" 6E E driAD ffiEd + " tW" iA," i6fi " Ez;h ' fi dli-"1
-.E-U =1U"frVM-'*."i6ft"m. E+FC c ftfr D. Mi 26.4ffiiff AlfrT ,flY./aB BJi ffifillnl( ft fr ) Ef' 6 (i+fi4l "di"EE{irl,Miy'.ffia.l'Ei*itE." FtLi/-" --frYts-"hlr'1'
nv -+l

ctr DiEi+ftiiln4t ] 2i.AilTtsAKffiht,B{&{[ (iEf+)Et . tr* "+" ,aBVEah]nJ, ffiiet)iFl (i+ffiI "["EE[iA, fri?ffid:lBiEBtE. 28. ffifr.+t+T,--T {&fiEtF!
A. a B. HA

tu'tfr;lT "

c. EIA

D. trJ68

"E fr\'l F-,4 6f+F FS il U +rr frUiJ ( i+ffiI " frAffi"/- " AF lH"frY" Xffi frU,h, U+^ ^aH FI +g e ElH . E + E &i.+'ffi T + tLlfrit, T F+ E&" ffiftY h'YNaET " " il + etHiFffifA. " HE ts(68) ft@+ " 2e.EfrihlfiF+nw_w1 D. F A c . M i^ B .H A.a hd f! PlzKT. " H " 4 U+.6 AV, ( i+ffiI " frVffi"/- "aF4DJ h, lE"H2" trri RE Hffi HV, - ial F+ ( ) AE'c'* Z'* 4'I'ntE JIt', 1F E H, " Mih tfr'FalEt " 6 * E D 6E 30.,f'fltiEg! +t-ETtp4z Ex&, D. 4 C. H B .fi E A.4 U
- 39-

(i+ffir "EE q D) *.,TtFH 4jF IE''htrli+EL4 ffi le.hil,J H q6 p.H, H E BfH " trJ D)" .'W'#rrrAH.,l4F4*MV.,Z^reAAH. A*E B(EA)
E. HilII, 'E 1. +t_F;W,lR*-F(rnEt

A.g B.il c.id D.,H 2. {+Sf hxfnt,$16g H_ftf " B .1 t c.* D.E ^. 8 s. 4Fia,,f6,R+E|FH+_r. A. M B.E C.+ D.ff 4. AExEdi EFX _, +t{[-EE Jr+# tfiffiW, +nT9Z"4fHE. i#ffi B. SiF c. ii D. ffl ^. 5.4EFffi,E ro414,di_^i8ru+r. A.ffi B.gJ C.F D.fr qtdigj,.|6,R+EE 6. .f&fl lil_ " A. fT+]+T+]-T B. +t13fT+l c. lTF-+t+r D. +rHr+TE 7. tfi,#d*\l\B!SD--E r HtfiXTt' " A.E B.ig c. l+ D.ltr B._U+ill\An'y+E KTfrVm4nffr-f t{ffi. A. &# B. A' c.f6# D.jF# e. EW+KfH-Jlt, zJ'FTUhHRJL. A. / m B.EE c.r e o .E 1 0' ldx H E fr #J Bf n&ffi , tl+.RF - f zJ' + r|ff FttrJ Jt H " A. SUB B. tljn-fi c. ,1FU D. Xt|J rt. IME1V#+--TX1R, A. Etn, B. Hr4 c. im4 D. *il, 12. )\XffiJ:yIT,{,tutrla--ffi"
A. ffi-ffi B. ffir

1 3. BE Xffi,tt,*fii0# lE+H!$x rk+,ffi)\x/Eg{_ A. 4fin B. E5 c. a.'X


14. f,fEB!L!TT NMW4F,E[q4_-8 f8tI4 " A.+ B .B ' C. f f i 15.+t-ffidJH!,L"lHfrt.f ff46 " A.,M B .H C. E

c. ffi

D. ffiTffi

"

D. tu
D, f t , D. E

16. iItrA%ffiWtFffi+,ETxtu
A. ftJ.H B. &,H C.X,H p_t 17. XfTl*g v fr htJxvJ, &fil1,I,nfifl _. A. ,f*F-TJL B. ,f*+F C.Rfr-IRlF 18. lg{gistrs{,+tE&_s. A. ffi B.En c. tr
* 40-

n. ra,ffi D. IXTFR+r o. fi,

re.xxE_af
A. i'iiA

20. ttrlr,
A. Riffi A.A

B! rEffi NlR, " ^wft*-T c. i{ar fr {n668_.f6ittrfi44* "


B. i.fni{it B .ffi H
B .F

D. i{iliait D. Eiffi

21.xf6, fr trAS, 6 _ffif.?-fu* 22. ffi 10 ,F.*7,fi_Et*T

c. ffiE. .

T, i.lzJ'E H,ffi {lt* rE .


C. 6E

, qEx64t'gr"

D.tr
D. Ei D. 6E D. F

A. {+
A. 4i

B. 6E B .H

c.*
T.
c. ffii
C. MV. C .F

23. trFRftmITT, X_ttfrffiffi 24. 4t X_inffiT A .4 ^Fls+fiEtr*r, B .FE


A. FE B.a 26.ffi1F-ftJHAfDItA*.L.6, A. trt e.F

"

27 . &ll1iB)LiEe,i4,6 dzJ'lrJ,,f&ffi H_+E


A. 4: B. 6E

D. V trIEEl tEiX, *TT " \-. F D. FE C. MV,

mffiinffiT "

28. A&'I&Bi*trWTTZ.IIFAT C DILrW ftV 29.#. A EEA*BEXN_T)LF, CffiMEBIU4A\E D" 30.+t A BE Ht|htt/a BnH+* c *+i Df, f*+t,f0.

D. ffiH

TIH.
)f

- 41,-

0 (,r
I

s, Gt

v,

I G' rt q,
I

$ffi
(d

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ti
6

$r

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o
Gil

%sa'gasasasia

o 9as.a4

v) G] tD 6l q 6l ID (1t

-.68 fi6,ffr#if,
= . HF *H i R .
( I )Adjectives are words that denote quality or state, for example, f., *, ffi, A, i

, q#,

i,SH, andso on.

:FffiF.

( II )Grammatical characteristics of adjectives 1. Most adjectives canbe modifiedby adverbs of degree,for example,fRqH,EE, t+5{X&,

2. All adjectivescan function as an attribute. Most of adjectives may act as a predicate =nd some as an adverbial or a complement. Take the adjective "gi'r for example,

l0l+T6ffi" (an attribute) tfi,fulffiET. (a predicate )


EE f iS *t r . ( a n a d v e rb l a l )

Bfid'f&i* 4+1F.-8.( a complement)


3. Someadjectives may be used in the form of duplication. The duplicationform of a :,onosyliabic adjective is AA, for example,HH, KK, flIT, and so on; the duplication is AABB, for example,#M**, - rm of a disyllabicadjective and T+l+if, HEI(){, sl on. Somedisyllabic adjectives implyingthe meaningof degree can be usedin the duplicagHgH -:cn form of ABAB, for example, , EH%H-, and so on.

= .HSK +iitE,fi, r. MdinltnlJ(#fF" flj, aBf +.fi, ftE+ff$&_frt^. A.{ft B .z J r C .M 2.Md.rdF.ef-XffrffiW. MIJ, E NgE-At-,+. ++trffiK4 R.*F, B. c. #H4*4* *&#4* Eb*r& ^. E.ttffi+ffi,

D. X

6+EB

D. H#&

*E A

1. E{+Sd. Ho*rFftljtrt n_&flH+& . A.f"trn B.F+& c. I"ffi D.Et" gvExt (i+ffi l.Ho*E.iF,lH I "P E "ffiF+&ffi r^&" hLft tr E, .iEfi, . tuffi" +, Z^E? q ;F = T#+rJ . "f"t&" ffixt xft R,,TrEff,+zntF, H ffi*frt6\{ll xf" *f+ . ft{H . }&.nU "+ ;-r' rfffi,, " H! E+lLtr E E " P ffi"ffiEPffiM,*M d L#Ji+{FilF. " <ffi + 6 ffitr 4 S1H H ,, qiH.F1fi t E ;'i. " Ep" #xrEFffi ,?vE" ++#. B( + " Exft r"fiF) 2. f&Ef*E4. n _H0in iF. tr ,*p F?ifr,A. nFf[ B. ttflj c. wffi D. ,fiiE (i+ffiI " IWfriJ" jEt[ E xfi " mftiJ" ffi\&# +rJElfKX.ffi +,trft, FXI|F + IPE&4Vrt " EI = iii, " ffiN E# +rJ i*'Rmffire,&A q +'Rmjgtr " "Wffi ftttE,dE ffixf# +rJ A W,y+ ffii ( ;i . "iftiE"Elil*iE1- .ZiHlr.,*ffi zfr-E ffiE A# +rJ #JTWiEfi . E #E B rtf,[) 3. +ttr'&,ii+nffi.,+tttr_. A. +iffi B. +E c. HA D. B9E
- 43-

(i+fi4l "+ffi'ffi,A&+WM#Affi4}A . "+8"ffiffiX4&W.trir.,trt ffitME+rJ grW.. rM tr .[t H' u}frt +R{4ru &E " 6, E N1'.+ffi*6r d " EE "# md fE ffJ F, WM E in1 rl, [aI ff dlin1, ffiHH4F " 4 ++,*.&lFlE "ffiH4.mtB W EUt t, * ME " EA . R " HdB ffi+.6*EB(+H) 4.ilE tFEffi itHt[)Uffi+ile rc_, +\rffE n, IK&H .
B. WiJ h# c. r6ffi D. EH ^. q.lRW, (if ffiI " w6" ffi * ffiT 3 ioa *ffi&H k XA _Lp +. " "Wh"ffifr rt " " WW" "tz#"ffiaPtR#. EXE A(W#) 'FE,F#" 5. +t iE-eF{r4-H&rE&4i*,,+24f_"

A. F$K

(i+ffiI "frw"#Hffi "ffi+.rw$fn+.ffi frfr ffiwxL wf+wz" "fr 2" ffifr, "' fr,fr .6+ 6 . "trxfi fr .ffi.,' "+FS,lHxRxft F-+,HVd+Fm Htr4, 6d n /"aj" xE c(a
z_)

(i+fiEl "'RlK# l.H0tffit+4ITHE)<6EI6qH!)tr#, &,#++fftl{dr,ff . +E + 'Rfr., r{f . + Z .,Hi5"+ *ME'rE 4 .,1',1H, 4!tJT,r,tnn . ",R Ep H." ffi+'ffi x R6 a ffil"E W+,*ME'I'&EJt^*ffi H! S'F . "'Rry" ffiF.9-, 6 tr+ + EJH amB H fu " "l[ F "ffiIFW 'w,ZnrehoH. 6+E A(F9K) 6.i*nH E H+Hidr++ h _, IE-F.g4'w. A' xEft, B. xfirS C.xfi{+ D. txff (if ffiI " xEfu ffi4FxEWft" t'ffi iFm,xEX. . "h xEffixE ffiT d h i+gJ " "xfi " " xFi=" U)FLYE" ERF-C(Ifi1+) 7. E+E+4 ilrfr,.W{R_ffJtr,x. A.AE 8.fr,fr c. a2 o. 6xft

B.tre

C. F4

D.) JF' R

B.*'Zm*t+rtA.K.*
B. ffif

T, +t'fll3[iAl&6ffi F..

(i+ffif "H.*" ffi"Ft'f{ t,rs * 1+ "K. ^f^F,frEtFffiiJiA, fl ffiffiS + HFl,{E *" tr^6J + tF fiE; "4 "4ufM*if, FitJinltbff "ff*"EEUi"J, ,EEJ+ tpttiF.EiFqil.iF" fdJtF 4[ffi,K.f*84 " "etf "ffiBh E H.ffi dttffin'W. 6+E D( ) , o#frT bt#. s. Bthh*tIt+E_ s^t^ ,6gJ-+4i8t',Ftr&\djit){ A. +EF B.tt* c. t a D. }HH (i#ffiI "+Fm "Lg "f,fl ", lE" *TE H"Wffi 6H " fr B fr+JHE, WH" fi ,E,f+S T{+?HE *f ,9n ;il fFffi+ 4*tE t 9E,E " "l)l* ffiFB .4A+t ^fr$W" " "*\n" ffiMfi_L*TE,

c. a'fr

D.

fr. trxE D(iHH)


A. /'E

10.HTy{+E , HiEAWt_n+T _BitiESfI


B .E F C.ffE

(i+ffi I "FE ffi'ffiUt Et, 4tFm'Ri#-&Wqt-w4, 66EH T

D. ME

"

,*ME$VJ. ifiA+ "

*gE*, WAi,',, 9Md"S'lH. r tF,lt *" +, T frEM t+. "fr,E *ffi6 E E, & ffi d HW+IJ ffiEn.'HnEt4,i'{F6ffiW+ " *E A(FE)
- 44-

':r. tuI EEh-I RHleffi ffi* T_ tul4.k " ^w .\. lfi/( B.rt c.Eft D. tr/( ( l+ffi I "ffi)\"ffix4#fr.h&T 3, *Md" w, {+6,tE4A.#+q" + fr ?E-4^ *Ig.vJ, = Ei( " "r ft +?ffiffi .e E fr tE 4IryA 4 " "Fo )r" ffiE lfrrnf<*, *M tr" ffif\ . Nl, e, 4H,.fi E .rffi .EffiW" +, EF XiA" " E t " E ffiytW*,&.|+tffi4FX., 4M d" N. ":.ll,H.ffiE,F E,Ml+"+, E +1ti-"], {Fffi f6H&/... 6#E D(tr t ) 1 2.A E g_ W ft TA{ il'n4hn8tR4,fr,.
A. FJ.A B. FLE C. -I)J D. g,f4

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- 46-

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- 49-

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Direction: This week we have reviewed six parts3 Classifier, Numeral, Noun, Verb, Adjective and Pronoun. After reviewing the six parts and finishing the exercises, you may take the following test to check your command of the grammatical points. On the test pa per, there are thirty standardized multiple-choice questions about the six parts above. You are required to complete the paper within twenty minutes. Please write down the ti when you start and record the time after you complete the test. Please use the Direction and Analyses for answers as reference.

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9.+WtE"ffi"54-"fu\+fr+fr. "A"EiA,"2+Ei-ol"&i*(F A" W"" KJlL4trjSf+ i0. AUAJifii-"]PlH --ffi6lll"ffi", H+*H lX" 5le#-zrKtrreF\frtu?flFftNnFff, =tS. "&i'1fffi19",1[,:ff n" . BJttAffsF 11- i 5 WEZ'EAiA B0iAX#+ tfiffifr IntriA F!ffi rA. 1r.+ffi48t ffi6j;lflBIF HfE. 4Rffi AH, F.ft- FkEi HE, reA" E-... -.+ " #.r^& -EftF{l4ffi A. E^ B!Hr* BlJlL6+E " 12.+ffitEfr ffi& in1 *15 IF Hf* " &ffiA H, " Z WfrI+8 E)r" E" Ei.Fz& Y trH " F!Bfr rr"ftt+ffJffi}*. +,1+,?+A"4""'.T"t EltB*E n. 13. tlltz\H*4ffiFH**!-EtH{tgl, +W*'EidiFlx++ff " "Fft4"fr-I*"#{ trJ :n1W EIPJ EID) n1 ffiiaaF ffi"H'," fr " + dJ gt,{E.' 61' E u t ^E t+r0 F f r'J,fF, m"+" \ $w" Ht' ^ D. "M'm " . ",#,ffi XinW" "zJ. . tr Jtr4tri6# SryEidfAm r4. +ffi+EA FXfr iAX+*ff" " D) mAiA E "+r4ftffi Bt' t B" + X.U tr ", "Z E " T.ftE tX +rA{Fffi Bfr#- Bt' l{ 4U t[,&,5trH6ffi " " til*" Effitrffi E " tr rtrAM " "E X #7sr,!' frf+ A. 15.+w4 EA FXn mtriAffiH rt . "+ffi " IFA6J . Z+, 6 frAfrl" U frJ "," D) tEWt " ^ 4RffiffH, TflWftf#Uffi"" trrlt+ffiitf+ D. ^" 76- 20 w4 E+ Hxf.fti,]F! trjFn " jFl 16. +ffi4 Effi,T'ft "E " H! "S "Bt,E" i*.l++ " ffJ'E^ H fA" & ffiE H, " & m& &ioJ B. ffi,trrtr4tri6++ 17 . +ffitEft FJ.ftiA ".ft/a"il14 - t", | F H E " "lt A" |eEJ+ tm {1#, ffi1 T" [tlfJ C" KJ}LAffifrE rB.+ffitE{tid ffiiflX *frffi H Tre AMH. "H{&"tz\ -E ffiH l:J " " Hft "9&iE 6J tl.B!/r S +tJ, + WAiAE t E, FfD)" HIM"6t+ + fH " "+ )\" Einf L# firH 6 r -, j.I,ifi g T "l& & fiMlll Pfr " E ffi'ft AMH . fi 1fi LU tlPl ,fH ". tr ft +Mft -,, F c. .1'ol /a" 1e. Affi ^X "'ft " EFtlE'ftifl a " H! 5| F ffiE " lt &H+ tzr.ff +F, fEE T "{f -ffi ", B B" rtrAtrit# laih 20. +-ffiE htlol'ft i"f"F.Z " H! 6| + H E " "R A "& H + tB T ffiffi, " E,A M,infr, l,E ffiinfi ItM#r8r E, tr.fLAtriSFc. 2|- 25 X#ffi tfl6gE H! EtE tin]i"l 41i'1 H* " 2r. 4M+ EA jFl " irlX9+ . ffi WH'Efil iE. T ffiXffiH,8,, tr ffizi 6A+* . #B " F!iol "rYffi" "*{ffi ^ " tr t*",t\"Ff,# W ffiH,A. E1FH T ffi+ f l\El+tr E Ht'F A,. tr [LzF gEffi C. ^tuT
jFl 22. + ffi4 EA fFH! B{ " H H "lbffidJ in1, A " E{ *^ %H'l*.fr+J 4J tF,F" H H " Ibffifr+J dJ jAETFAS A. 7 ". "'."ff"+ " tr JILAMEF 9E,A#BJ1FJ" jFl 23. + ffiZ EA i-"1 " H! "&ffi & . " Hbft 4 *8 . " it F|J X +J+ fiF F.iFEItX E ffi ffJ + VJ

to% ,r685ffi k+&*"+aE-C A. " "H&"8"4'"H0H,E " trJrL4tri$++ 24' #ffitEful4irlifl J(#ffi. +Rffi ( d6i ^fff a H, Di"DiA " Bt HH, K h, 4# )" F!Hi*,El rftAruifrffi c" 25. +ffi+Eff difli'fL#ff'. iltffi A H, Ei'q * " H0 HE, 4t6' 8,,ffiffi *, El rtLA tr:&ffie. 26- 30ffiF+ EMAi,lidx# ff fr E a ffirx " 26.#-ffiEz" EM diFdiax#ff" "+m" ffiMA f,fi .{/i+, 4M Ek a fi .4* . flR # .tt/t f +LbafH +rJ, a rrE.#-RfJ@,M, 4 H T f f iE. " uit, ^Bt f F E . 4 st *T,9n ,dJffilt+. "fr8"4 mT 6#,f+84 W*LH ^ 4 , n iE" -*1n" JtXt MENftffi , HR+ H! ^&+VJ, , F fr E S EiF. & ffiA H, Md + I+RH,R frU, 'HT ffi" fT8 ", F,Jtr 4 E& f+c" 27 . +M+ EM Eiain]. x+*ffi" ",&. * ffi' x *" *nt,rrx {sfl ffims + H f[ . * *'. E q ME la' EI ffiE E Iifllbrfr, E H + tF.:triF . E igd ?riE; ffi",&, * E Et| iF], ^fiE E H+ R . tF:fr iE;"Rft"EEtJ:a1,ffi -F,nftEEErrplrbffi HRSmfgffi ;".E"EEI|in1,ffi whEF.ffi anF ln'R, 66EEfltJi4lbtfr . E rftArufr F D" 28. #'ffiFt6Vdinl*l affi ra. "1+mF,xx_=frfrt?.in1,Ea%/ -i+i+ .F_a{BB. ffiffi"+ 9 HH"'4P1+m" j+ H! H E, " + tl i+1+ ffiffi"ftffi tRH fA" " 4 +&.T "6 ffv,6. a + ff #. iE. trrtrAmiftFc. 2e.+ffifttEV dia#JEaH E " "fl+ "E+E ft M Erd,E&M 7\, F a{ " "# Ht', 8 trin1'ZKftVEFJ+ffi?E" tzrEEH0E{i"1"7F"8"'tE*X2,6:171"#t6,,,4lHlffi,'TftEtFiH "WW" " IFEY" + H.RH FlHH, " tFW W"Fffi iFHfA. E rftAffiit F A. 30.AMEa EM Etn] ffiEaHE "'mf; "EA g ffid ffiEHX H! xrEfr Md tnl, t B WH-trffi ,E&Mfr,F-ABAB rt " EIttAtritF B.

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( 1) -.68 fi6, ElJi-il =.HFffiA,


( I ) Adverbs are the words that modify a verb, an adjective indicating degree, scope' time, frequency' etc.

1. Ad ve rbs degree: denoting fR, 7t, E , F , + h , 1 F H,

* (/ a ), f f i. ,+ h . ,H, / L H. f,A,' ,H.(E)' tlfi'

fEE, fH(ffi),lt/t, t&H, &ff, H,FJL,IL*, etc.

, '&,rL , +Bh, frf, Z' E*' ffrFt' Ifr W, H-,E(%.), AX , ffi%'*H{, fta, %+ ' HsU gt, i/s\, etc. di$' R,'Wfr,E#, -Fl , WW,
denoting scope: 3. Adverbs #F, ,H.,Lfr,h, F, H, -jt, *, *'t4, -*, lyqy), h etc. 5!J ' negation: 4. Adverbs denoting r' YA(A), fr|, /fig, *, *,I,, 6,H, T,I', h, H., A , e tc. *jS, -8, F=, nEf , *El, EK, etc. frequency, 5. Adverb denoting -X', F, i{, &, situation: 6. Adverbs denoting 4, 9),iffiiffi, llSilll*/lllll, ?llgl, tH, *+(!,

2. Adverbsdenotingtime: ,E' E, Fjrl, t,

-8l',ft' E, H(H),

-T+, -trF1, ++H,\fr"*,k*' a\*, i'li, etc. J,f 7 . Ad ve rbdenoti ngmood:'f F , U/ T TR' , X & 'f iH' I & t H, E, F.+ Rf (6/IP), R(T/Yf), H(T/lk), rL*(T/lk), +R4(T/lq)' trJ'+.' qEqE' ffiH.'fH Efri, ^H*, Tfu, 6*, *fu, {R,la!il,, Ef , ryH, hW, H(*) , nn, R&, E-X., etc. Hl!t, xft'E,fil*,'lA'lA,
B. Adverb denoting correlation: "Bfr,t, tg, *ll, -X., 6, ( II )Grammatical characteristics of the adverbs adjective as the adverbial in a sentence. 2. Usually an adverb cannot answer a question by itself etc.

1. An adverb cannot be used to modify a noun, and it is often used before a verb or an but a few adverbs (for exam-

ple,

alone. the question wa, &i+, a,F,Jt) mayanswer


3. ^, Generally speakingo the adverb cannot be used in the form of duplication.

'

4. Some adverbs can play a correlative role, which can be used alone or used together with conjunctions. (See the correiative words in the part of conjunctions. )

= .IISK +EtE,#, 1. El|iai'fx#ffi" . ffi'W.T fiJ1,l|Jx+rr,F,tr_^*rFiA D.,Hr B.di c.H A.t 6+E B 2,$./aFJL#hF{l6F9., t lSdI H-+fuI FtJ c. lt B. 4E A. W 3,+ X.+L -hW, W&tr+ffit+ffiffiH rtl. FtJ c.T B.lF A. t t J
-57-

D. ++ttj D.&

6*E A E*F D

2. AJa-ftH+Hf{nE" ftj 1,+B{4H6iBB!,f& A Aj.i,HBE# c + DeF=lffiifi. E p_ttr FtJz,Artfr.+F&.^ B ,&+F+lnJF!F cA^T/tfEtr DFE.

3. Aifr+fiilfrn$eF.Bt20 fErlj"f " .7t.f;/i. #F rg. B. n . 6 . 6 . tA. + . *p. - H . r4tF. fi H . + n . i)i*,H f* . R f^ . fEg . ffiH E.fitEi+ffi, 1. ft{ll A A-"1 Breff clLfrl& Dln.r,." EF (i+ffiI "#F"tzs,H.+fi4*F,-f,ft{6rt"t,r\,H.{+H0i-"]q.{ti-"]+AF+Aifl /ME\FJ" " EJ + " fr[I1" F A"WF;E, xt*, Ffi TE,H. B0 u)" +6 ar" E A,fiE . "+&[1 f, "+r" ffi, Rft+ w, Ffr ^al"Znfrvffia B.D{iE " "reB{'tzi{f {4Ft' u" r4,E,H.ffi Htxf " E*E ^ c -hfrlffi 2. Ef+S A S BiH,H.FXjgPlzJ''}J c 6fi8 ,Dtk5/aftEXnr ^ Af (i+ffi ....# / &......" ."- + i-"j Bt', I t/rr tE "jS.. rfl H ntulWEtE + AF / e + dJ1ildl E fr", "#F",Hadif,Hfr +HF 8......*F......"#ffi ," N'E, c EAif, E#E " " 3. ft,fn4r_Etr E+4,6d )L+ffi8+4. A. A#F B. A,H, C.,H,A D. #FA (i+ffiI "4#F" gE " lFl " 5 AF6 H! E,*, 6 lE,"#FT,' Eio., T,,,#.frfiA?S;,, 6#F,, EE "f[",*ri*FAdfr.. "6,H."f,fl",H.6"tE1EffiE,fi6lE,,.T,H.',E&,,,H.,,,*zi64.H T"E&T",#BaHn. fRffiAH,Ei*Fr|6. 6*E A(trAF) +.6trAEi&,B RryffiT A,cqUAfinEADAifr" A{ ( i+ffiI EIJ j"] trJ in1" #f"A *,rs41*H0 DJ H f*, 5 iS trC A & H, f 6llsl s +* tFH, H_rL lAEC E"fiit / ziit/ F.tr......&F......" c " a#E s. lBA E,AilE B*, +tc +T tED#t*A.EtT t t ( i+ffiI "t " HI D) */r EfIHl f;s-, wE,)',fEE {ft, *l tFE +i+ffi,.{E+ . Frf irt- gq 6* t if,Bt'a + "x" ffr" + "fr h ttifl ,"t "HE B{i E Fftzr *i+w, ffi& c {i E Bf Bf */rr s B0 Iil &ffiAH,4A*rtr\*'4F'W. n 6*E ')-" 6. E4,H,AIiSBWX c +t D#i*f , pHi[*-,S. )LFnnF i"T t " (i+ffi g T" m{ u)#Bdr I' t" BI ff n +&#fr-F.&TAEfr ,fH ". +a + aiah' ft fifl "*", lE" g t, E "t,' ffiHX F . S* E c if," -rrt,", " -ffi," *" Bf A ElJ EA E *rtr\ 4F,Fq 7. r B AEEZ,H+t1XABt,c ft.F o TtilrfJgT ^ Hn " "EJi" ( iJ+ ffir " tfi dJ tlpip uffi E %E E, ffiw & H *lr FfIBl H! 7a i"l,\n,I&, ryi,iq Erl Y"EL-LX+T ^ 6*E o " +F"+t*z\Efl4B0ElIid" B.ffiETvWHAiLfRiE, fr.#*+ htr_68 FU "
jE,?F'R D)E{ FttrJ " tri EH_ ;" -X. ;,,H',*.rs U tr E +XA ff , = if,fr 6 " " t " #B zt tFfth,.,E s.A +\f,% B rhT t&fT D F*Z"e'-" )Lti , pJC tfi,
- 58-

6* a A[ 6* c

* M#^drtF ( i+ffi I' -rft xfft E* rytr * .ffitrH +, &+ H+ ffiFsffi .'R, x.+f+"+
di

A. t

B. BJi

C. -X.

D. F

trAAH. tr*F_B(FJi)

+trHAvdrl"ntF"Bf . 6#E c

( i+fr+I " -EJi" trI D) mftdJiaffi #zr H fi E R,T trtf.F " a ia"th"ffie 4H EtJ n.-" a %" -rJt" gE B. "diE "*z\ FE, in iF-:. ffr," T frV,ffi& 16 fuI tFffi. 6 * E n to. EHE A {&,ifla\Arl,fH,B D. ft,fllAf, c it,fH &, (i+ffiI '&"t,riBfrtrEsErmff'FnfHE,44ffi,trffi+]..dEJ+ Hti,HiF"tr{,fH"fE , lEl "&"HaEEFlAif,Bf . E*E C 11. -fzJrrt'E,AtfufzfiT,mB c tfrHDHfrW_tE" &, A'*T,*t,fll "d,"tziEf ti+ffir Ems 4 mffi'F/n+E, &ffia H, "tfutzftT "IFzJ. " f,fl T " ffiff ,fH n4 8," & mle.6Etrldi-"]Ffr . E#n c 12.lba&ffiffilet rs *,atux _*6H! . A. I B.++ C.r c D.]F H ( r+ ( " I ." "," ffi X ++friJ) ffi'," 1F iFl, H"AFffi tr FU lEF V trialF! +A mAtr fr.W #tA, //th = ffi , Q 1R. HI ( jtlnl ( ( / 1FH / + h / ++friJ / H+ frtEi6l ; Dffi/ W * /'&+ M 6ld + H0 ) ; 3) Mtrii]+T. EXF C(rc) 13. Effi++ -*Ttaf '/f;X,F.JL**Fg" A. 4 B. c. th D. ++tlj ti+ffiI EHElJid"4 "'r+ +MEtn1+ \VE1FJffJ ,trI lAEtst6rtE T " "lLH" -"+ tl" ," ++ friJ fr h ffitrAtJ + MEiA. + E A(EI) lE5 frtAi4fAmff ffirt 4 t jL ^E "A, / t h / ++ frq 14. xffttr ABAE<,Bt/\&1+ ct_til,4.T D. A,F,JL j"l"A,FJL ti+ffi1 f5trElI F" H -,R JL" FiA'ffi, t,tr\-E tEtr, RfrV,trA tr fF{ iF"

15. A BA BKTWF-&EF.CMT -+trT,D iT ,L,F" F (f+ffiI "E"EiF-1E{ iA,tz\5EiEHEiEfr " +Rffi " *7"fifl" H, 9E ffiH07r. M", ffiE "ii,r\,L'R". 6*E D 16.X yqAH,+t,fll B mf,^* c Ffn-wRf,BH!Ei64t o nE" E ( i#ffiI Ht' irl" E " #zF6)lF tr-|e.rtT: lslEU . H + " H F,A]J,A" lF Ibtfr; " WIL"g' ft " thtFEtr n +., Fl D)" Iblfr ; " nlE" HiiE A E iF" ifrf$" . = fufr 6 frA#'.B ^C.D E" 6 ftA ffiE A. 'fiE" " "m&Wmf,tziE#ff. 6*EB r7. lfi,wx4.s,_62*T,ffififm*E. A.5 { B .Y q c.6 D. d , ( i+ffiI "'q " f,r" fi " fr iJ 6 frEtfiF1, 6 EA ff&*t A H! E +.ffifr il, lE^H t* A I)_I T 6 lFJ, (1)"T"-ffi+*tz\*xL'l+fu12)1(F,"iq"-ffi+*lF+x4,,l4B0rhtF. gn,+tT*(*/tr\+ILi6 ffiHX )' +tYt* (t,ri EIfrAd trxntr E, lnYA A e,*,+4 T + ) " ( 2) " 6" HI t)J alE tJ * . rI, qEffi " &.wx*I"h tF|1h, iq".F, Fg75 E iS* . drff?1 x ft 6 *t i . Z.Fg h, !n, EE in, w xftiq*tiX" (3)"6"n|U6ft.4H'14.8jfi1+il1ahfF&X16hlF'l+*IdJirt(in,E,E,ilj.A U) XEE., . (4)" 6" 4 UH&f/ EiflBfr I +), " W"T HI tz\ xf,lttr H0 A E, " tyn*' 6il V),1[, i 'f6Ht l,9rT . 4 frAin, tuI fr tr iq*18 /a-xh 4/$ 1:W.T. " fril " f-firl [H ffi 66 *t R /a-ifr, 4 + -Lh " "&"Btm}*_tL e 10 46JH,E,E;6E+I4{4"htF,6fr2ffi"friJ","19" Efil M, 56JHZ"trf." "
F* Ecr 6r -5 q -

tn rz,t)fiHi#-E rE, ;Ez,wx#F -E " 6fiU,i[' u tr xTlBffi r " (2)" y" FIu#.^ +k lL+dJ tF,## 4',Hln A i* ffiH *, in, fr ffi, * _x. 6 ff *,, L'E + r| Z + H fR E - E, "F', yg jg ( E " 3)"F"4 UffiEMAi"lBfr "YA BffiH E, lB'EiEffiffi+t+ 6 FE tfr ffiE ff ,".X a^ F "F"YAAi*fiHfA ffi+T " Q)"X" nIUHE EI"JEJ46EA fr+JtFffi, ,l[ ,,,\ tr ,Efi9EiF5 X E?+{t!,x8f49f1[, "[" H!,Ff *-tLf 20, &f 6]H,i*nE H=1f ,T IRFf WR,6AV m"6" " +6Jh"Htzr*q4dJtFfrlBH. 6*E c(F) 25.+L+ #r *TT _* + +7 W/^s4 ffi4.4,+L f FJiit,f&ffi lW "
-60-

(f+ffif " E E^in], 5 EJHFre trJ U*.BdJff*)ft * ffiE F-5 M*, . " H" fI" X"AF q|&F{, ( "F"*E' " X" ffi?.4fg rBH!, 6 lEH +FE' 1) tz\ dJfF&,ft# fr+JE'Fffi &A qtfl FE,

18. t4:,'tfrjETlyBE,ffiHW.Elt,C :88,,\niR. trE o tf@. 6 (i+#I -W.HE4JIFJ*M "6 "tE " E EUi"f " E A f4,FfD)" EifBf , 6" TfAfE C .fnE"+RffiaH,yqi4gJ"Ln64",&F.ffi.G."Z^ry-",rf,E"tiE^Fffi " #+E D 19. A,IE- BiFtrtsNaEtr&iflllB! CE D-X9+Aft\T . H ti+ffiI'E (ft )"*rrrYq ffiFtJ, H4dJifrJ" E "Bt. A i"l"igit " leEJ + ff +i+ "A jL" (' q ffi) Hl "lbm,Ffr U)" iB, "'yEH"T aE ffiE A. B{i E . "H"6 frA U6 frA HE 4 ];]ffi,Ffr ffi a D.fiE" s*E c 20.ffi$.2nF EpB,tB, 4/r _pfiT n. A. Eff B. EfA c. Etf* D.k* (i+ffi I "B.*"," ffi*"EEi"1, . "E * 5" Hf "HJ(ftj6,A[4DJ 5 HR6tr+ tzi S 'lH4#RS + Hft. ",&.ffi" t ds mtut tF.Tth ffin +&'fA FtL*'4+fliEn.fi + HFf,Zlffi AAH" EXEB(E'A) 21. faT$ffit|,m-*TTi+*. A. ftf* B.+f D. 4)l* C. Bf;tr (i#ffiI "W*' 5 "llSf " H X & jE,AF 6 Afr'W.F-IRX t zs H! S'lF. ffin ++t* tt A, ".i/J nI g[#+ " WR" *" UE W 6frV'A h "IJ!", W h "+k . "R*" *.7trS* 5 mffiffi-H. 6* B(Rf ) E 22. +\+X.AXXT-RW+,Btg,?F.HDEEW? tr ( i+ffi f "[ " HtH +g A, (Dffi&zhi"l fA Bf,t z\A tF#JEE-, \n,lts E,tz]6t(,Ffx 6 Bt' E*rS f rg? (2) ,*m d:tF++&T*., ffi#Alirl T, +^ tr YA#H. (3)ffi Bfr in,#FEf zJ' & 1VWEJ ,#a\ E tr n, I n,Wff LL&tr F i* Fi., ffifrt6 tAffi +ry l|' H! H " (4)#,tr\ E f^ryE IJ t /tri jn1" E EJ 4' . r'J .'lF " tu= 14 ilt6 tl1,,f tr ft 94 d 1+ *, A N EME Affi ffidJ H,". + h 6" #J HffH, Aj"lEfAE{i4"F"f"4",&fMH"[" m&'*"f" 6*C c 23.ffi,E fu*rc+i4, &ffi,gJ D Wbb#,_,t. A.4p 8.6 D.tr c.4 ( i+ffiI m"bLfr+J + xt z+ Md 1n, bL&hJ ffJ E+ffi *,F, xt 1+ LV, MEtil#.^ bL#. H0 iFl tFl iEfr F!"[', . "F" lbm, fr +, EtE 6 FE .6 E Erl H +tE ffiE EU ^ffi ,E FI ^ gA tE + lb *.t,r\ xt^ 2+E / 6+v6irl "p4. ExF- D(i6) F\"xt^ r + bv,+ tra 24. ffi=iRi#fiT ./rx|4* tr q ?^ +* F F-Z, T tRiXfi E i#ffiWiX _ " A.n B.a D.6 c. +s

A.F

B ..X .

C.6

D.AF

(i+ffiI "H BI " x"," 6" lFH U)*BX- dltF&+-'Hn T,U![' Efi fr tr :t,Wtr, ds tFtuI
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--E C. --E u'

D. _.E

A. {H,fH

El f;\' 2s.IMt+JEE*T&T, -WT.S*'fUE c.

A. 4E

c .6 H+'A #J6 -H*' 2.:HffiXEfiEEA 30, fiJVJ ,lEf c. B. fEg A. ffrH


B .E

zs.

D.ffitr HH B.ftrH t*|'stL'ffiXgJT*t'EB!^+F" HEtr,.RfiFT+ D.X


D. -H

-69-

ff****3
qt

A6 t 90

90

6)

90 Vl 90 ql 90

#EI u-?,
dt

S r-S

6]

$ H B$
$ /yr$
qt

90 a6

6l

s$
(rl 9 tD

9tD

S rS (tGt
90

$.-E
6)

8*"r*""""J

( 1) -.6ElFr*,Eiif,
-.HFfiiR'
( I ) The auxiliary word can be affixed to other linguistic units to indicate a certain grammatical meaning and they can be classified into structural auxiliary words, dynamic auxiliary words and modal auxiliary words, etc.

words: frl, fu, 1+, Z 1. Structural auxiliary 2. Dynamic auxiliarywords: T , E, ff, 9Z [4, [8,98, [ F [ ,d i, " " " & F , 3 .M od a la uxiliarywords: ( II ) Grammatical of auxiliarywords: characteristic

" " " WT / mE ,

" " " B iif r

1. Auxiliary words cannot be used separately. They cannot be used as an independent element of a sentence and should be affixed to a certain word, phrase or sentence. 2. As an affixing unit, auxiliary words help to express a certain grammatical meaning in uses the dynamic auxiliary a grammatical structure. For example, the sentence "&WTW word "T" after the verb"il/" to indicate that the action of eating has been completed. 3. Since auxiliary words always connect with certain grammatical meanings, some of them become the indicators of certain word groups or structures. For example, "ffi" canbe used after a verb to indicates that the move or act is in progress or is in a continuing state. In a sense' it can be considered an indicator of verbs.

=.rrsK #tti3,f;, L. Etin]'&8trH0{nE. fif,+tnFXhA+itfiBXC-niE&FDBliadrffi. T 2. 4J#ffiA"T"."E"ffiffi:ff*. D" B,4Epfc F[tr*',l"Hru*ruKt& A,fflfiH{{FHX FrJ,+\-HtSi

EXEC E 6*E A

. 3. HlrilEhin1" #J m'l* ffi","W","'4+" fil 1,#T^,firuxru A Eil B&fR,+tr ',fllExHtrcEt+F-' D{Fffiaffi&BF 6*E D w, Blefif't#t " 6+E D B! e EefiE c SfrID. FrJzJ& ^EEwXjhi rpss," [FU"+ wlss,tt B!ffiE. 4. iFFi.Fji"l'(
-&-ffi frE&xBlJ @J' i8 6 yFfF B. F A. rE E.EHEi#,
tence:

lr Hfl Fi-? ' EYF C. En

D. rFoJ

6*E A
in a sen-

of dynamicauxiliaryword "Tr" and modal auxiliary wotd"Tz" 1. Positions

- 71-

Tabie 2-3-1

Position & Usage 1. It can be used after a verb to expressthe completionof the actiorl Some verbs, such ds "E , *l^, i^h , ffi|+ , #4^, (be, like' think, consider, hope, feel, I . mffi, tFh, Ef" to be as, belong, etc), can't express the meaning of a cannot be used a{ter change. As a resuit, the word "J"

Examples

them to express the meaning of completion Other verbs indicating the actions that happen frequently cannor be followed by the word " T " , either. " 2. Some verbs are followed by quantifiers as a complement (quantifier complement). The general {ormat is "verb f 7 Dynamic auxiliaryword * quantifier complement * (Object)". Some verbs are followed by a complement expressing the consequence(consequential complement). The general format is "verb * sequentialcomplement + 7 + (Object ). " 3. In the sentenceexpressing successive actions, when indicon-

fr,-tL*T,,f66tA*n4r #,frgTHAX*F*r" &HH*Tlvx&ft* 4. iufitE^ L+ 8,oo r7ix"

1. fim7ffif 44,n1.

2.)L+t_tT trffitr+" 3.frHHTEJEtrHt#*.

" T,"

1. EnX&E rft .fit4"ffi frif; . "7" is usually used after the first verb to emphasize the se- 2. {&!z,TW:EJt*rET " quenceof different actions. I{ the first verb is used as the 3. 43,8x+T ffi.f+tflF" adverbial of the second verb, "7" is used after the second 4. FFXfi&+*TzJrtZ\tr.
cating an action that is to happen or that has happened, verb to express the completion o{ the action 4."7" cannot be used after a verb in negative {orrn When 1

asking whether the action has been completed, we usually 2 use the structureoI "TWH?", which is equalto "Tq?".

.fuFFte*ffx" &.TM.rzTffi. 6Eft,Tlk6z


A,RRT,[HfI]E*[8" {tR+7str7 , X6ErEffi7 "

1. It can be used at the end of a sentence to indicate the change of a situation Adverbssuch as "6, fril, 4, Bt, t. 'ft" andmodalverbssuchas "frY, $" are usuallyusedbe- 2. fore the verb.
2. Modal audliary word "T" namic auxiliary word "T" '/F-) /TT" together.
A

Modal auxiliary word

, , 7 ,'

is sometimes used with dy-

1.
L.

or with the structure of " verb -1-

#,t^$TW T. I&Tfr,il1J&btEET "


&.faT,TT ,ffifzF\ "

2. Positions of dynamic auxiliary word"E" The dynamic auxiliary word ""

in a sentence3

can be used after a verb:

(1) To indicate that the action is ongoing or the state is continuing. When it indicates the action is ongoing, adverbs "E-, Fft., ft" can be used before the verb. For example, ,f&,

trE*4+ffi._Lzt' EgAR*qffy'.
used to emphasize the state, while "84"

Here"E" is usedto emphasize the time, "&" is


is used to emphasize both the time and the state; -7 2-

Q) to form the structureo{ "verb I +E * verb 2". In this structure, the first action indicatesthe manneror the state of the secondaction. For exampl"' @lfrJEESXfHRHtrT

*T" @friJ-vhFT, {/TMEiilFE "


The dynamic auxiliary word "ff"

is used closeiy after the verb and no other components cannot be used after the auxiliary

is allowed to be inserted in between. Generally, "E"

verb, proposition and verbal complement structure. The following are wrong sentences:

0 #,hlfi.irfrT-+k[na. o +tf&Ehtfr.. (3) trt E+4i.Fft +rAiFf'1+ " (4)+t*:1<wafiwffx"


"" an instantaction(". g' i4, W, hE, ffi, cannotbe usedwith the verb that indicates

frh.' Birf, Fil,frffi,#R,W1+). Itcannotbe *,,f#,fi.,ft, ffi, iHr(,lEfr, EFIJ,


usedwith the verb which itself meansa continuingaction (". g. E, E, {fr , @ffi, F-Xt , @

-fr,E, idlF-, &i^, EA, +lt, fE, i^h' %jt, +$w,Fw, m,flF).
3. Positions of the structural auxiliary word "ffi" in a sentence: (1) The structural auxiliary word "fll" is usually used between the attribute and the headword. The headword can be a noun or a pronoun, while the attribute can be 6 rourlr a pronoun, an adjective, a verb, a quantifier and a phrase. It is not necessaryto use "F!" between the attribute word and the headword. It depends on both the speech of the attribute word and its grammatical meaning whether to use the word "F4J". O To use a noun as the attribute, for exampie 1A+E4EEH!**. If the headword and the attribute are both monosyllabic nouns' "H!" is not allowed to be used between them. If the headword is a disyilabic noun indicating abstract meaning,

it. Forexample, before added frI*' "fl" is usually

, Wfrfr,, *ffi, ILM. ffiffite:e' +


the attribute indi-

^ffi ffi"ilT&rtl wffi.a. If the ^Hotrtr, attribute and the headwordhas a relation of belonginS: or if
"Fi" i.t betweenis ok.

catesthe character, producing area and use of the headword, either adding or not adding the relationof belonging,for example, FE4[T' A. Used to indicating +&-H' x

JLH R' H+tr+ffiW+trtrtr' FAH+rlr'


B. Used to indicatingthe characterof the headword, for example, tlm+,

qffi+ni#,

t^efi. frHfr, *.11ffi,


C. Used to indicatingthe producingareaof the headword, for example, )Y'R'Wqg' HFF

Wtttjuffi,. LE, 4!t1n#' EtrS[qF'


, iFEi.*A, +if.

for example'[4iHm' mqF]T' gfr)J# the useof the headword, D. Usedto indicating

If the headword is a word of orientation, "F0" is not used after the attributive noun, for it example, &:%*iL, Z,ffffiBfr. At times, when using "ffi" before the attributive noun, has a different grammatical relation or meaning compared with the situation when "ffi"
- /3-

is

not used, for example,W+^l+.ZlF(descripti"e), 9l*8illbt)F(indicating relationof be(indicatingrelationof belonging). longing), fr"+F-E(descriptive) , fr"+WEg @To use a verb as the attribute, for exampie, +tF'FIXfilflFt*4*i6WULt When the attribute is a monosyllabic verb or a commondisyllableverb, "fi!"must be addedin between,or the phrasewill turn out to be a verb-object phrase,and the meaning

will change, for example, , l4ful&,,i6.{ ffiffA. lk*r7-El, XPI*, lfri.TH0tILH


When the attribute is a disyllable word with the speeches of both noun and verb (e. g.

eitherto use"fi!" or not, for example, +8, ,B.a)r lou c&nchoose EZfrl*, ltflfilr[J, verbsare usuallyusedto modifythe noun, and this +U ffiiF , h.R.fltl , I'tttJ4i/f. Some
doesn't causeambiguity. In such cases, "Fl" is not used between the verb and the noun, for

example, f^frH,n, ii?Hi.tt{. XF, ?'ifrFl,ffi,


@ To use an adjectiveas the attribute, for example, |lBfaffiHHfuIi/]ftt. Generally,"B!" it not usedwhen the attributeis a monosyllabic adjective, while "F!" is used when the attribute is a disyllableadjective. For exampl", HFf&, )trF.k, FA$I, fE

l[+, iHHHtffilF, ftFHttflft, ,t*B!,1.,mtsHq^.


At times, in order to emphasizeor to contrast, "ffit' can be used after the monosyllabic

adjective, e.c. EfEfulf:E+h+\,18ft#.il1. @BTE4\ffi^iF.


When the attribute is reduplicateor has some affixations, "frf " must be used in be-

tween. Forexample, XWWW El)h, ++7Sl+illffi^, HEHtf+, tween. Forexample, XffiN7jJ,tR+&Et, Z*L, lYLffi.

MEMiAffiffi+.

Some adjectives and nouns have formed a fixed expression, then "p!" is not used in be-

@To use a pronounas the attribute, for example,,f6F0ffi}*,+{AfflE. When the attribute is a personalpronoun, and the headwordis a collectivenoun or a noun indicatingthe appeilation of a certainrelative, "F!" i. not used. For example,ftEtr ,

v&.,lvlllx, +t=4.
pronounsuchas "8, When the attribute is a demonstrative flF, I+A, 4D", "H0" i. not usedin between.For example,fl13X, lt/atffi, 4D&,, E&flR. pronounsuchas "EJL, ilFJL, EH, When the attribute is a demonstrative pronounsuchas "lE, lt/aff, interrogative E,/A#", fl|3ffi"or an "fu\" is usually usedin between,for WF,4rt", "ill" is not

example, t F!^f;,, frFtrful tsJ Hti+A. xR, It /at#ill&lR,iE


pronounsuch as "lt/A, When the attribute is an interrogative

used after it, for example, |tAffitr, tsFf+& , 4,)'X. forexample, a quantifier astheattribute, @ To use 44 7 E 77E+t=+ Yffi+-n.
Generally,"Pl" is not usedwhen the attribute is a quantifier,for example,ffiY%,, When expressing the fraction, prcentor emphasis,"ill" can be -+EX tf/\' ' +,F,Xg. addedin between,for example,1/3 F!Fl+. , 2 &V,1#8, 5 +WH++#, B\%ffJFIAA. When the quantifier is descriptive, "ffi" should be addedafter, for example, O{fi,qT

- * - fr tuI &H@ ztE H0 /rt*E . " @ A-Ettftfllsffif (2)The structure "ffi" ^ of


-74-

'I'he structureof "fi!"is formed when "ffi" is affrxedto a verb or a verb phrase' This 3iiucture is equalto a noun. For example,

: *zJ<R H!,'t)' B'l Z,XtH H! E*f s0* ryh1 e* zKR " (*zJcR : H! /\ ) H! ff HRffi HR+fi + kltEEts . (tr HRffi F!diE+tlE tr tuflF+tr @ : +fr\^W) F'\ ft|t At (4V'1 @16+e
(3)The " 8" " "91" emphatic structure. The "ft......ffi"

emphatic structure can be used to emphasizethe timeo place and manner of the action. The content stressed is between "F" and "p!", and its negative form is Sometimes "" can be omitted and "ffi"is aiways used in the end of the sen"6fr....fr\". tence. However, when the content stressed is a verb followed by an object, "V!" is usually placed before the object and after the verb. For example,

structureis differentfrom the "8" structurewhen the emphatic "ft" is the verb, and "f{ I.r the sentence, is omitted. For example,XftfjiF!. headword Pl" ir the omitted {orm of "+\frtJ/F.W". X The

+ tr*f H. @teatr).+lr^H!
(8......fi!"

tl.ifiEi+ffi , T AF BH c A DE.i.l(X. 1.&jE-Fintlsl,+ttrE& A.D'fv E " " E H" Ed u)"T " Z^1?ffift (i+fi4l "&t*" EE\ia, ".fL" Eryia, Ffr iA,+i4 61hff,"T" ffiz)tn1t,#BAfFf'EI" 6*E c D" T BtEc Em,+I,L'EIFH'E. 2. tfiA inrz,rfrt+ A {iE " "'ft"dJi-"1ff " u)"7 " Z^frlffilo (r+ffif " W rl, Ffr T ftVh F lnl in E-f i.-"l, "' D) - ffifi& fr E " A iA+ # + ?I'iE+ T + (E iE)"' Ffi FojC t *htFFffi 6'l ?l.iF, tsFt' ft" E " #J - & f6fr E "I FH + dJ H! 1F H"(btft' tsHf B{i E " "E^ " T " TlftAffi4 fr."edti"f,q fstr EIJ'FJ" fi. D'fiE . tr +E c T " z^frV'ffi 7 ", ffiD)" ifl/ M 8n1", tr ffiz^Bfin" BdiHC+ D" T 3.ffi A fi tr.tr,X&)5-trzjctEY9tr uryt,"@" U)" T " 6a2ffi8 (i+fi4l ftu&' ffi'#n'.#E'nW 2'Ffr EdJfd " "':-u U)" T "6 Az iE"lA"lbtfr,Fn "'H" EEf ffiA 6 H{ A,frE " " FA" T "*BA rc F;AiaJ, )lil" "f C{iE" S*E D - ^ftnl ffiA B{'E" "B"EH#F.4liE"*",FfiU)"T"&6AVE -zJrH{' T 4. rtE 4F A'WBt'+yHt\ C,4EX6E++EE+D t:) Ffr f" E" 6 f-TrFlN" T " ilIHrA. "E" -"W F;dtif, ti+ffiI ri B.ilJ# J|F1" ' Ilthr' , # %H'l+ffidtT,6f-fift'Fi't4 A,ftE" "WD"ftffiFH!:lig" X" Ibt'fi " T "4lAVflA tR ffiffiH' E "'R'''"' T "H+q' lF1" FA' T " ffiffi D{iE " HZ ffi'lE<HJ T " lAU,ffiE #, tfru)" trKF_c " T "H&EJX,*^tW9.}i+tu1'ffin. T cEDHFl" 5.fiffi+xtr ^ttulLBdi* *h B fr'EitinF, + dJ tF'H tF,IE:EW 6J Ft Tft, FXgl H, "E "ffi"*E " hFZn I +Rffi t i+ffi A nt'"T"'tW ffiftffi-+zh'A?,t B+Affk+&ffi . ERF_ c js* D" T 6. ftr+{+ Af.Z^TB,'R,F.iL+gfrffi/tt 6J "'R,F, ft H! t t j$* " ix qE JL+ts ( i+ffiI ".' E6hla, "fr.*" Efur"r ?l.iE" tRffi H,
- '7q-

dJtFfitrw6fiFl,Ffu)"7 "Z^ftV,ffi& c. D,fiE. "t+"Fryrttf,, HE j.HigE ,41fr+fi?, Ffru) *T"&TAAffiE .{nE" A "ffiEhqqtr,*.fitr{ln" 6*E e iEt.WiiJ"T 7. IBfr\inAifr B,ti+ c F{^FaffiE Dj.i,ifi. T (i+ffi Bt''fF I "t ixg{""ti.x H! " il\'aw, T #&dJtFft Fr, Fn utr E z-6E ln" T' " " w IF FM dinl,EEJ + tF:friF, tr H6 6ElJn" "ffi, E R jF,lE l EJ T " " "in FJth,f,, F!tr.E if, EtJ .:. "fr\"1|+ ffi1fi " T "T fta idE #^ dJ ffi.H, m&dJ tFft Fx, B Rftv ffiE Hx, *,ri iF " 6 # E B. AEA B?HflJ cqE,{&trr[y{r6$D" fi ( i+ ^lhffi*w fi4l "ff "E dia u r4,H&dJ 1f, E, #^ drtFE +.fr&d frHffi4.E, 6 EMrt FE (a)" ,tn +t*Ktu&fidtr . "ffi*I|"Eryi-"] d:j"JBfln"l{ A.fnH.a ,Ffit))"frZ^ftl& ' g Ea" H + " Ez)Jrr1, IEB{n tr EfE H wFtf,"ffi- tR" lbrfr, Zn68 {FH is * ft FtiEa . ")^...... 9tJ""""Eifiar"fa,"gtJ"ZF.F;a)n1,ffiu)"it&ZKav,ffiEc,fiLE. "w".dtjn]"Ea"fr+Jr+^R4 iE,"Yq$tr"tz\ P-Iffilq H E +,frWHH!'lHn. 6*E n g. 9J A BlF{r4+teaBE c r ,lb,lntHwxT+E,fEE9rJD. t (i+ffiI "i$",R, fiEffi 8, " A ?j" F.E\tn1, ffrUtr ffi6 6E l[,, ff ,'. "gJ iiJ, * "E dJ lE &6J ":$" . " f]iJ" + rc"fi H" PIEiF' E ffi66Bin FdJia, {E tz\ H0 dJ tFEnA x E +.*1, nEE -ftd]F, " " F\ful, Ffi Utr ffiZKFEffi S " " FJ" ffi)LHEtJ:n1" J 4" 16 lfr,"fr" il ffi& c I]!E,#B 4. ^ft, X.+.*lailF, "EiB5.Fjif, Effifr+J" T ,t,ritrSn" 6* E c -, 10. DX. +& A,ffBtnc,K.*Hiff$nE E -dr (i+ffiI "E" H|e';.htf,tr, A.c I]yF' #BiltFLtrfr1-4fi;s++9*,FlttTfrAffiA " ii]" nE "E ffiE E?I'iE"E *" #rs ihtF+ffi+++&, UT ftEH"fiE" Ffr E " . "l&Effi #B "l&W ffiZhIFJIEfi?1" EREB 11. A ru* ,PffituF B+ti.i, CJ&V.EIatI, {$'ffi DW?" E ( i+ffiI dJlnl" "fu",#r; dltFfr W,6 frE h "Effi ft ?I'iF lEFf* z\dlfF4 tt A H! ++4, in F dtn],+ E + dltf,, "* t4,t fr "E " {1t) lFft" in H! F rt 4 fi * . B + E B 12.ffiffireA ffi B T-Wffig1Sc64 D ftl$Etr[. E "ffi*" FM E ]rr1, ti+ffiI "1+" F--Bhin1, D) "E " T frAffiA C.D{i E " " m' Edltf,, lE Ffr (Fd %h.+., tr tra a A $in1" T ", #fi dJ FlD)" E,' tr B{yH " "lqE F nhi"f ,tr F r[ "E",tfrd1(Fre&-Wn{14. ^ftV,ffi S+ A *ffift+ tz. fifi,|tt A &T-A B,.R,t[ c -fi+u\HD ,:ffflts.+.T itA#." E ti+fi4l "'& E^ in], t B#f"], E m6 62h8" in1, -" " E " . "E " F.ds ffi ffi E lbm,#.7ri D) dltFNlliLffi.,Ffi tr ffi6 6?fin" 8 " . "n E t)Ji"l, 6 ldT "E ", "D,,#^" 8 " ffJ {E #+, 7 ;aT 6E #J tzi Hf lflJ Utr ffi6fr?hn" re*, Ffi D 8 " . dJ m"E fiE" E ", #fr dJ tT-tr& 6 *E " 14,f{fiF ,E&ffiBfrE-fr . Lffi T,Eft

aaffiHra. 6*E c(r)

B .& c.T D. j"l q t i+ffif " ftT ft Fdl B!E M'\, #^ dJ fFBfI{ H E flat ffiH " " ts" . " S ", " fu"W
.r1. 1r

15.fi,,JrfifBt',fF, EgHH_IZtrfi A. d B .H E

" C.AT
-7 6-

D. A E

( i+ffiI E{ "H H"Mffrih1A, i6l dliAE T ftZHA dJ t^ 4#'y*ffiA ff ,*." H H "IbtfrW A(A) AFniFl+FI ERE h,& frV.H*hta16''1E.*Mfi" 1 6. ftfRf!4u 4iuffi_ffi *6r8ft r " HihwEJ, D.Ei c.' t# B.S e. T " fi * "ffiE id, + Elh BliJ?['iF"d]iA+ S * " PlffiFA' t i+ffiI "fr" &61 + Tt dl# Eir r 1:' F fsl ." E" 6 tr+ ffi" e EJ .8a " it 7g* E, #7r;l FJ."m"E?1.18, dJia"*" " " T "," 7+" .*E B([) rT . iL+kEE A, ftIt AH BlLWc ){/a DiHH" H! /aff " "ffi8 +,bE "\L+tJ "'ft "lF"rLWJ " ffiE E, r FE H t* rE 8 F, " fr\ i-"1 t i+ffiI +F,rr'ft Et" + B o. B*ffi ctT,H,EffifFTEftFJtr 18.6 A z]t,ffidrffiB,|H F'l FS (i+ffi D)" iE" zjc ", Ffi *r,, T ffiE A ffia. A if, ftgE d ff , ffiiZK I tRffi 6H, ft' fi,,ful "+ -flft'w fuI " . "+tE E fi!" " H! " fr"," #,H"*zi U B'!'l*ffi.ffi "fF"EF,L'::''.], +tN' + IflJ i-"lrfl ,fH Plffi +" " E+F D E T"+tlElE D" A * BE+t c {HiE le. frFtu+ytTtr B! El ( i+ffiI "yl2r& +'zli+ " " f6'ftia"+\ (Ffr-ig, Ibtfr*.fi E, fF iEF{ u)Tm"tuI fu1"?ia fr\"tqin" Etr-fin" ,Effi*ffi 6)1n" fr\"" "ffY;48 +E EzhR'AtE, ttrf6ryH0i-"1 "+f hlfttrdrifl 4ali-"lirlt1"Ztr,tEFx"W"+ ,8,61H,Fffi ,+YSLLE+AH!/\EfItEtE."ffi * z0 fultfrt{" 6+E B *o+q, 6! /5 ttrJ,', !8,*Eln BiE + + Y *7F"...... 20.lLfrfr AE"#ffiAF BIF"XCESKXI DA" ffi (i+ffiI AffiE" 8.. ....W 61' " &ihiA " l&iH + r4"*" ffiF iF' " frrJ rA ffi,F., Wh hJ tA ^h E.triFHt. 6* c 2r. 8R A +l+lEB ftFfrttr*fic * D? W A.B'fY. trttrtfl AAE ,&z.12ffiftdJn1"F_ffi,Ffru Ii+ffiI "fr\"T.fr2ffileFrd=+ I+ "6 frv, "ffi" ahJ+ tFdJ ffitr c'fi E . " ffi" mlid|ia"x "E, F" tfr* fr1 ta"*" ft!ltiE, " F0 lE V l'E ^ W 6* .E D c fIF DT+t+lfl" 1+ 22.ry AiX'i.'&W*&AIH,T*+)LB)\XErt+8fi'AA rJ (i+ffiI "1+"F4#tq%htn1, irl , +l'iE UF_ahil.MAlrl. ffiEila1&Mdian+Fi+Zf4 :l "fF +f iE' "i+"ffi&dJiflffi?f 2E&, V trralEd" + T791+ 4,H" Affi tr, "+fE' Eihin]' ^ iFZ.l'El" 6* D
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-84-

-. 68 f iE , t g i f ,( 1 ) =.HFfiix,,
( I ) The conjunction is used to connect words, phrases, clausesand sentences. According to different content connected, conjunctions can be mainly classified into two groups. According to the relation between the clauses which comprise a compound sentence, we can classify conjunctions into ten groups. 1. Coordination conjunctions. For exampie, f,fl, fR, 5, lEl, -fu-......-Jb....,., Efr/

" " " X "' . . . , 6 8 ......fi T J=E ......, . X. 68...... 8 ......


2. Continuingconjunctions. For example,di, F, t, Tf,_ , f*E, F* , +*8, ME , 6

Ett / tuft......+*E / ^H,tR/ *E / trX......

3. Alternative conjunctions. For example,8......tr8......,

&#......fi,#......,

E......FitE......, X A ......8/a......, ?4. . . . . . r 8 6 . . . . .5 . ,^ H. . . . . . z f . in . . . . . .


- up conj 4. Stepping For exampl unctions. e, 6 lE/ T l\/ 6 F / 6 Jt......ffi E"/ 6 / &/

. x . . . . . 5{i4 . . , . . . . .F .d i . . . . . .| /8 , h T . . . ..., [......


5. causative-consecutive conjunctions. For example, 8h......Fn\r..,..., ZFfru)...... 6. Hypothetical For example, conjunctions. lnR/[#.tn/pf-/#/IfrJ#......flF/a/

"dr/tr......

7. Concessive conjunctions. For example,Ep {H/di F/mH/wF +H...... &,/6 ......,

8 . . . . . . t . . . .. .
B. Adversative For example,4(E) conjunctions. , ,fE(E) , f m, 6ff, *p, m, -E

f / ......8p/atE/6ii......
9. Conditional For example, conjunctions. ,R,4......di......, RH /lhlF......rf ......, fi

tt / 6tt / T......#F......
10. Purpose conjunctions. Forexample, hT, D){tF., *T, hil!ft, D), u)fu, fu|+, 'E^4+
( II ) The grammatical characteristics of the conjunction. 1. The conjunction only has the textual function. As it doesnt have an actual meaning, it cannot be used as an element of the sentence. 2. In the syntax structurer conjunctions cannot be used alone. They have to be used together with at least two grammatical units. For example, the conjunction "fril" can not be

used soiely,but canbe used in the structure of "A m B" (E. C. $BEEmr+H).

=.HSK +ffE,f,, jgidH*#+ff. 1. A. HT

r,_H#ru*rut+ ,W&tu\&+*E DIEfrH rb T" FJ


B. trrli c. trJ-tL 2,&ffiti:t&-ffi,fzT U=,affi-ttPJEfrEEf FrJ c. trffi A. ,fEE B. ffiE
* 86-

D. Hq 6*E A D. {oln

* c

2. jlXj"fBifAm{FH" r ,ilrrszj'pi'z-4;iEr4++ ' frtJ A. 6 {8 ..... .m8...... c. Ep&......&,...... 2, {,fi,-ifi,6 Hfi ' -'L'E4R 61J A. RF......di...... c. -il......-il......

tll&{FH.

e.trt......Ffru......
D. iER"""flf,A"""

6*E A H. EE B. 5H"""61n""" D. Ef^......EI"""

6*E P
EiFl. 3. Aifr+fr4,fiFRHH! 20 tigi"f i+fi4rLFf{ft,4' R R . 6I{ . tr E. BIr&. . 5 H. E t . ffif* .Ef^.tr . tB fE.+_R. T. 4A .68. ?trJ 4..R,a..tr.7li{E.6" E.i*tri+ffi, z 4"* 1.xHTitffiffi&*tr,rl1Lfr A,-FtrlnT " i"l' 6 (i+ffi 4XA X A, lA,r fl zt R . " y" E XffiEtJ iFl, *rtri+ + H! f ' ffi"E +rtJi tF':fr#''F R ffi " " " X " " " "'t*t6'#'fi dJ Bf; t8 FX" . "X " H5 " E'fr," iE"F E "Bfr frU, HE tr :r4+ E T " f,["' tn' + E /\ R I, ffi#EJ XA' fH fzXITfr) L" "m" ELES +' #.^ +FtS .F fR, in, Efr'[l E" ,!E'B{++'ft{[AFf[iE E f "{E tziffi tfrX , fH fuf4, WJfrffifrW;fr.4|/fiE ' ffi+t. &ffiAH '+EJF-#ffiXA" E ,Z^AAffiat'Ai"1"F"Ef "I"EXETFIJ]"1 ,F.JLe,iqffiin"
A. fl

B .X

c.ffi

D. t

*E c(m) 2.BE^[H{[ fr,X+\nttB, -*Mfi B. A. tr* +tr-

ffif tr A tF/--HfE Efr (i+ffiI "E * E &id, +F 4\fr8 -ffi t,trs lsl H! X -- E{ A P-I Bfr f4, ffiH5"8 ft/futrn"WH.C ic.Wtr&W*+- Hf ,ZifiEffi , .R,ffi TrU*H{lsl &E{fBl ' ,g,El"ffi tr*lg E E+-,il&yH Ee,mf ' "#m, lH,ftzj'H{ lRMYW.lfr' , ,6*...... fn/fuft...... |4t EIffiT H T ff * B{ dltFF + ful'trII)J dJ tFE+*E ffiffituI "ffiE "F&+t igi-"1, t zitr mH! * tr )KxHM" ln,ffibtfrfr$-, tE F\" Hfr" " ", * 8 " " " "t8t4, f4, HH5" Hft" WW, {+*Ff inl't |fl K -gFAElt- D, ffiYT" ffiH" " "frw EE{ "+ E"E+r[ jgid,tz\E-*Fr] ttBf *WF& trffi NKf,_H At lKEKftts-e, .n g fr+J " EXE c(f*tr ) Fffitr H! fi naff*l+. ^&W,ln, 3. irnE tr+4Et r h1}.etrH,-6fg++t-f /w/r** """ url /,1/z'1" (i+ffiI "W,T .Url -zrf" tEF'-"w,T " E+if, , HER"t[' ftlH+aF* 7 . E" WT" " " U rf" E wtl fi , h 7 ftY!*, ffilllwfrlj #fa, # Z6ifH,efr, ,* * " ,ttswT e,^N'k1'ffi'/n]|/'rl a trtrlf PJfirJefiE{i,1"6".'& '6d ntJffl'Hlx EE " " tbrf"HF,,fturl' 'EaiF,6'lHtigfi t\xfl&)frfrxR ,rn,4&,wT ' ln ' zj'dKftlftf;fl g#T jgj"l,* 4n ffi.' "Artr"EE({* A{+s ,tWllFH ' F'If E H5 " t " " E* l+E:e1' ^FfrinBtH{fHlf r04 +,ffi1ff,H! FlT . " h] F H+[i5 ^f;EiE. EAqf1EgJ rlgtrB$t LE f* 4t+$, ......t......"ffi+6, *ziAiIff *I+T,tfrAr+Hffi#R,fEEf " RH """ tgFi"h1F
-87 -

c. fttr

tr "

D. F A

A. thr

B. ffifl.

C. ,l\Jtt

D. hlF

", 98, t ...-.. W,lF Mffi IlrE &, +kt Eift |tr. d N"hlF"E E ffJ h 6J + H "6 *"," 6ItJ "+ S qE, i"f,t,tri.R, ?"R, 6 *6 * H B ffiH! A A BF ffi+ {+ T P e A tr fr1 # +, h I Ff6E M.&, 6 f pH{[FJiHiF. +Rffi E H., +6J h *il XF.,A H t, tsK ElE Zi,frE t T fr&, mEH ++t -+fr.nlt<I+" EXftB(fttF) pffi .>Ffi 4. _r Z,tF ,+tHFEA . + XtrJ*T lRffi A. F|Ji{ e. FIJ{F c. 6 D. 46

# R&# iE6P Affi'HInffJ tunfiJ, ln, F[ f{, +t&,nffi* EA " "6 E "#B# ffi,lH f6'B{ Rd jrl"ItA,"W(9]VL+&FERdltF,'fr h+fr+J&E6*.lttE4"l+ffJtr,fr tAft Edt U,trU-fl g T"l[R68 ",\H,E6FE f H' 8" ."&8" +E&fJ+rtJ#fA " . 46 8 E[WiAiSi"f ,fH g6E) EA FJ + ffiE + t, &tTgA{+S ry. +Rffi AH, 4 A\r ft1ftX6. EXE D( 5. tiFE t+Z + H0594, i*AAid _41+&*7. A .trm B. m.E C. EM D.FID) tijFffi I " F-m" E.W+f iSiA, *zi 5 t-+rlH HX ft,+tEE-, H 5 "6 itEl^"," T IyZ^" " +Hm&H, AA jSffH! " . -*F HE m-H. B+9\E)A,tz\Hf *{A 5 tr tl 6rA.FJst|r.E, ---.*[r]Eff - f, ffiHH, Eln gE d fi AA tr-*Ft| rtBf iFfr ffJ tFH, An, fb,E)nfB n ft F, friH1+T i-"1, ffi- E . " Wffi" tr F i tr E ffi& hA F!+ *, 5I H fr + 4 f&iA,fEg T " El tft",98&)E)LX4 t+,@.ffi , tr mffi D)" B HffJ X\4 " "Ffi FE R jgi"l,,tr ffi- flft 5IS S,lH ^++ ffi# R, H5 " W " " Ffi U "'..."' 9n, h "ffim& ffi, +q fii' W -X \J" X lfi,wF E'HT, FlU & _L' 4" &ffiAH,4aiffifr*.6 " EXF_A(E.trn) 6. B,f+s6Ee,tB+X*_EEX *t!tr7]u " A. tr B.tfrD) c. &a D. {EE (i+ffi I "6 ft ffi"&#" AF Efr#iSiA,"[E "- Wffiaffi.f4 46E H F, "*,# " * ffiHAPF$ H F, !n,iBE+X*68 EE x* ? -+t4 A + x*, *E W t "FW x.* " "Ffr .in1, *Ei"f ,H A E - tl EJ HH,6 frAffi EH + " " ltrF_ ftW+n ffiE tr - h H EJH, *.r; tr -g$A6ETHfr-*FrlB!'lFUd,, in ,ftffi* ,l1Bl&lllZ^itft* " &ffiAH, D tfr#fiFr66J j$i"l. trt,trrjtFJe6ffi 6*E c(4#) 7. BAflFE l:*1p")8, Utffi t+'H,,\ -ra "
A. *p
B .{E

ti+ffi f "fr\in#B)frfr.X,4| fr.t*nlt fr#+tJ ldffip!+-z-m, EE g&"dtE...... . . . . . . (&, ) "* fi fr.- + ffiw UHHA, iHU + lllE w)*ffiF.W, tB,friJ ffiE +t{f . " Ep lt ffiEiLDEiFl,H5"&"f6FI"Eli{F......&,......'?rt6,5lfiXf-ffi,lFnHo,fHiA,'& ^fi,*.w,

(i+ffiI "4(E).{E(E) .Tff"#FE*ffiiSi"], "*F"EJlftE{i"f , Ei"lHX+*iE ,lE"nl (E) .{E (E) .Tff"51 Htr*r F!*F , m'*p"g.ffiEhdB! ti* hN ,g-H&tr-ftFJff| E( ( trJ trJ frt tr, H h T t/trr5E " E ) . tr E ) . 6 [ " ffi"*p" DJ iEH-V., lEE{ F &T - + 6JTF, lE, B.+6tH ffi F X.B{ffi 9J, _A.FfiD) e. 6* rrftkFTtrI ffituW "
C. flFA

c. 6tr

D. trJ

D.Utu

(rf ffiI " Ffr j"f, t,5 D)" EWRigif,, H& tr - h 6J6JE,5| S #+. " 6 *" F.WtFiS /a" EJH " lnRZ-. EJ BH, frF A. .....", ffift tr - h hJ i$iFl, ffiT tr - h EJ E, && " " flF E{&iA
- 8 8-

" ufE Fl HliSiA'fEE-hErEJH,4l t 6!{HiA, fM.f.f.ePlEA 5l,{+UBfEI4ER. EInEH_rt ,9n,ltsffi4 3ljF!{Hn +RffiEH,46t*ffiX4.. E l-+t E* ,Ufu?&E-4."
*E B(Zift ) e. +\WRZiA1F tl, -11l]i4f-,fi JL. A. trm B. 6fl|J C. ME.

D. ftm

(i+ffiI " E m'"EREifl ,ffit tr - h EJ EJtr'dIS 4 R " "6.[lj'Ewtfi ],E.iiJ, H-e.E - rl 6l HH, 5l,t 5 Ettr h hJ fl'E+ rtJ #iiJ . #. mn-AE FJ 6, fHE T " 6 *" & ryT *" . " m' j$"" ,"IEF_,"6 {Rffi zrEtHffin5trHlFtXEBfAA. "*tru"E*fiirl '+HET"trJ" 6lH,A6JtW+fiX6.. ryXfr:D(*ffi ) ro. I\\EI n\ 4'E |fi,, fu*+, _+TX lfi,E " Tr fv^D. TT C. trJII A.+*

(i+ffif "H*"EX4XEtJirl, t^+++n X,tEgT" l+e-,ffiFfiin'ffim ffiEhEJEJH, -f#, tr Jt n ir' ry *,{&EH} ,4q'feEffiiEH! frfi +ffi*E tul'ffi FqH!, 4 ffi*+ft ,ffiE.tr_*tlFr6lH ,Flr. "^Hih"E*4XEtJi-"1 " "ErlL"EE ' 5lfiitFffi Etul,tL9-tul^&+rJ . REirl,ffiatr-h6Jtu1HE, dI fr tj"+fi.ttrit, ln' t f T T tffi' , wtftr6zh+rhw+41 "TE"f(+*igiA, mffiSlFE4' ln,ffi9JffflF' TEft,lE tz\,6HH!+'HEI{FnFreFf *+lt" 4Rffi6H,+HhW+fiX " tr#EA(^*) IT. aIJN . F T ts,f+S T }CEE+I-T, IRT,\trI5|Jtr -ft
A. ,t/\'m B. FfrU)

c. uft.

D. TE

"FfrU)"F_W+EiFj ,41fr+"R. ,Hffia.tr-h6J*16JH ti+fr4l "/dm"Ef(+*Ei-"1 ' 9l Et +Xffi 6 ft 4E tu1 E, *.8 Wfr,E / tr 1+" fr F" + . - Uft,/ fuI+ E H6!i5iA,ffiE E - h EJ E# tr F'l S'|HE4. 4A H,E' t|J . " TE"A+* jgif,,*zitrE H0 S{H- ffin F reEf trl1Hfi +." E*F c(utu) ft,trffihFJ+,HnF0E
12.j5"Hello"&,Ff 6'[6 ,_(fi,W+il4iE" C u. A. El-tr B. trJE
trE tE7|s

D. U&.

ltE tR irl,ffift tr - h ElEJH, +EW ffiffiF ff W.fr t^ tr ffifr! t i+ffi I " trI n FJB,t*i El 6J fR 4 6 rt l.A E 4 6 Ek' -tL iX, H! ilrlfrtJ + +, 9A, IEZr frE r 9E + * t+5\ff),H Hla*zr 1& -fltt,riil*H!S1H ' ir ' ifrBf tfi'W&4+Zsfrh,H zr* fEfrHF!+'fFmF + Fffifr\#R, = " ffi"" fRffi E - rl a H, +EJ H TE +, )E lu)T +r ll ixa nT " " u)&"EB,t*Eid, '.t& frtffi, -lffi Eh 1 3. I I- * 1-T +E T W,rtuI fr AJ ffi'+e'l+' *1 4 fr + 1+ fr WWtl, E-JE D. C.ryA B. A./t\m F.Z ( i+ffi 6J "EF(+*iiA, ffi&E h HE, 4|fr ffiR, tn,HgI ft i Hfr\ft,&-nt I "/dm ^ E F!6 6 "' g - th+frt*1 ], 6l,t 5 BfmT E +.. " 4 F" FWffiEr' Fryffim, MfuT EJH, ^fri fEE T" il,# ", tn,E/a$ifr., . "E-Z F-W+f iSiA,HE t EJ E /atftfr. A" Ffr#EjA, fRffitrH,+AhAI** . E*ftA(rr\if,) 6|fi5BfmHxfHtrF!rud" t 4. -W ffiikffie " l:lT& Itrm +t{llR E + 6 T il' W XfrEq/l*WH' ^ EJflJ D. h T C. D. } i= 1., TIX
- 89-

( i+ffiI "T iy"E)frtrii-"l, tt " " F4 "E R l+ T Iy" " " mE " " " "+,6 H5 "mfL"tqFl'" ,#.fi'I'ryRi*,9n . ii"J, H5"-ifi'Md'-" RF......di......"fi&rt ' ,R,4Tr^ ,Fh*ft.ftVdtrfi "Ertr"ERj$if,,5l ,*.Bz)Jff&a,frhtu1El ,hTtE&ajfr,, Htiirl Pl,lB fi4R. "hT"E El 15. + EtuMW++,REEH6'fft -KirA$ ' HioJ ^W;ff^}fr.. D. FID) A. HT c. #R B. trIL (i+ffiI " HT"EERi5ifl ,HABf -bEJEJE, rlL"E E jRigi-"], eIHF tr " " El fH ET * jg EJ ElE,dI fi + . " # R" tr(+* iA,ffiE tr h EJ "W D) " " " ", mT E - h EJ h " " " Ffr 'j" "Ffru)"F_WR)Et;J,H-e.tr-hFJEJE E ,5|Hs'Htulr+^R" ' d|fr#R. &ffiAH,+EJh trRX6,dlS+,fHHtFtr. !*E A(HT) 16. r8, ffi' A +tfl ffiiF BP 4 T f$i+T9-'R, +7t4^F htfrAtsPllbl Hfr*tr TE(i.u\, D,l.f*. FgtrEc ffiRFJtrH! UD(i+ffiI " D)k"F+rl:A , ffi|e6l+' jgl*iFl4iFl tE. ffiffiFJH fr\ ' "ffiiFF+,tultr'B" "ffitrlEMBt /"t*" E+rlJFl 6, + EfFilifl" +\ ffitriE. tr*E c 17. EAfgF A tsrIFE %Wc +fi ^ ffi fr lfri: Baft.tuI 4, D +t,fit B r\n h#ffi ,+fr gEtrR;tH!*)1WWX.tr,,\R6tffiNE'E',XB ^ fr " (i+ffiI " ffi"E*f rJ 9tr iAEX . e ffiE H, " fr.ffi 4 in1.'ft i-"1'l+'a1 EiA,H T6l +, ;IX ^ t" frn" %w+frxE+rlJB!ffif*Fr|" 6*E B "EfrlFie4effi 18.HHA4' A *E# Z, {E 4 ffiH! +, Xffi,c Z.-W,D E+E H J|+ BrE4+
l-

l-v

,t\

( i+ffiI "X' E JQ4X id,ffiT A +, E+*t)Jtn1&M d in1, #BW ffiUl:dJff &\Jt#PlF EtI y" D{iE. a.e {nE&AEfUt-WdltF,Fnu)" f* 'X" HbfT&f,1f,FfDJTfEHT L|+ %#*W. "xffi, +" inEA x+ ffi.D n68ffi +fi 4lfrW X, "',t-+^ T A.B{iE. EJ + " !tr" ffii$trii, qB 6*T" insl+'ffiRl+E, tr - h 6J Extffi- tt 6J " 6* E c le. -+Wn,AlM++BKHT,c HffiFttf 'Di4f6tut1@r+WTlV*" +E" (i+ffiI "+H"ft*t\;],'f' tziE-*Fr| ttBf-*F /-}F.W.-D ' fHE T'flf,H" ,981& j"lA., *F ffi h, "+ H" MV. *T E ffiT -E " tnRH tr A mf 4 W+ Ul:+r\ tuI +tr-r,l*3tJ F,*rW.frE+H*Tn.6*E D a&tr-*F hffi ,9n, BffiJLEA 20. A +Eft Bh*,, C+tD*X6tr. *t lBilE:EJt g .'ft iA,H A dliAEff E" " "frl"T m& i-"1 ti+ffiI "*T'EXBXE=IJ ' *zi Flffl' +E T " D) A.B'fiH" 4 c {nE" Atr +ryffiillHBiE*Xfiffi,Ffi0}"+T"Z..ftVffiE iilffi,FfiuTftaffi

. ExE D aaHE, lh+E+hh+\,+\tfr2**^w

21.+K A +A'FT ,BM5 C HWXAfr,D PH{IIFJiSUXH'ET Fii, " (i+ffif "Fj.X"EiSitiiA, EJ 6lH' *,riffi H ffifEi,E.4A H t, H -+\ ffi&E - h f . 6+ B up?lllfr{*ffiIE lL'it,ffi-lts* WZn*T, Ffr 22.+\Uffixilfi,flF/aw H!*trxf f++t' Eit+t+,1'. ,_4&il&ffid# trJE D. Ufr, c. A. Z.ft B. 6IlJ (i+ffiI " T * 5 " 8 [[ " HX+*iE,ffift tr - h E1 tX,' HH . * ztlniRT E ]:ffi ffiinBljH -ffi,+ tEX . " trlF EWlfii5j.rl,ffiE E - h El6JE' 5| S 5 BtE Zl lE +T ffituI n k&tr1fraE
-90-

Zr5Tk*," fRffiaH,fath+++fixa " E+tr C(EIE) -fi 23. +4 ffizJ. lh] M" ft i[ e 6E fl&'EEfA ffiH 6 t Exft t B! E x&
A. 7fiit
a Lt. lt]F1
Ml.J.'

jE,ffi&HR,t,rr+ffi{Hn(i+#I "Tit" E"6E" ,"fiit" H,i(+* 4'.d(F,1-h+fuI /a". "iE'. "WP )L"+fr,FER-f H"6 l\,e1" It 8tr6*.lflqf"l+fr\ [Rft{ ' trD-& Ftf"] "EiEff A A . " ffi',H. E " ."EIA"+ft+*fr\ fi',tJ+"+q " "E E E*ffrtrifl ' EI,i 5 ffim6 E 6'! o T IH i 6'F " " " mfl " " "', *.fi fr.- + inH. "IEn" tqffi." s i6l, H5 "zF ltr" & T ly"E,ffl jd#Ei-"], ElH,,ffi - h EJ i$-r*,r\ EE -- f B! . 4 tr A H,, Ft B! E xF H,B' E 14 E ffile.tr iH. 6+E D(i4n) d,68frflR, 9Et$ff zl.f{ffiEfiffi 24. ffi)HA,lLH,fr tuI F;E,t+ + h' _F-jl*' F lt 4 * " xE+ lfr-ffiitF.tnR.* 'trtk
(i+ ffiI " "EkH," " Fll . " -EJ|H" mf 6lH, Fi,t D &.ia]l, ffits*&" tEJfi {ft" " " &." " " " 2#tE EjF WV'1 R&'A lE6 P Efr R4-t5it' * 4i I ff 2!" "rt 5IS xf- ffi'Hn F!iH&, E ffi" &" 4| fr t+" EJH "E*4X 6J . rE" "^H " id' E| fi liF 4 tr B'I,,\aI # W" W4" E:Str Eirl' ffiE tr h ElJ A 7X tr.u (*.tr ffi ffiE tr - h A EJ H . *,rr EfH H'!jH E i-"1, 5| fi E#- * H\A tr " " tu|+"E E H! t4" H!'ffi +6JlJ A+**.4, 8 " (H iE) " " " 47t " " " Fii " " " " tlo n^ e T n +-. effi 6JH., E*F B(EA) 6 ,fi tilEtdifiZr.tLT 25.+kffiMnin'RBtr ,_ . D. T C. EJIL 8.frY,/a A. 6IU
I\. ^ "-+6 TtL#

C. RR'tr.

D. {4R

C. E

D.tu|+

". ffi7Etr -tlHEJ5.9lH 5 HfrE ti+ffiI'Ar1l"EffitFEi4.+HET"zift"4-Fzift ,r,tngin9 fi ' +lX.iF F!A6, EHF!66 +#^-ffi4F8'14,ffiTFe4.F.+.W'ffin' fHE /a"E{t i'"l,H 5 " 48 Ff,;6I{ E + 6fr fr!. "fllS {6fi " lnX / ry8 / lqtn/ ffrr R " . "9 ft ++EEB, /a" " " "+"tq' tft E E F E iA,ffiE tr *'/l H EJ H, 4l #'4 R . X6 . " W *.rril?1k E " " "flll "TE"Ef(+*Eid, ffiiehH HH,t^ trffiH! h f,t6r 6 H, +EJ Fl6 FfREtffi E n +-. fRffi w+fr* . ERFA(AflrJ) 26.E.R,+tf/\HtrA ,i,f6i[Fatr-T. ,_Et+ lfrtTz":tl
A.

B. Xff

C. HT

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A. diE B. rff_H-

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(i+ffiI "n8"""BJiE""""tzsfrW*^. "T8 ""'friB""""#^+Ftl+-'H}J . "*F""" diE"'"'" E.tw** . " F-H"""di""""EffiiRffi AEETEH,!,H'8,6Effi Hi w," R6"H5"t"ffiW,71fi4^l+x . ffiffi6lffi'4tr}jfit+Xf,."E*EA(6E
H

C. 4E

diE

l. .F,a. di

,_He*lfr.,FJL, . {fi,:Ekffih5tjlififfiffi 27

-nEi5lj-Aff
&,
-lsl

'ft "

A. n-

di

B. ?trI
L_/. -l-Bl

C . E / a E /a

)ftWffi(i+ffif "n-"""-8fr""""F[&tkL? " "+4"""&"""" Efr++X'# la ...... U) .r4 EF h aFEI " Efr++xF., t'ri Bt *Fh 5 E * -..... " "d. " F hEJffJA s _)L......,, ......" . &ffiA 1frfu dJ tFWEt # ffiffi E T _)L...... E+il *6i, fH ffi......_ffi
-99-

. t r + E : B ( ? E It ) H,A t it w* 28._jE 9tJ Affi'HRtuI E|Eil\x _r,F/* E Alt't ,fHln ^, e. HF,|H A. &, fllt^
C. AF, tr D. .R,A t

(i+ffir "Z^IH...--.&......"EiEff ERI+Xa. "hr """ XA " "ZKtr......4F"""" h h R l+x, IEW " E * l+XF.. &ffia H, +EJ "EiE B/i...... 6...... fr.Xa"'.R9...... ,&#t*-+*t1il1+"f0,FfrU;f.frVfr "ZfrE"EfiL#-fr,ff/a,HlF)L,4''-,8'/a"#htl"J'fti-"] ffiB" EXFD(.R,q ffi)
1affijffiT ,-hftAAWEryU e. trt A. Bf;ft flF/a D.?{ c. 5F ;Fgn
?n

A. tr{tr d, c. thT 6

e. T'- A[ D. ,F,4 Fi

FtD) tT

(i+fi4f "Bf;ft """flF/a""""EtrRJe6. "Er """Fnu)""""EEIRXF" "5 "?^ tr F.. . . . . t r t n. . . . . . " E f r # X , # B ) f r + + tr - h 6 JB0 aJ' . " " ' &6 """"F ) b # *, lFi TE 1lH4R' 6 6EH FfV)" h E +ie 6, lE" tzrf Et-g[AH! 6 d. &f 4 H, +EJ f{a. E+E_A(EE*fllsA) H ;"flBA"4l fi ffiUllHo#+,EI|)_IHTft E. 5JE Hil||, Fg DsiTA IFJ c pH{ll 1. ffi*llrlt1A 7h.E di xf ,BflF " trI ,L'9-ft*nr BT clfrfrrl^ffixh#'D 2. E*)rxA[Exf ,A'f&, ftf " D6E'ffifr*. ^d 5|Jii, 'f#Htft& 3. A ixaffi+ffiffiElB,c diE tttsxfi10 B6/e ,c\Ffr DxffU'V A|r+& FfrDJ n" 4. BhH+EK&ffi,ffiFRF{|'4 Bri,WE c A*ti &dffitr D*I 5.71{pffii{fr+Jrefuffif^,+|pft#l9Affiffidzkfrt1, EtmiEH!ffi*" mE 6. _E&+, 4# . _Tt'},h _Lffiffi#+r**ffi s. E* *p A. tr EI o. 6 AF C. diE t
7. A. C. B.

_xwwa
F[ffi flFA
-fin El

ftwffi^,F-

e. Bp{Ft

.iH |J " MV%H Wfi

xllzs

--$ ,Itu

D. .R,g Fli

A. NC. ;6:A, a[
q

E+tEtrE frWfrEX' EEt+Try+ff$- E )t+\ffi'W " e. F/rH & E]L


O. EF,IH &,

A.

g FNw&tIl, + tr'EHqAHP " i*asf{YqEfi ffi -+t{ll B. EE* ^+ flF/z ^' trN FfiD)
- 1 00-

D. thlF t C.EfA ItrE , Ib'-^'w |o. )w,+W< *T,gE-TJIF,1., -EER If inffi e. tr EI A. BP{F&, o. fiit aF C. AE diE
11._qEITffi,&-F-*tFTs" A. Bp& &, C .E* 4 s. ,:"18 &, o. F,A. t

"

1 2. Pf F ir{ N.EE X

n. 6,fL tr.,f -f^fT,

rF eH 4F* + x, "ffiF.4'B f '+ F-:XIfi F ffiB! EB Fs '" D. hIF ^ffiafifi C. FPffi e. trt
-A 4Lf,'96*)<XE/af81t4f' " e. 6,fE ffi.E o. hlF 6

C.AE dtE 14. -)rxH=xJJW'


A. Fp& &,

-{&#t

c. tri
15. _irfr

tfrt))

E6W . n. tr o. 6

nl #F

A. 5E ;FfuN c. hlF t

fi ffiEfT 4fi,1l11' -iI,',f&{ll

e. trt

ffiEiT &',fll"

tfrD)

n. 7ii ,H.E -EHM. B. E 6 E o. Htf* flF/a

rc. -*JIM#:W Et, -taW' A. 5F 6ln c. -i8 4L

. -H 17

lH T &+, -fraRE'f+a9jiaqxf +t ff ,8',1F.


s. 6E diE p. ?rJ t6

A. Fp& t, C.Fd t

1s.,fu-

A. ZFfrU EET o . Rq f f i C.iNR flFA ffiffi' *ix-EflF4TE le. -qE x'f6&aF{fFJ


A. .R,A t c. Etf^ flF/a A. AE ME

,-H +z ffiffifit+

H" l&'tffi#frt+&4R^ e. zitr m-H.


ps "

s. 6E mE n. isR di zo. 6eH *ft., -*, 4Jn**HoFft -^* "


E. BF{F &, D. .R,4 di

c. &E &E
21.+r.ifi A.h l F t c.h 7 6

E fr &1X'-HfE

@E}+' +{ll fTffiI*. IFJ

s. trt Ffiu)
D. ,fFIN flFA

zz. iSffi fr+ --fit ffirll -Lfr<J


N . EE X

H! tb#, --

E.@E ruE
D. 4AE

rrr |lsfr&ffi#J#E"
flFA

c. n

ffiE

- 701-

t2

A. C.
2t

/atu'ffi . RffiAE-flF Xffi IFE ffiffiffi, Eft+ -EfrE E. BP{E EfA IEE &, D. .F, t Ttb, a$ &A&4. e # )r +4 il?R,t ft YnfiFI H H0+ZitiU,-fi

e. Ef* trJE A. E* *F D. TH &,A C. trt FfrD) 25 . B. 5{ 6ln A. R 4E n. 6 dr C. FIJ& d, 2 6 . _iEr *Xwwxq,4/s _r4TE++T*' 46E+6m8. e. Bf;f* flF/a A. 6yt f[ D. lfrJ# fJt C. 5H 6tn
97

_T#rt,_-E6A+4reiE.

e. fiit aF A. RHt D. ,R,F BJi C. hTt trffi+ E " 28. _ trxft z 16 il x H0+ ffi4p8, _XFE ffiU+frilft-rX B.'fHls A. EfA TEE d, D. C. f.[v m,H. 5{ 69n 2 9 . lb&bv,# Br. F' _lE&r$ffigJ['"-'lF . + B! fi tt[_& B. A{E ffi-H. A. trjb Ffru) ^ N. Ff;ff B'i C. ,6'rE, tE 30. hfi,RTu^, -6l&,aExftBlHf [R,&H1FF fifFj'fu" B' A. Bp{q &, di D. lrR t C. trt FfrD)

- 102-

Hint: After finishing the exercisesof adverb, auxiliary utrd.onlu.t.tir", y"r."" d. th. test below to check your mastery of relative grammatical points. The test is the focal point of all the three parts. It is comprised of 30 standard multiple choices and you have to finish in 20 minutes. Please take the beginning time and the ending time. Refer to the guidance and analysis of the exercises after you finish them.

4{ff.8{t4-,F._r} 1. fifi,trX# Bnth&ix,-H c rlj+:,s.tra D*ffitr,t+#r . t -t A -b,fi++ 2.A &x')'+H,bf-retul#xfr,B {A1+.,xilfi,lllfiTsHEtxt'f+tuT+lH D+g+ ,c diZ.FE g"trw*T. 6
3. A AAISX,B rbft,fll c EA4pl T D" w+Jtffi tFH 4. fF+* Wi1*E#,E4.tLFt A fn B& c +tptDfi. 4 s. E Fttts_Tfa6wwnTt A. 4 B.t c .&, D.# F 6. +tifl A -"1 iLffi4 tE,lBlt ABttR*, +t,f II ---tft iE" B. t C. &, D. #F BJi ^. 7. lt /a# 8 /aRR, +t_ lq9J x, lB:EJit+*,X+T T Wti ifi "
8 .6 C.E D.&,

A.N

B.H+lLa^trJffi, +t_A*tsJl/f; " A.F B .N C.tr D. 4 e.'fl[En)F'4++1,_mI4 iq*Irr " A. *j B. -H c. tts.& D. ftf4 10. BmXffiffi, f1'rffith*Ad'li S *f " A. 48. B. !tr c. ++t{ D. ,l* i1. xf A rtj+ B IEF**H!tl,ffi,ftXh!c S D HaffiH-rL" T 12.tBn,+\ffifK1hAtfr BXn* c LW4ffiD.+>lH0,HR. T 1 3 .+tA*i qaA ffi ,B Fc H f o H ts Hlis t r . d 14.{&frtr A E+,+F B F+rH!flxf c ftii,,"EEA D flI5*B!"" E 15.+E{nT!L}ir'16 pl Affi B*[,ElLyttE/t c trX D. 16."-t*EFl*-l#", E{tq A EB H9,t Cfl&,*Tf|J D" fr\ 17. B LV ,U CW ff A t.EE II#H R ffi tr,E r e . D & ff i T .'I+ iB. EFTEAFEffitrR,A E ts*X,C YqAD#3|jH! . Ffi 1e.flFEB+DJBfr#fiq,trXtrtA ts-H c,f+/\D. T 20.tnR f_,*#,Xwfx11. ^X*,di A. E B. xg c. *E D. ffiifr 21.ffi,FfrH2,'F A fifFJS+IillflflE.IllB,E#ffi-+EC HWfe.R.D SSTFH" ulE_ 22.A)^A *4r"*ffi+Iffi"U**,BfrltrLffi*H!ryJg *T ,c Fnffi*#T ,D Utffi

eTp+r.

n. ItrlllRflrE e,f&B+inFiF,c {&H!iIiFe,W*t D"


- 104-

+E

E*

Ft. 24. lfr- UJ rtF&FVi^E*hffi -diA-Sfi D. 6^!J c. ftIff B. fllsL ^,W:+B+A' A. +,HT irA f0+lH" 25. fU * ik)rvir@, -,m E E+&Ifr.ryH -lk&/a B. 5F ;FfuN ffi,H. ^.4& D.l[+ flB/a C. E.* {E.E tKfr'1ilJ'tlLLrl UV*26. D-t &#'!fi',-vzffi tsf tufr+ h + +, 6 ltr'lLf. Bfr "

A. tfru)

b. *_e.

. _i'fi,^Hhil 27 A. HT Erlt

c.fffi plifr )',,-fi6fE{H{& "

n 5 s f,J u.

e. trt Ffru)
o. trJlL FfrU)

c. trt #R
28. -l&"R,1.
E. FF{F d, C . E trI

B T, -+t{ll

di6liFiI, It /aT . e. Ffi* fltJ D. hlF t


B. ,F,4 BJi

2e.&l+&flR_fffr
A. AE HJiE c. ZKly ffiE

,-lffiLtn. #Ffr

D.trt tfru)
M+,*,-\fr+*,fr.8*46T-r .

30. +t{[-E&JIE,
A. Fft .X c. *iB -ilJ fiFIEt'l'Hl-,F.-ii

B.&a &# D.A{E tr

N ffi?/tbfiffiE+t - to ffifttE+Hxf E|J ia pl+E'Hn " i&f+ D" tr Jlt 1. E{ " t "ffiE"hF" *" ffi ,*^ 6h tTU E4Fsfr' i-ol G E f lf" ;" )"' 2 . *+6 J +E X IE A H ,h"T""", d i6 " " " ' ) 4 4 4 ' H, B ' E " . F , H " T" 6 HAffi U6 " fflt+"E 8 F1, ]ffi , Ffr & E rt . ffi + fuI " T " & &+ ifl"& FR" Hfr iFl t ......" . E{ B {iE. c.n &E:AI6reAAH" ErfiAffiiE# A. 6EA " m' tr I}LjE ++B" 3. E{ " & a " &Ltw6l + ffi&il'a" LL i-"1 4.EtJln]"4"&A+tT:tfti9,ffi f+t)r ]"4t"Bt'trtLiEFB. g " {""" 5. Etji"l"&" m {F,ffi E hJ+ 5 " F" +A ' fAfi " F " " " & " " " " # m' fE T Fp

c" &......".trrttfrF
.

" " " "' tILi&F D. iJ + AF+dJinl / MAiFl 6. "4F" f ,H.1f 4*F,-f {6ttE",H'{+ iE-..' E JB iSF e" irl"j6"* z\l[ 9E " " " "#t6' EtJ 7. + EJ " " " -tti h "fr + ]k/ T atJ "F' *,1\W*fuIdJ ah fF,H "EF" ffiHX' {trtrffiH B."6" HEd j"lBfr tFfulE.F-. trtrr ii' f&F A * i* )LAffi. iH,, ft F * A JL A " mT 6E n],tnalDJ SR FRd i'], n F'E ffi-d: +* fi'E "EH frlHX' E E A tF,lpF. h.+.W * " y" #^ft FXtlt 6 rce HH " "gF' ttr*lEF_, ^WW H{*fRAi"l.trrlt4Ei6F c. ER -'H IX+* Fth, tnaS # fr ryE fr1 fr }I, tr E H', +&1"=J s. "* E *^H - rJJ rc+*Eh. trttit# A. FHt"ffiH",
- 105-

+M ill" WWHll,'',w E, IERH "'W EID)ffi" ErJ r0. ",w," 4R " . " ++ fril+#F'lJffiE " . " trJ D. " frl+"M,WJhffil+ Ai'l + H! gE'F R . H! 1.7 20WftZA.xtEiiFl D' fi "Bfr tt. " T " ffi&dJin1 tr, B fu" fr" E# *hfi+, " T " Z\AVffi&" ' tr ftj$f+ e %' F' A fF' mE A' #'fi "W fuI tF," T " FID) 72."lhY Frrtliln triafr ,*a\ mg ilIi)J R " F! ig, 6 tfi a rc J %fi B" " * " " " >rn" Ei+A ffi*, E H + IF"{H +., IET!frYffi+d_ C4 D. trJll4ffii&F A" F1,,,,7"&6frAffitr jf, ,M.ffi-eiliiJ iA' Fl U)" fr" T68H E A. + " IFH","4 " 6lJ E " EJ 13. " ff "EdJaEn id " WA ", " it" ffiE, D 5 A H 6 ftlElJ ft|J " HJl" F;tl:p1t$ C" " m, f,fl tA,E&ffi H + b ffr -FR

B. re. wm+tri6F

(FEtrX.+&++*TW 1 4. "E "H&Aiatr, *7f t)J " ffi+"ffi8 " " " in E" lAif,1+ "E " U) )tt +fIE'Ffr ft vIfr FJ a . "fr" F dtr4" 2" + -6JJ1F1 # ffi,"ffi" ffi8\tF*fi "in ffii fr E[ c. D" tr JlL4ffi i&F B' u)" E " Z^AAffiE A. "xf" . "A "F^ if, ,Ffr frHU,H& c" s. HMWtFJ"ill"m&Fjn1"E.ilm ' trJtLEt+ H HX'EIltiSFD" ffiH,"fuI" 16. Affit"8""" F!"98 tr jttiEFB' I l,t ?l'iE' ],&frttrn1E' v . +"ffi EhtA" 1+" mftthri' c' 1s.AMx" Ffr"+ffi+E,"!9H"EEtJiA,Mi^Hiedlif,Ef ' BJhffit+ ..-H"EEUiA ,&Z^AV+*"T" a ,5'.ffi1^fr2+X47" 19."Elt,,.,,di"E6if, " +6lh:4D" i*," T "m#hJ^' tr JtLiEf+ T " filffi <El;a1" "' "' ffi / ll4# ... ...fuI 1A F\"tnR I g F / lqtn X 4, LE t\ A'H tr, * zi'fH F' 20.,, ffi"ffi&M:F /a"" "" Foffi D" ffi,flF " tr JttAMi&f+ ftlE'Hn. 21- 30 MF+A.xti+iFl aH, ffit+A. 21." u)&"F+ttl] ia,fEI T" f,["'tRffi Jtb Ft' El "," +ll ffi" = +i ffi' & ffia Rtr -- rF 22. "+ H"E +n F;a,)5t*"w8"," Fsffi JEFD" c. ,H'Hf 6lE,*fiWtfr xF.,wtftffit+ n. " NX" F.E=lJifl Ht 5|fi 5BfriAfEE lnF*Ttsff,flFA""""' #zs" 24. &ffiaH,+ffihw+frx,"6tAtJ #R,Wtki&ftD. 25. ffiffitrH,+Whffi++x,wj/.j)kt+B" 26. fRffiaH,Atri#tr*,wf.ifrt+B" B" . 27 t&ffiEl*, Atr! trRX4, A.c.DtffiiFHi*, ErlLjEt+ B. 2s.&ffiaH, 4M! trR XR,trLLfrt+ c' 2e. &ffiAH'AMti$i+ X3.'WtLfrt+ B. M)frt+ 6lH, +ffih )ftt+xF.,B 30.tRffi

.- 106-

# = Fl

E ffi

-.*8 fi # ,/|i f,(1) :.HFffiR,


( I )The preposition is used before the noun or pronoun to indicate the time, place' direction, object, purpose, reason, rrr4oorr evidence, resource' agent and recipient, exception, etc. 1. Preposition indicating the time, space' place and direction, for example, ))t, H, H

ffi' f ,,\, +T,3J,E,8,, T, M' W(E) , l[6,ffu,'&., h, iL , n \, iL, w

indicating the object, for example,Xf , ltT, 2. Preposition

. i*() ' JIF()


+T' f[' FR' 5, LY',h,

3. Preposition indicating the purpose and reason, for example,

h , fu T , E, fiT
,

ft, m, +, . .[H, {Rffi, I&,+8, %!fr), :Ejj, U),"Ek,


6. Preposition indicating the exceptiono for example, lh' ( II )The grammatical characteristicsof preposition.

4. Preposition indicating the manner, evidenceand instrument, for example,&(L) 5. Preposition indicating the agent and recipient, for example, hf

+8,w, rll, il.

It has to be used of a sentence. element 1. Preposition cannotbe usedas an independent structure. beforea noun or pronounto form a prepositional auxiliarywordssuch as"ffi", "7", "fr". 2. Preposition cannotbe followedby dynamic For example,we cannotsay that "hTffV'1ffiR, 3. Preposition cannotbe overlapped.

LHZ;WF&'hW". = .HSK tiitEA,

1./|idHla#+f" 1,+\-EFxTEeii, MtJ

-,F.JLe^ fi . ryffitul#

D. ET C. HX B. XfT A. JET ytE, lMW 2,+L+ fi 6!ifrg lErt ( /f iF ) " + +. -[fij.I, Frl D. j.t B. ?fi c. {F A. +8, 3,*tlT H!TtF-+t-f T, f,Xrt'B *Fs " i\'f&i'k?ffU ,{F D. C. B. A.H XfT & 2. /ir466J+6t,fnH" D. +EI'f+ I,6WA rq+tB gIggtE c j&F!Jfg+*' MtJ ,cW+WDfr';tffi=Wfi^4''t. MI2, A'Fl+B'lAEfiB#rldiftllFEfiiJffi

6#E ts ^ 6+E A
4+E B VfrE A*E A

6ft

20 3.aifr+ frrwffiaeFtul ++r4,i+ffinr$*,5'y'lirl" tt.ffiffi.&flfl.[hT.re .xf T.4.xT.fn.sR. ld.a.F.a. fi .+s.&.i,t.&.xf


El.EHiti#,
of people or business,andthe 1. The "{fl," sentenceusually indicatesthe management generalformat is: agent + +E + recipient i- verb *"' (1)Verbs in "tE" sentences should be transitive verbs. The objects, which are nounsand @Verbs in "tB" sentences - 109-

For example, oi disposition. fiF,WF+EU+[F9{T. the meaning contain pronouns, usually "U+". governs noun object the Herethe verb"0F" -$Ff&FBF9{T+r.+"
amples,

Here are a {ew exOSome verbs followed by objects cannot be used i., "fE" sentences. A. Verbs that indicate the stater H ' E, E, I4', etc.

activitv, thepsvchological ffiFL'f(^' ffiE' IFJH'Bi'f ' fHfH' thatindicate B.Verbs ffi14, V)h' etc.
C. V er bs t h a ti n d i c a te th e te n d e n c y o f @Verbs cannot be used alone in "f[" after. t hemovement! t' T' i l bo H ' E' etc' sentences, and there should be affixed elements

say,lEf#") A. +8,+4iE*" (Youcannot (you cannot sav,l8ftrl") B. +E+IBFT-DK" sav"f&fBHa)JW%*.) c. .{d,+8, E-dJffi+,*T" (Youcannot j$4'+t" (Youcannot sav,'FfErtr16") D. 'R+Erlr
if there are some in the sen@Modal verbs and adverbs are usually used before "+8" tence. Here are some examPles.

3OO A. ,fT,FE+g AtrEB!68+E*" B. llrF/a.6ttsl96.lffi{ lt c. TW4B- t++Ei+Affi*"


the When modal verbs or adverbs modify or restrict a certain element in "fBt' sentence, sentence. modal verb or adverb should be placed a{ter "f[," according to the meaning of the

For example, f,x+EftAFffitUffi+8. (2)Objects of "+9".


to the speaker. It cannot @The object of "+8" should be somethingdefinite according while you cannotsay indeiinite. For instance' you can say "+tsfiffi*trT" be something

"w-ffxlar".
be placed after to be the object of @Generally irr "tE" sentences, the object of "ffl,"can object lthe verb. That is to say, you can transfer the structure of "subject f {B *

v er b ..'"tothestructureof"subject*v e rb + " ' + o b je c t " ' g ' g ' ' f f if E f lf iI f ' * lB t I

+["

th" order and position of oth@In some "{8" sentences, when take out the word "fB"o The only change is er words as well as the meaning of the sentence still remain the same. that the object of "+9" becomes the subject of the new sentence.

"ifi", which 2. passive sentences. Passive sentencesindicate passivity through the word + agent * introduces the agent. The general {ormat of passive sentencesis: recipient + W v er b" ' ( 1 ) V er bs i n Pa s s i v es e n te n c e s ' - 110-

A. +E+tmT-s)b " -{tpliT-frt " B. +EF+EtrffiT. -H+6frWT"

should be transitive verbs to govern the noun or pronoun @ Verbs in passivesentences before the word "t(".

the E.s. &,VWfFruFm9gT . --W1ffiFtrFX.T&,7.Heretheverb"ff" governs


noun object "U+". @ Verbs cannot be used alone in passive sentences' and there should be affixed elements after. For instance:

sav,ft?ft B!ffi F W4l") {&fl13d:,,\ A. +\WrMflFA,,\ B!ffiFW4l l+T . (Youcannot say : &EffiWffiWIMIllW.) B. &Efr1J&H&,fd,fllffi 4+++t+t#. (Youcannot sav'#fXH!H'fr+W+\* ") cannot C. #*ffi H'[:FW#.*T. (You
@Modal verbs and adverbs are usually used before "W tence. Here are some examples. il there are some in the sen-

A. fifi,FflRE4wtk+r+T. B. +IEHffi'}YA&X4. c. {&H!B{IFJ EVWTrF. fr*T "


(2) Objectsof "W'. The objectsof "W * verb *".'' be omitted to form the structure of "recipient * i( can sometimes For examplet

A. {ft68ffi/\&t[,frr. 8.fi*ffii^A&&ejT" E.ififfii+ffi, DFET " +E frIEAF 1. trrTA +i9J)*ffiHt\ffi+E+,B fi c FffiEJtjtzj'/'H!tr + B(g +, tr in1 + +E / Rif,) + A (i+ffiI "+8" rt t, A(tr6 s, h r4/ R'aD + 6ttul-flt+fi &EI.J+ E S, "18",H U'Affi i'f+ " " ", H F A *Fhtrl " effi EH, "#,"ftffi#, "E H IE" tEl.6+E c 2.A.{ffi,ltBf\*t,Ttitc&,+ll1DEn. +B A*$r|,B[,tE+eiF]i {\iA+dlt'1"'"'.E*E A Li+ffi) F,M1,AM'A'ffi +E ,dr6dJ-8fr+Iq'fe'f[ c Er D YFXatVt 3. Ef 'f6EA bffi,,&'B Z<68 " "T AV "Efr , ElJlL Mla&" +8" ( i+ffiI dliFl i"f- flt H tr "+8 iFl'i* t-h E{ Bfi lE+ H ftARdJta. Bfr. 6XE C Dflt"{H0F+Tffi. W. B-An c f,+A 4.A 4&,ffJF-H + A[+ B(tr& / |\t;J)+ th +, 4 :e1 (i+ffiI "W + 6JffJ-ffiffifr n, A(P S, A :d1 / RinD Fe " ftF.+' S' " lbill +......, W. &ffitsH, "# iFl 4 + A 4 B*Fr)Etil'E "^tuTYF"Eifi E+A"Bt "& mE+Fl. A F "- WW tF:frtr,T.E?ffid4if, " 6+E c' BA CF&IIT+D. &TFEHOF A fiF 5. 3]JTHH!I}? ifJ" ffifrU'ffit)J AF" tLElJ & Efr ( i+ffiI A i"1 if, ,B}-tif,- Wffi&" EtJ Bfi lERA frAffiaJ1ill. ' EI ln1"+"tfi&"Wffi. E*FC cffi De*Ffl\tf" WBYqEEfrffi'I5 6. +*9jffigtstrtr,gtri.FpH #,A+t+J1lEtr B Fll'ffi *Fr}. 4 6SETD-{A'ffi' (i+ffiI WdrEJ+,inRB0trIf,t4:iilw,flF/aEJ'TF 6]P+8"+t8Jtru"/a^WTffi+"HR","&"HEdJi-"1Ffi "ryXED
- 1,11, -

B+th-T+ col+ D*rmltu*" e 7.^++\wP!r!J* (ha/Rin..]) +aid + " "" .F-t* +{F+B fr ,A(&al/i\id) ti+ffiI ffiahJtul-ffitf 5 " Bh A'tfr HHffi A fF,HHt n* Ht A+/\'[+S kl{E{FT, 'fE4{Bfi H,E', #4s ^&+P B A w+lFIx',affi" 6*E u)B+aia"Hx+tiE,++
B.H FJffi9 -Zt)fri#-'
A. rE1
R * tr

. 5UZi41H,H. C, W

D. &

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A. fEl
RHH
v. itl

D.

'[ ffiiX. EXE trJHT (i+ffil " th:" 6hin1tr, H'f 9lfi trFlEIEl " "Sj" "h" :' ^"W.j*ffi A( r4) i't+t ET+t " BiEfilc )rxD,AI#JaT+B\LX1-f.ieJE 1r. A Z,IF ( ( B + irl + i'l /'ft ) * d:irl* " " ", H / l\id ) it rt E, A 4 ial iL frrt* f,tt& t i+ffiI ft ln1" (1)tr1i&'fF4'f.,3Fl,fEET"{F" . 9n,4lfi,W14$/a UEW. 'il"P!+9FHi*E, + A *FrlEI eIfEg T "&"' 9B freS A, t hi+,1+trJ hHt 9lJ Htl' . Q)4lfr drtF -11 iL+tl* *+ ffiF\ffi,, ^ iB,itft*xA . +61+ n6Eiti&-fl*. (3)tzi'ft'+.ffiilF,fHET"rt1"."4"o " iLffi ft" iL*B"*$/z|, ffi#At;J"ffi*n"Et " 6+E B AWEB+tc'JlnD-T'EdiE+kIt1W14.W" Ntx 12. (i+ffiIilin1"h"il1-fit46rtE,A(trt;J/4\iFl)+h+BGtn1/t\it+ai"1+"""'F fu|xt *,fH E T" t " . "6". ln t|'k + A gfir|trIu'AW. " h" ffi}.$.Hif,ft,Q)il 4 frflftfA %+ (F.11 ". ln,h lMtr # I?FU, E T "xf" . " lfo *# E, fH h tul n-T. (2)5|fr d1 tEIn+ . 6+E C if 4 Bfr .m + "h )\X F" h+ B"*FA, + *t*. nT . +61 . ffi-ira tu\ft )LiEffHts-ftdJinl" 13. 7r\,J L,fill+9u T +rAffiF,,f&'flt ^h+EFE D.th c. xf B.,!,|\ A. IEJ m&a:d1tr, ") "Jxt"Znfraffitrd1a=ti+ffir " h" aIffi&dJin1tr,4lfrxt4-" " " Fl" glstr,s.,,.fi861 #'xt^" 6*E D(h) B+tc %+,Dr'EFo^"+ 14. A pH{I-EtrSHlB-+EWW +A 4\.in]) (i+ffiI " +" Ffr fti"l ) + + + B( A in1/ &EJ+ Ei-f,ft ffifr E, A( E'e1/ ,fHgT"{q". ln,{&H!ifra A *Fhtrr|,affi" tgffi*E, (1)*fiBf(lp-x ia+......,H+ Wfu xHBt fi fI& B! "," iL"o in' fFKAfi 'fll 5 T" 14 " "+" m /r5'1fr " (2)*/rrft+, fH EiE-ffiE . FE B

15.ailaH!fiffi--fl4T. D. & C. Fq B.it A.W q UE W,Ep' A+ A[ tr[ 8!triFA Hf (i+ffiI " W,u iL," nLI" I^t Wdl,lE" W' Ffrffi AF i"l+ " " " " + A F'E E, A + it / rt{+ B+ &J W,.F, + A iFl + ......, ffi" it " . " Fr)" Ffr ffi RiE6 flA'A t&dJHx ,"1fr"6?ld6lH" 6*E A(&)

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(i+ffir "6fEtT'ffiffiEfB+,r)^firT . E#ED(IT) ,L,ntr++3!J]ft 7. l&+'ffi ,Z".ftV _*HeE " D.H c.) it A. + B.F 6*E D(E) ti+ffiI "ffi*WE tbffi4.Sffitf ffii^H,UEru*rufla\ffi. B.{tsFfxinH! ? E*Tffi E, *n_[q fi +xfi, ffJ D. HhF.+. c. HfAFf|J A. H+HtrE B. AffHP. (i+fi#r " HtHxE"ttFftt's4ix,ifiEfrtr " HtT,aFffi He{firfris, Hd HfE+mfiA" )r, R# H 6' TlpIttJ . " HfrL ,,\ftj * 4(+gtrR HffJ# R*=tr.f ',\" " H)rF.+ tr6 Wfrfrtl B!iE+Es,H,f&lr. EXF A(HtHrtr) - e. &^/tft +tH _jefifr{#,Zr'ffiehfrr.ffi .EHtrE " n. if C.,F. A. ]t B. E (ifffiI "+fiH)*"ffiffitr_qb*" EXE D(it) 10.l* t flls E &fr WlkW+" x' FI+ iWffi^M&HA['iltBtxl D.IZ c.n e.E A. + (i+ffiI "Fl,+_Ln"ffiWA* " tr*F_c(n) n. E Z,t)fr iED T A e W+ 4 ffi Ht X,L'rufifEiT' lE+ {ll4R'R _Iffi -E
I]H O

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tr). 12. l&4AE xxa\ffif+a+ Hlr,FlYqH,E,,4


D. zJr,l'SS C. irX,L.irIH B. tsy+Effi A. HA-91 /a#F6tt& HRE BXffi . ti+ffiI " H+ - VJ" ME%fi ffi H)r, tt " "BY+Effi"f 6++5U . E *ft B(W " jnl,L' 46 Wffi"2r HH ME+d + r|)H'H,LL )fr F." ffit+ h$ifr " " zJr,L' ^+ HAffi) 13.FAili.A Hd 6!68.,#TBK?I' _,t68& Ht TWfiD " D. f r c.ffi B .fi A.ffi +Wffift.,+F+>15|J/\H!frtA Ii+ffir "FK?Fffi"EAf frlKA*?l'ilF ' ?|.fiHd B0 6,e. 6*E A(ffi) 1a. .a*-!LrF-Efi X' 648ff triE= iEE . D. flffinn c. -ffiffiiA A. ffi flJe B. H&TE (i+ffiI "ffil\frJB"+Fffig5tJ,,\H0fu6,{q H ef+9]fljffi" "H#rE"ffiiEH,ftar+ 15.+BP!ff iF,FJafrkrJ#+Z ,-{R E R;t+*fr+J 'trffip'a#rj^fr. D. E C. E B .B { A.X ti+ffiI " E6RE R"ffi_X_Xtu#,R. 6+E D(E) !' 16.Z)\H H H-fii"i$-++H0AfttrJFJtr[4 D. iF c. B. i# A. ifi ifr
- r28-

"fm n n"f S'lH. +fJ6tFhf.6lnxt{lulE#xft+. H+*.'R. " -Mmib"fxfdlE$

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A.W B ./B C.A D. I,

(i+ffiI "tf 6,"ffi|t^#.ffi7-'+lnd Wffi7-,FL. E#F B(/e) g. t Fl Ffrt tr H6ffifrthL#JflF.#184, " D.T c.# B.fi A.fr (i+ffiI "8fr6T'"ffi-tLy.-Wtufrvl,lLAfF. 6+E A(fr) zo.iSffi tilT " RE -ffi-EiitrI 6-, HIFff ,f* D. lqlElzJrS c. IEFt\y* A. D>F ^ B. /ff8tf ( i+ffiI "'f*6 D >F t tr 4 t E lF" " ffiI* trrLT ffi" ffi#*T ilI&6S fr?ffi ,EffiF " "ffiffi>F zJ' "wFfr 4' ffi#.nJ tL. " t lE F " *F *S rlfHlE,RE',M. 4 *" #rE.WMVin " E * D(t lE zJ.F) ^

2r. lfi,wxwt^^fr+ffi _,w&+kll1&fttk{,fi,.


D.EE C.H B.'U A. f r (i+ffiI "nfr+m'EU"#Z.tA^EFUdiH+" E#FB(F{) (4" tlt 22.E*EANi$tr fr 6 ertr,IETLffi ili6ftA#.*itrx&fi -* D.i* c.ia e.E] A. * (i+ffiI "rt,8#FJ"ffi19E.'i"l* " EXEB(E]) /zE Pg, zz.Vr ffitr E fu*fi -tT *tuIt XW-L& D. H C. tF B. tffi e. ,,\ (i+ffiI "ftffi+fX.."Mtrl9Hffi?+" *E B(/ffi) 7--X:di 24. + EHJt '{,}EEH . xnt]EE i* a iE)8,mWR _T D. :tffitrffit B. JqnAltE c. frtffr;1# A. 6Hmffi pft qE ( i+ffif "6Hm "+F * TU +f E +F fH JFX # f E ffi.' rfr.rfrFl 6 H ii,FJi H" "[en FE i/iEtr, it +F *W6W fr?i . E &- Bt SiLg9lX rr. "',ilBffW AJ[EH^4 Kft H, rbffi *E A(nHmpfi) 25. l,H.f39ltl6'41,+XE&t-lR, -TtJ61J " D.T B.tr c.r [ A.Et (i+ffiI "T Th FIJ#TA66EEH' tzsBtLB&tr -tR " EXF D(T) za.flA&Nifr . fu|+t 1frffi_FEfe ffiW&w,, 116 ) (i+ffiI " rifi *2-*l& & " EXF B(lIfi SSU trH'l t XW&,tLpft sEffi "#3JT'R+T . [trF^ 27 Utr frtl&/a4 F'. A,H'E*-f&wtul,
A. B .= C.tr D.- b A.gJ B .l l fi c.xf D.*

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- 129-

D.flO C.tr B.HR A.E ) (i+ffiT " HAffiHF"+FHRHFH]A,MaiTHhH+. FI EXF_A( ze. H^ rF/ffi #.iFll*4#rxVtuT " D. Elffitr* c. Htrfi/\ B. =HffiiF A. ffiffifit4 =HmiF " #ffil+tfr (i+ffiI'Ftffifi tH M" " H+ fi M "" " ffilkaEF, YAA/\f,fl ^ ,MEfz'Wffitr+. E+ft H/t,aZlEE{ " " Flffitrx"ffiffiTHRFF.Wgii,6Sifi *9filfn D(Elffitrft) ffitr i{ ffift ffia " 30.*s-Exuifi ' tsffi'ffirxxf D.i c.* B.T A . +t 6*E c(>F) (i+ffif "q$*E"ffi F46&ffi &xn4 "*/"$' 4/t&6ffi 4' " E. 5JruHill|, = ffi,E F 9K naF& #' E R'f +. i. & jE+t,f XE +t:ll E,f*6!zJ' " ^EWfr D'ln c. x B. fr A. ig 2. +r++# E^Trc+MVUH ---rlj ' tE+l}fifn&F. D.( F c.t B.fC A. E ffi3. +\4p.+F., htfi**T -f Z.f;+ " D' 5 U c.ifi B .l # A. # +. RHfre N'IF, fl,-W. t ftVH o ' fi c.+ e.tr. e. t E* " A' L' L'H0 ' iiff :ffifrT','r'6 s. t\*T frtl +<, I&,FH -fi' D.< , C.H B.HR A.tr H. 6.,f&9H,8 ft&w L+tl -/\is HWir-, D.5 l c.E B.fi A. r & . E-T 7. ffi4MIllrL*,+tR{+ffiA,F.JLFIffiffiHAM

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- 130-

trV,+W+",ETtrJ'EH! $. +ZFltBtr-i#, ffi"-." D.ffi c.E B . ' l F A.,R -dtE? H! ffi . rc. l&lt/z#Fr+, ffi,1. /tD.+ c.H B.+ A . , lH 17.e\Hr+Wutr,+\B%ififliBEE,&tutrary"fi-FJ ##Jx#F . D. {H{H c. FBHS B. rftrfr A. #tffi RflEtr. rB.TFh - A*TH fr ,ifrg+-AHT
A.,L' A.HR B .H R B .ffi C.E C.N D,H D.E

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20. + E+FH-Ftr++g+>F-Httrl|J

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The locution is short fixed phrase in spoken language. It is laconic, vivid, informal and

Forexampl", interesting. II&4, +TtE, Sx&ffi,6ffi+f+,&AzJc, fif++E' ftEll' E =X+f&WXfEru, AffiTT. There between similarities aresome 4W,7r;E=t:+-,
the idiom and the locution. However, the locution is more often used in spoken language. It has a simpler meaning. Most of them, while taking apart' can still be used, for example3

stl&+'-"*Twx&+.

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A. /ltL

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A -.A , ^ .8

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B. -TT C. ffiT+

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6+E B(ffi,) ti+ffiI "-XU]JWE/^+9JF4,,ffiMX" s. RgV,+ftAZ ,R/t+, ft-w&ft'*'}ffi* -LE
- 133-

D. 6H'W c. T*'R B. 6E+ A. rll4f ig " "6 E+ " ffi6& (i+ffiI "6FI l{ ffi"EYAA ffi^R )tfrfiilfr Fl,E ffiTfiE E ffi ,# frAW iF. " 6 HW# ffi^B 4 ZiFif"lffi ' E m6 FE iE" " tr'R"ffilYHfri6+ A,L't, tr mEIDJ ffi^H 'F B(TE+) E^A?I4 X*_x\rt " E+F /a tsffi a.E It -VlF., 64'ft+T &/aWT " D. r6lt c. T.t B. 6l(r A. /tTT (i+ffiI "Xu^T"#a9& ffiff,&#ffiEffi ,*ffiT6Efr 'fEET"T64+".B,D 7. ts{+S'f&in4F.H H'+HHF., " -llrT'tra D' TEHR c.6*r-" B.6Htr+ A. 6AM 6 a'dt6 A . (i+ffi *e6J + tFffiF,+F * ffiT 4 Xfriu\. "T fr1+" ffi++n, I "6A tffi" i+H 4 n triFE+n "lFZ^ftEi | ftnJu\ ' 6 8 1" Ei.#fr+, . "6 E HR +F 6 d.intr<1rt "6* EB (THt+) . iH{H0-ilE+tr B.fi T+^ H.ffiffi&, -fi&,F*t*T D. 7li&E c. Z"n4F. B. T1+B ^. TfrC (i+ffi '\1+6 Rft? RlF'*, 4&6J+ l1fttr' tr+*ahrl,ffi f " 4.4F.T " " Tl+e" ffilL6 lJ'v*, Tlij*#t&."6 n(F."ffiI^-fl. ":f.WE"Emfr+, tz\fr'ETE " 6*E B(6e ) -,R JLe6E& . HI s t trlil t e. jIffi W* f.W:gfr4i41' E+\lllXFj D. aH0E c. di*)L B. anJL A. a-+ ll JL"" (i+ffiI'd -+ffiA#I, HT n lE. "A n )L" #H ft4' ffiTtriF'F Xi"lt"YA ffiT triF. tr*E D(AFiE) "HlE)L #AflE, ffiT nrE " "H ffiE ffiH'4P*, 10.itf$lR4 tEtHtr.ntt.f*JL ' ryIJLAF- ' dt[45,tr4r. D.4E+ c. H*18 B.&ybffi ^.H-E . "H fr+Jft ffi (i+ffir "H -."ffiHftU1 . "tku8tu1"ffiUb6$ft,fie[Zitr.,Mtr4FTffi ) HiE * " "+" ffixtpffiffifr4pK.6+E B(lAYhB!

D.z c.',ffi B.t+ A.E (}fffiI "xHtFW+F E*E A(tr) &*1W#. HHH0.6E++HiE

11. ++5 tr,E+\^w+nxw -'EFS.


72.Z,T.F;&fll ffi-, a\-"1

D.-+g+ c. -n+ B.-{n+ A.-.R,+ = WIiffi (i+ffi {n+' WR+W, E H0 + 4A'fnR T Hll\,W4ffi+ULt6 6E r "-+E+"IR+F
Effii4fam, ft!ItrIf6t":+E+'. A.B.C " EF-D(-1E+) I*.+k, T. d,fi JL;tE 10 13. zJr ffi;!ffi xfi lF,ft'fll,,LF, D' 6T+ c. 6dr+ B. nfi+ A. nFJ+ " fr+"#ZFfTH,B'fi*'A (i+ffir "Z"gJ+"fEET"64]\",ffiZNfrA4F.gJ. +Atr,+FHTlt,)-ffi:in*TH,E " EXE B(6fi+) " c.DEfSiFHm Pf +{+fr1-bl\ffi r4. l8X-7, F lEl E A+E+kfll " D. T&ffi c. B. A. ^AifiT "Zn9.'F.ffilf.Hfrffi ^gK (i+ffif ^ffiifi, "ZnHiil#E*B!,lL6'|.ryin. '6lif"Jffi' "tr|effi
- 134-

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15.zJrflfP Hf!, -frZ^+85IJ -AHRE B .ff A.t\ " C.H D.fiF

(i+ff " fIAHRE"#i lr64Pe\86t" 6+ A(rI) . FtW& iL4tIt1H 16. E{+SRlrFEtER.f&'fll +T+-,

D.+Ery c. +# B. 4JE A. ,fRH (i+ffiI " +fIRF*" . * A . " +f+W" ffiffi+ *1dllF# t Pzrr t " +F ffil*irt, lF+ElX"" 1T
.
C. FT

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D. &

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D.E c.= ,66EE++. ryxft ;Bt'H' + Bf (i+ffir " = xtrtuw Bff 4 TqT#R-_'E,L' ttpft+>l lEl" c(=) +ft+r+ . 20. &ffi4U-T +tffi{&fi$'E, D.+ c.tr B.n A. rif
A.D. -

(i+ffiI "tfrfr+"ffiig9JfE44*Su+lti+. E+F_A(6ff) 21. EAS B!6Jd.iPW4l )\' +t'lR6{+-i*ft'E " D.-Ht'+AJL c. -tg,tE IJ. -t.r-1 -+Ht)L *a'1"ffi6fdlBfll'ffi+S" ^' "-iH'M"M (i+ffiI "-+dJ)L"ffiL& trje'ffi++" " )5& trtul&H N-h * 56afr EH " 4RffiaH, "-F{+A )Lffi4F..MH,t14, EEEl+4p'W" " fr ,Ffr U)A t ffiiFH "i* "E 6 fra+*# R+lLE 1E fi a, a rol "- + 4h Et,9B ffifld:j"l ) L" 4, IE rE"6+E B(-trF1) 22.WXW, 4F, T+-L.iRH{,H'E _LYgffi D. +T{*H c. +T+ffi B. +t6fii A. +TFfiffi fr\ # H WWt+4 (i+ffi tr " " ?T}$ lnl,Eftw&&tuffi sE4ffi ld H{ ffi"+F r "fTHft . EXE A(fTffiffi) . "tr RH"ffi{*itr4+E',f* EIiA l*1+4tJ ffit' rE f+. " fT+ H "+F ,HmBn JLzK 23.lL)\wrffiT, MlafrYh lfi' &ll1 " -,F.
-b

A,r

c(#) *vV'ffi+I#5lJ',\F!*1H HEE' ti+ffiI "iFzK"*FfF " trRF_ . 24.4fi,8 l^Etrfi KB!Afl ' di-E++*T D.fr C.E 8 .ffi A.E
- 135-

B. F]

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D.tr

* H +t4 ftJItF. 25. itftf!-FfElh+e 4fe )ILW+ 4 7, EI A. 66 B. |kflfrffi c.K.Z^tr D.+ES (i+ffi ,1.,8, I " 6ft ffi#il^ 4'E" "lfrflNffi " +Afi V d+'\ftxL/n . " K,Tll tE ?ifriJ "ft$fi"ffiffi,T 6'f+Hd B!6dr4l*'lF ,fr.T )tW, LV,ffiTff+4 E+ +BFiF.Wffi*ffi " f EfFl .h'1. E+FB((fiflfrffi) 26.{qfr. iltfif,.#F&etr.tn\, fr B+r&diF--T" A. B. trHt+ c. ZKF=t'-tD. (i+ffiI ^{+E "TE= t- +-"ft fvT-tl,Tfq,F ^Aifrf fr . "6&ffiT" F"iF.dn"ffJH.E," E #E D(6Aif;T) 27.6d 20 h++\t)Ldi4EA,A ft BF c * D+t{&T . *:f)X_ ( i+ffiI "X6 h ffifiI*lvI.e&& n{lnl,ffi XS, E E + fFltiF. 6+ E B 28. &A fiT B*t*A'N,c t D+katJltstula. *TtrA Ii+ffiI "*TEn"ffi4+"WTdn",ffi1pffixF,-ft6J+tFfiiF" 6*E c gt 2s.#, A tffi,E& EAH!igiq T , B c fi+1H,XFt+ft D FJitrJ unq|lfi,lt1T " ,iR7Ft+ (i+#I "IP l+ffi4Pfti4,fHET"EZ.1F",&EJ+tF:|ftitr. 6+E B 30. A FFxx TTm,Effi BX,c diFr&Dfr T t*++.FF4*Bn6+, ti+:ffiI'j*H-X'EHEHffi,ffiXT"Ffru)"&W)ft " EXEB 1. Bfi T U,+yllfr,Xx _FApAt4ftX " B. ZK4+T c. 61 ffi ^. ^n4+ 2. +X_*Tffi, fi*ff&frffirNt. ,l*Tf+ A. B. 6468 c. -T 3. B,fijLzj'Sxf.{6*ii,, D 56_f"lM "
B .h ] C.E

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4. wxz.fi,wEtr+h2, *,lH_rE
A. rTE B.*68 = 5.,BEBH XtJ&_XflE
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c. tR7FlS D.&ZK4+ EI6fi ,g+diDiAtr++SlJJR tEN "


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- 136-

A. A*FH,E

e. 68,/aM

^.w1+* 1 3.B,f+sFru#i, iF/f;+n fr4 _A,L.t.


A. ,L.flE B. HRHF

A. E,61+ B. ,tR6i+ 12.f E*EUJWnffi,(-1R._" B. 1M+_L

11._.f&Ba

c. Z.Ht+ c. ruI.1+

D. 64ru1 D. ,tr6f$ D. ifi,6t+


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= .H F *F i R ,
"+""" such as +"""+ In Chinese there are fixed expressions be changed Thesestructures cannot """X"""7[. , -L......2\......, d...."8""", randomly.

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1|)

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- 139-

IEH! ( i+ffir "F. .....6 rU .,L. 4 i-"1, t z\E E F E' fEE lffi MEa&#,ri B'rH T " + igl
T"&"""" ,tn'H*TtFzZF;df " i*E D(ff)

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- 140-

5. lfi,E ,fT&&aB'+'ffi. D.*fr*fr c. fr*E* B.frx* A. fr*E* ^g(......*......*" , +i*tt*.Ie*ffi*. (i+ffiI t lE-dl tn1,*.^dttFtulF--n,ln + tHl EXE A(frXf*) lalt'. ,TNEVI,E 6. fi Hfl F lK--1lillffi

D.E. E c.A rl (i+ffif "8 """E" ""'+ Fl{ffiIFJ-Aln1,#.z"." tr EF-"""",tn'EMEffieffi,T o{E E) 4" 4:5sfr 15.,f )L,+\*nrrMfh. _ix,-f1h A._-L T
IJ. HU IE

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A( D )

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A. f i E
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A. xf
B. 4F C. FI
IJ. fH

(i+ffiI "TIN"" "fT"ffiffixt &+fr#,ZnN1A)frWB,F+ " 6*E B(fr)

23. #wfrw+ +,-,tr

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A. f f i

B.a*

c. ffii4

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- 14t-

D.t c.E B.E A. lF ...rFIJ""""' (i+ffiI +6J"U......h..--.."#+8, ,U"""trJ+.. H-'L+AE-CE trri"+8... ... 0J... iE . U...... KtE "ffi" U}fr Kh.ft*" " ExF_D(\r ) + " U)Efi h !L+ . 6J zs.EM 4,.*'tlfi lbl'fF +t'ft++& frn+rUtrXtzr+9]B0 " -' o. Ztil' c. ZE e. Zf A. 2.Pir (E) " " " ZP "F+ffiig, tEY 'fF Hf " " E#E T" &" " " H! ZW'EI" ti+ffiI "&......
A(Z.p, )

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A. 4 e .trJ c.ffi D.6E

EI......" r!^ " FI tA,ln' fi + trI,ffi . ry+E B(EI) " E fJA)l tE,"fi" E h E j:o1, 28.TISEA,H,Efu?' +\#FFfi RT " D. YATYqfi C. YqfiYqT B. IFTft A. &fiT ti+ffir "'tkftlLT" -H-++&,6#R,4H6ffi ffiiF5,""&ilA T " E"'1F.""" "lF"E&4 ,!E,Y{tsiqffi; :w" Ehffi+vJxPlaia,dJi4&Mdj"l,tEiEiqH 19......"#ffi yq yA yt . 6 * E c ( ft & f ) m* tr f {, I n, Jt zJ, ME fr{ #7r' h W+ F_ XtuIM tr in.-, gJAEffiHt Bt''fR' 2e.E -ffi 9 tuI * +tdiffi,EfrI D. H C. ,,. ^. B.tr* e. I H{'fF"' (i+ffi &,+F+',lH PlBfl4. " 8" " " H! fi!EflR" & 4......F{"+F+',IEHH r " E...... ;6-m. E4 fllntl4,lHF. frAffi"-&" so.JLTHRtk30 bT ,EIxt^E+_e,iqa" D. trpqr c. nT B. w+ A. ffi+ (i+ffi) " 8" " " ffi*Rt+&lFH "& KF_Be'Rt+) n. tEHiltl, 3 ltTX.iFzjc+ifr T" 1. tUEBt---_,+\a^alrrtr D. t]| c.tr,f+ B. {+1t A. lh{t 2. IFih&trfi&T'tl,+\ -ifr id6 trI. D. t r c.& B .H A. lF fl,'f64EH5tJBH " s. FiETLX <ffi4rtl.lr, --6-ft o. 7r. 6 c. B. A Ilth ,&. k. A. - Fii 4. 4f, 814t_,TNEMIIA. D.XH*Eq c. H*H* B. H*&* A. HH** Ft' . I * ii' X #FE + Z =E f zJi 5. +t'ff h, -4' l YllE+#F1P4 D. c . ln e.fi A.X{
- 142-

ti+ffiI " fiffi EIin"ffilk6 1rt .,8e . tfr,b+ iX'TS ifr. " rLifrq in E" fi " " "

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A.tr

e.*

-tffi #i'nffiHfe,Yq6. s r t. i8 4{* " D. i1ffilqzJrHlzJr C. d{zJr B. /qfilzJr A. /rB!f[zJrH! P E' ?H ll diT IiF F'6 I I+eT Xfr ,+\E FHf tz. -fi I'Et, & H{ -&)t

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a. * +

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A.K A.E

B .ft

c.gJ C. r lr

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A.g e.gj C. E o . l> [

- 144-

Hint: After finishing the exercises of proposition' idiom, locution and fixed xprsslone you can do the test below to check your mastery of relative grammatical points. The test i the focal point of all the three parts. It is comprised of 30 standard multiple choices and yo have to finish in 20 minutes. Please take the beginning time and the ending time. Refer to the guidance and analysis o{ the exercises after you finish them.

+{6H{f{_,F,_r} 1.?L+E 4+-?JEF-. d{fiL^b+, _r IN.&H D.& c. ld A . r4 B.xf 2. tsXWJEE-ffiEJ\%H4H!. D.r 4 c.H A . +t s B.& ,frfr 3. ffiftfriJFiF+t, ffiffi. _ft D. th c. {F A. it B. xf ts trF4,#+t8ffi* 4.itf"JH+*IE,9+,ft*E_ D.it c. fi A. tr B. DJ 5. lfi,lt1BffiEflts-, fi H+U . EX-_K D.& c.ffi A. f R B.it rltffi 6. ftfriJfr., TI+FE " _Elsl D. it c. fE, A. w B. {F 7.6.fr+6 _^4.*, F,n-,HHtr#H!t&, ffifi/\ffi. D.ER c.xf B.A A. f il 70% trJ B.+7K, E wa*-E, " D.H ^,H.wEffJ C.f B .^f4lt*{r}E rl. A.E e. m++*, IffiX+.in-+ E kl,E'ffi,,Wlh**n(q'tft)r. D.I c.it B.{F A.xf r0.+*,ff1H-+2;fr-EiiBftFle* iAT"* " ,Fhfr,-+\i D.tE c.fi B.{q A.th i 1./tfllld-Fz\FitFgjxE z&.. n f %,IREER
A.fi B .i c.- b D.El

12.ifi,lllw+m$-ffi ,rffftah & c. Wqfig* B. F +fi/\ A. ZKNZKffi /a 1 3.'flLHHA N4fiH'It HiE'EIiEtuZr )LH trnF "
A. ifi, B. i* C. 1h

D. 6fHtT
D. H

14.LL#HRE,#X.trdJFX-XfJ{ffi

fr t e *.,nX.

- t <'# IH#1 " 15. gJEtifF6tt/a& L, 18,-tJA'f4trnT D. L t c.fi B .l F A. 16.^ A l{ MFIF f"l'TFETjH+jH. + >lHt'6 fr?-' D. F+ffip c. Etr H B. *ffi+ A. Eflfitr 17 . +-*Flfi,fnH!ffi ,*pit+\11 _ "^,.
- t4O-

c. l&,frHy B. 5IIffiT A. HRfE qExgll3f 18.zJrf.$148f , ,,H.t4+t'fll-. c. fift B. fii+fE A. Hx&tr

D. ZFxt4h)L D. Hi<
u. lr-6 - Tlr

B.-t-+E A. E-t*+/\ zo. iEgUEff+,ilWrr_W"


A. 6,L'[E zr. +ttrIt)t6 lE-,
B. (fiH E

1e. +t&,nffl affi iH E will, v,,T E _,

c. =-b-+-

+\lt1 ftwT tsFiI, "


D.ffiMffi

C. ffiHRFF

i#ifi{ilfEfH{e " u. Tl ffiffi B. fTt 22.&)8.X<6frH"F1ffi-ffi. c. B. kH4.tfs A. {UEIF{ft

A. +T{RF

D.+]EHtr
D. SHffi{ft D.-ifldiffi
D. Z i

23.&w[t _,,f&'filiiflifift
A. {Uffi]FEE A.E
B .-

c. ii,ffidiffi B. ffixffi* 24.F2, 4Yq?/LXEXrffi dirFr . frtlftT,FH-EH, C.T

eryfljr- ^En,fft "

25.J(a-'i6mxe A. t-aT-a

j&4tnE" B.-a,L-aT
D.^*6JE- 61

c. -atw-Ettr.
26.-xT^n;\, t YIffl Bt'f4-,iF',t

W ^.6+ 27.&)E ILX


A. F{4rff4
A. H [ - r .

hl-,ffieffl

B. +ffr+Bhtu\W c. +HlfEffi,F!
^4P*. C. E*TffiA B. ID)*T1FIA 8 .7 l .. 6 c.i{ di

ME -frr,,zFth"

D.+4ffi, D. niTxrli .
D.di

28. ffJ+t, _d,-ft aktEts )L&t+ ItsH,inftT,

2e.&_,tr868+H"
8.ffiffix* A.fg,*ffi* 30.+t_,.f&,diETlEH"
c.*ffi,*ffi c. EiilEin D.ffi*ffi,* D, ihEiNE

^. ftFIHfl'Hl-,F,

Ein6in

B. Ef-inin
-ti

Nffi+affiffi$+ 1- 1 0MEA E+ Hxt B0 HE'fHR " 1.&ffitrH ,+WlJlFthJe6, ^i-"1 trfhftf+D" iEt+c. . tr JlL4ffi 2." fu"4lfrdJtF,Tt Z^rcA HH' . " t_n"," W," FJ" h iltrffi,## * " "ffi t h tulxt 3."i1"6 tF,1A, #r. JLi+,i+{" "xf" B| fr dJ |fr thff ,ft h tulffi+ A. ffiF+E " trrttAtrit++ BffidJ " " h"4l frz)JtF-,41h jI 4." fr "5 " LEFI .AFI. m FX.M lX" +fAm' *zi *'[F,&tElX " " W","u)","it " iAA ff c. H}*. trrltAMiEF i6F D" 5."E 4lfr FrFfi . "i1". " tr"4l frxt ffiffi6JH' . "fR" -r47^.

6."+8" 4|#dJ(F h tu19F4, fuTtuE. "4R."lf;:."il'iqBtrHft " trrtrAMift F c" -11 7. " FJ" E{14 .Atf .e F]4E,R llH F{n" " dI frxt^. tr rH4ffii& " "xf" . "ER" ^4lS f* n. q.Ffr B. "rl'"H 5 "E, *A. * . *'ii,. ii,* " + +A m' *,ri fi 6 ff fr tr . HR,F, ffi# Wffi ElLAffiEf* s. '8, 9."Xf"E| A. frXt4-""{F".'ii"."h"56JHZKtr+. ffiffi6J.c.*,trffi 10.4RffiAH B. ,+ffihlfr;.hffif*, ErtL4triftf+ ,lHR 17 27ffifta E+Hxf fi iFH0 +ffi " 11. "Effi/\t"ffi&+t E ; EA, trlliAffii$f+ D" 12. "6ffi _LT , Erlt4tri$ l+ D" "fe" ffiE fEiE,r|ztiS H'fft 13. " HH Hig"+F HefRHei.fiifr ' trrlt4Mifti+D" 14. "xHx',tlMELlFHHX, trfL4ffii&FB. 15. "frE tft# c. tr JlL4ff ffiWH tl,fA, - 20 76 iEFt ^lrl"E+&xf >ljFH . wfut Hffi,tHR ,L'98' B" 76. " Fffi+"+Fffi tr JlL4@ifr t+ ft A" 17. "HRfft ",ffiPWE,tr JlLAffiiEF 1s. A" " Sxfiff"ffiffiXffi'ffi4Exfi , tr rtL4ffii&?+ 1e. " =t:+*"f4t/a#,TE+, BILAMfF c" 20." ;ffiflfi!,trIk4Mi&f+D" tfiMm"ffis1Hxfi4' 21. "+IlXH" ffilfrlFil, KlH4tritf+ A. - 30ffiF.a6+&xf HE# ffifrt+ffi'ffin. 22 B" 22. "RHH.IW," tziffH.F{{ft , trJlLAffii&f+ F" k. A k, B"fFt6, 23. A1F A"+"fq,# l WffirqffiE, "lr))W1FW"F"lt:) ElIltAtrSF A. ;A1&A1 . . . A h ME 24. +.EJ r,1, .h 61 ffi)fr #r; iLDXF.,tr )LhA E" A E A,nlE "r"+q, h*+fixa, trftAffiit# A" 25. - A"#m, *rtri "R- AW- A "F" 6 -* A W ii,ffiYA A +,1' 4r,l. & + ffiE Xitit, E

D. rtr+MfrF
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- 148-

#@ F l

-.* E*r*,tiF. iEiiF. (1 EiF, EiF. fiiF. ;il.iF )


= . H F f f i A,
( I )The basic structure of Chinese sentencesis: subject f predicate * object. 1' The subject of the sentenceis the element indicating the main thing in the sentence. It is used before the predicate. Mainly nouns and noun phrases can act as the subject, which usually indicates characters while sometimes also time and place. 2' The predicate of the sentence is the element indicating narration in the sentence. It is used after the subject. Generally verbs and verb phrases can act as the predicate. A few adjectives and nouns can also serve as adjectival predicate and nominal predicate. 3. The object of the sentenceis the element indicating object after the verbal elements in the sentence. Generally nouns' pronouns and noun-equivalent act can as the obiect. A few verbs and verbal phrases can serve as the object, too. 4. The attribute of the sentenceis the element modifying nouns or noun-equivalent in the sentence. The attribute can be a noun, an adjective, a pronoun, a quantifier, a verb as well as a verbal phrase. It is usually placed before the headword. Sometimes structural auxiliary word "B!" it neededbetween the attribute and the headword. As a result, in most cases "fi!" can be consideredas a sign of the attribute. 5. The adverbial of the sentenceis the modifying element before verbs and adjectivesin the sentence. The adverbial can be an adverb, an adjective, a word of time, a word of place as well as prepositional object structure. It is usually used before the predicate. Sometimes structural auxiliary word "jfi," is needed between the adverbial and the headword. As a recan be consideredas a sign of the adverbial. 6. The complement of the sentenceis placed after verbs and adjectives. It is the element completing and explaining the verb or the adjective. According to different meanings and structures' the complement can be classified into degree complement, possibility complement, quantitative complement, consequential complement, directional complement and state complement. (2) The predicate can have the adverbial placed before it whiie the complement placed after it; and both the subject and the object can have the attribute before them. In sornesentences' the subject and the object can be omitted (as in Sentence6 and Sentence1), but the predicate cannot be omitted. For more details, please refer to Table 4-1-1. sult, in most cases"fu"

Table 4-1-1
Attribute I Subject Adverbial Predicate Complement Attribute Object

tts
tx, tx,

'F, S-,RJL
')ir*., frtJ^
| H*T E

E
tx .+

/t\

2 3
4

&, Xf

rJu]]l

,B, { S '-l*, 4 Xfr &

HEE

'-+, fr.16ffi TJLA

,fi,

rtLz ldI7t

EA
.* 15i-

kl. zJrr H

Attribute

Subject

Adverbial

Predicate

Complement
)E

Attribute

Object

5
6

zifr

EII

,4*' ilBY IM

T_L
Llr u

,flFz 4 tE, ffi

zJrii
/\f J

7 8
9

frb

Jaq

,M.T#rt't ix, xfiu frar


&fi6uJ',1.
+l

,EI

lPir{t
T-'DL? NT

+E

w+.&
X * H!, 'FF ilF,,i.

HZrfr

z,IF

10

tzw"

WT

= .HSK +TtEH, 1.EiF.)frigE@++ffi.fnE" c KH DE$ft. -n r,+&|rtrffi)r& A Xf BYHrl'l4FBlR FrJ A>F4AE++,hB btJ2,& ffiiil E c BT Dffi-EF^+tlF.4-.

6#E Rif*! 6+E () D 3,ffi'fr,T A+ B c ,|ts 6+ btJ iH?rtr & tsffiS ffiF WdltL" Bffi cftT o. 4,*+#ffiMXffi^1P*,A"8ft+ERE 6-+)L 6*E FtJ 2. 4tBrj}'-ffit*.
1,&ilitT*7,T-Rd[-15ffi?. FrJ A jH B ,L c dJD iF

B D A A

D+-,F.JL. Atl.jt B6 c,,f6trFfr*1+4 FtJ2,+X. 3,&, A ht/$B+lT c ifi D |BAFzqi'r.. Wtr. FrJ
-TJL AFtlBlBgJ C Ftl+,tl',I^,bffi. 3."-,fiJ1',ffi"H R)L HtHEtt& ^^E*D. . tLt 4-1-2
# 4-1-2

+fr.T

E+FD 6* c
E#EC 6#E D

6(*),RJL *,RJL+{i'1 1.4+t-,fi JL&.,&,**H)LM " 2 . E , f i)L R W)\D T , *E +6 fi+. x "a "h dJlflBf , trIL)L a + -,R JL+ ,f&fi'-,fi , tt fi .,1*ffiJeA. Erfl 9n,

.5;5 AL 'E

-flftm RH+eEtt#lr\,# l&iB' ttt, -,fi JL+ ffi/ e,+ T / 19+drta] / t2 trItllffi+' ffi68,*.7r:&H, -fitffittt ' A,fi,JL +AiA/M*a1 )frL- Ai"f .f&-,fiJ1&ry6H+ 1.Ef ii5,e*4+a,RlL^f ,1E 1. * /\tnwRal En6. " 2. 2 .E f ^ + 1 +1 6 rT ,trJ T1h+u*.ffS6rF'fe. l M-,R JL e 7 l i HH ilLtr lE,

E+.
*ffiffifrN,drtf,/MdB1+*HL ?l.iF 1.&{[flFsBtxf;, tt^#fl-,fi JL. 2.F[E-,RJL!B, BE#8ffi ++6*"
- 152-

fr{1,xf+t6 A.datr<,glllflt+ c rtrlrt.T D" A,S.jL 4*e c 2:aI+RERE*A zJil B,+IJT,|*4,1S BJ C H!,'&AE D +rE" -,F,JL 6+ B E.iilEi+ffi 1. {&e ffi,EsjdifrEH!ffi}** c H>l D" <fi t i+ffiI " <A" E A id,#6J+ lF^BiE, ffiieclid"+ Z "E " 6 * E o 2. +\ AffiFXI&,ffiW6*, B tu16hEri4ffirtnffi c 6i* n. F_X1,LiX,+\tgH ^EIf. ( i+ffiI .{ti-"1 " 4.f& " e 6J + tFF--rE, ffi#.tr iA E }* " Bf" " H IM T frA " ffiffi . tn1 ffitr tJJ " F!ffi" Ft,&,6'F'E i-"1 E{ H E 4 lil" E I* "E, Ffi D)A. B. D E ffiiFffif* . 6 * E c 3. WXI/s*Wr)LT,A c rEiA+{rU D. +t B +ktF FU&i (i+ffiI "rtJtlF&ial,t.mtr+turt,trhJ+*&fFr iE,ffi &6hAA,1. :*E e 4. qw A+g# Bij'.&cltr*1ffiALDt R/a /a" i+ffi " t I E E ffi.l4,ft ifl , * zi iFl lhl'lt.it . }- rt S, # H + lF:lft.F, ffit t ifl"fE" Hf. 6*E A *,F.JL 5. ++ A jj*f ,B,f&Elittlj c rE&AztA D" ti+ffir " *,FJLE6I+ tF,lftiq, 56irlt6Ft"-,F,JL+&,+yAA + dJrl"fr\J#+q,* /1i9E18. "*,F,JL"66EH&HadJi-"lBt, A FfruTfru.ffia fizH" B.D{iH5 FJffi,T.tr+. E 6. (ts&*T A ,RB,ftAAIL c + D {fi" -,F,jL (tFffiI " -,F. )L &a + tFilt9, ffiEfr trifl"'R"E " -,fi JL'n Fg H+*Ha M din1w, " tl6frV,ffitrA. C{iE . " *,F. JL" */ri ]i trI4tH! A tf,ffi,Ffr iA" i6' ft! EiE, Ffi W.tr, frV,lF{t D {iE" 6*E E UAEVffiE. ^ 7. +ffi+\g-AE B D5fitrffi" -,fijL ti+ffiI "*,fiJ1"668H+*Ha ^W,lrft@crE,A( uTfru,ffiaA. D {vE. c liyflEdrid"w" driaffi, Ffr H0 " -,fi JL" Erytr ?h ?t'is, Di Ff|4 i I'iF, iF, 5 6J H.4tr+"" -,F.JL" ffitr Z r4" " ffi , E 6J+tFF-.t*. S*tr e ^W rJ6E 8. +t A eB C E,D HT,R+IE,F" a*,F.JL (i+ffiI " H -,R )L trEJ+ tF:lJtrE, 6J ffi&zliil" B E "Bt. fRffi -,fi JL" tEiEH! H, " AtrJ E"lS H", 6E e=U iA" 6'2,Ffi A {yE " c. o lnflh ffi rRH U)Z^ftAHle f* " 6+E B

*Ec

e.AqtFEtrf ,F BH+ cia-tu+4.ey6TE+p!trtrnXEIt1D. #Z^1+ ti+!ffi I "a 41+" - ffi,4& #,rr6 6E 6 + &l\+,8 4 6E ?I'iE tuI rt ,' dJ ia+ 6 l+', x {a#ltrH' 'trTt+.'lE6E .r,,nZ^llF. .HZ^iF ,i/Z^i.+ . "#zs4+" "H EH + tF:fti? , ffiEdljFt B #"8t" 6*E 10.ffrfl,lU,+A DT . frrE,+t* B ffiEF.+frinciklt:l -TJL (1)ff;if'iF, "-T(-JL)"HEE' ti+ffiI *rri6ttFlil4EgdffiE.ln,o+-lF, ftq tdt* " @+t.R, EE #w+T T tE- T, iudttgeEx " e) (F#iE,#^ drtF** x.+.&#R 3ELJ{E, +T-.TAEE frT . @EEEEE,EIfu-.T+++,IPJ " AN,@ET 'F,R,H5F\"-T+" f . 4RffiAH Hir'A'A" in E, tF+lE, *^AtF#fla\fffS. 6*e c *T+ 11. A++ B-ELMT cW*^W D. hT ERilrA%#, * ( i+ffiI " T + "* A ff n +&N*&?"F tE fl E, #6J+ fFffi:4*, ffi&zhin1" lb"ffi" ^

EO

6* e 12. -.E e;#T cWXT+E&ffiS,tF D. +\ ^hlv (i+ffi f "-E "EryEiFl4g, l#"E. *E c &ffiA H, EEJ + lFWtr? l.i*,H A 6)1n1" 13. ee^cA+ D r" 48tr triltr,A'A'ffiI-fiFtffiIW+ (i+#I "W+EWBiArE, +RffiEH, trEl+tFN i4?I'i, ffift;.h:ey#+" E " EX

*+*E 14.ffi+XtfiE,tr* cE)L n 7" ^ltiltlefU ( i+ffiI " - + 4 E " FcWE:p1tE, fRffi tr H, &H + lFHt fBl * I'iE, H &zhta1 E . tEW hA D JE"gJ"E+I!&,F,^RiF"E )L'',FfiD)"-+48"E^ELEE " 6*E

rs.iI{Hi$Ex+tEt+

B. +ftT C. NT D. E T ^. 61+T ( i+ffif " dJinl / g ft / g FE" in1 / M 6ifl + t++ 6't+ T / T 11 . Md E ffi H 7l.iEfrl- ffi , -dr
if,5?|'iF+ldJ,I'nd"ffi". ";.hjn1/Md,Al+tN"T /FZT /W.T /t^7"&,BffiH?l.iF, [EdJtn1, " ) Mdiil 5+liF+ I'E]66E . A 1+' 6#E ^(Zr1+T -6ifi {F+t 16.[frts. tuI x#_e if; H'l E -=1 " A.r C.E D.H B .T (if #I " T " (E tido ) fFil'iFEf , -fltf#fr F, dtrJ+ 1+ / T + T, f-RfrY / 6ft2ft,1L#-dJlF. "T "trT Ht 9lT. " fi "tzr HEFUtl.."E"trrr reihff fr fifliJ. HT f{ t.. Affi gffi"fr'1" HfigJA. fr,)-EtJp,FfiI^ 1*e,D/KrcAEJH" 6+E c(ru) g.xinHlifr 17 . l&EtTtn'wT ,ETFI,L'ii,_ " A. ffiT{H c. 71^.W4E'W D. 7li![{H B. sfi4+ 'W

(i+ffiI " thia+E/6 +,I"EFI ffi* ffi, *.?."'fr? /T 6E ffi,H" Atr + B.c. DE FETt'iF ffii;+Am" tr*F_A(FfT,lH) 18. A fTB*^)L c llI.* D" ft&rnL -eXBhW.F,ftflzJ'I#F (i+ffiI "E&thL"Et,tr\je,S, FI|*,H tu1+1.fl#F8, +fFl iFEIi[.j.E,ln ,@+k&Wh t (tFftffi) (fF?l.iF) EED @ifi,M&&tnl:" 4A+ ,th)nl"+f"EH " ^BE"A+I*,Ffru)Tffi

1e.q[iI,+T X.,iB,H)<1+WAFAZi _T " A.t c. T' D.f B.m (l)*ziJeH,AUf," ti+ffiI "J:"tF+li9H!ffif*E' ff ' CfE,flit,'trBF!.@lAt'HR rg FFffi ffi . Q)#^AffH T r" R, &*zi BFU-EHtrl_ &n W" tn,etrt+, tI.EJt6. @ il* h, t&4T4 t T f,t6t^+.. @,f&ii,Tt 4B EE, .R, E H+ frh twt+ BH H0 rIf . * (3)tzr ffitlfF H{ft9lH. ln,CtEtEF#t, friJiikie.E )L" @nfl n i T ffix, + )LEkE -+ @#Bzhtqfrthx&&. 6 nT . ,H. T )LiJi,n,ErT frft ,t !n,c{&FJ{f " @AtrYA A(t) . +Elh"Aia1+L"#,rr*hl,++)f,ffJffi.lx.. x:EfriyitJ-T EXE zo.iEiJ#+ 4 ffJf:ft, rfiWKtu*_T X1J+\W.. c. ii D. t ' A. t+ B. 9IJ (f+ffi + 9U + 4+T "*/ri * 9l. "[ "EEiiA, "#B e ix. "A inl f " dJj,d ER&frAWft - HAt HtrAia tr, *fi uffi h.+.tuI +R ffia H, 4 Eth " thia+ t "*/tr\* slJ 4 tfrrfr drtF.^fi
.ll4-

(i+:ffi I "+" lF+liEF'! HrtE' (1)*/ri -A4+ +n wth tF h jt &H+" in,o +rtrt tE, fgfll3f+Rc;'t;&+t Hx " @zt E T, +l,e AwT lr HR T " (2)*^E # .+ tEtd tF" in,o -rL sl*-Atudige ,a6*.qFffi HE " fi ' @ drtFrlffi lr r . @nlrtT,4.ET +m r " (4)
(#)

fr!ffi i*," E.L"*^X3UEfrlEtr. *E D(_|-) *,F,-J 21.fi!ft9ffi L, ifi,Wlfr L&,+T A.T B .^h c.,f+ D. (i+ffif "E"l!4li9F!ffit*8, ( 1)*,ritrLt" in, erfi{t, ngfi*. @-A4ri4l4{t Tft{llB'l*E&.@*.B+tr.H" {t],ofr\{+i& ,EtliLIfi,EET . @+\ix.tuI,ffitli#Fietr.TN17 "#4+lr" h tr fr la HE' t zi 4 + . f,fl E . El+ Ii frfr . " dJ" iE fF+f Et*.?F tbqh,lA,tZie " A . B.D6f+AH" 6* c(,fi) 22.ffia + +frT, E/a+&,IIZ".--#JL. A. ]T B .t C. T D. T

,4 ffiT" dJiA + 4+ *.md4fr / T + Jl"t6rt" ln,C- dKfr tzj. T, E 6 #,3}:b ? " OA JL .6ijl.1++ turt, H +ERWWtr ilLrg, + # "#,rih I+_H E dria I+tuIH E" 6 * E A " 481

2s.Ifi,ae rKlplt,, tr * 6-----E E *tr

A. 1+ B. 4U L. zc u. ^Eg (i+ffir " thjnl + 1+ / 6 + E "#zi H / wa fru, h xffi fra h *,ftv / T fru.al+f+ . +R ffitr H, + 6ltpd x B + fflfr?,i PlH E . "*6 l+fr +" Effi iFHr* " "* T f\" #fi wh,)'d xfi x q m6FEx F! HE, 5 A HT F+ " EJffi.Z^f+" *zsft," t fiWA?, 6 F,A#Ft(*, 6+E D " (E) 24. Hl+X)L,fl13 {i ffi+ B!#+ +tYq A. *T TJ. YE c. ,ft n. 7
(-&.k

+.

2s.+1,-4KtrT . trj.H.fEft E_4,+r,+.


A.FI E .T C.E
n ]+

(i+ffi I "F\ lF+liEHt H rA E' (1)tzi a rcft.Fx .,nxrh . rn,c aff tL+ + fr!* Jr,IM '4T 5 FxrKtr+ l&IR)ts*F /a H't K ffi' 4.ix,. @ I ffi.tuI H, r8ft,i+Fr,w ? o #B Fx h, ff h q. 6J + Fx" f,1 h "dJ #8 F\h .fFt, B.C.DT rcA EJ H . tr XF A(rI ) 26.WXZt)Fffir, triBi+YqA
B. i4f U. _I)K D. E \ A (ilFffiI A6Jh" Fx *.Bft,Ft B!HE . "lg.HLrT"E" _]T ,!tr].q 4r" p!H ^hlF1+ EJH, B, T f++ 4 ffi T#.trffi . fr Eq H! S,lF,9E r4{fif+4f, E e.F,fi Fi . jr?- B!H " " FWh" 6JH,. 8,," Fl,rh"ZKf+A E+E A(tFI ) 27. Hlif;E,+\Ffi_{&Ziigats )LrtET " A.T ^lMWtJt B .H c. 1+ D.T
A. I'X.

(i#fr4l " fr"|F+fr9klffi }*E' (1)tz\retl ff fuhgtJt!" ln,o6AfE+E s -fn


-- 155.-

lE,tk R+l:. @4t*H+EftE$tllrj-E* " Q)t^%f+J+fiJ.tlf, E'?tl+f#it, 44* " lE,O+t-HRdiafi r+Xe,rqffi SffiR4.8. (3)*ziffi]t, * tr/\. @ffi {&84. + fi + &Eirl " 4n' H+\+ h " @ifr Mt&*,E,MdFl JLffi,BK S - t'Hi4f O'f&H + fr" t,T?et,E, T . +EJ ^ H! . "E,fi tr1FH H,E, *E B(fi ) F' ;.htnl 4,*frfriJ 6+ 28. E+XA'T,ST_+f . A. t D.iffi B.T C,d J (i+ffiI "T "fFll.iEHt ( , H **E' 1)*/tri,,\4 + WJW4J tFHH 9i{ft" ff ' O{&lHf HEffi (2) FE, f4f t+HR FF fr\tu*,'Rii6T " *RdJ tFH E 4 ft Fn H WZ..4i, " @ffi " ff , Ofr e 4tg ,ffiqr,tr xE#Et " G)#.^dfr, -fiftffi 9n@fzTTdifiJTxE. @ft+9fl*$B!+{+fpT 100 " 4 rtE,dirl*1+/6+T " ln,O6Ert4,*+#.+#zFT" @i*+,tL41+T EJ ", *rri 6ftA6.frfrlH,8, . 6+E B(T ) F" dsial+7liT 2e.4&,e,^:+f LE6if.6 . m+, trJYX. _fr D.T A. 4+ B.t' c.4 U ti+ffiI "WT-L" E'HEHffi' +,rr66Eit9l*E HHtdt6/&"EKE B(t) 30.5{6+ff$+E# 30 * 9,4 4&lt11F{ift4F _" D.t' A. X B.fi c.T (2)" o#BthlF+f Eii,ifr,,\WFrA ti+ffiI "*lF4liEHiHrEE, 'i+-tL"+l'iF " 98,@ i"l.R, .A, N +,t ry. ft il rb:tft Lt " !n' Oft T *' +f,ffi ifi,i^6* . @ FA X, dJ FR T "i4 .iX, -ffi + 4+ . * E A(* ) in1 H,H, 6 X, - nffi F.kw) * #zsJe 6 H'H! + . + 61 E" dJ
E.XE H i l I J ,

1.+xa+,A +tBH.c *ffix+fi.i D.

rhx

2. Tfi,EE. A fi{II BE+,C JffED +LWXh+\{iI1" -,fiJt 3. BEfl A6)F,*,lf'q9. Bis c,DihfttrI-fn&AT. 4. A {t F!7r. '&64+ EiM+ B6ffi ,c IR*iM&+ tr,ftd=+ D. 5. A AjfrB!frilR,$r-F.FB 4,1',C+frtrH F&A,D &TfrEgR " 6. iI A xr B #H0c +E#E+t= D +Bf*ffi,Wq-#,hlt5p9" + 7. &fr)L+.EA'Ef B,FfiD)tt/a^cW*+t,D[tr" -,fiJl B.,f&, e ffi B C+tHt+D ix,,"1kfrffifi!9j*!" K

-,F..,lL

e.asqmBr,A,f&Be^HacffiD7" 61+

*,fiJ1 D. 10.frE{JX+ A A Bifi c yR.iF Effi+E ,.F, i1. uJr$l$.fI{Ri{F,A ft B ffi-tL c,ffi'D f . F&,4 D. 12. c Ae,4.B+ T Ktr)J&tyi.Fix4)ft ft

-T+ 14. fiiE'f*A +tn1Utr,Br*IcdieE D f . =+ . i& ai6 A e 4 . B , f t T 15. c4DT. 16.fiAfH +NffJfinfln Ail& BitHiltil c +Z D. ,,{M A&,8+&&ttr*ffi c ,f D" rT.tu *T *m,1F JLi.+ ^f - 156-

Is.+#,8.4nft9J+&.,A Ajil Be,%.cfrfrDT "

-+gft++

&)Y,H,X+ -T

18. frEt+_T,+X6qT,ffiH! rs. &'[t /^fi tFE,NiR 'E _H A. +E-,fiJ1 c.a,fiJL+6


A. 1F B.

20.WT IAi*B+JXffi , ES{[_6pAJt+E* . A.KAf} B. ETdJ C, K , A T

lt /zZ^It W B. -,fi-JL+E, D.+E'a.,fiJ1

c. T'fr

D.+&

21. 6E]tE, +t_r,,f6,Rfi$+t-TJL. A. 6r B.eR6T c.lf.1.T

D. ?J.ZK1F. D. YAT

gWX*,,|r{+_, 22.
A. FT

A.+N.T B. 4.ft c. tzT D.trT 23.ft+g"H,R"ry_ T "W&", hlhw&e. ffirf t*ifi.


B .W

rew+fr.,wffi#fimnt' r"
C. rS

D.- L D.BAT D.

24. E{+Sxfftffi6glt )rT, tkE/a&_


A. H1SAT A.t A.- ,F.J L

25.$rRFE# h, -EJt-F.tr1S_+{& ld+.


B .E B. A,fiJL
C. 9J

B.H7Ft+r

c. n6r

"

26,tr)*l+ffidER_5lJfi1. 27 . &86 _frEA ef E +*flFffixfr -x.ffi ffi&BR " ,IF A. +S B. f* C. d D.


C. A,fi,JL D. ?FJL

28. K#Etrfr )Aff F'+T_


B. Et

T FX+ _rnHtxLA.
C.E C.T D.iE D.S

A. dJ

2e.l7+fr.+ffiT ,EA&IItr_.
A.t
B .T

30. #,hlr{1s*,,f644r*_. A. FT B.{+

c.F

D.d r

- 157-

-.* nr:*, il.iFQ) -ffiH


:.HFffiR,

?l.iF

The complement can complete and explain the direction of the action. It can be classified into simple directional complement and compound directional complement. 1. Simpie directional complement is mainly comprised of directional verbs such as "*", "*". lf the action gets nearer and nearer to the narrator, "X" ir used as the complement; if the action gets farther and farther from the narrator, "*" example; (1) 'f6{ll'Rt.*[8. (2) 'f6{ll'RT*flts. (3) '{6'f['Rt.*[E.. (4) 'f6'fll'RT*[ts" (Indicating the narrator is upstairs. ) (Indicating the narrator is upstairs. ) (Indicating the narrator is downstairs. ) (Indicating the narrator is downstairs. )

ir used as the complement. For

2. The compound directional complement is directional complement comprised of "_L,

4-2-1. T, jt, S, fi, El, E" and"ft" , "*" as in Table

#4-2-r
dtial*

t.

T
I' K
t-

'+ ,a

UJ u

Itll

1 rl

x
-F

rx
L+

itx
' ++ ltTE

HX
'l' fr2; +

E,K

ll_r1s
4+

Flx

tr*

(1) tuh+\flTx" (iI,qE IBIE+fr fi s E &T tu) ( Q)TB+E+Afuh+\+h _L*. J,T, EE 416E E -LjL) =.tttEF. ' 1.H?l'iFBo5lFHX" A. fi* B.* c. S* D.tX F!z,tnR-ffi WK,(rdli+Effiffi4+i+*_. A. IX B. E* c. S* D. jj* 3,rr_, FtJ fiA,F.JLS'F4i4,ffi " A. rt* B.*iJ c. *ri Dit* 2. dria B! ?l'iEE{ E B{ffi FiFffl f"r {nEX6, in,ifr,ifr * .,t ft* . AT BE cX D T" FtJ,+tEg-frflE{,4* ffi E.EHiti#, EXFC 6+E B 6*E A E+ftc

Itl '

For the extended meaning of the directional complement, please refer to Table 4-2-2.

- 159 -

Table 4-2-2
Meaning 1. Indicating someoneor something to be from low to high 2. Indicating the successful accomplishment of a
r- rils

Example

+Eflp+xfrE++6,L&X"
1. 2.

certain action Usually "7#" between the verb and " L*".

and "fr"

are added

Only a few words are used in this way such as "in, pE, *, S, , ff, [tl etc". 1, Indicating someoneor something to be from low to high.
IZi

Ef l{Mf^rft7,{ttr67Fr*. w FJ&,h tt A+ais, +t&,iH,Zi r* "

AF ++,fdBfIqt* T, 1T AIJ4'8 "

2. Indicating folding or adding someone or something to somewhere. 1. Indicating someoneor something to be from high to low. 2. Indicating the continuance of the action {rom

1. +EHT*HtWrrtlTt*" 2. +E#,fr! 4+&5t.*Fs, +t&,H4tsn. ffiTU ffi[ F, {t'-qi'I.ft -LDE T TX. - f fI s . ar.fi .{tifi,fT* H! 1.HSK irtfrfr,e44T*T 2.)tff+TWH+T, ffii*aEf*T
I6#^=&DET*A9?

t iK

sometime in the past to the present. 3. Indicating the completion o{ the action or from unsettled to settled. 1. Indicating someoneor something to be from high to low. 2. Indicating the continuance of the action from the

f*

past to the present and into the future. 3. Indicating the gradual disappearanceof trail and trace.

Hffiinf *. &fEHfiiE#+" 2. AF.W+,TB-ESE++T*" 1. fE&iRiffifr,fij1#T*r " a. {&*EFfuB!+iXH7T*.


1.

#*

Indicating someoneor something to be from outside to inside. 1. Indicating someoneor something to be from outside to inside. 2. Indicating acceptance,and only a {ew words are used in this way such as "ffi", "frtt, "Fftll\tt etc.

{&#,R,t'trBt{X.
tiftf+qtT itrXt$ffi)t&E*" jt*" {eBlifi&-,fi)L&wz^ 1. 2.'UfgAEffiAtri,,RX. EAJZtfr rtifi&E, lE+{[fiFifr TE* " 1. EgJlfi,BtJtr+,XXKltXTE*" L. wET,Xffiffiffifi*T"
1. trrufltrffiA6&ffix" 2.

1. Indicating someoneor something to be from low to high. 2. Indicating the start and continuance of the action

E*

3. Indicating someone or something to be from dispersive to collective. 4. Indicating the result of recollection, and only a few words are used in this way such as "ffi", "Fl

tEFE+B!&EF&*rs"

'lL", "id".
- 160-

i. frffiE*T,.f6rtlIEU" 2. it.f+S&E tat&,idT.'tu*T "

&F
,8,)(

6tJEJ

5. Indicating estimation or with a view to certain aspect. 1. Indicating someoneor something to be from inside to outside, from hidden to revealable.

,f&F!ffipfExnffi. 2. E*{efi{mruffftErF!"
t.

2. ?k6f'il E /a+EBiff ffiAiEt6 UX "


1. fir-n4'FSX-*ft#tr$il 2.

1. luw.zffi.^t r Hx " a\Fq


itHilLts#l:tl#,**Tt?. "

fi*

2. Indicating the appearanceof something. 3. Indicating understanding and awarenessthrough identi{ication, analysis and reflection

70 1. -,ilLeaznfr*-4&,H
2.

'ry. +tHfi*7 ,E+-ffiz.tfrinH!--ffi.

s*
trz(

Indicating someoneor something to be from outside to inside. 1. Indicating someone or something to move from one place to another or the change of direction 2, Indicating the restoration to the {ormer normal state. 1. Indicating someone or something to move from one place to another or the change of direction 2. Indicating the losing o{ {ormer normal state' and

)L+EJa? E^EnEgfi*fr)LTt L 6*t1trE,tE*ffii$X. nuF,xxtFEET)tx " 2. Ffr Atl+\ffi i . uts4, rlxlt tr, {&tr/ Fs FEES*" 2 . BffZ1fl6{f.-EgBIE,$X" 1.+sjt4fih,f&e[*. ji*, F /a&WTE. 2. +\ERJ:ffitrXffi
ffi Fs*T ,E44]:tfiTtt0ffi.

rt-

q+

oniy a {ew words are used in this way such as " $

#., F, VE".
3. Indicating the passing or complement o{ something.

1.*iEWret\E?1z'!.*T . 2. E.f+sffi6[*, {fFtrtrHiirE "

fi,.fifiEi+ffi, 1. ,f&-nFrfts-ffi6f R*W-T " D. S* c. TX B. j4* A. T* (i+ffiI " B *." fa"-flft5 " T * " fr" ffi.*"fr.H,#mF t'tljt\I H0 {+ . " E T * " +F ^ /Kr.rH9J[t + E EXE A(T*)

" r2.E+ Etu1U+W+n*filFBrytEE r, 9g " D' rt* c. TX B.tr* A. tr* (i+#I A H!,V,+fr ffiX* ErFl ffi+tW*. E tFrl tu* 4 U*.^Ar A " drtn]+ tr.R,

*E B(E*) 3.'RT*' tuff dJ t./|Igf iEtfe,&, zJr'L'1S- " D. s* c. #* B. T* A. d* +TX" FIU#^ NI'9JT" 6* (i+ffiI &ffiEH,ffi6;\ATE. Eifl tr.R,A"drif, B(TX) . 4. N+ -LffiT* ffi4{+ E/a&'#6 -T D. T* ,".yx B. j$* A. t*
.lot -

g:+rJ t i+ffif "4[ir]i- t * " trlt^ &+frfi+g 71EI . EJ WfiD T H nL F "+ -g* " ffi+EE l+ thl He B! s. fAEufr {i'fr x ^ryr.4 E.d,xIreF_ F!. A. HX B. it* c. tr* D. T* (i+ffiI A Ht, E,XIT &P ft{T A e(hfr xH" E if,+ .R, + fi * "trJ e " dJjrlD{ t 4-MfiEtJA. 6+t A(HX) 6. + tr +feitAEr,\,ft /aattRfr lhF.Ei z _ffi A. EX B. fi* c. s* D. TX (i+ffiI "frlE4EETpl,.R685"T*"4"T*"H. 6*E D(T*) ^hn1"FE 7. t/rEB+^*ffi+, Eaffi +pt t"tMtr*6 A. T* e. E* c. d* D. E* (r+ffi I "dlia+ fi x "*.BdrtFfrE ffiE 6xs# tu\fr H " +ht+ pl"ffi6 it x" ffiMffi nA i6,affi Etr Pl E rfiH!,K )i tXZ".ftV#F|J _1,. ) W E* c (rUX B.'ffif +^ E ,t4trrtu1ffi-Xttr.-T . A.E* B.tr* c. fi* D.T X ( ir+ ffiI frt *T" E n1" trA + tFiHiF, 5 "* "iSH,t,rsfi th4'4T . E XF A(ruX) e. ir6inB+*Ea+A,#,EAW _+frW)Lt A. T* B.E* C,1+T D. H* ( i+ffif Eid4 EI jE 5 dl];oT W"WNl,lE"h fr X EJ UR iEFID) t,ri rU ffifi B fr SU, Ffi " W" " 4A = j'f T 'A F.ffi4.tuI iF.R, 5 "+ tAt ffiJL"'AEr,^H B! fE E E-,fA A ffi" 6 4 g o { H X) 10.tflFtHtm.i4f; ae,#h^_ " A. rY* B.t* c. T* D. H* ( !f ffiI H t, Lt6+S&ERt BI + T * " #^ Etl F! m.D tE. )H . + itr+ Effi lH i,E " "A i-"1 c(T*) HA=iaifaBffiHrA"6+E ^" 11.+tE|J+Efl t,,f&Hii-+EE @,WEtu r_ " A. i* B. fi* c. T* D.E* (IFffi I "FE*"tzrrl.{ft 4!E " "tt*"&, trItziA{ft4IFU HA, {E D U#-F,{+ ftpaffi,tfr?ffi"_L* " IEIH,DDI#-F.WInE4FR,tfrVffi" #,*"&T*' . 6*E o (EX) 12.FSi iiltt'ttr+ r xF f i# Ktkfrn, aaffi ffiq t ifi A. T* B. -L* c. j$x D. tr* (i+ffiI Ain1" "T*"4"T*"iH . 4A Ht, X&-t m #t48 E T Ht, .R 6Eq tulXEWd T,MlF'FAfrT " EXfr A(T*) 13. +t-,F,jLt it!tr_,f6Eff E/\. A. fi* B.X c. r* D.T* /)l+fr ( i+ffiI "dri-"1 + fi * "trIt B %fr.Et . trfnE " " gR EtJ fi * ffiFfi tr AAW h *,+&*tl = Blf ,^ A iFl YAaat H * . " f * "f" Ff1:* H_lLt* itr,# FfftEiR" EXF A( f * ) 14.ffi,a EE, _4H 4*-,F. JLe,64Efn "
.- 1r).z-

A.c. DT 685 (i+ffi BR +E*" trI+F f +-tE, "E fu*" tzrE F!Bt''fR. I "dlf"l " EtX " H! ffi*. 6+ E B "E" WW, Fffii4Hrt " "E l,*" 5" 6EX " H X+*iE,IEIFH
( E ) K)

A. t*

B. E*

c.sx

D. DJ*

,ffi EE1,5. 4frtr +,' zs 4,/fit ilIfuffi " D. E * ^4Tff c. B. _Lx A. E* it* (i#ffiI "dria F8 FHE*' +il* "4ffi " "fiEEi$*'+Fr,|. B([* ) ^+H:1ftf'Yx-nflrJEH)tt# HX. 6+E F,+ = i-FlTfiEtur8frf {lft,. - ffr,Er 16. iltj,f+ztflvE tft+k*nT -18
A. t.* B. T*
L. -I)K

D. S*

lAA B ffiH rE ( i+ffi HtIR, tEY T " EX ", HA = iFl I "E t *" Etr E H *, ffiE tuI " A(t*) l+E 17. itEffiztFi+T=8,+frftBEE-.
f\.
A4+

1l-x

B. E]*

c. sx

D. ji*

" EE EE H (i+ffiI "AiA+il* " FIffi E H0{ta'trl tr9tJE-Hffi#. 'V*"Hrl'6 ^InrtH f[qEH" l+ED(ffX) . X FE-T B. -a z#illwa, 4MW*iH,Hlifi pW ffilX' ( i+ffiI gJJroT h ++F* -ffi ,.- rtt5 "fi * "4 "T * "15 ffi, iitr+EJ \uFfi" 5 " W', ( c ) gtJT El * . E+E 5 " ffi"fAm{Fffi ffi"ffi" Wil&Aifi fi X E* T . FA=r"l T6E ,f& (,L' ifr,ZiE*p *ffi ,trI 1e. F, +t,*T EH 4E fgHTF E H6* EF " D.ffx c . t r * B. ffix A. H* ja9l (6xS E (i+ffir "dlia+ Hx"EI +FAE E trtfi,) " a + "ii H*" ffiifr,,\,1' ^iA ii,S. !+E A(S*) H 20.{uElj-i#fr,Ffif. nffiE}eAffBtuc*D. ?l' "E*"8 , ?l'iE ftJ EdJi ,"H"E^BiE ti+ffiI EJ+"W ' = Af"lE Ft'ffiFiFfiIiJ Ht'' iA'fi ' S fi . E T & " ?l'iEtr Rr9leffiFt igt ffits E +l'i'F ignf DjAitH, (1)E E ?l' (2) fdl } t'iE+ I'Hl' lH, fr fi X .fr T & * " EXF c ?I'i.F EFe ffifi?l'igF{,Ri9&ff'ftJ zt. t*ta*fr6,6-H{HZ^-.
A.T*
D '-+-]D. lt_x

A. H*

B. t'*

C. E*

D. rU*

c. tr*

D.s*

(i+ffiI "drifl+T*" HI# ArcfiTHEfIJH E-. EJ+"HT*"+F+E^6id'ft'HA =i"1^FA5"H"+AEil " E+ft A(T*) 866-. 22.4&+ +-ffif"lMA[ 4 6 ffirh':E.tsAfff t X" + l5JFiln"lfl"fi, (i+ffiI "dJlA+iX" trJt "+F frE+' E#F D ^FLfituft.FXX*A(F,ahln15" TFAE rE' "+ " 6J . rq + " WEZ")_LX "T", dlif,VFT"i{. +' B . H' A

A.s*

B. E*

c. i$*

D. t*

(t.x)

zs.1 i A. -L*

&t*h-,lts-f.+F\f. B. T*

c. T*
- 163-

D. H*

++T*"E*F-B(T*) EF Fn 2 4. Firlt x' ffiiff4 1+ 6.F.}frnnffi -.

)tt* E i H! (i+ffiI,, 4fjrll- T * " trI*fi lF- H++4T * . " * h T *" ffi+8ffi89+ ")

D. EX c. i* B. T* A. [* 5 FF " Hi + f"f-LH!' RftV FX ", WtftMdi||o]' ( i+ffiI +R HX itr" A f+" sF ffi6fH, x H" EFI ,,EX,fAFC " E#F_D(E*) 25.-6 rJ,,L', +tl^ 811+I:+ET D' tr* c. E* B. EX A. T* !Uf 9J l^ + -L+F id fi A T iA) . " H T * " +F ( i+ffi I " dri"l + T * " El* zi r,\-Lf lJ T (4n 26.Efr+ i{B!ffi fi -6JAFiqffi H4FfrL,.ft " D' E* c. it* B. T* A. t.* (i+ffif "dJifl+ff*"4*ai+*8,AidFRT"ry',"fi","ffiqt"+' EXEc(iE*) .dt++4trBFffi Ht" 6. 4ts&fr:ff..EiF+t, 27 D' frX c' E* B. rS* A. F]* jt + tr * " trIt,]i S'HiBd 4 i Ft" " Fffi * " ffi- Hffi E' &'%tLd ti+fi4l " Ai-"] ^N j6" lFE B(tr*) 3lJ Yqffi {&Htr fiL 2s.+\I^h lfi'^ - a +E%,' " D' s* c. EX B. A. H* TX +E :D' YqA E E. " :MT X " +F ti+fi4l " aiFl+ T * " #fi d rFfirt 4,'.4 tr E 9J

Gx&#atur.) " i*E A(TX)

. E*ftB(T*) fr,. x*=r4 fr25"E&"f#rC'fFffi . 2s.r EvwlFz,FJtfr -,4+ErKA'frT D' t* c. [* B. tr* A. s* ti+ffir"a1iJ+t.*"4tzir'JFrEre"EJ+"mL*"HtHfr&]4.ayF"E*FD(I.
+\ -t)

30. ffi F-T,tr.+g -LiSl-+0&" D' tr* c. s* B. frx A. T* (i+ffiI"AiFl+il*"4tzi^*tr*EHH!)tr*'dJi"l'RFRT"F8'+''8"+"EX

E c(tr*)
t E Hil! | , ^. 1. qsjtfiFn Lf+Nfllt/z4#,Hffi)t " +7 ,-il\rJ-E-trl D' t* c. s* B. E* A. t.* trXfTXlhl'+xffif,,\ vW-T 2. rFXxf " l-lHlzj'ffi D' E* c. T* B. E* A. ff* LFA'. iE+*& friJ 3. ixffisEgHT-H!, jt* D' E* c. B. s* A. t* 4&,affiin.-. XfF',lH 4. xxaFZKFJ ffi8, {E H'fe D' s* c. E* B. t* A. $x 5. a[rE T ,R/at*ffi 'IFJA-T"
- 1,64-

c. H* B. jt* A. r.* 6. +t-+* ffi"Eiitfr lE#1K4'ffi" -EZ c. s* B. r* A.EX 7. l"JTlfiJLf f4ffi, iMEFlPin--" c. T* B. tX A. t* -457n E&+rtFf^_. B.i f&H!-aif ,+E+tf

D. * D. ff* D.rU*

D.js* c. T* B. Hx A.x e. +x m+RA N, ifi,68lt /aNlRlnkt+T-. D. 15* c. tr* e. EX A. X Io. fr+*A,nttr ,4&,t DtFiE+AE-. D.t'x c. H* B.E* A.tr* 11.ffi3jfi HlVfrF,XAEFEET -. D. 1+* c. rux B. E* A. ffx 12.Ja&B0ifi.f&-,fi JLd,FfrT _" D. s* c. t.* B. TX A. jt* t s. ft E94+E T" +#FiBfituin#Jffi D.d* c. TX B.ff* A. T* 14.&wT,rfiLEW-T " D. fiX c. FlX B. T* A. S* i 5. z-+#* xE, L''E++_di-E FEFI4 lrlll MVtr,fH, " D.tr * c. t' * B .f i * A. T* 16.ffi9J fi gt+E,ffiH-" Hifi++qfu, D.T* c. t* e. E* A. E* tz. Ifi,t\iE4RlF, E " &+Efr _Etl. D.T* c. B.it* t* A. SX i8. t4si*HHtHf+, #Affi fldft'E#Fffidr -T " D.d* c. e. IE* A. E* T* . rg. &fr Efl*ira^H,ffi#.-ffifrffitstF--T o. t* c. * e. T* A. HX 20.fiEllffi,ST*,f llf$^ftnET-" ,H,-aJL' D.[* c. tx s. A. tx E* f\if,-" 21.i {+sEpH,m{mzFJ B! it}M,4/5+n n. E* c. s* B.t* A.tr* 22. AWBW'WEXWW * #J ER., -. D. f* c. tr* ^frW+ B. t.* A. FlX zt. z+#vrwfrlE+ -LEA tl#tr&E-ryz. *7, HSU D.t* c . H* B.i$* A. EX 24.ih# ina, Ifi,lt1lfrZ^ *fltrtt A+v) T " D.EX c. fi* B. T* A. trx
- 165-

25.,fu B!*\'lHlr&E#_B!, EE6ffi ,lH " A. is * B.#* c. T * D. s* 26. -x g i* /a*lF\L,+4{fl&4{fi6" A. T* B. * c. tr* D. tr* 27.- nflJ&,4&Fi&i&T WinT _" A. il* B. t* c. if,* D* 28.itffi E,trnfr, -EFrIiE_. D.t* A.E* B.d* c. TX 2e.iLtKffi +gr,+tsi*{r}fr ftff qr_, f*tr Ehxxtr $t" D. ^A. S* B. fiX c. tr* El* /at'Ritfi{nffi 30.,f/3x_T ffi! tl D. ff* A. -L* B. s* c. tr*

- 166-

r<.,6%

o
dl 6l

6) ID 6!

t0

Gt th 6t

E.
tD
6! A) 6t tD 6l ,h

D-

9) 6r ,J) (! 6t lD 6r

o
q
(tl

$
Gl t) 6)

s".4

_.6H FJ*,,TLffiEffifrJH.
:.HFffiR,
( I )Some sentencepatterns are unique in Chinese. These include "f[" sentences)'(UN" ttf,tt sentencesr sentences, "fi" sentencesr successive movement sentences, double linguissentences, double negative sentences, rhetorical questions, and positive-negative questions. Opposite to basic sentencepatterns, they can be called special sentence patterns. ( II )Emphases. tic sentences, """"$!t'

1 . 8 . . . . . . P!
The "E"""fi!" sentence is a kind of emphatic sentence. It emphasizesthe time, the "ffi". Its place and the manner of the action. The content emphasizedis between"E'and

negative form is "76E-..#J'. Hereis a few examples, e{&EF,FxT+tIJxi+p!"

@,ft*E

4ESn tt*ffi . @EuJ'HE-f ldil Elt+*+tfi +e ffi" 2.8......#F/e,.-....


sentence is a kind of emphatic sentence. With a meaning of "H E(even)", it can be usedto emphasize the subject, the objectand the predicate.When emphasizingthe subject, it forms the structure of "j$ -l- subject+ #F/&, * verb". For example, Eft#F6fff16,'f&{llFJiETfiET. When emphasizing the object, it forms the structure of "i$l- object +AF/&, * verb" with the object being placedbefore the verb. For example, IM#-EWffirF|a^T,ffi-5.itiE-$ the predicate, it forms TT " when emphasizing the structureof "l$f verb +#F/A+ negativeform of the verb". The verb is usually a monosyllabicverb. For example, B{f Sft jg ffi AFiqryii,S "
J. -"""8/1"""
o r--I:

The "i$"""#F/&""""

The "-"""di"""t

sentenceconnectstwo actions. It is a kind of successive movement

sentence. Generally, it is formed by two or three clauses without pause in between to indicate the continuing relation or the conditional relation. Verbs are used directly 4f1s1" -"

and"f;f". Forexample, l&,*in,&qtFjiffiE*T.


4. Double negative sentence. Double negative sentence indicates the meaning of affirmation through two negative forms in one sentence. The mood of double negative sentences is much stronger than that of a{firmative sentences. The general patterns of double negative sentences are: ifi...... T

......,&(a)......6......,6......rAa.......,1F......T......,]F......Zr.E,
etc. Here area fewexamples; @wxw_Lffi&Hffivfrfl tr+,f6 ,s1fi16n ffi" @
sentences. sentencesincludes: (1) indicating existence, belonging or inclusion. uH"

^".... pslt+t. trJ, ,gF! Bf + ElkH- +6tr HRffi . @ iE&,5|j E Ii tt # +r,+4hlZr' tR


5. The usage of "H"

For example' @&lllXAE tr',\,ffitrX+T,tF" @i*fid./1ffi6 lEillffiW " (2) indicatingenumeration. For example, H+ful, A lfi,yffi O+t{ll/t+A -+*+BXfr1H++.,H

f ' A E H0, AfA-f9......, fJfUH +H+., H+& *tlBf @W + +.. @t*KAim H )f


- 1 68-

(3) indicating ++,WdtrtF. comparison. For more details,please refer to,,16. The Way of Comparison". o. E. sentences. Theusage (1) thestructureof,,AftB,'. Thenegativeform of "E' sentencesincludes: of the structureis to add negative adverb"TF" beforethe word,,E", that is, ,,A68 ts". The interrogative form of the structureis "ft......8" or "-.ZFF.....,.,r. Here are a few ex^ aaHt ,

amples' o+txi+^"
8" " " P 1" .

@il13ytill++Fq? @IBFF.F-H#*.? (2)thestructure of ,,A

In th i s s tru c tu re , " p !" p h rasesare appl i ed after the w ord,,fl ,,. The,,frf ' ,phrases are comprised of a pronoun, an adjective or a noun with the word "fi!". For example, @

fll3ffiit+t0ffiXful.

(3) indicating emphases. For more detaits, @tBE+X.6ffiBz please refer to the "E...H!"sentences above. 7. Rhet o ri c a l Qu e s ti o n The rhetorical question is a kind of emphatic sentence. Though an interrogative sentence' it doesnt need any answer, Both assertive sentencesand interrogative sentences can form rhetorical questions through adding the echo mood. The rhetorical question with the form of negation always emphasizes affirmation while that with the form of affirmation al-

Ip @ttsff. A+Z"N:Evt? qBMl^N:)

wavsemphasized negation. Herearea few examples, CfiryFfi,f&iEl[4? (ft6ff{&E


B. Positive-negative interrogative senrence.

The positive-negative interrogative sentenceis made up by juxtaposing both the positive-negative forms of the main elements (such as the verb and the adjective) in the predicate. For example, +XtB*6*KffiZ In usage, this kind of interrogative sentenceis quite similar to the interrogative sentencewith the word "fl$". For example, +Xl/i*Kfitngr Besides, if the verb in the positive-negative interrogative sentencehas an object, the object can be placed between the positive form and the negative form of the verb. Here are some

examples: e.ffixs^*t
there is only a word "l"

after the verb or the adjective,the negative form canoniy be made

flF)Lffifl++'UtrH " @ttrwwTh,,lt|T$z&trIftwT" Andif

up of the word "lAfi^"; Meanwhile, if there is an objectafter the verb, "7" is then placed after the object. For example, AZI)F*Tlgfft @USpninn|+iff,H, TIF.A? When the questionerhas alreadygot a relatively affirmative estimation of a certain fact, he/ she can use the interrogativestructure ol "F.Z^ft" to confirm. According to different emphases of can either be placedbefore the predicate, in the beginningor in the end of the whole sentence.For example , @F-ZnF;lBfllTEHfr ? @ttf,l.J.6ETE# frt @'f6'fllTtrH+,F when placedbeforethe predicate,or in the be.T.EI Sometimes, ginning and end of the sentence'the structure of "6" can indicatea mood of consultation the sameas "......IFFtr", for exampl., iltr;e*ZnF-,+\lhjf<lh" the interrogation, "f,frft"

= .rrsK +ifrE,f,,

1. Erf,,EiA Eie'EJH+ H!,fNE. 1, A ts FtJ RE +& iI c .lH ,D ttdi*tftitf "


- 1,69-

6*E B

FrJ2,A AiEffiBXdhT,czJi$4EDAFA,ffi" E 2. +FffiAHift*+6JN. 1,_* _ituN i|trp1, 6tJ +TI*E+/\AFitr T "

6*E c

A. *&AS B. *iq*jj D. &*6*1t c' *4*t 6+E B El.ifrEi+ffi, 1.,f6ffi,6,142t/tf C D lel+T. ,A E/AB AF Stt ^ dl al, DJ iF4 j.H iF, H " &4" HiH,E" ti+ffiI " E" " " tF/ &," " " " 8 t8lFJ tEi,E t iF. ^B ft+gFiEtr3tJAiABlBtil,4EFX;6+Rt"i+Af /&,+dJin1..."#t8.4A5e AtElFl^ciFEt',-ff B ffiH!EEiF," M,ffi&Effi . 6* R/A" 2. EWE+\ffJt+EAn, A AF B 6Wffi+t'c,D l{tflfitl)v$t7 {e (i+ffiI +EJF" 8......4F/e,""" lE+i B!'lFR + *iF + #{/fr,+zh " dE , tEEl',"1S in1......"#t6. 6*E A B ft c ffi,eYqa D AnjsBltitffi" is 3.A {&ii,H!AFEg ( i+ffiI +6JF" 8......#X ]Ei.E + #p ig Pl'Fn, tEFX" / e,......" 9E / e + A in1 W E + 7ttn1 c 6 Efr #+8,dli6J WE*gtdi-"] " EXE 4. Afifi,tu1$+fiR+ Bd ci/(+Bt' Dlfiintul. E trIUlF^iffi*htFhH Bt' H0 . ti+ffiI " 8......m"9EiFl6 14 trtt+, ffrl&1fltulfrJd& 'e,F,. Et " E" ffi"ffi" + t4,6 FMfr E " T 8. ..... " h + inlr\t8," E lEiffi fuI" . + E1 ffiE + " ft ...... in', 56] HZiF+ . ERE B B-E{ t{ . lnRH E D {i8, " F"l&iffiffi EthiF"Efi D flfr+difrLT 5.A AjdE{B +NAfrA'RIK,C'RIK " ... ... (i+ffiI +EJ + dJ h " -... #i... "i5dJ H, " *" ffi"ik h frrJl,6+*W tF,#.^ &+**.4

A. Z:......6...... B.-......8t...... c. 8......&,...... D.ru......ru...... EXE ^ 2,Itr ffiJ *TT ! *ffi +n )LnI H,flls -H

*,+-t+*4" H+"-"&AlA"',RlKBf " 6+E C BtUEEEF-#J$+, Dg l:FknT . 6. +t A JC c f&Plnft (i+ffi -" H "iS u)" F! + iE,Ffr I +6Jrr"-......di...... &ffi6Jtr".,w 4JEJ, + tEJAn FJ &dJv1"&Ef " *E A 7. HT.E44TLTE\bTUE,A+t BIFH-XChlfi,DfE,L. . 6 (i+ffi "+fAffixxa6fr.6t F.E- + as+Effi I +EJ n...... F" ty6...... " xxtr6E6J mn6 E ffiM=\+*EE Ht tt H t*HHE tr 5E . - Mt&fr HE, ig^i. t, 6''' "' 6''''' .' YA V:! (a) . . . . . . 76. . . . . . , t r . . . . . . L k H . . . . . .,1 F ......tr ......,1 F ......6 n | ,6EJ fr 8 6 ..... B.tclt Ah.+ItA B+,Ce frV.DrLWWt T "7fi i-"1 "ffi&A ia]" h tr 8 6 6J t i+ffir & ffi6J H, 4 6J h "6... ...6. ....."ffitq80 " ElJ Bfr.6*E D g.&/a**ft+ A,f&,Te,BF cgdD HeffiHft+6q. ]F (i+ffiI tRffi FI 6lH, +6Jh " 1F...... " t#f6 " F "dt" 6 trfrAffiAiF1" ffiXn 6 fr.EJ " 1F" A+E B 10. A -+ B + _ f E c . t r + - f E $ D " H
- 170-

(i+ffir +6Jh " a "?H, " H " F.dliaJ, &6J+,fiHi#, *,T E&,ae . *E B 1 1 .AftH!B E frE c E 4D g+& " F (i+ffif +6Jh" F" +6J,t++ F!"AE B"r+"t6," E" fr'.)i{,, f6l+ lFiHiE.6* c 12.,R*+*HLfr,lti DqAT[g? x& A'tknntrylc H,ifrf$ ,"xE:E'"m|nz"hia1 ti+ffiI "XS"EE{iFl,5"n9"lAHd,fAFI"x&"""rrr"+"+qH!trlil6l . 6+t A Ef,lildqEl"ti#-1. +RffiaH"xfiE'ffiEEljif,"Yq"Ef

13. ++*ffi8+&E_i*tr)\r
c. TH DHTFH B. Arq H6E ^. (ir+fi4l+EJhir.n-ffiEE " "ETH"."A n4f*E,,\"."^A"FffiiFHi*. 6#E D (HlLH)

14. T +lR _tr+t+rEp

x (hftNt

D trIAFE A. 6EAFE B. trJ6EAE,6E CFE/qfrg ) Et', i.HiE*srl6 . a . E H . E]Dr t i+ffir E iEEE Fla F!ffifr ]( ff , Fg E,t littr B! au,Bar| FJ " t ffi i+ ffi i* " " trJ " . " n 6E B!H' D rt + 6 fr.Mfr,+ A i61 . + H + " FE lq 68 E, 6E tr dli-"1 " EU ) " E i-"1, P-l iAH + 6 f + A f,1" i! t&rtf T t E 5tf4A " 6 + E A(6E Zi6g T 6E Fg !5. lB_+k'ilr r-Ffi9.ffi-x#-trAf, AKr D. qryqryii, A. c. BntLdin B. EfrinZKBfriN ( 4r, + >l . iHH ) Ft', ^lfiinlfii[. iHiF*Ft) )H iFBF t i+: ffi I g tr E.Btf"l6l H! A E tI E i5 A iiJ,frtE n1 trJffi,ftrl AB((fi ABzr/19. AZr/'lF AB(iB ,+T+4.iH4ii+ ,+4z;+4.i+ETr+H), Fn.tkE ilfr Ffr " ) ) 1flffif* in," ih Effi inlnin'," in ffiji, ) H 4t,frt + zr.lfi " 6* E D(!fiYq 16.+ti#8,!/1trttslt1 ?

D. Bfif+'Hqfi^lH A. nfei6,H B. pn^lnffi'ffi c. ffiT,lHffi1+,lH E{'I rA iEH! iH iE*f A Fffi H atftA+ h W V fr.F, *h frA t i+ffiI g E E 5 hltr F! dti-"1 tFBI tul'ffiW+ r1H) dtFTE frV,tul'ffin. E #E D(ryf+,Effi 17.IB-EA(JLHH!trW>t
A. EffiqEil B. 6jjTS c. TCfi D. &6j$6r$

j.F ( i+ffiI g E E ffiEA H! + iF*[ r] E ffidr* trriA"S " F!4 iAB{,tr ffi fr\frt*, E' drit1 j-"] (tr ) + Y{+ d nl + S, H - f "[ " 4 UE W" B h A tFE t 4 EUE fr-E{ D ffi +.tu\, Ffr "w,^fr21fr.m"6" . 6*E A(AS&6S) 18.rs AxB,lB.dl+Ttv c/(xtsT,Mi* Dtrtr-,F,Jlffi. EZ.E t] ffi LEEfr E,F, 6 ld,"FT E" 4 U ffif1B t i+fi4l H"F6 fr tr I"lFt,fRffi tlEH! ' & trJ IilETTAEH" 6*E C Etrt+)+**,EJtr-. 461+"ETE"ffiTA.B.D Ie. Inft A &if;uj<Y BFHT ,+r,+\1c 41+Dfl+. ru*fre )&fr.,trfu.-Wt*VErA&*zi,L'Ig ti+ffiI "ru*M"E -ffi'RffiEJ ''|trH ' *zifEHH! D " " " " i-"1 . . " r4" & 4 B! HE ffi EEiB dl F H' A' m 6 + E i6 Et, dri-"1 ru fr & 6 H * AV E E " 20.H Ht . T41, 14+tr _ffiE xK_inaafl D.lF Z.trJ c.tr d, A.ft8 t& B.- Hi (i+ffi 6l "' "' fr& "' "' "E- ffiK ffi *,, *z\ ffiH B! iSff , "M".E )L- M.+*thlf,&frt ) "*&
+Lfr rl . . I A+

- 171-

E.ttrEtil||, 1.& iEz t' l f T , A + et- X C & & D { ,H..

ig

jg 2. A Ifr4ER,B -rh C H"RtD t6ffi6. 3. AE,f+SB{&CH D#FYqffidiEHT. E 4. A +tHlitHtlLtKYB fi$c 6is n, R/aflEffitf.,bV,t .Eie 5. ft{[d,E 3Jc ikanDtf'Itl&8ffi+E&ft+W. ^tat],B 6. +t A &Btnt5 crztfuffiHt{F D{E*ftrflJzl4+W.nWffiZ,H+ffi" F 7. tx/\ffi Aiu B iH+FH,cx&t+ffi D4r{Hil. B.48A trl B trH c A,fiJLD zJrrft|r EZiE e.,f&' a i4 B +& c t\ffi.D.f&ditrE. 10.iuii,+t6'f- ,A+&B ,ffisfF+ C htrfr, D H,RHfr. lF 11. +^ AY qA ,B ftc tD i S E & . Z"1+ 72.A,Fild, e + c E+.D*.tLtu\,lFZsflAffi-fi6,qHlrn,ftf"1tr. E 13.A ifi B +t.{6 c,,RSXf* D -T. H 14.A frii"^A B di c B D fJrJ'1ffiH,F,JLzFxf " 1s.+t*ffi&liv,)_,A Et6 B yqC*ff n. &, _'KF.B *d&Ff 16.E+E,R,A .Cffi+BffiTffi-ffl# D" H 17.trdrfr.ltl- A Tnd[,B Wtkfr#JHAc E,f+TD" dt nB 18.1g'taYL P1 *l+, -f&62i iffi t z A. xfiE B. RAA?, c. lr{4 D. hlt/a 1e. ft+EiH'fH *Fh +n+,lh_E Z^11 E -Ertin" |" _T j g A. B .Y q 6 c.4 4 D. E E d, /a* 20.lM F.MX&XE, _t fl_rtr S, E *ffiWt A.- ffi B .i S & , c.U ru D. E 6 E 2r. $taYyPldlA, +t_Tfiftlr.W

A.E B.c.fi o .tE ,f 4EEHWNtAW,_T_i 23. r,F,Ib,. A.r 6 B.& T c. lF T D.6 Yq 24. It$frfl 4&HraH tr,f&Ext tL _6fr triHr A.xftiE B.x&t+ c.xfi,fa D.xEr_t 25.ifi, #.ik-45 -tt/2iil, " A.ru ru B.E frtJ c. jS AF D.6 & 26.ltr-)$ffi EnB, t E taTifr,ffi B. nE^EExk ^.6EEgR CEIAFAE D.EEAEIA
27._, ErylHff#ffi-,+ o n_n

B.x$i c.ruXru EAfrV ^. 22.-Wtuihffi &+,+&iti<znfT-4i* "

D.2.68

A.gruTruJtr c. gru*ruTil
28. ir{+s6{6{U_,
A. IEHfSAEH C. IEHAIEH

B.ru*ruTJtg D.gruT7rut
fr fiF,fttE 7"
B. IFJH'+IEH
D. IEHIg

2e.g],&&6 friEf&_, A. AEffi*ffiH* B.FHAffiH*A* c. ffi6FH* D.mH*6* 30.+&TE tLg,w +&wF.Kfr, 16 _? a. 4ffH,6ffi, B.M.afrn68frE c.ffi^ffiatuLE O.M,6M,EIN

- t73-

-.sE Fr#, bbftHit'rt


-.HFffiF,,
Generally, there are two ways to indicate comparison in Chinese. First, you can compare the similarities and differences between things and their quality and condition. Second, you can compare the contrast in quality and degree. For more details, please refer to Table

4-4-7. Table4-4-1
Classification Characteristic 1, Introducing the compared object by using the preposition "LL". Indicating the di{ference in quality and degree between things. Also can indicate the contrast of the same thing in different periods. Comparative sentences with the preposition " LL" 2.The adjective after "ff" adding adverbs such as "fitt, can be emphasizedby ttStt be{ore it The Examples

1. fr,w+tfrb?uffi*r"

r.EF!4XttitHHfi.

adjective can also have quanti{ier structure or complementafter it, such as "-Ehtt, "-,F,r)L", "4

I.
L.

flFAERHJ*ft-,RJL.

&^fta6,|r.

7", "1#*".
3. The negative form is to add negative adverb "6" before the word "LL" 1. The predicate a{ter "H' can be mood verbs, det, K,

HJ*trIRA bT,HflFffi'A rt .
1. iEafirtiAB!ty+*?
a, ?

gree verbs and adjectivessuch as "8, E, Comparative sentences with the verb fr, W, 4"

n) to indicate that the quality and

quantity have reached a certain degree. 2. The negative form of the sentence is "&" 3. This kind of comparative sentences only indicate the contrast between two things. As a result, there is no complement indicating specific differences in the predicate.

frft,J4K1+A-/\HT" ttlKEtHfl$/atE&,Wz

"a'

1.{d&afrffi*fTf+F" 2. tBItlW + tM-+fiAW,. ^eWE 1. .fd&a+tFf-,R" 2. frK1+EflF/a#81F'49t

1.Thestructure o{ " ......f,fl , /88...... -ffi" ( tHlo.l lf1lD), )fffit, tH&, * ,indicating l . *, 6tHt.f)
Comparative Sentences with the preposition " ffl " and "f,[" the sameness or similarity between two things. If both of the nouns compared have attributes, the latter noun can be omitted. 2. The negativeform of the sentences is "ER/fi...... 6-ffi" and "TEF/ffi......-H'. In the structure

EIFJtr+ERIFI4-ffiA" {dH!+ff+fi+t#4" JTAfiERXF4*H.

1. jEffi#B!f&*fifr{t1qx6
-*r 2. #,W-jL6Ep{&-H.

o{ "fR/f,fi """ 6 -#", degree adverbs such as ttt" ttTt'. can be added be{ore "f", "1F" ,

- 175-

Classification

Characteristic This kind of comparative sentencesonly has a nega-

Examples

Comparative sentences with the word

tive forrn When "6i[" similar to "WH".

acts as an adverbial, it is can act as a

However, 'f.{n"

"ZKtn"

predicate as well to indicate the meaning of "&fi. ..,.,.*T", while comparativesentenceswith "pfi" do not have such a usage

L I&,6t8/WHfr4BqE. 2..fdBlnflfE&^6fi&. 3' 4&H!f;Rffi&^efr " ("o-nel

=.rrsK+i'tE,H, 1. H" bL ,"6tn" ,"8" ,"WH"."iFE".'{EE!" -'5"+#rtrrLLSffiffi*. f{ 1,tE H!-..iR_1Y"F,ffi1F* " A. Zrln B. ft c. d D. fr

:*E B
i*EC

2,)*+ frHo BJ ru #_flF+fi


A . L V, B. ln

E6 * .
C .fi D.d

fr!:, ftB09ElfrinfrErt _l&*


A. YqA B. 7Ffi c. 6ffi D. 6d A*E B 2." LL -"6!n"," fi "," IFH" -" fifl".'ER" .' 5 "48 F H!,fiE " 1,4fi,F1kF'z,fr+JF.&, A +t B ri C H0 D 76-H " ER FtJ 6* a A LLB fi C H D " Fr Jz,l&,f fl ++ T 6*EA E.Ettri+ffi, 1. +tBlAtt#fr+rdXffi-'-LK# * " A.th B .A c .ft& D. f i (i+ffif #frmffSrrJtEH&XIUN, RfrAB"fir" ,T.^AEH" b|s"d" " " Lb#"EE{i"l, ZKfrAffi-ft" Lln"Bfr" FE D(fr)

2.z,l.affie4 83 DT ,IEEL *_qm+ffi+#4+*"


A. ER

ti+ffiI " ...,.4+*"Rfr?E.ffi" bt"fr+J Lf,#6J+ tm#5tJJtuj' " S*E c( tL) 3. +tEEAX6e11 70 ,H,+B!SpE,flFru+_ e,RffiEH W#., A. d B.6ln c.&a D.ft ( i+ffiI WliaJtE" 70Wffi," tr" #J bL&E . S+ E D( tL) RftA&m" + #m #SU JtzJ' 4. IMinffi ngJfr+J ftAmH . -*, A. LL B. B. c. fn D. ln (i+ffi I "f,n......-ffi / T-#" #fiWffi#+rJ fH IFJ 4T lFJ, A + "ft+ffiffi"ffift+T F" !* c(ru) 5. H xA ifrB!ffi 4-H )EIU, tr Ai{ H0 h h &e .EF . tE ffiwffitnIFIEq . A.5 B.A c.@. D.ln (i+ffiI asmffis+rJffiH&xlult, RfiEBr{f,["\"8R"\r'5"" a*E A(5) 6. rEEftfrH,trIi0_flJf,H. B. 6W c. 6fil D. 6ln 6{'4 ^. C6 re# 6J LL ffi. ti+ffiI ffi' Tgn', + bV#.6J, ffitt s[ r'-J tr ft ffirnfr+J &. A.B 6ftVH
- 176-

B, B.

C. bY,

D. AIN

EKft D(Z.fi) 7. )LF. . ?q,HE H4nlS_Xl+ ;61LW. D. 6fr c. 6H A. iqa B. trJ iA,5 /t.iA xd 1L#. . " LL ffiff S +rJ & " E EtJ fr|-r* + tuI t i+ffiI "'lLa"5 "T 9n" XlD), B.ctffiiFf#m,DZKfi+aHH" ) "LL"HX^|FJ. 6*E A(YqA 8. FE+tjL+trifi, &i4-iL$/af,T " D. E c. ttfr B. in A. tL 4h"H. /t. K ' fr ' rytrdFU+ffiEtr ti+ffiI "A" FI*.^#+rJil1'l+ffi. ',6i8H0iHiE UT frU'fr Pl A * FU E tr, Ffr E Md vtH.tuI H R, friA + .R E iE .W. * "+M Etn].it5 " " LL" E#F D(A) t+A. "tn"F;'iin1,t "1 """-F". "LL&"tE{)FJ,6fr25"lfi'";6-ffi. e. il4fl Pl tte,E *fr , ItrFtd -XFAS*I. o. 6H c. 6fR B. trfi A. 6fi (i+ffiI "64r"E xfWffi *zr ffiff # +n6 5 "6ER".F, frE fr?iE + ffibL#. ++rJ " " Z".ffi" A(6ln) FJ""TH"Effii+fAm " EXF_ * X*T. ro.*'fl&#fit'.r^ E, /\ RH'14Y6-i_ D. ln c. b|-, B. a n. fn j,4+MFfil/zh1fiJ" + ' BfrtrN E-Eif, ' tz\ffiEi$ ti+ffiI "-+i-"1+tt + - + jt" .+E c(tL) rr,.tsJlffiIF*ffi---ffi"
n. Yi C.ZKLV, B. TSiH A. Lr, (i+ffiI "T.tn"ftchfr, trIUEEJ+fFi.HiE, #JLL#. ,lLffi"H"," b?," #7:^"19H......W' aYqaaffiHi*" :*E B(Ziln) 12.,MWlY,EzJcY_lEffiWt D. a c.E B .E A.tb & i"l, 6 AU, ffi& H E ElJ B!'y+ffi.. ry jt 9l+ffi fgH " " LL#-fin" ti+ffi I " H " nl#^+ VJ D( ) EIffi, A "IB"ffi . " & E^jr1, t IS B{ IFJ R,nreAAH " 6*E ts. bFE frffieJ S H!frffit'f+fH' &4#t6T6l " H!fr-q D. 5 c. fEtL B. A. tL tL& bL', . " bLF-F 6E ffi' f,r" . "ER" ffin ux{uF{"R, ti+ffi I trtr\ffi#s +rl -" 5 ", ZKfr?ffiu -ffi-tr . 14.ltsKfr\+.iE-+\xil1 D. L L c.fi A.H B .l (i+ffiI trtr\ mfi S VJ F{',R " . " ffi" . " 5 " . ro1 + " -fH *ffi " ffift+ 6p F'EH' ffiFJ&+{U _H. l+E c(fi) 15. i{E Pl4x6_ *,}' . )LW ItrlllflF D. fEtL c. tt& B. ( A. br. (i+ffiI EJ . EX " . B.C.D YqA tsffiffi '.tX U F1fifri6"bL Ffr + " *')- " +fi bl#.ilI#^Etl, E A( tb) 16. friJE . tL++zli H, EI.21 -r-*tzj'
-177-

A. 7Fffi B. Zrin c. TH D. 6tL (i+ffi tl'"F LL#. I Mdin1" tr 4+ fr W4+rJ tu1# +, tr ,11 6 frV m"ffi" . +R ffiA H, M. hW ffixF ,"6ln"T.ffiAaH" "TA" FJffiiF#m" ExED(6tL) /arft rT . ffiW _lfllLflls #fr Hn " A. Z^bL., B. 7F5 c.TH D.Tffi ( i+ffiI H" LL" ilI L|.,& A, tr mD ix,w 6 H+ w,l+. ffiEr ffiE H0 "nF # *, ffi 6J+ A,fti-"1 /a",R*m tUflEt ,T#BE#,fu) A 6f+AEJH.. m"E"fJtt#hJ,*.fWf++fJf lE4,FlE,FfrDJBeT.re+EJH," "Z^H"EffiiFHrA "l 'EdJi"f ,t,rifE{u,HH.h,ffw " fr{H{HZr-F,iqA{Hiflflfs/affiWrtB,9" A*E D( l ) 18.18,ih4,, r'f+ffi6s frtt +tH! 6**_ IEE*TM n_ "
A. 5 B .b L

(i+ffiI #rtr\ mffi+ +rJ fiEH&TEF{,.R, 'E H,,fil',.. 8F".,, " yL" 8,,, T frEH . "A " & "ff i " E X A ( E ) 1e.EffiEIFK+H!trE_tr trit+zi+Htr "
A. bL B.fBtI C. ER

C .d

D, IA

(i+ffiI tar ffifi s +rJ F{,.R, fiEH&+fU ".,.8R" 68tr', f,fl . " 5 ", tr.EVH" LL" . " ffi LL" 6 :e1, 6E+* tt fr xf - W.H'A5 B ffi bL" ffJt!" lA" " !n" F;dt 6 K A HH " A F " 6 fBt T " t zrzJc*f*iE" ^,:*E c(ER)

D. IN

20.frTlilF.tr;lrtt ,+\W&_++EfEf

rc

(i+ffiI &ffiaH'"in fta+wi?E,"lM" ffi"HIM^F H tbfrH0m +gvJ. "...... I+ *" H&MtriFl"9E"FtLLary.#JE+. l*E c 26.+\K4-EJiWtrYffJ,A ^ iqffiS|J{& B rLc fi DFf" tr
(i+ffir "["EEIJi-"] jE. 6* ,-WZKH&" L?"'ffi,friffiig." Lv"trffJvEiflBf, t/trigq
D

A. bL B. AIN C, H D. Y{A ^fr. (i+ffiI Wien].tl" 10 fr " F_.bLWffJ F"X, RE m" LV," #JbL#.6JtrJ ffi tt # B0 RW#.fr|, "^tn","H","lLd"lLaj$trH8. A( ^ 6+E tL) 21.*fqtIIn*nm%+,AiL[ B-,fijl cT DEfa\. LLfi, (i+#I |e.m" yVtuIbL&EJ+, E[ia-flftHE b|-ffi. 6*E D 22.4MffJ A ,f+EB ft c W.ffi.o -Lb. LY, (i+ffiI +a1"LL EgIfi tt&H0xt4-,Wrfffr.Hft#<ffi. 6* e 23. A {&rEffilE B fSc trlF D" ttffirEiFE ( i+ffiI EJ pE" 1f, iE,# tgH)J + dJ ffiH +l, rn]" 1+"Mia:a)J in1" E, " 6*T " F bL#. tER, Ffr D) ffJ H-ft"LYMPEF-fi",68. 6*C C z+.\ut A tL B +F{ c E-Kr D =+9hffi ffi " (i+ffiI "+ /W," * /,)-"qa.H"bL" ffJ bL#.A+fFlig,HAdJiABf " 6*E c 25.qJW,V.EffiffifuiNIfuWTXlEATT, A H* B fuifil+ C IEl+D 4 " LL^g.I&A

27.Atr&ffiH"Rt,Btr ;Fin C* D ffitr. j"l, #.^ LL#.ffJ ( ff ffiI "[ "E E=lI E F",mE " 6 !E' ffi . & ffiA H, bV#. ffJW ffi,Fn E
- 178-

b\+k (f+ffiI &ffiEH, " LLfr+Jxt*F" &" :' bL" If4+*". EXft c Wrx*RF_" 2s.& A iL{H{HzJ.Wb Bf+ c tbtHtH.H D-*. ,Zrlfr. FJ (i+ffiI Ft| "1FJ i"1 "t,rr&ffi,3J, " LL &ffiA H, H EH =+ iti"J "Hf . *E C 30. 3000 W+xtltfi,ffi,rtltrtfizK&ffJ|fr9-E,ffitr +, A ttffitt'|fi B F!EE.C K D" t r (fFf,4l " bV" "8" . "tr "#zsgEilfl iF.l E fr+JVdi"f tf trJfiEtl . S*E c
E. 'EHilII, 1. Bf{F BWtL{,W)LB! c6 DEH. th ^ffi&frthfi!ffi# 2. Affi#r B Hixgtr c tuxffi+ff) DIT[!.z" &A 3. JL+fJ|eA[ AffilFHeWU+ B LL c friJ^fr+J%t D EIF" F -&HuicYB!&fIu\ AYLffin+. B BicIK DH" 6lF B & C LT+JL E D*. TKZ,WWHtrffzJCT{FH,A_,HJL A

"8Lffi"frfl'*mfi". S*E c 28.AIEW+B+tS c*T4+D 4"

D. fr+E*R+ffi+,AXt+Btrc+ ttrtH A+rf B+ cgJr n-,^r|ffi. +tsxr'J+bv#.)tF.,FfrDlfr 8. +xfil/t,fib?WxA+B T c-l++ED" 4 q feEi,fi+sJfr+J\ULA,A +tB+ c 9Jf D-AJffi W " 1n ItrEtl+T,Afr B*ctt|* DEAj6. b?, 1 1 . ffix_+x*-,fi,J1"
o.
7

br,

A. b?, B. H c. tt& 72. xv+.JbHB!ft1F_tyffi#^4 " A. bT, B. EE c. 6ln 1 3 . E H0&_{S/(,t+fEs. A. Lt e. fr C.T

D. tr D. a
D.E D. EF

r4. {,fuEhHH.EF,-fr+EtrMA. A. LL#, B. A C. bL

A. D. r4 1 6 .A tr E, Fzj'Y&x+S ffi,rl, ffiH_ltu\tr+#" A. F'tn B. Efl C.H D. tL

E&E U,+F!rf {F,i6g Bt lSfr_ff B. c. fr br, Xf

Fr-ffi E 4 .

r7.Ef*# tr hffi4LW,Fn-EFH!frt1ffi A. 6in e. ffl c. ER

,tr1ffiff-1$Wffi " D. tb

18. ++H!x_1++X6-#"
A.ER B .tL c . in D. A 1e.Eft#rlJLfzj' ElHtEfliuE*fF_+ E H!-f'/t " B. 6lE c. 6@ D. &A ^.6d 20.lfi'-tk{'T9' 4-,RJLd,6 H*. A. 6ln B. *, c. Lt D. EE
- 179-

21.%Nrh. f],H tKffiFpffi F-B! zjcfE_ E HF . A.5 B .l n D. 6 C .W " 22.etitTi)tl%r.$.tr,{&i*rl}ft\#fr+Jfif"ffi -tk--tx6" A. ER B. 5 c. I4 D. tL, 23.lt$'tyr"ninf+ffi H_ r E? tr E /\-F, + r {FKEfIEl A.fi B .tL c .d D. x f t b 24. Fh fa*186. LfrtJrzXWT, *W. -fz@t*.ffi A. ntb B. &a c. 6tr D. 6ER 25. f.Ef{s+tnjBiFE__L+E&HT 20% " A. x{ D. 6in B. tL C. ffftL 26.i*E {f* bL# E+^4+F\trt. _t D. x{tL A. tL B. fEtL c. tts 27 . INX IUR+ ffiffJ ffiffiE /a-W--W c. 6fi D. bL A. B. &A ^ER 28. 9j 1 ED)rl'W?!ffrAW " B!F fr F.f,W.'EtralE )rif&FE FR -ffi A.tL B .fr c. ln ^ D. 5 2s.&ffi l&,*tr* )J, 4EFIffi ,H. E-[fi, " D. &tb A. 6in B. &A C. T'b|., 30.tr }:&A+ft,tr*, 9 T fr+JxE. #Jffi1F.* . --ffifr n.ffi A.6 . B .fr C .E

- 1 8 0-

tr^
H

_.68 FJB,iFJ?
=.gFfiiR,
( I ) The sentence order in Chinese is very important. Ambiguity and vagueness will occur when the order of the words are inappropriate. We have already mentioned some of the matter on sentenceorder above, including 1. the position of the subject, the predicate, the object, the attribute, the adverbial and the complement in the sentence;2. the position of prepositional structure in the sentence; 3. the structure and order of special sentence patterns such as rhetorical questions, positive-negative interrogative sentences, successive movement sentences and emphatic sentences;4. The sentence order of comparative sentences. ( II ) The order of multilevel adverbial and multilevel attribute. 1. Multilevel adverbial, Some predicates have more than one adverbial. Then the order of the adverbials is decided mainly by the internal logical relation with the predicate and also the meaning of the sentence. The general order of adverbials is O noun and preposition phrases indicating the time and preposition phrases indicating the place @adverbs -@noun indicating the mood*@ adverbials indicating the range, negation, degree or modality. *@ preposition phrases indicating the object. Please refer to the examples below, of which the underlined parts are adverbials.

oa{+s44 6wa ft,+ffiw"


BFx&\tJLth ffilfi,nTffi. @+t xf5uAi.fi,,u. @flF{+Sftrt*Yq 7:ooEHffiWll tr+lB" @+kWXBht @,ft*fia,f ,gH fljFffi fBEti^" @afiH,H,F +/\)ffi.
2. Multilevel attribute: sometimes, the subject and the object have more than one attribute. Then the order of the attribute is mainly decided by the internal logical relation of the sentence. Generally speaking, the closer the attribute is with the headword in logic, the nearer it is in position. There is flexibility, too. The most flexible word is the quantifier. When in an inappropriate position, it will cause ambiguity. The general order of attributes is: O noun and pronoun indicating the relation of belonging-@ noun of time and noun of Place*@ noun, verb and prepositional object structure+@ demonstrative pronoun and quantifier qualifying noun and adjective phrases adjective and adjective phrases*@ -@ without "ffi". Here the position of @demonstrative pronoun and quantifier is flexible. According to the content of the sentence' they can be placed either between @and @ or after @. Here are some examples,

eflxEEH!ffitA.tLffi,. @W+ffi&#.FfiA'7Ltrfi," @EE E E Ht'tE 4'fr\ffi tlEffi."


Please refer to the examples below, of which the underlined parts are attributes. - 182-

O,f6 B WI+Nt<ffr tnTR/a#FtFT " @u,+ E!ffi F- t+ iLlp * xK*K H0 s. @Hfr+T B+ *+X#J flF I+REflR. @+\w4 x-+F *-{+ s+ffsF/i8ffix5fiffi. @fttFeA-+ frWWhfr+rilL+" @ 4'kl*,ffs+Ee#-f JttH0n#R " =.rrsK #i"t:EF*,
A.)*tR4'i+ ffitlr c. IB'4+tstRZKffi 2,4t14,7_#J*TZ,W" @J fthWffitfFtyh+ ^. C,#FXhWHfrfttT+ 3,+E FtJ friJ f -i 8!68, _. A. +tF?+4,ft' ^ffi c. ftF.ft'Ft+ 2. ftr,l#ffiH!{nE.
1,,f&Fjtlfi4di_T. @J

1. +iF. l.FiF. Ei* .iF . )ttiF.?l.iB HiImF ffl{nE " r,Ffrin-'ETffi-h 6tJ "

B. ,f6ixn6ffi41+ D. ftfitrL+4+ ffi

6*E o 6*E c 6*E e

B.#fif,ftW?rztfrffi D.#F1,ft(:2ffiffi1ft+ B. gft'+tFt+ D. Ft+4ft'+t

A. tR,L'jU&'rEilU+ c. 2&&tR,L'XUdd+ 2,ffi-HFIE+E_" 6rJ

B.A(JaErR,btuiltu# D.IR,t'nu#d+&'ta B. Ei{6+strf D.+Eifr#Etr{+


B. bLt#+*t\b)r D.#r$Jtz\Y b\rt#

6*E e 6#E o

A. r"rtr+Eid+{ c. {++sid6Frtr
3. rt&6JH!/mJ+. FJ, +\uh fram +ff$#7li 4, tFMgJ _. A. +4tb'fr.tub)r.

c. +*ttrfr)<t\D E.tttri+ffi,

6FE C

1.tH{H,lt,lFmf,r,_" A. Y& ER,ff fpl E+fr+ v) B. iqEH +W)EFEFET{A c. ERft{4 AW9.E+.fr+w} ^AF D. 4tlEIl.#FeERE+rt+ry (i+ffiI /riil"WE1lfrxt*cffiArc,#+A*f,ftt"A B+Ai"l,,,H+ ER A.Bti,f .{t i"14id'HiF1tE" "AI"ffi"&"EEtf t;J,tFiljn1"h.+"fr+tfti1,{RffiAHp_l E*affl^",HtnmF fl ,e' t,T fEE ffiFl| "#F i-"1 ( "M. H E #^6 E ffiFt| i"]"& " Bfr . E # F c fR,ff u\*fie E e tr l'Fl

+v))

2. {UEft_,

{E,1.!U# R..6TFj/\.

Kt+4pxtrE ^. c. iFxtrE1+K

B.xEEKl+4{. D. Kq;xtrE4n
- 1 83-

(i+ffiI +h1h"dJiE1+t+++l.iE"k\r!"+q,"K"EdJjf,,"XEE"F+l'iF, EtJial"lp"lbtfr "*fa". +E A(Ki+aEhEE) 3.+tfr1+xi+


A. tt&trEtf B. fttiB&4f c. tlEft#4f D. 4fft#fiE ( q:fi4f " Lb "E i-ol, fi E|J ffiEM difl" fr" ffi ,#frEE . 6* E C(tiE bV,&IT) 4. (fi,Wffi-" A. it+t{[84 B. +tf[Eit4'5, c. Eit+t{[+-1 D. +tFi,t+t{fl ( i+# I +-EJ iA H" ffiE^ ifl"il "Ft" 6 # E c (it +t,fll h ft f,1ffi M, EtJ &L ) 5. 4&_+k,-6Jffi& in. A. rtirr&,#tr11_LE B.EEfrj1tr#A[-L c. Fzf|liBfi)rt&, D. fi)rtuE+&ltt (r+ffi I " lM ffi"fr h friJh H +H!+iFfi FiF, fRffi A H, iH.4* h " A", " fi )J" lFdJfr jn1" "+ " ffl{tiF, " FA fl t "(Fdin1" E" B! { ig . B.D tr t A &.ffiFH nh ffJ", U Effi 1RffJ Ffi . 6*E A6,htu+|r'l1]:EF) 6. FffiEt^*, .

A. fr+Efitr'T c. +t+Eff.r

( i+ffiI in],t+* + /t' iA+ 4 ia1 tEW* ffiffifi n "A Al/ K,f,1 / Rt;l+ dJrrl+ ?I'iF" . 4 A "Fl" ^ H0 "tr ffiB! 'AWT +.A' 1E',Hfr + iE,l1/r +g E iEZ^ AEA W,Flv)A,c.D i ffiiFH ix . 6 + B(fts+t,,ffr) E 7.-,EAt*/a|F4Lffi,. B. {d.E+#JAEN. B+AflF.TB*I ^. C.TSAEEfufiX+ D. IBful&+AflA. ( i+ffi " t I {8","B'," )+" h +'L, f,o1" /i8" Eflts-" FA " 4 E iFH0 Xmtr E.,)r,ffi 4\."l" *tF m,ft * ( " " ifl E "* & in] ) t " +,L. iFl m,ftirl" s " f,fl irl"f " tr )L6 frA in.& Eh " *F " ffi", tfiD)" D fuI "ffiE tr . E X E UIJ#J l\i1" IE" &+ nE F) B. t ET+_ " ^fB A. &+&t-1trrr,fi+++t B. +ttE,F.*E#&nn

B.*E1t.4r D.+g,efriT+t

(i+fi4l "A,fi+ "fi "A+& |l n "h dJja" ig. * E\ftt"n + ffi)ft fr+Jlmtr E :Ht' tH] ttiE* e. [tlE+frX_T. A. ftl+trr| B.fl$trtfir] c. t{+sr}+ D.tffr}{+# ( tf ffiI E +' fr "ftdJ "tr$ h" Eifi?, + f4HEj i"J, id"4+" # & " 6+ E B(f t+rt$ 10. ft^fiBrf_#Ex&z'fr,"
- 184-

c. a+&|ltr+fta,s,+

D.r,fi+&+&|ltrsfr

tl)

A. 6EA6EiBfi B. FEiAFEiET C. FEEAiBtr D. 6EiES7l.iBit ( i+ffiI + hJ 14 tu18 h ffid ftZRdl tr ft lhl tr, Effi fli rt,fu , f E ffi d:irl -f T + FE E dri"l + dJr,1. E+E A(FE;tr6Etrii) 11. ? E t+& l !fr\H t

A. ltrS/aFBFJL*HlS B. $/a*fittrB!)L*tu1 c. IBWF)L*tu18/a*fr D. ryFjt*k!fi1ls8/a4 ,fti-"]-tu,F,$tn1-tEm{ti-"]*Ddirl-F,L.i-"1. (i+ffi I+Elh*EF_i*,Mtrh',,\ffi ry#EcqBWF)16ffig/z*fr) 12.AAofrTtfu,ffi1frF ,_o A. HRffi5{+trtrP!ffif+ B. <'+HRFBH1+EtrH! c. ^i.1+trtrPlHRFHffit+ D. ffit+HRFF5,f+trtrHt * 6l EJ th+f ti*ffi I + tuI tr b Effi+ffi "4+" ffJ *" tq,{ + A.c 6l + zh ia"w" ffiffiffiEl Fl D iiJ" 4+", E ffilLH+118, UFffi iFffii* " + " HR Ffr in1" FF 4+ tr tr m"fFdJ W"#J 4liE6 ?+ e irt iL+fr ,Ffr UFffi i+ffi. 4 tr tr *iF E" 6 A", lAF- '1"," BR FF m{+tr E trl" +l.fi ii, ryE 4' t H!F+. 6*E B(F..{+HRH6ffi4+ ) tr tr Pl 13. r,.4uBtifi +,+\EilltuA%_T " A. -,S.JL&,8Rtr*A-ffi B. -,F,JLd,A_FfFF* C.ER-,f,JLF*tUA*H D.TRtrX-,fijLT,A-f# . . . .. "*,fi JL&,"lFWrE, t i+ffiI + EJ iJ" EE. -t+ / T -ff "t+"+q trIfuw.Et, H& T * ff " Bt*,T9EIFJ " 6* D(fRtr*-,*l LIE6-F ) 14. +&tE&_" A. s6+*{{6HxnEft# B. xnaL?#96+*,f4trrH' c. ,na*wHrqg'6+t?# D. **6+{+HHffiEbL# ( i+ffiI +EJ + dJ,a1 "!fr+" lFffiF, #rT h reAE"* + Xg,S. # lE,+4 A if,E "4xff,", *Pti-rt" +E A(S6+*,f4tHrnEt*) 15.KStH_ ! ATLtflAFE+t+xXH!. A. -A{9ts/a*fiW!frE B.-WWFftVIEBA?fl c. -W&/a*frlEWFfrV D. ry[68'f#Eta4fr-t| ( i+fiEI 6J "6E "D 5 dJ iil"IE"#- E, 4 iFt "* /a4 fr " " "- lR ffi" WF" + frAffidJj"l tF g1 - tR E " "*rrs6 E, fEE Td E{ i"l"6 ", +Rffi fi iF,"EF X.* E #rE XWtr, M.H&" 6 H D-{ EXF B(-A$FFEl$d./a9fr) 16. B{+t;FffifrtZ,ffitr& At6,tk-W A. E,A*4+fr* B.fiIEE/a#'* c. fr*4#*E/z D. fr*E/a1#ff (i+ffi "*" h F + Aid," fr *" ft ffiH+l'iF, " E /a"Ifr&dJja1" I +dl h F-l4E, fr" ffi. A(E/aF|$fr*) EXE 17 . E*Effi -ttnffi ,{E E,f&{fl_ " A. flFffilg&tJt"E1h1+ B.W4+EflFffiW&+JL
- 185-

c. EflFtrth1+tu&+)L D. E&trl,&ih1F.flts# (i+ffiI +RffiAH, "1h EdJi,' f,MEiA"W.+)I" F+liE,.ftif,"tFH" |F"W.+JL" fffitig,* jn1" i,E, zrdE Et tu")4+* "1+" F la1 HL#t6 . A + u ln] iE,Ffr E lLF.4j. u E ffi iRH E . c + "ih E" T frAH4'EI in1" th trl?I'iE. E Xft B(i4t+EXl3Hffi tu"ffi" D + "il3 ffi"6 ftAlF" & ttt) .rIW.Effit'.E&_EX? rB.
A.dItL),,8/afz B. it)ual$,R/a C. {tt$/il,,W, D. iU,.E/aE{ t ilF ffiI + H h il a# ffi , " iL"1|fr,ffJ xt fqF" fz" " " R A E Btl{,ft j.Fl, dJ H y'f pI fz" ^, &dt,p1 4 irl"it " Ef,T 6E riltr *, A iaffi ^8" D)B. c Effi iFfil . " " E E{ ,Ffr H A dJ ifl ,a a p1" ta"*Jl + tzr igft , M.Htrz):in1" tt D E ffiiFH!. S * E e il " Ht,T frA H EA tf,tr, Ffr (4rt),,E/aE)

F"*"ffiW,,fifiiF. *EF:LEWHF ,t^ft.Ffi#Jltttn}f,2T-fu"zs{tirl*Wflr,1-lb \ltlEtrrJ

1e. ft-Ifl Bfr_?f u.w.luffiMT . A. tI Eprr/t tr-&flF3tr ffJ-t+X B.X-{+Hmatrffi7ttr-&flt3 c. -t+fllsftEffittr-&xH6Pt D.AtrPirttr-W9-Wn!-t+frtr (i+ffiI A + "*" flF"," - l+"-"EB tl fr\ "A tr piri tFA in1" NF fuI ft.i9, ttr - &" -"

A. EBfEE}&_tr-1ST B. EETFJFffi-tr'1T c. IEF{EErUfiT-trFl D. IEBt'ST-aE.+}tua1 * ( ir+ iF,tfru)A,DE ffiiFB! ffiI EJ + " fr " F/JF]," tr-i."E ^R . " HN " ffi"##.ffi (F j"] )triF, "##W" M-F &ffiA H,U D.4Efi iEff XmF, f* dl " E XE c ( E Ht' E EffiH T - n
-1 i

tfr'fttr];d* &n " EXE D( A E[6ttr-&X tulflFt+HE) 20. -.tfrEry. , tL+ I&,ltlffiinftffi +TI^ft FXT _, l+h "

21.XFEl$/a tr E, ifr,Tftjt /aFt''fR_ " A. diTE*4+g B. -nJt{+TEg* c. t+dtTEXg D.'Etf+ft*Tg (i+ffi (E dd i)"Efi'EE "T"Bfr I "1+ ,6FEHEF{ H#dsif, if,"B/i"Bfr dJtA, . "fu*" ftffi lfu ]l.iB,"q"E^HiF , 5 a1irt64;g ,^BiE ffitr+Affifi+l.iFHt' M.ffilercA E ?l.iB tr tq" 6* B(Ft{+Tg*) E 22.'ffi *1 EtlR, I&Eh+k _t\rh " A. -*4HttEE ^ft B.tanHt-+4 c.-*+ffiffi'I D. 'IH,I-++FE (i+ffiI 6J+"-* ,fr.hw " effiaEEiEHlXmF -"n" ,"+-m"llfriJlF"t\r'"ffJatF *MEtn1-{6tfr *trtn1"EXF-C(-+*FFHt4) 'Y*hln1&Tffi "ffl"ffJVEtf, Ffr 23. #,WX_,+X*W1Ftr8. B. 4E&EBTttr lp.gtwwT ^. c. 4F*1BWT D. EBT1R.*|W
-- i86-

(i+fi ,F,frV,ffi E {ezlin]ffi +f +hlh-6nRt!"tq','.linlB"PA",RiEF-"lE","'4V*"ZKfrVffi (vBitr ) lE"ffi . E XE DGAT &.41tr E tn1" 24.8l+++\Aiq6ffitr friJ _W " B. +\W)LkA[E6fri6 A. sfiF^f;nEfrHlJlf ^, D. Tff+\fr\)Lf-ai$ c. jg+tHlJL/daFZKN. i-"] " E " " " AF iE6J rAH0 / & " " " "t!"t6," 8" 5 " 4[" 2'l'4 A 6' E{ E dE t i+ffi 1,F tr t 9E "Af" Et iia1. t#E c(jg+ttl)L4ASTNE) 25.t.+$11FH'_" 8.ft44*+R.lrffi+4fiffi, A. +ZrliH-f RtT6,tEft4 D. 6E-f F-t1,+4'{ry.,tu1d c. H-++4T4fr,RfrFqegB ( i+ffiI + EJ in1 ia1 + dJ E H *.R F" ft 4' R iEtr - f 4'dtR *"ffi' 6J h ihR #fA,dJ "I FH'"' F.ftV, rE i6l .,1' B0 fii u A.c t ffi WWt, dli-"1 5 *.^ lSjH E F" + Z 4ffi . H + ffiEEtJ ( ff F!+ >lt1i UEffi iRilI. E + E B ft EH -f R. i+H! Eft . D + drifl"H " ZsAV,ffi ER iEtr':,
tn \ ,n)

( i+ffiI " 4+" , B d6i) fr FjiA(ffi &zhlfl iXMd tn1 ffi , B d6) F! fd ( Hlr.6)Ji'"l Bfr H A?ffi,*h 6rH, ll ln1" t + f1"' U)B.c.DEffi iFHi* " tRffi h " VIxt tr, Ffr ffif*' 6EH &4 tn]ffi ^ " 1#E MWW) ^E" X" 6 * E A(t+tr Xhlh+ $1 X ffiMlaW dJ tFF" iffiWtfr,,, 27.lh-iEfiT " s. -Ek4lrnffi*tRt1il A. "Ehffi*tL^Irni/., D. t)rt>hnffi-tL:8ft c. H-tR+)nttfi.lnfr, ( i+ffiI " ffi- tk E&ieif,tE,&B + tF:lJniE, ffi#*h in1" 4)JE' ffi , " 4 irt F" *fin" ilIR ) "E flJ]r,1, iE",, BJi fr.Mffr+E A iA" iBff ',,*zi d G "+.,R" 6 + E C(ffi- tR+lnifr Flt 28.J-EffiT 6 n 4+t t<H!{F6, 4I-Ke+6,f+_. A. 15 +trrK tuI fl& tnEJiW f, A'ttE*PS-L* B. -PAt* 15+t)KH! 4'tu1(rF&tn:Ek&Fe, c. 15+trrK tuI n 4' lI E* Wl:*Wffiffi-tfr+* tJ.ftE D. -PAt.*&tnriiffif,,F! 15+tX tuI Fb'. " 15 +fr X" EF. ll 8", " - mt * Mffi:EJtffi t i+ffiI EJ + Zh1f, E" ll", RiEh " rJt iE. A*E D(-PAt*F*tnifrlirnF'l 15+iXtul{'4ttr) 2e.h T'tE&+XW4 ifr,, +hWXWl: B. F=+9zJtHt'ffifiT A. .R,ffiHT=t44'nt =+9A\F{XffiTfi D. .RffiT-t;4,4'atffi C. = t4t'Et" M|ea)J (i#ffif EUi-"]"F,"H "ffi"frlFiEE"fr'"' HtfslTl'iF" &Af,1"W"Bt; ffi T - t* A'Htffi) ifl SEiEZt'Bl . 6* D(.R, 30.+t_Pt.

26. Xf^fu, +\ftrtT,_T " 1+ENh+h+mMWW. ^. c. htffiwwl+t +tt1Ex

B.hlz+fi1/l&Ex4+wwD.t&ww1+tz+$1hsx

A. Dtr3U6[ &*4)Jnr\trfr

B.>)rnil]trifMtrsu6[g*
-187-

c.MffieJ4nnfl4rxfrt* D. f!J6[g*4)]ilt[trfrM& +'&,fi+ * / * + dJinl ti+ffiI "SU "Mffi &6J+fFtti*, ffiE gJ" E:E4JHtA, ffi" E #E A(Dtr9IJffiE*4IFilJffT) E.t t r Hf ll, r. fnPt& ff,fF/a_. A. fiREfthtlrbt B. Ti.+,tr,f6h+ft,#.

c. Ttxtr+tehtr

D.&#.htFTixtr
B. mnJL+\ftEp.4tr D. rn,f6+tEffiEn)L

2.UsfrrJ&F=,_w. A. +tEER,f6IEEA,,IL c. +tEtfl#fr)Liletts 3.,Rs|Jai*T,

+kE+E-4 ^. c. ,.ryEX+ff"E+E-Z#, ^lAftfrffi 4. +ft^frtr,_. 8tfril1+Jt+k4p.4wT ^. C.ETfr*\UI&WT4RF 5. "t 4w +-ft4rrI/F-*W&,--.


A.*)1ffirt8E,fit+{4-,ft c. e*)1dl,t+E-.{til1r.'t1 6._,W+$tu!*E ET . A. -ffi+ff+E*

B.E+F_4frrr.qE^#ifi D.+tr..EErtI+ffiH+-a4
B. WT4P.4Etfr#J+lr+h D.fflffiWT'4V*illBi4 B. Elljb++1-l\*)jfr+rrtftJ D. +#-.ft] ffih4hfffifi
B. E*-ffift{+

c. +ttr*t+-ru
7.ffitr*fH, A. AFEfrtrlMinW c. fifi,tul<tfrALBiL 8.1EtrilE%+flT#,1F 51 ,+xKffi6gi ^. c. qiffi65&+xK e. +ttr6 f;E tsri_7l.iFzjc* A. 6EA6EES C.fiEiBAEtr 10.mi.E,_, E*frfrw6/\,Er. A. c. sxFt4F+^ffin^ ^ffiryU\XtJl4F+t 11. EffifiR+frH4Tenn,_rg. A. E h:Ettfi=c. tEElnEJi+* 12.tFinffi FtL+BfH!$FE, _. A. +tidrt+HeT

D.+tf+E*-ru
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- 188.-

c. .&idT1+T+k 13. vrutrinifrqg,L.,--o A. 6gZEt+#,,\ c. Z,E641S{EI\ 14. affitr,_o A. ;t+H!fiHlFHEg c. N&H.tul+lFHEg


15. ,f65lJffiif,--o

D. idz.t++tfr*-t B. rFtSqE LZ,E D. gE 6gZ,E B. TFHEF )r+#rrnatr D.tFHEs *Vr+ffi&H

A. &AEF&AH!$ c.s4RA&AtHFl A. ffi+rpl\.E_K+ftfi {pB0aE c. Enffi+rp\1ftfitrH!#tr 17 . zr#.tr#nfi'&ea u.h.t, _-.


16. _,tTT1E*W.l*..

B.&AYqaj*Hkts D.tsHfrt$iAa.&a B. ,.flffr+trsnffifrn\.+K+ft D.tr-(,+fttft fiF0atrffintrl'\


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A. TNEItlaM, C. 6\I&M,II/A 18.ftrEIfFiE,E,.{&_" A. ItF+JLf,,JrFf64t,H,4H-jg c' -ErfF14HZ^ff,a,lJLfzJ.Bf 1e.ffittrfl^J\fi! , ^.;F?+Tffi|+ c.ffi1+^71F20._, ffi{ll6fiE*,tEilrr.

A.ruXruTg C.gruTMA

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B.Tgt+@*ru;t D.gru*TruA
B. ft.ruklFa+fr,lf1te4xnffi,fr,T D.frfi^BtRa+il18xnffi,A,7 B. X,FfrtJg-^,L,g.,S,lg D. ,H.i8,L.EX+#J*^ B. TJ(ff!*trxf8E ffiffin D. EgH0,tFUtxftrT]tfl* B. E{&FrJEWiBltlg-t D. 9-tltstnE{&FjEffi B. H^Wffirft&Drtr

- 189-

C.WffiTWHAUtr 26. &*H|+^IT,_"


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D.sffirftEUtrHA
B. 5ll^Ffl'4ffig D.ffiFflR,Ti|J

c. flJmffi45U/\ 27 . fituffl E**&6 R/affi,i*ffifi

IE+kfriJfr+JEHE&*t ^. c. tlr&*T+tntJ#J6.+E
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B. ft' BIE+EfE*T D. 5[B!E4EtK&*r+k

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- 790-

Hint: After finishing the exercises of attribute, adverbial, complementr special senten ,putt".tr, the way of comparison and the sentence order, you can do the test below to chec your mastery of relative grammatical points. The test is the focal point of all the th parts. It is comprised of 30 standard multiple choices and you have to finish in 20 minutes. ;Please take the beginning time and the ending time. Refer to the guidance and analysis Ithe exercises after vou finish them.

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- 192-

D BF ,. o .rx 25. htrtsrlF.E,ft_ I|'. ,GI

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- i93-

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1 .C 2.C 3.B 4.D 5.8 6.A 7.A 8.A 9.B 10.C 11.8 72.A 13.B 14.8 15 .A 16 . C 77.D 18. A 19.C 20.8 2r.B 22.A 23.C 24.8 25.A 26.8 2 7 .C 2 8 .D 29.A 30.A

EffiE_Aif,
1 .A 2 .8 3.D 4.C 5.A 6 .B 7 .C B.D 9.C 10.A 11.B 72.C 13.A 14.D 15 .A 16 . B r7.B 18. C 1 9 .A 20.C 27.C 22.A 23.D 24.8 25.8 26.A 2 7 .8 28 .C 29.A 30.A

EHEt-ft.Etil
1 .B 2 .D 3.D 4.A 5.8 6.A 7.4 8 .D e .C 1 0 . 8 1 1 .A 7 2 . A 13. A 14. B 15 . B 16 . C 77. A 18. C 19.B 20 . 4 2 1 . 8 2 2 . D 2 3 . C 2 4 . A 2 5 . 8 2 6 . C 2 7 .8 28 .D 29.D 30.D

H=H EHE--Elia(1)
1 .D 2 .8 3.C 4.A 5.D 6.C 7.C B .B e .B 1 0 . B 11. C 1 , 2 . 8 13.D 14.D i 5.c 16 .8 77.8 18.8 19.D 20. C 2 r. B 2 2 . A 2 3 . A 2 4 . 8 2 5 . 8 2 6 . C 2 7 .8 2 8 . A 29.8 30.A 1 .A 2 .C 3.A 4.C 5.D 6.8 7.8 B.B 9.C 10.D 11.A 72.A 13.A 14.D 15. A 16 . A 77.8 18. B 19.A 20.D 2r.D 22.8 23.C 24.8 25.8 26.A 27 .C 28 .B 29.C 30.8 E H= -f f iil(1 ) 1 .C 2 .C 3.D 4.C 5.C 6.B 7.D B . B 9 . C 1 0 . B 1 1 . A 7 2 . C 1 3 . C 7 4 . C 15 .C 16 . A 77.8 18. C 1e. B 20 . C 2 r. B 2 2 . 8 2 3 . D 2 4 . 8 2 5 . 8 2 6 . 8 2 7 .8 28 .B 29.8 30.C
-247-

EHE E-trif,
1.D 27.8 2.8 3.8 4.8 s.A 18.C 30.C 6.D 19.D 7.8 20.8 8.C 15.B 16.A 17.D

(2)
9.C 10.B 11.8 12.A 13.B 14.C 25.8 26.C 23.A,24.D

21.C 22.A

28.C 29.8

EHlgs-isid ( 1)
1 . A 2.C 3 .B 4 .8 5.C 6.C 7.8 8.D 9 . B 1 0 . B 1 1 . C 1 2 . A 1 3 . D 1 4 . B 1 5 . C 16 .A 77 .C 18.A 19.A 20.8 21. . 8 2 2 . C 2 3 . D 2 4 . 8 2 5 . C 2 6 . D 2 7 .A 28 .B 29 .A 30.D

EHEi-i$ia

(2)

1 . D 2.4 3 .A 4.C 5.A 6.A 7.8 B .C 9 . C 1 0 . D 1 1 . A 1 2 . A 1 3 . 8 1 4 . 8 1 5 . A 1 6 .C 1 7 .C 18.B 19.D 20.C 2r.C 2 2 . C 2 3 . A 2 4 . 8 2 5 . A 2 6 . A 2 7 . D 28 .A 2 9 .8 30.C

#=H
EHlg--/} ifl (1)
1 . B 2.C 3.C 4 .C 5.B 6.A 7.C 8.C 9 . B 1 0 . 8 i1 . A l2 . B 1 3 . B 1 4 . 8 1 5 . D 16 .A 7 7 .8 18.C 19.A 20.D 27. A 2 2 . A 2 3 . 8 2 4 . D 2 5 . 8 2 6 . D 2 7 . D 2 8 .A 2 9 .A 30.D

EHl-_/|ia<z>
1 . D 2 .C 3 .B 4.D 5.C 6.B 7.4 B .C 9 . A 1 0 . A 1 1 . D 7 2 . D 1 3 . D 1 4 . D 1 5 . C 1 6 .C 77 .C 18.B 1e.A 20.D 2r. A 2 2 . 8 2 3 . A 2 4 . C 2 5 . A 2 6 . D 2 7 . D 2 8 .C 2 9 .4 30.C EH|g=-/IiA(3) 1 . C 2.8 3.A 4 .A 5.A 6.A 7.C B .A e . B 1 0 . C 1 1 . B 1 2 . 8 1 3 . D 1 4 . 8 15. C 16 . D 1 7 .D 18.D 19. B 20.D 2r. B 2 2 . C 2 3 . D 2 4 . 8 2 5 . C 2 6 . D 2 7 . 8 28 .D 2 9 .4 30.D EHgE-J5TiF 1 . A 2.D 3.D 4.B 5.A 6.D 7.4 B .D e . A 1 0 . 8 1 1 . D 7 2 . C 1 3 . B 1 4 . C 1 5 . D 1 6 .C 17 .B 18.A 19.C 20.D 27. A 2 2 . 8 2 3 . A 2 4 . D 2 5 . A 2 6 . 8 2 7 . D 28 .C 2 9 .8 30.B EHTE-,IFHLE 1 . D 2.D 3 .A 4.8 5.A 6.A 7.C B .A 9 . B 1 0 . D 1 1 . D 7 2 . A 1 3 . 8 1 4 . D 1 5 . A 1 6 .C 77 .A 18.D 19.C 20.A 2r.A 2 2 . C 2 3 . A 2 4 . D 2 5 . A 2 6 . A 2 7 . D 28 .B 2 9 .A 30.C

EHsi-trE#fa
1 . D 2.4 3 .C 4.C 5.D 6.A 7.A B .C 9 . A 1 0 . 8 1 1 . D 7 2 . C 1 3 . A 1 4 . B 1 5 . A 16 .D 1 7 .A 18.C 19.A 20.D 2r. C 2 2 . 4 2 3 . D 2 4 . C 2 5 . 8 2 6 . 4 2 7 . 8 2 8 .C 2 9 .4 30.8

-2 4 8 -

ffiwH
EH --.L= . iHLE, FiF . EiF . fi iF . *l'iF( 1)
1 .8 2 .8 3.C 4.A 5.D 6.8 7. 8 8 . A 9 . B 1 0 . C 1 1 . B 7 2 . C 1 3 . D 1 4 . C 1 5 .C 1 6.8 77.D 18.C 19.A 20 . A 2 r. A 2 2 . 8 2 3 . A 2 4 . D 2 5 . A 2 6 . 8 27 .D 2 8.A 29.C 30.B

Eff -_+l.iE(2)
1.A 2 .8 3.A 4.D 5.D 6.C 7 . 8 B . A 9 . B 1 0 . A 1 1 . A 7 2 . A 1 3 . C, 1 4 . B 15 .A 16.A t7.A 18.A 19.C 2 0 . 8 2 7 . C 2 2 . C 2 3 . 8 2 4 . D 2 5 . D 2 6 . C 2 7 .D 28.B 29.8 30.C

EHE=-rLffi#*fre.
1 .8 2.8 3.C 4.8 5.B 6.A 7.C B . C 9 . C 1 0 . B 1 1 . C 7 2 . 8 1 3 . A 1 4 . A 1 5 .B 1 6.A 17.8 iB .A 19.A 2 0 . 8 2 7 . A 2 2 . 8 2 3 . 8 2 4 . A 2 5 . A 2 6 . A 2 7 .4 2 8.C 29.C 30.D

EHiE-tbftHif

rt

1 .B 2.C 3.D 4.D 5.C 6.8 7.A B . A 9 . A 1 0 . C 1 1 . A 7 2 . 8 1 3 . 8 7 4 . C 1 5 .C 16.D 77.D 18.A 19.D 20 . 8 2 r. C 2 2 . D 2 3 . A 2 4 . C 2 5 . 8 2 6 . A 27 .C 2 8.A 2e.A 30.D

EHgE-iFtr
1.C 2.4 3.D 4.C 5.8 6.D 7. 8 B . B 9 . A 1 0 . D il. C 7 2 . 8 1 3 . A 1 4 . A 15 .B 1 6.C I7.C 18.B 19.D 2 0 . C 2 7 . A 2 2 . C 2 3 . C 2 4 . A 2 5 . 8 2 6 . A 2 7 .C 2 8.A 29.C 30.D E,ffi E

1 HtDlifrtr
1 .C 2.8 3.B 4.D 5.C 6.8 7.C 8 . B 9 . C 1 0 . D 1 1 . D rz . D 1 3 . B 1 4 . A 1 5 .8 1 6 .D 77.C 18.B 19.D 2 0 . 8 2 r. A 2 2 . A z s . D 2 4 . A 2 5 . C 2 6 . A 27 .C 2 8 .A 29.A 30.C

HtufitE 2
1 .D 2.C 3.C 4.8 5.B 6.C 7.C 8 . C 9 . A 1 0 . A 1 1 . D 7 2 . D 1 3 . A 1 4 . 8 1 5 .4 16.B 77.8 18.C 19.C 2 0 . D 2 r. C 2 2 . C 2 3 . A 2 4 . C 2 5 . A 2 6 . 8 27 .8 28 .C 29.C 30.A

Hil)tlfi& s
1.C 2 .D 3.C 4.C 5.B 6.C 7. C B . D 9 . C 1 0 . B 1 1 . D 1 2 . 8 1 3 . A 1 4 . A 15 .B 16 .C 17.D 18.D i9.C 2 0 . C 2 7 . C 2 2 . C 2 3 . D 2 4 . C 2 5 . A 2 6 . C 2 7 .D 28 .8 29.8 30.D

HfEttfiffi+
1 .C 2 .8 3.C 4.C 5.C 6.C 7. C B . B 9 . B 1 0 . A 1 1 . A 7 2 . C 1 3 . C 1 4 . D 1 5 .A 1 6.D 77.8 iB .A 19.B 20 . C 2 1 . A 2 2 . D 2 3 . 8 2 4 . 8 2 5 . A 2 6 . D 2 7 .C 28 .8 29.D 30.D
-249-

HlEtfiff s
1.C 2 . D 3 .A4 .C 5.86.C7.A 8.B 9.810.A 11.A1 2 . C1 3 . 8 1 4 . D 15. D 1 6.A1 7 .D 18 .A19.C20.D2I.A 22.D23.8 2 4 . A 2 5 . A 2 6 . 4 27. C 2 8 .A 29 .8 30.8

HUnfiE6

1 . C 2 . D3 .D 4.B5 .A6.A 7.C8.D9.D10.B 11.D7 2 . A 1 3 . C1 4 . D 1 5 . B1 6.B1 '7 .A1 8 .A 19.C20.A 2I.l|_22.823 . A ' 2 4 . D2 5 . A 2 6 . 4 A 30.C 27.C 28.D 29. HilJifiE 7 1 . A2 . A 3 .D 4.C 5.B6.D7.A 8.89.C10.D11.B7 2 . D1 3 . A 1 4 . D 1 5 . 8 1 6 .D 17 .A1 8 .B19.B 20.C27.A 22,C23. 8 2 4 . C2 5 . D2 6 , 4 2 7 . C 2 8 .D 29 .C 30.A Hfl)tifffi 8 1 . D 2 . A3.C 4.C 5.C6.D7.C8.D9.C10.C11. C7 2 . A 1 3 . C1 4 . A 15 . A 1 6.C 77 .C 18 .C19.A 20.D27.C22.D23 . 8 2 4 . D2 5 . D2 6 . C 2? . D 28.C 2 9 .A 30.D 11'B 1'2'c 13'B 74'c 1. D 2 .8 3 .D 4 .c 5.D 6.A 7.8 8'c 9' c 1 0 ' c 1 5 . A 1 6.D 17 .B1 8 .C19.B 20.A 21'.822.A 23 . D2 4 . D2 5 . C2 6 . 8 2 7 . D 28.8 29 .D 30.A 11'B 12'B 13'A 14'c 1 . 8 2 .D 3 .D 4.B 5.c 6.D 7.D 8'A 9 ' D 1 0 ' C 1 5 . D 1 6 .C 17 .B1 8 .B 19.A 20,C27.A 22.823. D2 4 . C2 5 . A 2 6 . 8 2 7 . c 28 .8 2 9 .C 30.A

HtDtifiEe

..

10 Hfunfiro

-2 5 0 -