Sie sind auf Seite 1von 749

A Reference Grammar of Romanian

Volume I The Noun Phrase


Edited by

Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin
LLF/CNRS Paris

Ion Giur!ea
The "Ior!u Ior#an - Al$ Rose%%i& Ins%i%u%e of Lin!uis%ics 'uchares%

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION. NOMINAL FEATURES AND NOMINAL PROJECTIONS (Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin ) Ion Giur!ea **+-, Don-a Far-as *./ +$ Nominal Fea%ures
+$+ General observa%ions an# %erminolo!0 +$1$ Gen#er +$2$ Number3 coun% an# mass nouns +$4$ Case

1$ Pronouns an# %he Person Fea%ure 2$ De%erminers an# o%her nominal func%ional ca%e!ories 4$ A#nominal cons%i%uen%s
4$+$ Com5lemen%s an# mo#ifiers 4$1$ A#nominal mo#ifiers vs$ DP-a#6unc%s$ A55osi%ions$ 4$2$ Focal Par%icles

,$ Dis%ribu%ion an# S0n%ac%ic Func%ions of Nominal Pro6ec%ions .$ The Seman%ics of De%erminers an# De%erminer Phrases .$+$ T05es of DPs
.$+$+$ 7n%i%0-#eno%in! DPs .$+$1$ 8uan%ifica%ional DPs .$1 Theore%ical 5ers5ec%ives .$1$+$ Pre#ica%e Calculus 9i%hou% an# 9i%h res%ric%e# variables .$1$1$ The rela%ional anal0sis of De%erminers .$1$2$ :on%a!ovian a55roaches .$1$4$ D0namic a55roaches

2. BARE NOUNS (Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin/ +$ In%ro#uc%ion


+$+ The Dis%ribu%ion of 'are Nouns +$1 The s0n%ac%ic s%ruc%ure of 'are Nouns +$2 The Seman%ics of 'are Nouns3 Lac- of Ar%icle an# Domain of Reference

1$ 'are Plurals an# 'are :ass Nouns in Ar!umen% Posi%ions 1$+ :or5holo!ical Case is incom5a%ible 9i%h 'are Nouns
1$1 The 5reverbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion

2$ Seman%ic Cons%rain%s on 'are Nouns in Ar!umen% Posi%ions


2$+ 'are Nouns an# T05es of Pre#ica%es 2$1 VP-level 7;is%en%ial Closure 2$2 7;is%en%ial vs$ Presu55osi%ional Pre#ica%es 2$4 Sco5e 2$, Ana5horic 5eculiari%ies 2$. As5ec%ual 5eculiari%ies

4$ Coun% 'are Sin!ulars in Ar!umen% Posi%ions


4$+ Classes of verbs 4$1 Fur%her le;ical cons%rain%s 4$2 'are Sin!ulars in sub6ec% 5osi%ions 4$4 'are Sin!ulars af%er 5re5osi%ions 4$, The Seman%ic Anal0sis of 'are Sin!ulars 4$,$+ 'are Sin!ulars as Pro5er%0-Deno%in! 7;5ressions 4$,$1 Incor5ora%in! Pre#ica%es 4$,$2 Narro9 sco5e 9i%h res5ec% %o Ne!a%ion

,$ 'are Nouns in a#nominal 5osi%ions .$ 'are Abs%rac% Nouns in Ar!umen% Posi%ions

<$ 'are Nouns in Pre#ica%e Posi%ions$ A com5arison 9i%h Sin!ular In#efini%es


<$+$ Classes of nouns <$1 The in%ernal ma-e-u5 of 'are Sin!ulars an# Sin!ular In#efini%es <$1$+ Ar!umen%s of DP-in%ernal Nouns an# ar!umen%s of bare Ns <$1$1 Pre5osi%ional an# a#verbial a#6unc%s <$1$2 :o#ifiers an# Ar!umen%s of 'are Sin!ulars <$2 T9o %05es of co5ular sen%ences <$2$+ Pre#ica%ional sen%ences <$2$1 I#en%ifica%ional an# s5ecifica%ional sen%ences <$2$2 :e%a5horic uses of sin!ular in#efini%es <$2$4 Conclusions <$4 'are nouns in im5ersonal cons%ruc%ions

3. T E S!NTA" OF DETERMINERS AND OT ER FUNCTIONAL CATE#ORIES (Ion Giur!ea/ =$ In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal func%ional ca%e!ories +$ Func%ional ca%e!ories as hea#s of ma;imal nominal 5ro6ec%ions$ The DP %heor0 1$ Dis%ribu%ional classes 2$ Noun elli5sis 5ro-N an# 5ro-DP
2$+$ Nominal func%ional elemen%s %ha% never allo9in! N-elli5sis 2$1$ Nominal func%ional elemen%s %ha% allo9 N-elli5sis 2$2$ Pro-DPs (5ronouns/ 2$2$+$ In#efini%e 5ronouns 2$2$1$ Personal 5ronouns 2$2$2$ The >!eni%ival an# or#inal ar%icle? al 2$2$4$ No%e on nominal elli5sis in bare nouns

4$ :o#ifiers an# com5lemen%s license# b0 nominal func%ional ca%e!ories 5hrasal NFCs an# %he issue of 5ar%i%ive PPs
4$+$ A55ro;ima%ion mo#ifiers an# o%her mo#ifiers license# b0 @uan%ifiers 4$1$ Phrasal car#inals 4$2$ Scalar @uan%i%a%ives 4$4$ Par%i%ive PPs

,$ 8uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions
,$+$ A#6ec%ival @uan%i%a%ives ,$1$ Car#inals ,$2$ NominaliAe# car#inals @uan%i%0 nouns an# o%her func%ional nouns ,$4$ 8uan%i%0 e;5ressions %ha% al9a0s occu50 %he D la0er ,$,$ 8uan%i%0 e;5ressions in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion ,$.$ No%e on %he 9or# un >a one?

.$ Common 5ro5er%ies of @uan%i%a%ives an# some in#efini%e #e%erminers <$ The al%erna%ive an# %he i#en%i%0 #e%erminer
<$+$ Al%erna%ive #e%erminers <$1$ The i#en%i%0 #e%erminer <$2$ Com5lemen%s of e@uali%0 an# #ifference

B$ Defini%e #e%erminers
B$+$ The #efini%e ar%icle B$1$ Demons%ra%ives B$2$ Defini%e 5hrases in S5ecDP

C$ Pre-#e%erminers +=$ The s0s%em of com5oun# #e%erminers 5ro-DPs an# 5ro-loca%ive-a#verbials $. T E SEMANTICS OF DETERMINERS (Don-a Far-as/ +$ In%ro#uc%ion

1$ Defini%e De%erminers
1$+$ Defini%e vs$ in#efini%e DPs 1$1$ The #efini%e #e%erminer -ul 1$2$ The #emons%ra%ive #e%erminer 1$4$ Conclusion

2$ In#efini%e #e%erminers
2$+$ Dnmar-e# in#efini%e #e%erminers 2$+$+$ Sco5al free#om 2$+$1$ S5ecific an# non-s5ecific in#efini%es DPs an# 9a0s of mar-in! %hem 2$+$2$ Generic in#efini%es 2$1$ :ar-e# in#efini%e #e%erminers 2$1$+$ Par%i%ive DPs an# 5ar%i%ive #e%erminers 2$1$1$ De5en#en% in#efini%es3 %he co-var0in! #e%erminer cte un 2$1$2$ The ne!a%ive in#efini%e #e%erminer niciun 2$1$4$ Free choice3 vreun an# ori- determiners 2$1$, I#en%ifiable in#efini%es3 un anume 2$2$ Conclusion

4$ Conclusion %. PRONOUNS (San#a Reinheimer - RE5eanu Liliane Tasmo9s-i ) An#ra Vasilescu **+$++$< Ion Giur!ea **+$B$+-+$B$, *4 An#ra Vasilescu *+$B$. Ro#ica Fafiu **1-2/ +$ Personal an# refle;ive 5ronouns
+$+$ In%ro#uc%ion +$1$ Gramma%ical Fea%ures an# Para#i!m +$1$+$ The fea%ure com5osi%ion of 5ersonal 5ronouns +$1$1$ The forms +$2$ S0n%ac%ic #ifferences be%9een s%ron! an# cli%ic forms +$4$ S%ron! Pronouns +$,$ The Gramma%ical Func%ions of Cli%ic Pronouns +$,$+ Common Gramma%ical Func%ions of Cli%ic an# S%ron! Pronouns +$,$1$ Gramma%ical func%ions res%ric%e# %o cli%ics +$,$2$ The Cli%ic Doublin! of S%ron! Pronouns +$,$4$ Pronominal cli%ics vs$ Inflec%ion +$,$,$ Gver% an# null sub6ec% 5ronouns +$.$ The S%ruc%ure of Cli%ic Clus%ers +$.$+$ Linear or#ers insi#e %he verbal clus%er +$.$1$ Cons%rain%s on %he verbal hos% +$.$2$ Pronominal Cli%ic Clus%ers +$.$2$+$ The Gr#er of Co-occurrin! Da%ive an# Accusa%ive Cli%ics +$.$2$1$ 7%hical Da%ives Co-occurrin! 9i%h G%her Pronominal Cli%ics +$<$ Cli%ic Allomor5hs +$<$+$ The Forms +$<$1$ The Selec%ion of Allomor5hs +$<$2$ The Cli%ic o +$<$4$ Verb allomor5hs +$B$ The Seman%ics of Personal Pronouns +$B$+$ Co-reference +$B$1$The boun# variable in%er5re%a%ion +$B$2$ The in%er5re%a%ion of Gen#er +$B$4$ Pronouns of laAiness +$B$,$ Gen#erless 5ronouns +$B$.$ Pra!ma%ic uses

1$ Poli%eness 5ronouns
1$+$ In%ro#uc%ion

1$1$ :or5holo!0 1$2$ S0n%ac%ic 5ro5er%ies3 #oublin! cli%ics an# a!reemen% 1$4$ The use of 5oli%eness forms

2$ The 5ronominal in%ensifier nsui


2$+$ :or5holo!0 2$1$ S0n%ac%ic 5ro5er%ies 2$2$ The in%ensifier use 2$4$ The refle;ive use

4$ Reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions
4$+$ In%ro#uc%ion 4$1$ Reci5rocal mar-in! 4$1$+$ Cli%ics 4$1$1$ S%ron! reci5rocal ana5hors 4$2$ Locali%0 cons%rain%s an# 5osi%ions of %he an%ece#en% 4$4$ Reci5rocal mar-in! an# s0mme%ric 5re#ica%es 4$,$ The seman%ics of reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions 4$,$+$ S%ron! vs$ 9ea- reci5roci%0 4$,$1$ In#ivi#ual vs$ !rou5 rea#in!s 4$,$2$ S5ecial rea#in! 9i%h or#erin! 5re#ica%es

&. #ENITI'E DPs AND PRONOMINAL POSSESSORS (Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin **=-2 Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin ) Isabela Ne#elcu *4 Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin ) Ion Giur!ea *,/ =$ In%ro#uc%ion +$ The S0n%a; of Geni%ives
+$+$ S0n%he%ic !eni%ives an# al-!eni%ives +$1$ S0n%he%ic !eni%ives follo9in! #efini%e nouns are #is!uise# al-!eni%ives +$2$ In#e5en#en% !eni%ive DPs +$4$ Prenominal Geni%ives +$,$ The s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ion of 5os%nominal !eni%ives +$.$ The s%a%us of %he !eni%ive "ar%icle& al occurrin! in 5os%nominal !eni%ives +$<$ Co-occurrin! !eni%ives

1$ The In%er5re%a%ion of Geni%ives


1$+$ The seman%ic com5osi%ion 1$1$ (In/#efini%eness S5rea# 1$2$ In%er5re%ive Variabili%0 1$4$ The Seman%ic Com5osi%ion of !eni%ives in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions

2$ Geni%ive Case al%erna%in! 9i%h Pre5osi%ional :ar-in!


2$+$ Geni%ive Case al%erna%in! 9i%h de-:ar-in! 2$1$ Geni%ive Case al%erna%in! 9i%h a-:ar-in!

4$ De-al !eni%ives
4$+$ The s%ruc%ure of de-al !eni%ives 4$1$ The in%er5re%a%ion of de-al !eni%ives 4$2$ G%her #is%ribu%ional 5ro5er%ies of de-al !eni%ives 4$4$ Par%i%ive de-al 4$4$+$ Unul H de H 5lural al- 5hrase 4$4$1$ 7lli5%ical cons%ruc%ions

,$ Pronominal 5ossessors
,$+$ A non-uniform 5ara#i!m 3 !eni%ive-mar-e# 5ronouns an# a!reein! 5ossessors ,$1$ The 5osi%ion of 5ronominal 5ossessors ,$2$ Gn %he ca%e!orial s%a%us of a!reein! 5ossessors ,$4$ Suffi;al a!reein! 5ossessors 9i%h -inshi5 %erms

(. T E ADJECTI'E (Ale;an#ra Cornilescu ) Ion Giur!ea **+-4 Ion Giur!ea *,/ +$ In%ro#uc%ion$ The a#6ec%ive com5are# %o %he o%her le;ical ca%e!ories
+$+$ A#6ec%ives an# nouns$ The nominaliAa%ion of a#6ec%ives$ +$1$ A#6ec%ives an# verbs$ +$1$+$ The e;%ernal ar!umen% of a#6ec%ives$ +$1$1$ Seman%ic correla%es of %he a#6ec%ive/verb #is%inc%ion$ The as5ec%ual 5ro5er%ies of a#6ec%ives$ +$1$2$ Verbal forms 9i%h a#6ec%ival #is%ribu%ion$ Par%ici5les vs$ a#6ec%ives$ +$2$ A#6ec%ives as a ne!a%ivel0 #efine# ca%e!or0 +$4$ A#6ec%ives an# a#verbs

1$ Classes of a#6ec%ives$ Seman%ic %05es of a#6ec%ives an# %heir #is%ribu%ion


1$+$ Dis%ribu%ional classes 1$1$ Firs%-or#er vs$ secon#-or#er or in%ersec%ive vs$ non-in%ersec%ive$ 1$2$ 8uali%0 a#6ec%ives 1$2$+$ Gra#abili%0$ 8uali%0 a#6ec%ives in %he 5osi%ive #e!ree 1$2$1$ 8uali%0 a#6ec%ives 9i%h a qua-N rea#in! 1$2$2$ The 5osi%ion of @uali%0 a#6ec%ives insi#e %he DP 1$4$ Non-in%ersec%ive a#6ec%ives 1$4$+$ T9o %05es of non-in%ersec%ive a#6ec%ives3 rela%ional an# in%ensional a#6ec%ives 1$4$1$ Rela%ional a#6ec%ives 1$4$2$ Non-rela%ional #enominal a#6ec%ives 1$4$4$ In%ensional a#6ec%ives

2$ A#6ec%ive 5lacemen% insi#e %he DP


2$+ Prenominal vs$ 5os%nominal a#6ec%ives 2$+$+$ Classes of 5renominal a#6ec%ives 2$+$1$ Non-res%ric%ive (a55osi%ive/ vs$ res%ric%ive 2$+$2$ Conclusion$ Prenominal a#6ec%ives com5are# 9i%h 5os%nominal a#6ec%ives 2$1$ Rela%ive or#er of s%ac-e# a#6ec%ives 2$2$ The #ouble #efini%eness cons%ruc%ion

4$ Gra#a%ion$ De!ree e;5ressions #e!rees of com5arison


4$+$ Gra#abili%0$ The #e!ree ar!umen% an# scales 4$1$ An%on0mic 5airs 5osi%ive an# ne!a%ive %erms 4$2$ T05es of !ra#able a#6ec%ives #e5en#in! on %he s%ruc%ure of %he scales 4$2$+$ Rela%ive vs$ absolu%e a#6ec%ives 4$2$1$ Absolu%e a#6ec%ives3 %o%al vs$ 5ar%ial a#6ec%ives 4$2$2$ Derive# close# scales 9i%h #is%ribu%ive 5ro5er%ies 4$2$4$ Scalar 5ro5er%ies of #everbal a#6ec%ives 4$2$ T05es of !ra#able a#6ec%ives #e5en#in! on %he s%ruc%ure of %he scales 4$2$+$ Rela%ive vs$ absolu%e a#6ec%ives 4$2$1$ Absolu%e a#6ec%ives3 %o%al vs$ 5ar%ial a#6ec%ives 4$2$2$ Derive# close# scales 9i%h #is%ribu%ive 5ro5er%ies 4$2$4$ Scalar 5ro5er%ies of #everbal a#6ec%ives 4$4$ The s0n%a; of %he De!ree Phrase 4$4$+$ De!ree hea#s 4$4$1$ The cons%ruc%ion 9i%h de 4$4$2$ Cons%ruc%ions 9i%h puin an# mult 4$4$4$ G%her cons%i%uen%s license# b0 #e!ree 9or#s 4$4$,$ De!ree hea#s in non-a#6ec%ival environmen%s 4$,$ The com5ara%ive of su5eriori%0 4$,$+$ The com5ara%ive com5lemen%$ 4$,$1$ The #ifferen%ial 4$,$2$ G%her elemen%s %ha% can mo#if0 mai

4$,$4$ Pro!ressive com5ara%ive correla%ives 4$.$ The com5ara%ive of inferiori%0 4$<$ The com5ara%ive of e@uali%0 (%he e@ua%ive/ an# o%her cons%ruc%ions 9i%h att an# aa$ 4$<$+$ La fel$ 4$<$1$ Att an# aa in e@ua%ives 4$<$2$ G%her #e!ree cons%ruc%ions 9i%h att an# aa 4$<$4$ Gn %he seman%ics of e@ua%ives$ The in%ernal rea#in! of e@ua%ives 4$B$ Com5arin! #ifferen% 5ro5er%ies 4$B$+ The com5ara%ive of su5eriori%0 4$B$1 %he com5ara%ive of e@uali%0 4$C$ The su5erla%ive 4$C$+$ The mor5ho-s0n%a; of %he su5erla%ive 4$C$1$ The seman%ics of %he su5erla%ive 4$+=$ Gn %he seman%ics of o%her #e!ree 9or#s 4$++$ :easure 5hrases com5ara%ive clauses an# com5ara%ive PPs

,$ The com5lemen%a%ion of a#6ec%ives


,$+$ Da%ive com5lemen%s ,$1$ Pre5osi%ional com5lemen%s ,$1$+$ The 5re5osi%ion cu ,$1$+$+$ The 5re5osi%ion cu 9i%h s0mme%ric 5re#ica%es ,$1$+$1$ The 5re5osi%ion cu 9i%h in%er5ersonal behavior 5re#ica%es an# as a comi%a%ive a#6unc% ,$1$+$2$ G%her uses ,$1$1$ The 5re5osi%ion de ,$1$2$ The 5re5osi%ion la ,$1$4$ The 5re5osi%ion n ,$1$,$ The 5re5osi%ion pe ,$1$.$ The 5re5osi%ion pentru ,$1$<$ The com5le; 5re5osi%ion fa de ,$1$B$ G%her 5re5osi%ions ,$2$ Inheren% accusa%ive 9i%h %he a#6ec%ive dator ,$4$ Clausal ar!umen%s ,$4$+$ In%ro#uc%ion ,$4$1$ Fini%e clauses ,$4$1$+$ Gb6ec% clauses ,$4$1$1$ Sub6ec% clauses ,$4$2$ Infini%ive clauses ,$4$2$+$ Infini%ival vs$ fini%e clauses ,$4$2$1$ In%ro#uc%or0 elemen%s ,$4$2$2$ The sub6ec% of %he infini%ive ,$4$4$ Su5ine clauses ,$4$4$+$ Gb6ec% clauses ,$4$4$1$ Sub6ec% clauses ,$4$4$2$ The tou !-cons%ruc%ion

). ADNOMINAL PREPOSITIONAL P RASES (Ale;an#ru :ar#ale **=+$+-+$1 *1$1$1 *2 Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin Ion Giur!ea ) Ale;an#ru :ar#ale *+$2 Ion Giur!ea ) Ale;an#ru :ar#ale *1$+ *1$1$+/ +$ General 5ro5er%ies of Romanian 5re5osi%ions
+$+$ Le;ical 5re5osi%ions an# func%ional 5re5osi%ions +$1$ Pre5osi%ions an# case +$1$+$ Le;ical 5re5osi%ions selec%in! %he accusa%ive +$1$1$ Le;ical 5re5osi%ions selec%in! %he !eni%ive or %he #a%ive

+$1$2$ Func%ional 5re5osi%ions as case mar-ers +$2$ Pre5osi%ions an# %he #efini%e ar%icle

1$ A#nominal 5re5osi%ional 5hrases hea#e# b0 le;ical 5re5osi%ions


1$+$ Subca%e!orise# le;ical 5re5osi%ions 1$+$+$ Le;ical 5re5osi%ions selec%e# b0 even%-referrin! nouns 1$+$1$ Le;ical 5re5osi%ions selec%e# b0 rela%ional nouns 1$1$ Non-subca%e!orise# le;ical 5re5osi%ions 1$1$+$ Local an# %em5oral a#6unc%s 1$1$1$ G%her PP a#6unc%s

2$ A#nominal 5re5osi%ional 5hrases hea#e# b0 func%ional 5re5osi%ions


2$+$ T05es of func%ional 5re5osi%ions 2$1$ A#nominal bare NPs 9i%h %he func%ional 5re5osi%ion de 2$1$+$ T05es of a#nominal bare NPs 2$1$1$ I#ioma%ic N-de-NP se@uences

*. ADNOMINAL NON+FINITE CONSTITUENTS AND COMPLEMENT CLAUSES (7lena Soare **+-1 2$+-2$4 Ro#ica Fafiu ) 7lena Soare *2$,/ +$ In%ro#uc%ion 1$ Fini%e an# Non-fini%e Com5lemen%s
1$+$ Infini%ive com5lemen%s an# %heir inflec%e# coun%er5ar%s 1$+$+$ T05es of Ns selec%in! sen%en%ial com5lemen%s 1$+$1$ Com5lemen% Deno%a%ion an# :oo# selec%ion 1$+$2$ In%er5re%in! null sub6ec%s of infini%ives 1$1$ Su5ines in subca%e!oriAe# PPs

2$ Non-fini%e :o#ifiers
2$+$ Dis%in!uishin! su5ine re#uce# rela%ives an# 5re5osi%ional mo#ifiers 2$1$ :ore abou% su5ine 5re5osi%ional mo#ifiers 2$2$ The s%ruc%ure of su5ine re#uce# rela%ives 2$4$ Infini%ival mo#ifiers 2$,$ Gerun# :o#ifiers3 sub6ec%-!a5 non-fini%e rela%ives 2$,$+$I#en%if0in! a#nominal !erun#s 2$,$1$ Non-fini%e res%ric%ive vs$ a55osi%ive rela%ives 2$,$2$ Seman%ic-as5ec%ual cons%rain%s

1,. RELATI'E CLAUSE CONSTRUCTIONS AND UNBOUNDED DEPENDENCIES (Ale;an#er Grosu/ +$ Terminolo!ical 5reliminaries 1$ T05es of rela%ive clause cons%ruc%ions
1$+$ Seman%ic %05es 1$+$+$ Res%ric%ives an# a55osi%ives 1$+$1$ Sin!le%on rela%ives 1$+$1$+$ In%ersec%ive sin!le%on rela%ives 1$+$1$+$+$ Rela%iviAa%ion from an e;is%en%ial con%e;% 1$+$1$+$1$ Rela%iviAa%ion from a #e!ree con%e;% 1$+$1$+$2$ Rela%iviAa%ion 9i%h non-!ramma%icall0 im5ose# res%ric%ions on #e%erminers 1$+$1$1$ Non-in%ersec%ive sin!le%on rela%ives 1$1$ S0n%ac%ic %05es 1$2$ :or5holo!ical %05es 1$4$ Summar0 of correla%ions amon! seman%ic s0n%ac%ic an# mor5holo!ical %05es

2$ Dis%inc%ive 5ro5er%ies of sub-%05es of RCCs 2$+$ Dis%inc%ions amon! seman%ic %05es


2$1$ Ca%e!orial #is%inc%ions

2$2$ Dis%inc%ions in %he na%ure an# siAe of >rela%ive 5hrases? 2$2$+$ Sim5le; rela%ive 5hrases (rela%ive 5ronouns/ 2$2$1$ Com5le; rela%ive 5hrases (Pie# Pi5in!/ 2$2$1$+$ Pie# Pi5in! in e;%ernall0-hea#e# RCCs 2$2$1$1$ Pie# Pi5in! an# Case/P >ma%chin!? in Free RCCs

4$ Possible !a5 loca%ions ,$ Non-in#ica%ive RCCs


,$+$ Core RCCs ,$1$ Non-core e;is%en%ial RCCs

11. DE'ERBAL NOUNS (Ale;an#ra Cornilescu **1$1-1$, Ale;an#ra Cornilescu Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin ) Ion Giur!ea **+ 1$+ 2 Ale;an#ra Cornilescu 7lena Soare Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin ) Ion Giur!ea *4 Camelia S%an ) Ion Giur!ea *,/ +$ In%ro#uc%ion3 Deverbal Nouns an# %heir Ar!umen% S%ruc%ure
+$+ The mor5holo!0 of #everbal nouns +$1 The ar!umen% s%ruc%ure of #everbal nouns +$2$ Ar!umen% realiAa%ion in com5le; even% nounsI %he Noun H Gb6ec% an# %he Noun H Sub6ec% confi!ura%ions

1$ NominaliAa%ion of %ransi%ive an# unaccusa%ive verbs3 %he NG s%ruc%ure


1$+ Dis%in!uishin! be%9een Com5le; 7ven% Nouns an# Sim5le Deverbal Nouns 1$+$+$ The in%ernal ar!umen% 1$+$1$ The e;%ernal ar!umen% 1$+$2$ Thema%ic a#6ec%ives 1$+$4$ As5ec%ual mo#ifiers 1$+$,$ LocaliAers 1$+$.$ Con%rol b0 an im5lici% A!en% 1$1 Double ob6ec% verbs 1$2 Are NG s%ruc%ures J5assiveJK 1$4$ Verbs 9i%h a clausal com5lemen% 1$,$ Dnaccusa%ive verbs

2$ NominaliAa%ion of uner!a%ive verbs3 %he NS s%ruc%ure 4$ As5ec% an# nominaliAa%ion


4$+ Verbal As5ec%ual Classes an# 7ven%uali%0 As5ec% 4$1$ 7ven%uali%0 as5ec% in C7Ns 4$1$+$ The as5ec%ual class of %he base 4$1$1$ Telici%0 4$2$ The as5ec%ual 5ro5er%ies of %he su5ine 4$4$ PluraliAa%ion an# #e%erminer selec%ion in C7Ns

,$ Sim5le #everbal nouns an# o%her nominals 9i%h even%-rela%e# rea#in!s


,$+$ The rea#in!s of sim5le #everbal nouns ,$1$ Sim5le even% nouns (S7Ns/ ,$2$ A!en%-nominaliAa%ions ,$4$ G%her nouns 9i%h even%-rela%e# rea#in!s

12. PROPER NAMES (:ihaela :iron-Fulea Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin ) Ion Giur!ea/ =$ In%ro#uc%ion3 #efini%ion an# main s0n%ac%ic 5ro5er%ies +$ Pro5er names an# %he #efini%e ar%icle
+$+$ The forms "a an# "u in an%hro5on0ms3 en#in!s or #efini%e ar%iclesK +$1$ Defini%e common nouns use# as 5ro5er names +$2$ To5on0ms

1$ The in%ernal s%ruc%ure of DPs hea#e# b0 5ro5er names


1$+$ Res%ric%ive 5os%nominal mo#ifiers 1$1$ Prenominal mo#ifiers

1$2$ Ten%a%ive anal0sis 1$4$ Pro5er names follo9e# b0 #efini%e DPs an# mo#ifiers in%ro#uce# b0 cel 1$,$ Pro5er names 5rece#e# b0 common nouns

2$ Pro5er names use# as common nouns


2$+$ Derive# common noun in%er5re%a%ions 2$1$ S5ecial uses in 9hich %he referen%ial in%er5re%a%ion is 5reserve#

4$ Pro5er names in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion 13. CLASSIFIER AND -UALITATI'E BINOMINAL CONSTRUCTIONS (:ihaela TLnase-Do!aru ) Ion Giur!ea **=-+ :ihaela TLnase-Do!aru Ion Giur!ea ) Ru;an#ra ViMan *1/ =$ In%ro#uc%ion +$ The classifier cons%ruc%ion
+$+$ T05es of classifier cons%ruc%ions +$+$+$ Dni% Nouns +$+$1$ 8uan%i%a%ive Nouns +$1$ S0n%ac%ic an# seman%ic 5ro5er%ies +$1$+$ De%erminers +$1$1$ S-selec%ion$ N1 as >seman%ic hea#?$ +$1$2$ A!reemen% +$1$4$ :o#ifica%ion +$1$,$ Disloca%ion of N1 +$1$.$ S0n%ac%ic anal0sis +$2$ Le;ical ambi!ui%0 +$4$ No%e on %he 5re5osi%ion de +$,$ Classifier cons%ruc%ions 9i%h abs%rac% nouns

1$ The @uali%a%ive cons%ruc%ion


1$+$ Gvervie9 1$1$ Sin!le-DP 8uali%a%ives 1$1$+$ T05es of N+ 1$1$1 A!reemen% fac%s 1$1$2$ The in%erac%ion 9i%h #e%erminers 1$1$4$ The hea# of %he cons%ruc%ion 1$2$ Double-DP 8uali%a%ives

1$. APPOSITIONS AND JU"TAPOSED NOUNS (Raluca Ionescu 'rLescu ) Ion Giur!ea/ +$ In%ro#uc%ion 1$ A55osi%ions
1$+$ Dis%in!uishin! a55osi%ions from o%her 5aren%he%ical cons%ruc%ions 1$1$ The e@ua%ive a55osi%ion 1$1$+ Dis%ribu%ional 5ro5er%ies 1$1$1$ Seman%ic 5ro5er%ies 1$1$2$ Case 5ro5er%ies an# %he #is%inc%ion be%9een a55osi%ions an# reformula%ions 1$2$ The a%%ribu%ive a55osi%ion 1$4$ A%%ribu%ive A55osi%ions versus Circums%an%ial Small Clauses 1$,$ I%era%e# a55osi%ions 1$.$ A common s0n%ac%ic charac%eriAa%ion of a%%ribu%ive an# e@ua%ive a55osi%ions

2$ Nu;%a5ose# nouns
2$+$ Common Noun H Pro5er Name 2$1$ Pro5er Name H Defini%e DP 2$2$ Common Noun H Common Noun

1%. 'OCATI'ES ('lanca Croi%or ) Vir!inia Oill/ +$ Defini%ion 1$ Pra!ma%ic 5ro5er%ies 2$ Phonolo!0 4$ Le;icon ,$ :or5holo!0
,$+$ Case en#in!s ,$1$ The al%erna%ion -e versus -ule for masculine sin!ular ,$2$ The al%erna%ion of Case mar-e# an# unmar-e# voca%ives

.$ S0n%a;3 5hrase s%ruc%ure


.$+$ :o#ifiers of voca%ive nouns .$+$+$ A#6ec%ives .$+$1$ Pronominal 5ossessors an# !eni%ives .$+$2$ 8uan%ifiers .$+$4$ 'inominal DPs .$+$,$ Pre5osi%ional 5hrases .$+$.$ N+ de N1 .$+$<$ Rela%ive clauses .$1$ NominaliAe# a#6ec%ives .$2$ Le;icall0 null nouns .$4$ Coor#ina%e# voca%ives

<$ S0n%a;3 %he voca%ive in %he sen%ence


<$+$ Voca%ives P sub6ec%s of im5era%ivesK <$1$ Ana5horic rela%ions

B$ Reverse role voca%ives C$ Voca%ives in e;clama%ions +=$ Theore%ical @ues%ions 1&. NOMINAL INFLECTION (Ion Giur!ea/ +$ The inflec%ion of #e%erminers a#6ec%ives an# o%her func%ional i%ems
+$+$ Gen#erHNumberHGbli@ue mor5hemes +$1$ Gen#erHNumber mor5hemes +$1$+$ T05e I3 Four-en#in! 5ara#i!m +$1$1$ General rules concernin! %he Q/-u an# -i en#in!s +$1$2$ T05e II3 Three-en#in! 5ara#i!m 9i%h one en#in! for %he feminine +$1$4$ T05e III3 %hree-en#in! 5ara#i!ms 9i%h one en#in! for %he 5lural +$1$,$ T05e IV3 T9o-en#in! 5ara#i!m <=2 +$1$.$ T05e V3 Gne-en#in! 5ara#i!ms

1$ The inflec%ion of nouns 2$ S%em al%erna%ions 4$ Irre!ular 5ara#i!ms ,$ The #efini%e #eclension .$ Voca%ive en#in!s <$ The 5ossessive inflec%ion B$ The au!men%e# forms of #e%erminers an# o%her func%ional ca%e!ories C$ Para#i!m sam5les BIBLIO#RAP !

L.st of /ont0.b1to0s
Ale;an#ra Cornilescu Dniversi%0 of 'uchares% 'lanca Croi%or The "Ior!u Ior#an - Al$ Rose%%i& Ins%i%u%e of Lin!uis%ics 'uchares% Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin LLF/CNRS Paris Don-a Far-as Dniversi%0 of California San%a CruA Ion Giur!ea The "Ior!u Ior#an - Al$ Rose%%i& Ins%i%u%e of Lin!uis%ics 'uchares% Ale;an#ru Grosu Tel-Aviv Dniversi%0 Vir!inia Oill Dniversi%0 of Ne9 'runs9icRaluca Ionescu 'rLescu The "Ior!u Ior#an - Al$ Rose%%i& Ins%i%u%e of Lin!uis%ics 'uchares% ) Dniversi%0 of 'uchares% Ale;an#ru :ar#ale INALCG Paris :ihaela :iron-Fulea "Gvi#ius& Dniversi%0 Cons%anRa Isabela Ne#elcu Dniversi%0 of 'uchares% ) The "Ior!u Ior#an - Al$ Rose%%i& Ins%i%u%e of Lin!uis%ics 'uchares% San#a Reinheimer-RE5eanu Dniversi%0 of 'uchares% Camelia S%an Dniversi%0 of 'uchares% 7lena Soare Dniversi%0 of Paris B Liliane Tasmo9s-i Dniversi%0 of An%9er5en :ihaela TLnase-Do!aru Dniversi%0 of 'uchares%

An#ra Vasilescu Dniversi%0 of 'uchares% Ru;an#ra ViMan Dniversi%0 of 'uchares% Ro#ica Fafiu Dniversi%0 of 'uchares%

Abb0e2.at.ons 1se3 .n 4losses


+12
ACC ADN AGR ADG: CL DAT DISTR DG: F F7: G7N G7R I:PF I:PV INF : :ASC N7G N7DT NG: G'L P PL PLPF PGSS PRF PTCL PTCP R7FL S SG SD'N SDP VGC

+s% 1n# 2r# 5erson accusa%ive a#6ec%ival suffi; 5re5ose# a!reemen% mar-er (in Albanian/ au!men%3 s5ecial inflec%ion use# on #e%erminers before a null N cli%ic (for #oublin! cli%ics usuall0 onl0 case is in#ica%e#/ #a%ive #is%ribu%ive3 mar-er of #is%ribu%e# (co-var0in!/ in#efini%es #ifferen%ial ob6ec% mar-er feminine !eni%iveI %he !eni%ival >ar%icle? al (5re5ose# !eni%ive mar-er a!reein! 9i%h %he 5ossessee/ !erun# im5erfec% im5era%ive infini%ive (inflec%ion suffi;/ masculine ne!a%ive mor5heme or hea# neu%er nomina%ive %he 5re5ose# !eni%ive-#a%ive mar-er lui use# 9i%h sin!ular 5ro5er names 5lural 5lu5erfec% 5ossessive (use# for %he 2r# sin!ular a!reein! 5ossessive su >his her i%s?/ %he 5erfec% mar-er fi of non-in#ica%ive moo#s 5ar%icle (use# for voca%ive 5ar%icles/ 5ar%ici5le refle;iveI use# for refle;ive cli%ics also in %heir use as voice mar-ers (inchoa%ive mi##le 5assive/ sin!ular sub6unc%iveI %he sub6unc%ive mar-er s su5ine (inflec%ion suffi;I 5re5ose# moo# mar-er/ voca%ive

#loss.n4 50.n/.5les
In or#er %o facili%a%e %he rea#in! some !ramma%ical ca%e!ories have been omi%%e# 9hen irrelevan% for %he #iscussion (e$!$ !en#er an# number on a#6ec%ives an# #e%erminers/$ The 5erson an# number on verbs are no% in#ica%e# 9hen %he0 are inferable from %he imme#ia%e !ramma%ical con%e;% i$e$ 9hen %here is an over% 5reverbal sub6ec%$ The 5erson an# number of refle;ive cli%ics are usuall0 no% in#ica%e# as %he0 are inferable from %he verb form$

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

1. Int0o31/t.on. No6.nal Feat10es an3 No6.nal P0o7e/t.ons


CAR:7N DG'RGVI7-SGRIN ) IGN GIDRG7A (**+-,/ DGNSA FARSAS (*./ 1. No6.nal Feat10es
+$+ General observa%ions an# %erminolo!0 +$1$ Gen#er +$2$ Number3 coun% an# mass nouns +$4$ Case

2. P0ono1ns an3 t8e Pe0son Feat10e 3. Dete06.ne0s an3 ot8e0 no6.nal f1n/t.onal /ate4o0.es $. A3no6.nal /onst.t1ents
4$+$ Com5lemen%s an# mo#ifiers 4$1$ A#nominal mo#ifiers vs$ DP-a#6unc%s$ A55osi%ions$ 4$2$ Focal Par%icles

%. D.st0.b1t.on an3 S9nta/t./ F1n/t.ons of No6.nal P0o7e/t.ons &. T8e Se6ant./s of Dete06.ne0s an3 Dete06.ne0 P80ases .$+$ T05es of DPs
.$1 Theore%ical 5ers5ec%ives

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

This volume is concerne# 9i%h %he s%u#0 of nominal 5ro6ec%ions in Romanian$ For reasons %ha% 9ill be e;5laine# belo9 ma;imal nominal cons%i%uen%s are anal0Ae# as D(e%erminer/ P(hrase/s i$e$ as s0n%ac%ic ca%e!ories hea#e# b0 a De%erminer (a s0n%ac%ic ca%e!or0 %ha% inclu#es ar%icles/ %ha% %a-es a N(oun/P(hrase/ ma#e u5 of %he hea# noun i%s com5lemen%s an# i%s mo#ifiers as a com5lemen%$ The in%ernal s%ruc%ure of a canonical ma;imal nominal 5ro6ec%ion %hus con%ains %hree hierarchical levels3 NT is %he le;ical level corres5on#in! %o %he hea# N NP is %he 5hrasal 5ro6ec%ion hea#e# b0 NT an# DP is %he 5ro6ec%ion hea#e# b0 %he func%ional ca%e!or0 De%erminer$ The %erm >nominal? 9ill be use# belo9 as an umbrella %erm for nominal 5ro6ec%ions$ No% all DPs are >canonical?3 some of %hem e$!$ 5ronouns lac- nouns o%hers e$!$ 5ro5er names as 9ell as 5lural an# mass in#efini%es lac- #e%erminers$ These classes of DPs 9ill %herefore be %rea%e# se5ara%el0$ Nouns can be #efine# formall0 if 9e %a-e in%o accoun% %heir s0n%ac%ic con%e;%3 a le;ical ca%e!or0 ; is a N if i% ma0 a55ear in %he con%e;% of an ar%icle (e$!$ un biat >a bo0? biatul >bo0-%he?/$ Oo9ever %his #efini%ion canno% be a55lie# ever09here since some 5ro5er names al9a0s a55ear 9i%hou% ar%icles (9hen %he0 %a-e an ar%icle 9e ma0 s5ea- of conversion %o common nouns/$ Al%erna%ivel0 nouns can be #efine# as bein! %hose le;ical elemen%s %ha% %ri!!er !en#er a!reemen% on a#6ec%ives an# on De%erminers$ This is a con%e;%ual #efini%ion bu% i% 5resu55oses a subs%an%ive non-con%e;%ual #efini%ion3 Ns are %hose elemen%s %ha% carr0 inheren% Gen#er fea%ures$ No%e %ha% %he o%her nominal fea%ure Number #oes no% seem %o be inheren% %o N i%self3 one an# %he same coun%able N e$!$ biat >bo0? can be mar-e# as ei%her sin!ular or 5lural (9hereas a !iven N is P in %he !eneral case a% leas% P ei%her masculine feminine or >neu%er? a label %ha% 9ill be #iscusse# belo9/$ Since %he Number fea%ure !ives in#ica%ions re!ar#in! %he referen% of %he DP as a 9hole i% ma0 be assume# %o a%%ach %o some elemen% %ha% is hi!her %han N i%self 5ossibl0 D i%self$ The %hir# >nominal? fea%ure Person is no% relevan% for nouns bu% onl0 for 5ersonal 5ronouns$ 'ecause %he onl0 formal non-con%e;%ual #efini%ions of Ns an# 5ronouns are in %erms of fea%ures %he firs% 5ar% of %he In%ro#uc%ion belo9 9ill be #evo%e# %o %hem$ Ue 9ill 5ursue b0 a 5resen%a%ion of De%erminers 9hich are crucial for %he anal0sis of nominal 5ro6ec%ions$ Pronouns 9hich lac- De%erminers bu% carr0 %he Person fea%ure 9ill follo9 ne;%$ The o%her sec%ions of %he In%ro#uc%ion 9ill !ive an overvie9 of %he 5hrasal a#nominal cons%i%uen%s$

1. No6.nal Feat10es
Nominal cons%i%uen%s are %ra#i%ionall0 #escribe# as carr0in! %he inflec%ional fea%ures of Gen#er Number an# Case$ The Person fea%ure 9hich concerns onl0 5ersonal 5ronouns 9ill be #iscusse# in %he sec%ion #e#ica%e# %o %hese elemen%s$ Gen#er Number an# Case fea%ures are realiAe# as boun# mor5hemes (a mor5heme ma0 corres5on# %o one or several fea%ures/ on several elemen%s insi#e %he same nominal 5ro6ec%ion (sub6ec%-verb a!reemen% 9hich 5er%ains %o %he secon# volume of our Grammar 9ill be lef% asi#e here/$ The 5resence of %hese inflec%ional mor5hemes some%imes correla%es 9i%h vocalic an# consonan%ic al%erna%ions on %he nominal roo%3
(+/ a$ aces% bLia% bun %his$:SG bo0( :/ !oo#$:SG b$ aceM%. bLieRi bun. %his$:PL bo0s(:/ !oo#$:PL c$ aceas%: fa%L bun: %his$FSG !irl(F/ !oo#$FSG #$ aces%e fe%e bune %his$FPL !irls(F/ !oo#$FPL

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

The e;am5les in (+/ sho9 %ha% number mor5hemes on #e%erminers an# a#6ec%ives are mar-e# as ei%her masculine or feminine an observa%ion %ha% is curren%l0 formula%e# b0 sa0in! %ha% Number is bun#le# 9i%h Gen#er or Number an# Gen#er are bun#le# %o!e%her$ 1.1 #ene0al obse02at.ons an3 te06.nolo49 ; Infle/t.onal 2s le<./al feat10es In 9ha% follo9s 9e 9ill use %he label >inflec%ional fea%ure? %o refer %o %hose fea%ures %ha% are realiAe# as boun# mor5hemes se5arable from %he roo% i%self$ Ue 9ill assume a Q mor5heme %o be 5resen% on %hose roo%s %ha% en%er a Number or Gen#er o55osi%ion 9i%h ano%her elemen% %ha% is #ecom5osable in%o a roo% an# an over% inflec%ional mor5heme3
(1/ vesel-Q / vesel-L cheerful-:SG cheerful-FSG

Ue ma0 %hen summariAe %he observa%ions ma#e so far b0 sa0in! %ha% %he Number an# Gen#er fea%ures on #e%erminers an# a#6ec%ives are inflec%ional fea%ures$ The fea%ural ma-e-u5 of nouns #iffers from %ha% of #e%erminers an# a#6ec%ives insofar as %he !en#er fea%ure on nouns is no% inflec%ional bu% ra%her >le;ical?3 in %he !eneral case nouns are no% #ecom5osable in%o a roo% follo9e# b0 an inflec%ional fea%ureI %he !en#er fea%ures of nouns belon! %o %he roo% i%self %he0 sub-classif0 nouns (9e 9ill see in sec%ion +$1 %ha% even 9hen !en#er seems %o be realiAe# b0 an inflec%ional mor5heme a##e# %o a nominal roo% %his mor5heme mus% be consi#ere# a #eriva%ional ra%her %han an inflec%ional mor5heme/$ The #is%inc%ion be%9een inflec%ional fea%ures an# le;ical fea%ures is crucial for an0 anal0sis of nominal !en#er an issue %o 9hich 9e 9ill come bac- belo9$ Li-e #e%erminers an# a#6ec%ives Romanian nouns have %he inflec%ional fea%ures of Number an# Case (see Cha5 Infl/$ The above #iscussion sho9s %ha% %he #is%inc%ion be%9een inflec%ional an# le;ical fea%ures #oes no% 5er%ain %o a !iven fea%ure (e$!$ Number vs$ Gen#er/ bu% ins%ea# #e5en#s on bo%h %he fea%ure an# %he ca%e!or0 %o 9hich i% a%%aches$ I% shoul# also be observe# %ha% al%hou!h in %he ma6ori%0 of cases Number on nouns is inflec%ional %here are also e;ce5%ions such as pluralia tantum for 9hich %he 5lural fea%ure mus% be vie9e# as le;ical$ The main !eneraliAa%ion concernin! %he o55osi%ion be%9een inflec%ional an# le;ical fea%ures seems %o be %ha% onl0 nouns (an# 5ronouns/ ma0 have le;ical fea%ures of Gen#er an# Number$ De%erminers an# a#6ec%ives al9a0s carr0 inflec%ional fea%ures (of Gen#er Number an# Case/$ Case fea%ures are al9a0s inflec%ional$ ; A40ee6ent The sharin! of fea%ures sho9n in %he e;am5les in (+/ is #ue %o a reement an as0mme%ric rela%ion 9hich in informal %erms can be #escribe# as a mechanism %ha% co5ies a !iven fea%ure from one elemen% P %he source or %he controller of a!reemen% - on%o one or more elemen%s P %he tar ets of a!reemen% P belon!in! %o a s5ecifie# s0n%ac%ic #omain$ A @uic- loo- a% %he e;am5les in (+/ is sufficien% %o see %ha% (i/ a#6ec%ives are %ar!e%s ra%her %han con%rollers of a!reemen% for bo%h Number an# Gen#er an# (ii/ nouns are %he con%rollers of Gen#er3 %he value of %he Gen#er fea%ure of a#6ec%ives (an# #e%erminers/ #e5en#s on %he !en#er class of %he noun an# %he value of %he Number of a#6ec%ives #e5en#s on %he referen%ial 5ro5er%ies of %he en%i%0 referre# %o b0 %he overall DP$ I% is much less clear 9he%her i% is %he noun or %he #e%erminer %ha% con%rols Number a!reemen% an issue %ha% 9ill be e;amine# belo9$ The fea%ures 5resen% on %he %ar!e% of a!reemen% are %ra#i%ionall0 vie9e# as copied or 2

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

in!erited from %he source$ No%e ho9ever %ha% i% is %he value of %he fea%ure P ra%her %han %he fea%ure %05e i%self P %ha% is >co5ie#? or ra%her con%e;%uall0 fi;e# as i#en%ical %o %ha% of %he con%roller$ Ue ma0 %hus sa0 %ha% in %heir le;ical re5resen%a%ion a!reein! a#6ec%ives have unvalued features of Gen#er an# Number 9hich are assi!ne# a 5ar%icular value con%e;%uall0 #e5en#in! on %he fea%ures of %he noun (or of %he #e%erminer/$ This charac%eriAa%ion of %he a!reemen% fea%ures of a#6ec%ives allo9s us %o #is%in!uish be%9een lan!ua!es li-e Romanian 9hich have a!reein! a#6ec%ives an# lan!ua!es li-e 7n!lish in 9hich a#6ec%ives #o no% a!ree3 7n!lish a#6ec%ives ma0 be charac%eriAe# as lac-in! a!reemen% fea%ures$ In sum %he %ar!e%s of a!reemen% have unvalue# fea%ures in %he Le;icon an# con%e;%uall0 value# fea%ures in a 5ar%icular con%e;%$ In o%her 9or#s %he visible inflec%ions are realiAa%ions of %he con%e;%uall0 value# fea%ures$ Turnin! no9 %o %he fea%ures of %he con%rollers of a!reemen% %heir value is fi;e# in#e5en#en%l0 of %he a!reemen% rela%ion3 a noun is masculine or feminine even if %here is no a!reein! %ar!e% in i%s con%e;%$ The e;am5les in (+/ above clearl0 sho9 %ha% %he (value of %he/ Gen#er fea%ure is an inheren% 5ro5er%0 of le;ical en%ries of nouns3 biat an# fat are in%rinsicall0/inheren%l0 mar-e# as masculine an# feminine res5ec%ivel0$ Com5are %he a#6ec%ive bun 9hich has no inheren% value for i%s Gen#er fea%ure bu% ins%ea# is assi!ne# %he values masculine or feminine #e5en#in! on %he Gen#er fea%ure of %he noun i% mo#ifies e$!$ biat bun >bo0 !oo#$:SG? vs$ fat bun >!irl !oo#$FSG?$ No%e no9 %ha% %he values of cer%ain o%her fea%ures e$!$ Number an# Case canno% be vie9e# as inheren% %o an0 le;ical en%r03 a !iven noun e$!$ mas >%able? or cine >#o!? is no% mar-e# in %he le;icon as ei%her sin!ular or 5lural nor is i% mar-e# as ei%her Nomina%ive Geni%ive e%c$ Ins%ea# Number is an in%er5re%able fea%ure (9hich !ives in#ica%ions re!ar#in! %he referen% of nominal cons%i%uen%s if 9e leave asi#e pluralia tantum e$!$ pantaloni >%rousers?/ %ha% combines 9i%h i%s hos% (%he De%erminer an#/or %he Noun/ in %he s0n%a;$ Number is realiAe# as a boun# mor5heme on %he #e%erminer noun an# a#6ec%ive an# 9e ma0 9on#er 9hich one of %hese i%ems is %he con%roller of Number a!reemen%$ Since none of %he elemen%s on 9hich Number inflec%ions a55ear is inheren%l0 mar-e# for a cer%ain value of Number i% is #ifficul% %o #eci#e 9hich one of %he elemen%s %ha% a!ree in Number is %he con%roller an# in fac% %he no%ion of >con%roller of Number (a!reemen%/? is @ui%e #ifferen% from %ha% of >con%roller of Gen#er?3 %he con%roller of Number 9oul# be %he elemen% %o 9hich Number a%%aches firs% or more 5recisel0 %he elemen% on%o 9hich %he value of Number is freel0 selec%e# as ei%her sin!ular or 5luralI Number 9oul# %hen be co5ie# via a!reemen% on%o %he o%her elemen%s$ Gran%in! %ha% a#6ec%ives have onl0 unvalue# fea%ures %he con%roller of Number an# Case coul# be ei%her D or N (for more on %his see sec%ion +$2 belo9/$ Assumin! %ha% seman%ics is com5osi%ional in %he sense %ha% s0n%ac%ic cons%i%uen%s are assi!ne# seman%ic in%er5re%a%ions #e5en#in! on %heir s0n%a; %he #ecision as %o 9he%her Number mer!es firs% 9i%h De% or 9i%h N #e5en#s on %he seman%ic anal0sis$ Case on %he o%her han# is nei%her inheren% nor in%er5re%ableI i% is assi!ne# con%e;%uall0 in #esi!na%e# s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ions un#er !overnmen% b0 5ar%icular s0n%ac%ic ca%e!ories$ The values of Case fea%ures can %hus be sai# %o be con%e;%uall0 assi!ne# %o %he overall DP hence a S(ase/ ca%e!or0 %ha% has been some%imes been assume# above %he DPlevel of re5resen%a%ion$ Insi#e %he DP i%self Case fea%ures a55ear on several elemen%s (#e%erminers nouns a#6ec%ives/ #ue %o a!reemen%$ Ue shoul# %herefore #is%in!uish be%9een Case assi!nmen% (i$e$ %he o5era%ion %ha% a%%ribu%es a Case fea%ure %o %he DP as a 9hole/ an# Case co50in! 9hich co5ies %he Case fea%ure %o several VT ca%e!ories insi#e %he DP$ In sum %he values of %he fea%ures on %he con%roller of a!reemen% ma0 be of %hree #is%inc% %05es3 inheren% le;ical fea%ures (see %he Gen#er of Ns/ freel0 assi!ne# inflec%ional fea%ures (see Number/ or con%e;%uall0 assi!ne# inflec%ional fea%ures (see Case/$ The fea%ures

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

on %he %ar!e% of a!reemen% on %he o%her han# are al9a0s inflec%ional fea%ures$ ; P0.2at.2e o55os.t.ons= 6a0>e3 an3 1n6a0>e3 feat10e 2al1es Number an# Gen#er fea%ure values are or!aniAe# in as0mme%ric 5airs havin! a mar#ed an# an unmar#ed value$ Ue can #eci#e 9hich values are unmar-e# b0 e;aminin! %ar!e%s of a!reemen%3 in a con%e;% 9here %he 5o%en%ial con%roller is no% mar-e# for a !iven fea%ure %he %ar!e% %a-es %he form corres5on#in! %o %he unmar-e# value$ For e;am5le a#6ec%ives func%ionin! as 5re#ica%es of clausal cons%i%uen%s 9hich #o no% have !en#er an# number sho9 %he masculine sin!ular form$ Therefore masculine can be consi#ere# as %he unmar-e# value for !en#er an# sin!ular as %he unmar-e# value for number3
(2/ A-i mulRumi 5e %oRi e im5osibil %o-%hem$ACC sa%isf0 DG: all is im5ossible$:SG >I%?s im5ossible %o 5lease ever0bo#0$?

Im5ersonal verbs sho9 sin!ular forms confirmin! %ha% sin!ular is %he unmar-e# value for Number$ Canonical mass nouns #o no% mer!e 9i%h Number (%he0 #o no% sho9 a number o55osi%ion/ bu% %he elemen%s %ha% a!ree 9i%h %hem mus% choose be%9een sin!ular an# 5lural$ The fac% %ha% %he %ar!e%s sho9 sin!ular in#ica%es %ha% sin!ular is %he unmar-e# value of Number$ No%ice also %ha% %he inflec%ional mor5heme a55earin! on %hese nouns is a sin!ular mor5heme3
(4/ a$ aur smWn%WnL !ol#$SG cream$SG b$ aurul ne!ru !ol#-%he$:SG blac-$:SG

:ass nouns 9hich are mar-e# as 5lural an# %ri!!er 5lural a!reemen% are e;%remel0 rare (e$!$ cli >%o9? cuioare >cloves? tre >bran?/$ In %his case 9e assume %ha% Number is 5resen% on N an# has a value fi;e# in %he le;icon$ The unmar-e# value for a fea%ure can also be #eci#e# base# on a!reemen% resolu%ion rules 9i%h coor#ina%e# con%rollers P %he value chosen 9hen con%rollers have #ifferen% values can be consi#ere# %o be %he unmar-e# one$ :asculine is %he form chosen for coor#ina%ion of anima%es an# feminine for coor#ina%ion of inanima%es$ 'u% since !en#er in %he case of anima%es is in%er5re%able an# masculine is %he unmar-e# value for in%er5re%able !en#er 9e ma0 conclu#e %ha% feminine re5resen%s %he unmar-e# value for !en#er as a formal fea%ure in %he 5lural (a >mor5holo!ical #efaul%?/$ Gn %he seman%ic si#e 9e ma0 s5ea- of an unmar-e# value of a fea%ure if %he 5ro5er%0 (#eno%a%ion #omain/ %his fea%ure e;5resses 5ro5erl0 inclu#es %he 5ro5er%0 e;5resse# b0 %he mar-e# value$ For ins%ance !rou5s forme# of bo%h male an# females are referre# %o b0 masculine 5ronouns in Romanian 9hile %he feminine is res%ric%e# in %he 5lural %o !rou5s onl0 forme# of females (see (,//$ Li-e9ise in %he sin!ular in#e%ermina%e 5ronouns such as cineva >somebo#0? %a-e masculine a!reemen% an# nouns 9hich have masculine / feminine 5airs normall0 %a-e masculine forms 9hen reference is ma#e %o %he 9hole class in#e5en#en%l0 of se;3
(,/ a$ Au mai veni% o fa%L Mi un bLia%$ Nu-i /Xle cunoM%eam have$2PL also come a !irl an# a bo0 no%-%hem$ ACC$:PL / %hem$FPL$ACC -ne9$+SG >A !irl an# a bo0 came$ I #i#n?% -no9 %hem$?

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions b$ Au mai veni% o fa%L Mi o bL%rWnL$ Nu le cunoM%eam have$2PL also come a !irl an# an ol#-9oman no% %hem$FPL$ACC -ne9$+SG >A !irl an# an ol# 9oman came$ I #i#n?% -no9 %hem$? VorbeM%e cu cineva 5rice5u% / X5rice5u%L %al-$I:PV$1SG %o somebo#0 s-illful$:SG / s-illful$FSG >Tal- %o someone s-illful$? a$ Res5ec% 5rofesorii res5ec%$+SG %eachers(:/-%he$:PL >I res5ec% %eachers (male an# females/? b$ Res5ec% 5rofesoarele res5ec%$+SG %eachers(F/-%he$FPL >I res5ec% female %eachers?

(./ (</

Therefore %he masculine can be consi#ere# %he unmar-e# value for !en#er insofar as in%er5re%a%ion is concerne#$ In such cases one ma0 sa0 ei%her %ha% %he unmar-e# value is va!ue havin! bo%h a 5ar%icular an# a more !eneral meanin! P for ins%ance %he masculine 9oul# mean ei%her >Hhuman? or >Hmale? P or %ha% %he 5ar%icular in%er5re%a%ion arises b0 an im5lica%ure P e$!$ 9hen %he s5ea-er is su55ose# %o -no9 %he se; of %he referen% from %he fac% %ha% i% #i#n?% use %he feminine i% can be inferre# %ha% %he referen% is a male$ S%an#ar# seman%ics a#o5%e# %he secon# al%erna%ive$ I% is im5or%an% %o no%ice %ha% unmar-e# values #o no% al9a0s corres5on# %o Aero mor5holo!03 al%hou!h %here is a 9i#es5rea# Q en#in! for masculine sin!ular %here are 5ara#i!ms 9hich have an -u en#in! or an -e en#in!$ In nouns %here are various 5ara#i!ms in 9hich bo%h %he sin!ular an# %he 5lural are mar-e# b0 a #is%inc% mor5heme (- e$-i% -$-e% -$-i% -u$-i/$ In verbal 5ara#i!ms %he Q en#in! is some%imes correla%e# %o a mar-e# value (Q is %he +s% sin!ular an# in some con6u!a%ions also %he 2 r# 5lural 5resen% en#in!/$ Therefore Romanian is #escribe# as a lan!ua!e 9i%hou% bare roo%s meanin! %ha% absence of en#in! insi#e a 5ara#i!m is anal0Ae# as a Q en#in! ra%her %han no en#in! a% all$ This 5ro5er%0 of Romanian is corrobora%e# b0 #a%a from lan!ua!e ac@uisi%ion (%he chil#ren #o no% !o %hrou!h a s%a!e 9here %he0 onl0 use bare roo%s/$ 1.2. #en3e0 Romanian has %hree #is%inc% !en#er classes of nouns %ra#i%ionall0 calle# >feminine? mam >mo%her?% femeie >9oman?% rdin >!ar#en?% carte >cour%0ar#?% baie >ba%hroom?% basma >hea#scarf?% muncitoare >9or-er(F/? >masculine? e$!$ student >s%u#en%?% frate >bro%her?% cuscru >in-la9?% cumnat >bro%her-in-la9?% cine >#o!?% rac >crab?% pui >chic-en?% pom >a55le?% enunc!i >-nee? an# >neu%er? e$!$ scaun >chair?% lucru >9or-?% tablou >5ain%in!?% consiliu >council?% nume >name?$ The e;is%ence of #is%inc% !en#er classes of nouns in#ica%es %ha% !en#er is an inheren% 5ro5er%0 of le;ical en%ries of nouns 9hich im5lies %ha% a !iven noun has one an# onl0 one !en#er$ This s%a%emen% seems %o be #isconfirme# b0 %he e;is%ence of man0 nominal roo%s 9hich have masculine/feminine 5airs such as prieten$prieten >frien#?$ Pairs of %his -in# are ho9ever no% 5roblema%ic since %he0 can be sho9n %o be rela%e# b0 derivational morp!olo y ra%her %han inflec%ion P in o%her 9or#s %he0 come in pairs of t&o le'ical entries ra%her %han in a sin!le le;ical en%r0 9i%h a !en#er fea%ure 9hose value is freel0 assi!ne#$ If masculine an# feminine 9ere values freel0 assi!ne# for %he uns5ecifie# !en#er fea%ure of %he same le;ical basis 9e 9oul# e;5ec% %ha% in noun elli5sis %he !en#er of %he eli#e# noun mi!h% be #ifferen% from %he !en#er of %he an%ece#en% as is in#ee# %he case for number (see (B/a/$ Oo9ever as %he s%ron! con%ras% in (B/ belo9 sho9s %his is no% %he case$ Uhile number can var0 in noun elli5sis !en#er canno%3

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

(B/

a$ Au veni% #oi 50.eten. ai :onicLi Mi 1n1l YNeZ al Ro#icLi have$2PL come %9o frien#s(:/ G7N :onica$G7N an# one-%he$: G7N Ro#ica$G7N >T9o frin#s of :onica?s an# one of Ro#ica?s have come$? b$ XAu$2PL veni% #oi 50.eten. ai :onicLi Mi 1na YNeZ a Ro#icLi have come %9o frien#s(:/ G7N :onica$G7N an# one-%he$F G7N Ro#ica$G7N (9i%h YNeZ[prieten/

The 5ro5osal %ha% !en#er 5airs are forme# of #is%inc% le;ical en%ries #eriva%ionall0 rela%e# is su55or%e# b0 %he e;is%ence of a lar!e number of irre!ulari%ies in %he mor5holo!ical rela%ion be%9een masculines an# feminines shar5l0 con%ras%in! %o 9ha% 9e fin# in a#6ec%ival 5ara#i!ms (9here !en#er is in#ee# an inflec%ional fea%ure/3 %here are a lo% of 9or#s in 9hich %he feminine is mar-e# b0 elemen%s 9hich are clearl0 #eriva%ional suffi;es (%he0 never a55ear insi#e a mor5holo!ical 5ara#i!m/3 -c in romn $ romnc >Romanian? ardelean $ ardeleanc >Trans0lvanian? (%his is a re!ular 5a%%ern for ori!in 9or#s in -an-/ -oaic in boier $ boieroaic >noble? france( $ franu(oaic >Frenchmen/-9oman? (no%ice %he chan!e in %he base in a##i%ion %o %he suffi;/ -eas in preot $ preoteas >5ries% / 5ries% 9ife? buctar $ buctreas >coo-? -i in doctor $ doctori >5h0sician? actor $ actri >ac%or / ac%ress? e%c$ In a minori%0 of cases %he masculine is #erive# from %he feminine P %hese are usuall0 nouns of animals in 9hich %he feminine is %he unmar-e# form un#ers5ecifie# for !en#er3 vulpe >fo;? (feminine/ / vulpoi ra >#uc-?/ roi curc >%ur-e0 hen? / curcan >%ur-e0?$ There are also conce5%s for 9hich %he male an# female s5ecifica%ions are associa%e# %o #ifferen% roo%s (biat >bo0? / fat >!irl?I frate >bro%her?/sor >sis%er? brbat >man?/femeie >9oman? e%c$/$ :oreover for some conce5%s no !en#er o55osi%ion reflec%in! se; is foun#$ :os% of %hese nouns refer %o animals (vie(ure (masculine/ >ba#!er? crocodil (masculine/ >croco#ile? e%c$/ bu% nouns referrin! %o humans can also be foun# (clu( >!ui#e?% persoan >5erson?% rud >rela%ive?% victim >vic%im? P feminineI su ar >%o##ler? ft >fe%us? decan >#ean? P masculine/$ To sa0 %ha% !en#er is an in%rinsic (le;ical/ fea%ure of nouns #oes no% mean %ha% !en#er is in%er5re%able$ In o%her 9or#s %here is no 5erfec% correla%ion be%9een le;ical !en#er classes an# #is%inc%ions such as anima%e vs$ inanima%e or male vs$ female$ Some !eneraliAa%ions never%heless e;is%3 (a/ >neu%er? nouns canno% refer %o anima%es (%here are ho9ever a fe9 e;ce5%ions3 nouns of animal classes inclu#in! animal >animal? nouns 9hich also have meanin!s 9hich are no% a55lie# %o 5ersons P )foto*model >mo#el? persona+ >charac%er? P %he recen% borro9in!s star >s%ar? vip >VIP?/I (b/ leavin! asi#e a ver0 small number of e;ce5%ions (e$!$ ordonan >or#erl0? santinel >!uar#ian? clu( >!ui#e?% persoan >5erson?% rud >rela%ive?% victim >vic%im?/ %he masculine is use# for males or leaves se; uns5ecifie# %he feminine is use# for females$ Gen#er is some%imes in%er5re%able on 5ronouns$ As 9ill be sho9n in Cha5%er , (see *+$B/ 9hen 5ronouns have an an%ece#en% con%ainin! a noun %he0 normall0 %a-e %he !en#er of %his noun$ 'u% 5ronouns can also be use# 9i%hou% an an%ece#en% con%ainin! a noun$ In %his case %heir !en#er fea%ure is #irec%l0 in%er5re%able enco#in! a fea%ure of %he referen% P masculine 5ronouns are use# for anima%es in !eneral an# males (see %he #iscussion in +$+ above/ feminine 5ronouns are use# for females$ Uhile %he e;is%ence of a %hir# class of nouns is uncon%roversial %he label >neu%er? is @ues%ionable insofar as %he elemen%s (e$!$ #e%erminers or a#6ec%ives/ %ha% a!ree 9i%h neu%ral nouns are no% mar-e# 9i%h s5ecial neu%er inflec%ions bu% sho9 onl0 a binar0 o55osi%ion be%9een masculine an# feminine mar-in!s$ The nouns belon!in! %o %he so-calle# >neu%er? class %ri!!er masculine a!reemen% in %he con%e;% /Hsin!ular/ (i$e$ 9hen %he %ar!e% of a!reemen% bears sin!ular/ an# feminine a!reemen% in %he con%e;% /H5lural/ a behavior %ha% su!!es%s %ha% %he label >ambi!eneric? is more a#e@ua%e3 <

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

(C/

a$ aces% caie% / aces%e caie%e %his$: no%eboo- / %hese$FPL no%eboo-s b$ Caie%ul Mi #osarul sun% u#e no%eboo-(N/-%he$: an# file(N/-%he$: are 9e%$FPL

Pronouns 9i%h an%ece#en%s con%ainin! neu%er nouns also sho9 masculine in %he sin!ular an# feminine in %he 5lural$ No%e %ha% as sho9n in (C/b %9o coor#ina%e# sin!ular neu%ers %ri!!er feminine 5lural a!reemen%$ The feminine can be consi#ere# as a mor5holo!ical #efaul% for %he 5lural (i% is %he normal form use# for coor#ina%ion of inanima%es 9i%h #ifferen% !en#ers/I moreover as sho9n in (2/ above %he masculine can be consi#ere# as a mor5holo!ical #efaul% form for %he sin!ular (i% is %he form use# 9hen %he elemen% 9hich shoul# con%rol a!reemen% #oes no% have !en#er see %he case of clausal sub6ec%s/$ 'ase# on %hese observa%ions i% has been 5ro5ose# %ha% neu%er nouns shoul# be anal0Ae# as nouns no% s5ecifie# for !en#er an# i%ems a!reein! 9i%h %hem sho9 %he #efaul% !en#er forms P masculine for %he sin!ular feminine for %he 5lural$ Ano%her 5ossible anal0sis of %he Romanian !en#er s0s%em #is%in!uishes controller ender or nominal classes an# tar et ender an# claims %ha% Romanian has %hree values for con%roller !en#er an# %9o values for %ar!e% !en#er rela%e# in %he follo9in! 9a03
(i/ Nominal class I II III Associa%e# %ar!e% !en#er H s! H 5l : : F F : F

This anal0sis relies on %he h05o%hesis %ha% %he rela%ion be%9een %he fea%ure of %he con%roller an# %he fea%ure of %he %ar!e% is no% one of i#en%i%0 of value (a mere co50in!/ bu% is more com5le; P i% can be seen as an ins%ruc%ion 9hich for class III 9oul# be >value !en#er as masculine in %he con%e;% Hsin!ular an# as feminine in %he con%e;% H5lural?$ In sum no ma%%er 9hich anal0sis is a#o5%e# 9e shoul# #is%in!uish be%9een nominal a reement classes or ender le'ical classes an# t!e inflectional features of ender $ Romanian has %hree !en#er a!reemen% classes of nouns (ei%her masculine feminine an# unmar-e# or I II an# III/ bu% onl0 %9o values for %he ca%e!or0 !en#er as i% is realiAe# on %ar!e%s of a!reemen% (a#6ec%ives #e%erminers a!reein! 5ossessors/ an# on 5ronouns$ No !en#er inflec%ion a55ears on N i%selfI %he !en#er classes can be i#en%ifie# as bein! #is%inc% because %he0 %ri!!er %hree #is%inc% a!reemen% 5a%%erns on D?s an# A#6?s$ In sum 9e ma0 sa0 %ha% %here are no neu%er inflec%ions 9ha%soever$ The onl0 5roblem 9i%h %his !eneraliAa%ion is %he e;is%ence of %he 5lural en#in! -uri 9hich is 5ro#uc%ivel0 use# 9i%h 5lural neu%er nouns (e$!$ cadou $ cadouri >5resen%? tren $ trenuri >%rain? +ob $ +oburi >6ob? radio $ radiouri >ra#io (se%/?/$ I% is %rue %ha% %his en#in! also a55ears 9i%h feminine nouns bu% onl0 for a han#ful of le;emes P leaf $ lefuri >salar0? treab $ treburi >9orbusiness? lips $ lipsuri >lac- shor%comin!? vreme $ vremuri >%ime 9ea%her a!e (5l$ %imes a!e/? marf $ mrfuri >merchan#ise?$ The e;is%ence of a s5ecialiAe# en#in! of %his %05e seems %o con%ra#ic% %he vie9 assume# above accor#in! %o 9hich neu%er is no% a value of %he ca%e!or0 Gen#er$ No%e ho9ever %ha% Romanian en#in!s are no% onl0 #is%in!uishe# accor#in! %o %he fea%ures %he0 e;5ress P number !en#er case P bu% also accor#in! %o some !eneral 5a%%erns 9hich charac%eriAe %he le;ical en%r0 %he0 are a%%ache# %o calle# declensions (or declension types/ P e$!$ %here is a feminine #eclension 9i%h sin!ular - e an# 5lural -i one 9i%h sin!ular - an# 5lural -e e%c$ Since #eclension is a le;ical 5ro5er%0 9e can consi#er %ha% %here is a B

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

correla%ion be%9een i% an# %he !en#er a!reemen% class 9hich is also a le;ical 5ro5er%0$ Thus %he !eneraliAa%ion is %ha% %he #eclensional %05e sin!ular Q/ u/5lural -uri is correla%e# 9i%h nouns unmar-e# for !en#er (or 9i%h class III nouns in %he al%erna%ive anal0sis/$ 1.3. N16be0? /o1nt an3 6ass no1ns In %he 5revious sec%ions 9e sai# %ha% unli-e Gen#er Number is no% an inheren% 5ro5er%0 of %he le;ical en%ries of Ns$ The firs% proviso %o %his !eneraliAa%ion is %he e;is%ence of cer%ain nouns 9hich are i#ios0ncra%icall0 limi%e# %o one number 3 %his mainl0 concerns pluralia tantum nouns 9hich al9a0s a55ear in %he 5lural e$!$ cli >%o9? aplau(e >a55lau#s?% icre >roe s5a9n?% (ori >#a0brea-?$ For %hese nouns 9e seem %o be en%i%le# %o sa0 %ha% Number value# as 5lural is an inheren% le;ical fea%ure$ '0 con%ras% all o%her nouns 9oul# be unmar-e# for le;ical Number$ The more im5or%an% 5roblem is %he e;is%ence of uncountable nouns (see mass nouns in 5ar%icular/ for 9hich %he absence of a number con%ras% mus% be s5ecifie# in %he Le;icon$ Ue mus% %herefore assume a fea%ure \Number (or ma0be \Coun% %he label is no% crucial here/ for 9hich each le;ical en%r0 of nouns is s5ecifie# (no%e ho9ever %ha% %his #is%inc%ion is no% absolu%e in %he sense %ha% #e5en#in! on %he s0n%ac%ic con%e;%s in 9hich %he0 are inser%e# mass nouns can be coerce# in%o coun% nouns an# conversel0/$ I% is %he fur%her choice be%9een sin!ular an# 5lural %ha% is no% 5ar% of %he le;ical s5ecifica%ion of %he noun i%self bu% is ins%ea# an in%er5re%able fea%ure %ha% !ives in#ica%ions re!ar#in! %he #eno%a%ion of %he overall DP$ In o%her 9or#s %he fea%ure \ Number #is%in!uishes be%9een le;ical classes of nouns 9hereas %he fea%ure \ Plural is no% relevan% for %he noun i%self bu% onl0 for i%s s0n%ac%ic 5ro6ec%ions$ ,ount nouns #eno%e classes of ob6ec%s 9hich can be in#ivi#ualiAe# 9hereas mass nouns have non-in#ivi#ua%e# referen%s 5or%ions of ma%%er %ha% share a !iven 5ro5er%0 (e$!$ for >9a%er? 5or%ions of ma%%er 9hich are 9a%er/$ The #eno%a%ion of mass nouns has some similari%ies %o %ha% of 5lurals$ Thus bo%h reference %o mass nouns an# reference %o 5lurals sa%isf0 %he so-calle# >cumula%ive? 5ro5er%03 if a cer%ain amoun% of ma%%er A is coffee an# a cer%ain amoun% of ma%%er ' is coffee %hen A an# ' are coffeeI in %he same 9a0 if an amoun% of animals A are ca%s an# ano%her amoun% of animals ' are ca%s %hen A an# ' are ca%s$ A%omic en%i%ies #o no% sa%isf0 cumula%ivi%03 if Nohn is a man an# 'ill is a man i% is no% %rue %ha% Nohn an# 'ill is a man$ The resemblance be%9een %he #eno%a%ion of mass nouns an# %he #eno%a%ion of 5lurals has some manifes%a%ions in s0n%a;3 bo%h ma0 a55ear bare i$e$ 9i%hou% a #e%erminer in cer%ain ar!umen% 5osi%ions in 9hich coun% sin!ulars mus% have a #e%erminer (see cha5%er 1 on %hose P much more limi%e# - con%e;%s in 9hich sin!ular coun% nouns are %hemselves allo9e# %o lac- a #e%erminer/3
(+=/ a$ Taie brWnAL / morcovi cu%s cheese carro%s b$ Taie X(un/ co5ac cu%s a %ree

This #is%ribu%ional observa%ion can be formula%e# as an observa%ion re!ar#in! %he in%ernal s%ruc%ure of DPs an# more s5ecificall0 %he %05e of De%3 cumula%ive e;5ressions (5lurals an# mass nouns/ allo9 null D?s 9hich P in unmar-e# cases P are #isallo9e# b0 sin!ular coun% nounsI if 9e #o no% 9an% %o assume (null/ Ds 9e coul# sa0 %ha% cumula%ive nominals occurrin! in ar!umen% 5osi%ions allo9 D %o be absen%$ No%e also %he e;is%ence of @uan%i%0 e;5ressions such as ceva an# nite (bo%h %ransla%e as >some? in 7n!lishI ceva su!!es%s %ha% %he @uan%i%0 is small/ 9hich can be use# 9i%h bo%h mass an# 5lural nouns3 ceva$nite brn( >some cheese? ceva$nite probleme >some C

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

5roblems? e%c$/$ G%her in#efini%e @uan%i%0 e;5ressions %ha% can be use# 9i%h mass nouns %a-e a number inflec%ion 9hen use# 9i%h 5lurals ( mult aur >much !ol#? multe frun(e >man0 leaves?I ct lapte >ho9 much mil-? cte (ile >ho9 man0 #a0s?/$ There is ho9ever an im5or%an% #ifference be%9een mass an# 5lural #eno%a%ions3 mass #eno%a%ions #o no% have a%omic 5ar%s (5ar%s 9hich canno% be fur%her #ivi#e#/ or more 5recisel0 #o no% com5rise a%oms (i% is %rue %ha% science has sho9n %ha% subs%ances ul%ima%el0 consis%s of molecules an# o%her 5ar%iclesI bu% %hese 5ar%s 9oul# never be referre# %o b0 %he mass noun bu% b0 a coun% noun such as molecul de ap >9a%er molecule?/$ Tha% is 9h0 mass nouns canno% be 5luraliAe# (are sai# %o be >uncoun%able?/ or combine# 9i%h car#inals %he sin!ular in#efini%e ar%icle an# #is%ribu%ive #e%erminers (e$!$ -un lapte >a mil-?% -doi auri >%9o !ol#s?% -fiecare aur >ever0 !ol#?/ e;ce5% if %he mass noun is conver%e# %o a coun% noun (e$!$ un vin bun >a !oo# 9ine? o cafea >a coffee?/$ Le% us no9 briefl0 commen% on %he various 5ossible choices re!ar#in! %he >con%roller of Number a!reemen%? i$e$ %he 5osi%ion in 9hich %he Number fea%ure is (freel0/ assi!ne# a value 9hich is %hereaf%er co5ie# on%o %he o%her elemen%s %ha% carr0 Number fea%ures$ The firs% issue is %o #eci#e is 9he%her %he Number fea%ure is a%%ache# %o ano%her V = ca%e!or0 e$! N or D or is inser%e# in%o a #e#ica%e# func%ional hea# Num(ber/ %ha% %a-es %he NP as a com5lemen% an# hea#s a func%ional 5ro6ec%ion NumP$ Curren% 9or- in !enera%ive !rammar assumes %he secon# h05o%hesis3 Num %a-es NP as a com5lemen% an# 5ro6ec%s NumP 9hich is %a-en as a com5lemen% b0 D$ Gn %his h05o%hesis %here are %9o 5ossibili%ies %o re5resen% %he realiAa%ion of %he con%en% of Number3 ei%her Num has no 5honolo!ical realiAa%ion an# i%s con%en% is e;5resse# onl0 b0 a!reemen% N an# D co50in! %he number fea%ure from Num or Num is a hea# 9hich a%%rac%s %he N formin! a com5le; YNHNumZ in 9hich Num is realiAe# as a suffi;$ If 9e a#o5% %he more %ra#i%ional h05o%hesis accor#in! %o 9hich Num is a fea%ure 9e have %o choose be%9een D an# N as 5ossible inser%ion si%es$ The choice be%9een %hese %9o o5%ions ar!uabl0 #e5en#s on seman%ics3 since Num is in%er5re%able i% shoul# be inser%e# in a 5osi%ion %ha% allo9s us %o 5ro5ose a reasonable seman%ic com5osi%ion$ Thus if %he 5lural fea%ure a%%aches %o N i% can be assume# %o corres5on# %o %he 5luraliAa%ion o5era%ion 9hich %urns a se% of a%omic en%i%ies in%o a se% %ha% con%ains in a##i%ion %o %ha% se% %he se% of 5lural en%i%ies !enera%e# b0 i% (in more %echnical %erms %he closure un#er sum of %he se% of a%oms #eno%e# b0 N/$ De%erminers a55l0 %o such se%s an# 5ic- u5 one elemen% in %he se%$ The o%her o5%ion is %o assume %ha% %he 5lural fea%ure a%%aches %o D in 9hich case 9e ma0 sa0 %ha% Num in#ica%es %ha% %he referen% of DP is a 5lural en%i%0 in o%her 9or#s De%HNum introduce 5lurali%ies$ 1.$. Case Case mar-in! #e5en#s on %he s0n%ac%ic func%ion of full nominal 5ro6ec%ions i$e$ DPs$ There are ho9ever less Case #is%inc%ions %han func%ional #is%inc%ions$ Inflec%ional Case mar-in! (9hich a55ears on De%erminers an# some%imes on nouns %hemselves/ #is%in!uishes be%9een Voca%ive Geni%ive-Da%ive (or Gbli@ue/ an# an unmar-e# form use# bo%h for sub6ec%s ob6ec%s (o%her %han in#irec% ob6ec%s/ an# com5lemen%s of (mos%/ 5re5osi%ions$ Cer%ain #irec% ob6ec%s ma0 or mus% (#e5en#in! on various fac%ors/ be anal0%icall0 mar-e# b0 %he 5re5osi%ion pe (com5are a in S5anish/$ An obli@ue case mor5heme onl0 a55ears on %he De%erminer P an# some%imes on func%ional ca%e!ories close %o %he #e%erminer3 5re-De%erminers 5os%-D #emons%ra%ives %he al%erna%ive an# a#6ec%ival @uan%i%a%ivesI i% obli!a%oril0 a55ears on func%ional i%ems 9hich 5rece#e an em5%0 N even if %he0 #o no% occu50 %he D 5osi%ion3

+=

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions (++/ a$ %u%uro0 aces%o0 case all$PL$G'L %hese$PL$G'L houses b$ caselo0 aces%ea / aces%o0a houses-%he$PL$G'L %hese / %hese$PL$G'L c$ a%W%o0 al%e / a%W%or al% o0 5robleme so-much$PL$G'L o%her$FPL/ so-much$PL$G'L o%her$PL$G'L 5roblems #$ a%W%or al%o0a / X a%W%or al%ele so-much$PL$G'L o%her$PL$G'L @ so-much$PL$G'L o%her-%he$FPL

The onl0 case mor5heme %ha% ma0 also a55ear on nouns is %he Voca%ive 9hich ei%her a%%aches #irec%l0 %o %he noun or %o %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle (#e5en#in! on %he inflec%ional %05e of %he nounI see cha5%er +, *, an# cha5%er +. *./$
(+1/ a$ bLie%e / bLia%ule bo0$VGC / bo0-%he$VGC b$ fa%o !irl$VGC

7ven if i% a55ears on nouns or a#6ec%ives %he voca%ive en#in! resembles %he o%her case inflec%ions in %ha% i% is onl0 e;5resse# once in %he nominal 5ro6ec%ion on %he lef%mos% cons%i%uen% 9hich bears an inflec%ional mor5heme (for some e;ce5%ions see cha5%er +, an# cha5%er +. *./$ If %he 5osi%ion 9here case is mar-e# is D 9e mi!h% sa0 %ha% %he elemen%s (N or A/ bearin! %he voca%ive en#in! have raise# %o D$
(+2/ a$ 5rinRe 5rince$VGC b$ slLvi%e 5rinR(KKe/ 5raise#$VGC 5rince(VGC/

The i#ea %ha% %he voca%ive is mar-e# on %he D 5osi%ion is su55or%e# b0 %he fac% %ha% i% ma0 a55ear on %he #efini%e ar%icle as 9e have seen$ If %he #e%erminer or func%ional i%em func%ionin! as a #e%erminer #oes no% have an obli@ue inflec%ion or %here is no #e%erminer a% all %he Geni%ive an# Da%ive are mar-e# b0 (func%ional/ 5re5osi%ions P la for %he Da%ive a for %he Geni%ive in%ro#uce# b0 @uan%i%a%ives lac-in! an obli@ue mar-in! de for %he Geni%ive of bare nouns3
(+4/ a$ Vom #a ca#ouri uno0 co5ii 9ill$+PL !ive 5resen%s some$PL$G'L chil#ren >Ue 9ill !ive 5resen%s %o some chil#ren? b$ Vom #a ca#ouri la Aece co5ii / la %o% !ru5ul 9ill$+PL !ive 5resen%s %o %en chil#ren / %o all !rou5-%he >Ue 9ill !ive 5resen%s %o %en chil#ren/%o %he 9hole !rou5$? c$ Vom #a ca#ouri la co5ii buni 9ill$+PL !ive 5resen%s %o chil#ren !oo# >Ue 9ill !ive 5resen%s %o !oo# chil#ren$? a$ acor#area mul%o0 me#alii / me#aliilo0 a9ar#$INF-%he man0$ PL$G'L me#als / me#als-%he$G'L b$ acor#area a %rei me#alii a9ar#$INF-%he G7N %hree me#als c$ acor#area 3e me#alii a9ar#$INF-%he of me#als

(+,/

Uhen %he DP is in%ro#uce# b0 an i%em carr0in! an obli@ue mor5heme a limi%e# 5henomenon ++

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

of case s5rea#in! a55ears on %he o%her inflec%e# i%ems of %he DP (noun a#6ec%ives lo9er func%ional i%ems/3 %he feminine sin!ular mor5heme is %urne# in%o a form 9hich is (almos% al9a0s/ i#en%ical %o %he feminine 5lural3
(+./ a$ b$ Feminine sin!ular o fa%: bun: a !irl !oo#$FSG o car%e !rea a boo- har#$FSG Feminine 5lural niM%e fe%e bune some !irls !oo#$FPL niM%e cLrR. !rele some boo-s har#$FPL Gbli@ue feminine sin!ular une. fe%e bune a$G'L !irl$FSG$G'L !oo#$FSG$G'L une. cLrR. !rele a$G'L boo-$FSG$G'L har#$FSG$G'L

All o%her en#in!s remain unchan!e# so %he case s5rea#in! 5henomenon is ver0 res%ric%e#$ No%ice moreover %ha% %he obli@ue feminine sin!ular on nouns an# a#6ec%ives is no% a #is%inc% mor5heme bu% i% is i#en%ical %o %ha% of %he feminine 5lural$ This e;5lains 9h0 obli@ue mar-in! re@uires %he 5resence of a #e%erminer or o%her func%ional i%em 9hich ma0 bear %he #is%inc% obli@ue mar-ers$ If %he feminine #oes no% have a 5lural form %he obli@ue sin!ular en#in! in %his con%e;% usuall0 corres5on#s %o %he 5lural form 9hich 9oul# have been e;5ec%e# !iven %he inflec%ional %05e of %he noun P e$!$ amploare >am5li%u#e am5leness? acestei amplori >%his$FSG$G'L am5leness$G'L?$ As 9e sai# some func%ional i%ems (such as %he 5os%nominal #emons%ra%ive/ ma0 ei%her bear %he #is%inc% obli@ue mor5heme or behave li-e nouns an# a#6ec%ives onl0 sho9in! %he case s5rea#in! 5henomenon in %he feminine sin!ular3
(+</ a$ bLia%ului aces%a / aces%uia bo0-%he$:SG$G'L %his$:SG / %his$:SG$G'L b$ casei aces%ea / aces%e.a house-%he$FSG$G'L %his-F$PL / %his$FSG$G'L

Sin!ular 5ro5er nouns referrin! %o 5ersons (i$e$ sin!ular an%hro5on0ms/ have #evelo5e# a s5ecial 5re5osi%ional obli@ue mar-in! lui s%emmin! from a 5rocli%ic form of %he #efini%e ar%icle$ This form is obli!a%or0 in %he masculine an# for feminine nouns 9hich #o no% en# in -$-a$ Feminine nouns en#in! in -$-a ma0 also a%%ach %he obli@ue suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle$ This form is recommen#e# b0 %he norm bu% in s5o-en lan!ua!e %he 5refi;al form is commonl0 use# even in %his case an# %he sub-s%an#ar# lan!ua!e onl0 uses %his form3
(+B/ a$ lui Ion (masculine/ G'L Ion b$ lui Carmen (feminine en#in! in consonan%/ G'L Carmen c$ :ariei / lui :aria (feminine en#in! in -a/ :aria-%he$FSG$G'L / G'L :aria

The 5re5ose# obli@ue mar-er lui can also be use# 9i%h common nouns suffi;e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle referrin! %o familiar 5ersons 9hich are assimila%e# %o 5ro5er names of sor%s$ This is also %he onl0 9a0 %o buil% %he obli@ue for -inshi5 %erms bearin! %he suffi;al 5ossessive3
(+C/ a$ lui mama G'L mo%her-%he b$ lui fra%e-miu G'L bro%her-m0

The mar-er lui is also use# 9i%h 9or#s 9hich are no% nominal an# are con%e;%uall0 %rea%e# as +1

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

nouns bein! inclu#e# in%o a DP e$!$ ci%a%ion forms/9or#s in me%alin!uis%ic use3


(1=/ AbsenRa lui >Mi? #in con%e;% absence-%he G'L an# from con%e;% >The absence of i from %he con%e;%?

This mar-er can be anal0Ae# as a s5ecial #e%erminer selec%in! 5ro5er names P a proprial article$ 'esi#es i%s ori!in an# form (i#en%ical %o %ha% of %he masculine sin!ular obli@ue suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle/ a #e%erminer anal0sis is su55or%e# b0 %he res%ric%ion %o %he sin!ular$ In %he sub-s%an#ar# lan!ua!e an# various re!ional varie%ies 5re5osi%ional obli@ue mar-in! has been e;%en#e# ou%si#e %he con%e;%s 5resen%e# here$ The mar-er la can be use# 9i%h all -in#s of nominals no% onl0 for %he #a%ive bu% also for %he !eni%iveI %he mar-er lui (usuall0 5ronounce# lu./ is 9i#es5rea# 9i%h sin!ular DPs referrin! %o humans3
(1+/ a$ #in cauAa l1 Lla (!eni%ive lu/ from cause-%he lu %ha%-one$: >because of %ha% one? b$ L1? cine i-ai #a% car%eaK (#a%ive lu/ lu 9ho him$DAT-have$1SG !iven boo--%he >Uhom #i# 0ou !ive %he boo- %oK? c$ 5e numele la al%cineva (!eni%ive la/ (hear# on a %elevision channel GTV/ on name-%he %o somebo#0-else >on somebo#0 else?s name?

2. P0ono1ns an3 t8e Pe0son Feat10e


The label >5ronoun? is a misnomer insofar as %he elemen%s so calle# #o no% s%an# for Nouns (onl0 ver0 fe9 5ronouns e$!$ 7n!lish one are in#ee# 5ro-N cons%i%uen%s/$ Ins%ea# 5ro%o%05ical 5ronouns share %he #is%ribu%ion of com5le%e nominal 5ro6ec%ions an# as such can be vie9e# as 5ro-NPs or ra%her as 5ro-DPs$ In %ra#i%ional !rammars %he ca%e!or0 >5ronoun? subsumes %9o %05es of elemen%s %o 9hich 9e assi!n #ifferen% ca%e!orial s%a%us an# s0n%ac%ic anal0sis3 (i/ De% H null N3 %hese are forms buil% 9i%h an over% De% %ha% is use# 9i%hou% an over% NP$ A con%en% for %he missin! NP is of%en con%e;%uall0 recovere# (see above/$ To %his %05e belon! some of %he #emons%ra%ive in#efini%e ne!a%ive in%erro!a%ive an# rela%ive >5ronouns? all of 9hich are buil% from corres5on#in! >#e%erminers? (see Cha5%er 2 on De%erminers/I (ii/ 5ro-DP forms %ha% sho9 no (or almos% no/ resemblance 9i%h a#nominal De%erminers$ In %his case 9e consi#er %ha% no em5%0 N is 5resen%$ Personal 5ronouns refle;ives 5oli%eness 5ronouns em5hasiAers neu%er #emons%ra%ives an# some of %he 9or#s %ra#i%ionall0 labele# ]in#efini%e 5ronouns] (e$!$ cineva >somebo#0? nimeni >nobo#0? nimic >no%hin!? e%c$/ belon! %o %his %05e$ Ue res%ric% %he %erm pronouns %o %hese forms$ 7lemen%s such as ce ceva an# orice 9ill also be classifie# as 5ronouns3 al%hou!h %he0 #o sho9 a resemblance 9i%h a#nominal De%erminers (e$!$ ce carte >9ha% boo-?/ %he0 #isallo9 %he con%e;%ual recover0 of an NP-con%en%$ Uha% 9e have #efine# here as >5ronouns? ma0 be anal0Ae# ei%her as in%ransi%ive De%erminers or as fuse# DHN hea#s$ Ue consi#er %ha% %he secon# al%erna%ive is 5referable for 2r# 5erson 5ronouns because an N elemen% in 5ronouns accoun%s for some as5ec%s of %he seman%ics of 5ronouns3 above all %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he !en#er fea%ure$ As 9e have seen in Romanian !en#er for inanima%es is no% in%er5re%able bu% i% is an i#ios0ncra%ic 5ro5er%0 of in#ivi#ual nouns$ Pronouns referrin! %o inanima%es %a-e %he !en#er of %he nominal an%ece#en% of %he 5ronoun if %he0 are use# ana5horicall0 or if %he0 are use# #eic%icall0 %he0 %a-e %he !en#er of %he nominal conce5% un#er 9hich %he referen% falls3

+2

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

(11/

a$ P Dn#e e car%eaK P Am ui%a%- o acasL$ 9here is boo-(F/-%he have$+ for!o%-CL$2FSG$ACC home >Uhere is %he boo-K I have for!o%%en i% a% home$? b$ Ce faci cu el / :laK (5oin%in! %o a -nife Rom$ cuit P neu%er/ 9ha% #o$1SG 9i%h 2:SG %ha%$:SG >Uha% are 0ou #oin! 9i%h i%/%ha%K?

Since here !en#er #oes no% #irec%l0 enco#e a 5ro5er%0 of %he referen% bu% onl0 a formal fea%ure of an im5lici% noun 9e ma0 conclu#e %ha% %he !en#er fea%ure reflec%s %he 5resence of a 5ro-N$ For o%her cases in 9hich %he recover0 of a noun is nee#e# for %he in%er5re%a%ion of 5ronouns see cha5%er , *+$B an# cha5%er 2 *2$2$ A fur%her #is%inc%ion can be #ra9n amon! 5ronouns3 in#efini%e 5ronouns allo9 a#nominal mo#ifiers 9hereas 5ersonal 5ronouns refle;ives 5oli%eness 5ronouns em5hasiAers an# neu%er #emons%ra%ives #o no%$ This ma0 in#ica%e %ha% in#efini%e 5ronouns con%ain an incor5ora%e# N 9hich ma0 5ro6ec% an NP before incor5ora%in! in%o %he #e%erminer 9hile %he o%her 5ronouns are imme#ia%el0 #omina%e# b0 %he DP$ In %his !rammar 9e 9ill %rea% %hose 5ronouns 9hich are formall0 rela%e# %o a#nominal De%erminers as 9ell as in#efini%e 5ronouns in %he cha5%er #e#ica%e# %o De%erminers an# o%her func%ional ca%e!ories (cha5%er 2/ an# 9e 9ill #e#ica%e a s5ecial cha5%er %o 5ersonal 5ronouns refle;ives 5oli%eness 5ronouns an# em5hasiAers$ A fur%her reason for %rea%in! %hese 5ronouns se5ara%el0 is %ha% %he0 are charac%eriAe# b0 %he 5resence of %he fea%ure Person 9hich is irrelevan% %o %he o%her %05es of DPs (inclu#in! DPs 9i%hou% over% NPs/ 9hich never e;5ress 5erson o55osi%ions (%he0 are almos% al9a0s 2 r# 5ersonI for %heir a55aren% associa%ion 9i%h ano%her 5erson fea%ure see cha5%er 2 *2$2/ The lar!es% 5ar% of %he cha5%er on Pronouns is #e#ica%e# %o 5ersonal 5ronouns$ The #is%inc%ion be%9een s%ron! an# cli%ic forms an# %heir various allomor5hs is cen%ral %o %his cha5%er$ Al%hou!h 5ersonal 5ronouns are no% buil% on elemen%s %ha% are mor5holo!icall0 i#en%ifiable %o #e%erminers a seman%ic rela%ion can never%heless be es%ablishe# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle an# cer%ain cli%ic 5ronominal forms in %he Accusa%ive are i#en%ical %o #efini%e ar%icles$ Refle;ives 9hich have s5ecial forms onl0 for 2 r# 5erson an# sho9 %he same s%ron!/9ea- o55osi%ions as 5ersonal 5ronouns 9ill be %rea%e# %o!e%her 9i%h 5ersonal 5ronouns$ Poli%eness 5ronouns an# em5hasiAers are e;amine# in se5ara%e sec%ions$ 'ecause 5ronouns an# o%her DPs have b0 an# lar!e %he same #is%ribu%ion 9e e;5ec% %hem %o have %he same or a% leas% similar Case-mar-in!s an# %his is in#ee# 9ha% 9e fin# in !eneral$ Pronominal 5ossessors are ho9ever 5uAAlin! in %ha% %he0 sho9 a non-uniform 5ara#i!m3 5ronominal 5ossessors of 2r# Person s!$ an# 5l$ behave as e;5ec%e# in %ha% %he0 are mar-e# 9i%h Geni%ive Case bu% 5ronominal 5ossessors o%her %han 2 r# Person are no% mar-e# 9i%h !eni%ive Case bu% ins%ea# %he0 a!ree (in Gen#er an# Number/ 9i%h %he N-hea# an# as such %he0 are %rea%e# as >5ossessive a#6ec%ives?$ Des5i%e %his #ifference %he #is%ribu%ion of %he %9o %05es of 5ronominal 5ossessors is e;ac%l0 %he same an# is almos% i#en%ical %o %he #is%ribu%ion of !eni%ive DPs (%he onl0 ver0 mar!inal #ifferences are #ue %o %he 9ea5honolo!ical s%a%us of 5ossessive 5ronouns/$ 'ecause %he0 5a%%ern 9i%h !eni%ive DPs 5ronominal 5ossessors form a sec%ion of %he cha5%er #evo%e# %o !eni%ive DPs$ As 9e have alrea#0 sho9n Person fea%ures are relevan% for 5ersonal 5ronouns$ For reasons e;5laine# in %he relevan% cha5%er 9e #ra9 a se5ara%ion line be%9een Thir# Person (Person 2/ an# %he o%her 5ersons$ Thir# 5erson 5ronominal 5ronouns have inflec%ional Number (i$e enco#e# in a mor5heme se5arable from %he roo%/ 9hereas %he Number fea%ure of %he o%her 5ronominal 5ronouns is ar!uabl0 le;ical in %he sense %ha% i% #oes no% corres5on# %o an inflec%ional mor5heme bu% ins%ea# belon!s %o %he 5ronominal roo% i%self3 %hus ei an# ele +4

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

are ar!uabl0 ob%aine# b0 a%%achin! %he PluralHGen#er fea%ures Pi an# -e %o %he invariable roo% e)l*- 9hereas noi an# voi have roo%s %ha% are com5le%el0 #is%inc% from %hose of %he sin!ular corres5on#in! 5ronouns eu an# tu$ This anal0sis 9ill 5rove crucial in un#ers%an#in! a remar-able al%erna%ion be%9een !eni%ive-mar-e# 5ronouns (for sin!ular or 5lural Person 2 5ronouns/ an# a!reein! forms of 5ronouns (!enerall0 labelle# >5ossessive a#6ec%ives? in %he !ramma%ical %ra#i%ion/ for %he o%her Persons3
(12/ a$ bLieRii mei /%Li /noM%ri /voM%ri bo0s-%he m0$ :PL / 0our(SG/$:PL /our$:PL/ 0our(PL/$:PL b$ fe%ele mele /%ale /noas%re /voas%re !irls-%he m0$ FPL /0our(SG/$FPL /our$FPL /0our(PL/$FPL a$ bLieRii ei /lui /lor bo0s-%he she$G7N/he$G7N/%he0$G7N b$ fe%ele ei /lui /lor !irls-%he she$G7N/he$G7N /%he0$G7N

(14/

The i#ea is %ha% %here is onl0 one inflec%ional slo% 5er roo%$ For +s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns 9here %ha% slo% is no% fille# 9i%h inheren% fea%ures (since %hese 5ronouns have le;ical Number/ %he number fea%ures can be co5ie# from %he hea# N$ For 2 r# 5erson 5ronouns 9here %ha% inflec%ional slo% is fille# 9i%h inheren% fea%ures !en#er an# number fea%ures canno% be co5ie# from %he hea# N$

3. Dete06.ne0s an3 ot8e0 no6.nal f1n/t.onal /ate4o0.es


Nominal 5ro6ec%ions con%ain various func%ional ca%e!ories e$!$ ar%icles @uan%ifiers or numerals$ Some of %hese forms are in com5lemen%ar0 #is%ribu%ion 9hereas o%hers can cooccur 9i%h each o%her 9hich lea#s us %o assume #is%inc% func%ional 5osi%ions insi#e nominal 5ro6ec%ions$ Amon! %hese 5osi%ions %he one occu5ie# b0 ar%icles is %a-en %o be crucial viA$ obli!a%or0 in or#er for a nominal 5ro6ec%ion %o be able %o occu50 an ar!umen% 5osi%ion an# %herefore %he com5le%e (or >ma;imal?/ nominal 5ro6ec%ion is vie9e# as a DP (De%erminer Phrase/ i$e$ a 5ro6ec%ion of %he func%ional ca%e!or0 of De%erminer (con%ainin! ar%icles as 9ell as o%her func%ional elemen%s %ha% can occu50 %he 5osi%ion of ar%icles i%self labelle# D)eterminer// 9hich %a-es as a com5lemen% %he NP i$e$ %he 5ro6ec%ion of %he N 9hich con%ains in a##i%ion %o %he noun i%self i%s com5lemen%s an# mo#ifiers3
(1,/ YDP^D ^ YNP ^N^ZZ

No%e moreover %ha% cer%ain >5ronouns? #o no% con%ain an0 le;ical N bu% onl0 De%erminers$ Therefore %he DP-h05o%hesis accor#in! %o 9hich ma;imal nominal 5ro6ec%ions are DPs ra%her %han NPs is crucial in or#er %o e;5lain 9h0 5ronouns have %he same #is%ribu%ion as ma;imal nominal 5ro6ec%ions3 bo%h %05es of cons%i%uen%s are DPs$ The s5ecial s%a%us of #e%erminers is also sho9n b0 %he behaviour of %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle$ Al%hou!h %his ar%icle #oes no% occu50 %he canonical 5osi%ion of De%erminers bu% ins%ea# is suffi;e# on DP-ini%ial nouns or a#6ec%ives i%s 5resence bloc-s an0 o%her #e%erminer$ Such a com5lemen%ar0 #is%ribu%ion in#ica%es %ha% %he ar%icle i%self is a D an# %he suffi;a%ion is %he resul% of a #is5lacemen% %ha% %a-es 5lace a% a la%er level of %he #eriva%ion$ The no%ion of #e%erminer !rou5s %o!e%her %hose func%ional ca%e!ories %ha% are in com5lemen%ar0 #is%ribu%ion 9i%h ar%icles3 shor% #emons%ra%ives %he in#efini%es un >a(n/ one? nite >some s?m? unii >(5ar%i%ive/ some? vreun >a an0 some?% %he ne!a%ive niciun >no no one? %he in%erro!a%ive ce >9ha% 9hich? an# i%s com5oun# orice >an0? %he in%erro!a%iverela%ive care >9hich? an# i%s com5oun#s fiecare >ever0 each?% oricare >an0? %he @uan%i%a%ives +,

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

ct% ci >ho9 much ho9 man0? % ceva >some?% orict% orici >ho9ever much/man0? att% ati >as/so/%ha% much/man0? % niel >a li%%le a bi%? (collo@uial/ 5robabl0 also %he @uo%a%ive cutare >so an# so?$
(1./ a$ Am vLAu% un film /aces% film /fiecare film /filmul /niM%e filme /a%W%ea have$+ seen a movie/%his movie/ever0 movie/movie-%he/some movies/so-man0 filme movies >IUe sa9 a movie/%his movie/ever0 movie/%he movie/some movies/so man0 movies? b$ N-am vLAu% vreun/ niciun film no%-have$+ seen an0 / no movie >I/Ue haven?% seen an0 movie?

'ecause %he universals toi >all? tot >all %he 9hole? amndoi >bo%h? are necessaril0 follo9e# b0 a nominal 5ro6ec%ion mar-e# as #efini%e %hese elemen%s 9ill be calle# >5re-#e%erminers?3
(1</ a$ Am vLAu% %oa%e filmele / aces%e filme have$+ seen all movies-%he / %hese movies >I/Ue sa9 all %he movies/%hese movies? b$ XAm vLAu% %oa%e filme have$+ seen all films

G%her func%ional ca%e!ories namel0 car#inals an# o%her @uan%i%0 e;5ressions as 9ell as alt >o%her? ma0 co-occur 9i%h De%erminers (in 9hich case %he0 a55ear in %he 5os%-De% 5osi%ion/ bu% %he0 ma0 also a55ear 9i%hou% a De% in 9hich case %he0 func%ion as De%erminers (an# correla%ivel0 %he0 ma0 be assume# %o occu50 %he De% 5osi%ion/3
(1B/ a$ %rei /mulRi co5ii %hree /man0 chil#ren b$ acei %rei /mulRi co5ii %hose %hree/man0 chil#ren

Uhen %he0 follo9 a De%erminer %hese e;5ressions mi!h% be consi#ere# mo#ifiers of %he noun$ Oo9ever %he0 are #is%in!uishe# from normal mo#ifiers b0 several 5ro5er%ies3 %he0 onl0 a55ear 5renominall0 (9i%h a fe9 e;ce5%ions for 9hich see cha5%er 2 *,/ %he0 5rece#e o%her 5renominal mo#ifiers an# have a fi;e# or#er 9i%h res5ec% %o one ano%her$ Therefore 9e consi#er %ha% %hese e;5ressions are hea#s or s5ecifiers of optional (or minor/ functional pro+ections 9hich (ma0/ in%ervene be%9een D an# NP$ :ore 5recisel0 @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions are s5li% in%o %9o classes labele# 8uan%+ an# 8uan%1 #e5en#in! on 9he%her %he0 a55ear before (mult% muli >much man0? puin% puini >fe9? destul% destui >enou!h?/ or af%er alt >o%her? (car#inals as 9ell as ctva% civa >some a fe9 several?/$ These !eneraliAa%ions 5oin% %o %he follo9in! hierarch0 of func%ional ca%e!ories (%he ma6or or obli!a%or0 ca%e!ories are bol#-face#/3
(1C/ YDniv Y D Y 8uan%+ YAl% >o%her? Y8uan%1 Y NPZZZZZZ

Cer%ain DPs are buil% 9i%h an over% De% bu% 9i%hou% an over% N$ (No%e ho9ever %ha% no% all De%erminers can a55ear 9i%hou% a noun P see cha5%er 2 *2/$ The e;am5les belo9 are classifie# #e5en#in! on 9he%her De% is formall0 i#en%ical or onl0 similar %o %he De% %ha% a55ears 9i%h over% Ns #ifferin! from i% b0 %he a##i%ion of ano%her mor5heme 9hich 9e call >au!men%? (9e inclu#e here un#er De% o%her func%ional ca%e!ories 9hich ma0 func%ion as De% see above/3 +.

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

(2=/

(2+/

Sim5le De%3 a$ Am vorbi% cu YfiecareZ have$+ s5o-en 9i%h ever0 >I %al-e# %o ever0one / each of %hem? b$ Dn ar%icol bun valoreaAL mai mul% #ecW% YAece 5roas%eZ an ar%icle !oo# is-9or%h more much %han %en ba# >A !oo# ar%icle is 9or%h0 more %han %en ba# ones? Au!men%e# De%3 a$ YDn a5ara%Z s-a s%rica% a #evice R7FL-has bro-en >A #evice has bro-en? a_$ YDnul s-a s%rica%Z one-ADG: R7FL-has bro-en >Gne has bro-en? b$ Nu mai s5une Yal%ui omZ no% more %ell o%her$DAT 5erson >Don?% %ell i% %o ano%her 5erson? b_$ YNu mai s5une al%uiaZ no% more %ell o%her-ADG:$DAT >Don?% %ell i% %o somebo#0 else?

Gne ma0 9on#er 9he%her %he #ifference be%9een sim5le an# au!men%e# De%-forms correla%es 9i%h some s%ruc%ural #ifference e$!$ be%9een De% follo9e# b0 an em5%0/null N vs$ 5ro-form in 9hich %he De% %o!e%her 9i%h %he em5%0 N form a >fuse# hea#?$ Oere 9e 9ill assume %ha% %he #ifference be%9een sim5le an# au!men%e# De%?s is no% s%ruc%ural (all of %hem si% un#er De% an# %a-e a null N as a sis%er/ bu% merel0 #ue %o 5honolo!ical cons%rain%s$ For ar!umen%s in favor of %his anal0sis see cha5%er 2 *2$ Noun 5hrases ma0 also a55ear 9i%hou% a #e%erminer in some ar!umen% 5osi%ions e$!$ in %he #irec% ob6ec% an# 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ions$ For %hese 5osi%ions %he absence of #e%erminer #e5en#s on %he Number fea%ure bein! res%ric%e# %o 5lural an# non-coun% nouns3
(21/ a$ XVine om comes man b$ Vin oameni come 5eo5le >Peo5le are comin!? c$ XAm vLrsa% s%iclL have$+ s5il% bo%%le #$ Am vLrsa% la5%e have$+ s5il% mil>I?ve s5il% mil-$? e$ X(NiM%e/CWRiva/ cole!i s-au su5Lra% some collea!ues R7FL-have !o%-u5se%

NPs 9i%hou% an over% #e%erminer labele# bare nouns )or bare nominals* in %he curren% li%era%ure ma0 never%heless be anal0Ae# as con%ainin! a null D 9hich ma0 e;5lain 9h0 %he0 are allo9e# %o occur in ar!umen% 5osi%ions$ 'are nouns ma0 also a55ear in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions (see (22// an# as nominal mo#ifiers (see (24//$ In %hese environmen%s nominal 5ro6ec%ions #eno%e 5ro5er%ies li-e NPs an# unli-e DPs$ Therefore %here is no reason %o su55ose %ha% a null D is 5resen%$ No%e %ha% in %hese 5osi%ions no% onl0 bare 5lurals bu% also coun% bare sin!ulars are allo9e#3

+<

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions (22/ (24/ :arius e avoca%$ :arius is la90er >:arius is a la90er$? 5rie%enii mei avocaRi frien#s-%he m0 la90ers >m0 la90er frien#s / m0 frien#s 9ho are la90ers?

/roper nouns ma0 also a55ear 9i%hou% a #e%erminer3 in %heir s%an#ar# use %hese nouns #irec%l0 refer %o in#ivi#uals an# %herefore #o no% nee# a #e%erminer in or#er %o a55ear in s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ions %ha% re@uire en%i%0 #eno%a%ion$ In Romanian onl0 an%hro5on0ms have %his #ifferen% s0n%a;I o%her 5ro5er nouns e$!$ !eo!ra5hical names nee# a #efini%e ar%icle (see cha5%er +1 *+/$ Uhen embe##e# un#er a #e%erminer 5ro5er nouns loose %heir #irec% reference ca5aci%0 bein! in%er5re%e# as 5re#ica%es of %he form ;$; is calle# N$ Com5are3
(2,/ a$ :aria a veni% :aria has come b$ `n clasa noas%rL sun% #ouL :arii in class-%he our are %9o :aria$ PL >There are %9o :arias in our class?

$. A3no6.nal /onst.t1ents
A#nominal cons%i%uen%s can be of almos% an0 ca%e!orial %05e3 a#6ec%ival 5hrases 5re5osi%ional 5hrases bare NPs !eni%ive DPs an# 5ronominal 5ossessors (9hich in Romanian have a similar s0n%a; as 9e sai#/ non-fini%e verbal 5ro6ec%ions fini%e clauses in%ro#uce# b0 a com5lemen%iAer rela%ive clauses$ In %his !rammar each of %his %05e of cons%i%uen%s 9ill be %rea%e# accor#in! %o i%s ca%e!or0$ From a func%ional 5oin% of vie9 a#nominal cons%i%uen%s are #ivi#e# in%o %9o !rou5s complements an# modifiers$ $.1. Co65le6ents an3 6o3.f.e0s No% all nouns ma0 %a-e com5lemen%s$ Thus ob6ec%-referrin! nouns (e$!$ mas >%able? cas >house? scaun >chair? sc >!oose? e%c$/ are one-5lace 5re#ica%es i$e$ 5re#ica%es %ha% canno% %a-e com5lemen%s a% all$ Rela%ional nouns (e$!$ prietena vecinei mele >m0 nei!hbor]s frien# (fem$/?/ are 5re#ica%es 9i%h %9o or more %han %9o ar!umen% slo%s 9hich as such re@uire a com5lemen%$ Af%er one of %he ar!umen% slo%s of a binar0 rela%ion is sa%ura%e# 9e ob%ain a one-5lace 5re#ica%e 9hich as such can be use# as an0 common noun$ No%e ho9ever %ha% %he sa%ura%ion of %he secon# ar!umen% of rela%ional nouns nee# no% be accom5lishe# b0 combinin! %he noun 9i%h an e;5resse# com5lemen%$ In#ee# %he referen% of %he secon# ar!umen% can be re%rieve# from %he con%e;%$ Thus in an e;am5le li-e A venit prietena >The frien#(fem$/ has come? 9e have in min# a cer%ain in#ivi#ual of 9hich %he referen% of %he nominal 5hrase is %he frien#$ In !eneric con%e;%s prinii >%he 5aren%s? refers %o %he 5ersons 9ho are somebo#0?s 5aren%s in o%her 9or#s for 9hich %here is an en%i%0 of 9hich %he0 are %he 5aren%s$ Finall0 9hen 5luraliAe# rela%ional nouns #eno%e 5airs of in#ivi#uals 9hich en%er%ain %he rela%ion #eno%e# b0 %he noun an# %herefore no DP can a55ear in %he com5lemen% 5osi%ion of %he noun$ Thus !iven a si%ua%ion in 9hich :aria is SuAana?s frien# a DP of %he form cele dou prietene >%he %9o frien#s? refers %o %he 5air forme# b0 :aria an# SuAana$ The onl0 case of nouns 9hich %a-e obli!a%or0 com5lemen%s are a s5ecial -in# of #everbal nouns calle# comple' event nominals0 Deverbal nouns are #ivi#e# in%o %9o ca%e!ories accor#in! %o a number of verbal charac%eris%ics %he0 ma0 inheri% from %he base +B

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

verb$ Some of %hem al9a0s referrin! %o even%s have a more verbal behaviour as 9ill be sho9n in %he cha5%er on Deverbal Nouns (cha5%er ++/ P for ins%ance %he0 ma0 %a-e #a%ive ar!umen%s loca%ive mo#ifiers no% 5rece#e# b0 de (in Romanian #e normall0 5rece#es a#nominal loca%ive mo#ifiers/ allo9 as5ec%ual a#6ec%ives such as frecvent >fre@uen%? (in %he sin!ular/$ This %05e of nominals re@uires %he e;5ression of %he in%ernal ar!umen%s of %he verbal base$ G%her #everbal nouns (9hich ma0 also refer %o %he even% P in 9hich case %he0 are calle# simple event nominals P or %o o%her en%i%ies im5lie# in %he even% P resul% a!en% e%c$/ behave from a s0n%ac%ic 5oin% of vie9 as re!ular nominals$ The con%ras% be%9een %he %9o %05es can be illus%ra%e# b0 %he follo9in! e;am5le3
(2./ a$ a%acarea X(S5aniei/ a%%ac-$INF-%he S5ain-%he$G7N b$ a%acul (asu5ra S5aniei/ a%%ac--%he a!ains% S5ain-%he$G7N >%he a%%ac-in! of S5ain/%he a%%ac- a!ains% S5ain?

Turnin! no9 %o mo#ifiers of %he noun %he0 normall0 #eno%e 5ro5er%ies 9hich combine 9i%h %he 5ro5er%0 #eno%e# b0 %he noun b0 predicate intersection3 i$e$ %he e;5ression YN :o#ifierZ #eno%es %he se% of ob6ec%s 9hich are N an# 9hich also sa%isf0 %he 5ro5er%0 e;5resse# b0 :o#ifier in formal %erms P no%in! %he 5ro5er%0 e;5resse# b0 N 9i%h N an# %he one e;5resse# b0 %he mo#ifier b0 : P '0 'D1e20 3)'* 4 5)'*$ :o#ifiers are al9a0s o5%ional$ The s0n%ac%ic %erm for an o5%ional cons%i%uen% is ad+unct as o55ose# %o complements$ Thus nominal mo#ifiers are adnominal ad+uncts$ Oere for %he nominal #omain 9e 9ill use %he %erms mo#ifiers an# a#6unc%s in#iscrimina%el0$ Al%hou!h com5lemen%s of N canno% be #efine# 5urel0 s0n%ac%icall0 because %he0 are no% obli!a%or0 %he #is%inc%ion be%9een com5lemen%s an# mo#ifiers is no% onl0 base# on %he seman%ic in%ui%ion$ There is a formal cri%erion 9hich #is%in!uishes be%9een %he %9o 9hich follo9s from %he seman%ic charac%eriAa%ion 9e have 6us% !iven3 com5lemen%s canno% a55ear in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions 9hile mo#ifiers (9i%h some e;ce5%ions 9hich 9ill be briefl0 #iscusse# belo9/ can$ Correla%ivel0 mo#ifiers can be 5ara5hrase# b0 rela%ive clauses in%ro#uce# b0 >9hich is? com5lemen%s canno%$ The follo9in! e;am5les sho9 ho9 %his cri%erion hel5s %o #is%in!uish !eni%ives func%ionin! as com5lemen%s from !eni%ives func%ionin! as mo#ifiers (e;5ressin! a 5ossession rela%ion/3
(2</ a$ 5rima e;aminare Ya 5acien%uluiZ firs%-%he e;amina%ion G7N 5a%ien%-%he$G7N >%he firs% e;amina%ion of %he 5a%ien%? a_$ X7;aminarea es%e Ya 5acien%uluiZ e;amina%ion-%he is G7N 5a%ien%-%he$G7N a__$ Xe;aminarea care a fos% a 5acien%ului e;amina%ion-%he 9hich has been G7N 5a%ien%-%he$G7N b$ o car%e Ya 5acien%uluiZ a boo- G7N 5a%ien%-%he$G7N >a boo- of %he 5a%ien%?s? b_$ Car%ea es%e Ya 5acien%uluiZ boo--%he is G7N 5a%ien%-%he$G7N >%he boo- of %he 5a%ien%?s? b__$ o car%e care es%e Ya 5acien%uluiZ a boo- 9hich is G7N 5a%ien%-%he$G7N >a boo- 9hich is %he 5a%ien%?s? a$ un 5rie%en Yal :arieiZ a frien# G7N :aria$G7N

(2B/

+C

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions >a frien# of :aria?s? b$ XPrie%enul es%e Yal :arieiZ frien#-%he is G7N :aria$G7N c$ XDn 5rie%en care es%e Yal :arieiZ a frien# 9hich is G7N :aria$G7N

There are ho9ever some a#nominal cons%i%uen%s 9hich canno% a55ear in 5os%co5ular 5osi%ions an# #o no% allo9 rela%ive clause 5ara5hrases #es5i%e %he fac% %ha% %he0 are no% com5lemen%s of N$ This is #ue %o %he fac% %ha% %he0 #o no% combine 9i%h N b0 5re#ica%e in%ersec%ion$ Ue ma0 %hus #is%in!uish %9o %05es of mo#ifiers3 intersective modifiers an# non-intersective modifiers$ 'ecause %he lar!e ma6ori%0 of non-in%ersec%ive mo#ifiers are a#6ec%ives %he seman%ics of nonin%ersec%ive mo#ifiers 9ill be %rea%e# in %he cha5%er #e#ica%e# %o a#6ec%ives (cha5%er </$ Cer%ain in%eres%in! correla%ions can be es%ablishe# be%9een %he ca%e!orial %05e of a#nominal cons%i%uen%s an# %heir func%ion (%he #is%inc%ion be%9een com5lemen% an# mo#ifier/$ Thus a#6ec%ives bare NPs an# rela%ive clauses are al9a0s mo#ifiers (a#6unc%s/I !eni%ives an# 5ronominal 5ossessives 5re5osi%ional 5hrases an# non-fini%e verbal cons%i%uen%s ma0 have bo%h func%ions$ Fini%e verbal 5ro6ec%ions in%ro#uce# b0 a com5lemen%iAer are com5lemen%s$ 7;am5les (for !eni%ives an# 5ossessives see (2</ above/3 A#6ec%ives3
(2C/ a$ o masL roMie a %able re# >a re# %able? b$ un #rum lun! a roa# lon! >a lon! roa#/9a0?

Non-in%ersec%ive a#6ec%ives3 - classif0in! an# %hema%ic


(4=/ a$ reli!ia ca%olicL reli!ion-%he ca%holic >%he ca%holic reli!ion? b$ s%u#iile li%erare s%u#ies-%he li%erar0 >li%erar0 s%u#ies?

- in%ensional3
(4+/ o fos%L bisericL a former church > a former church?

'are NPs3
(41/ a$ o femeie in!iner a 9oman en!ineer >a 9oman en!ineer? b$ oraMe YreMe#inRL #e 6u#eRZ ci%ies ca5i%al of coun%0 >coun%0 ca5i%al ci%ies?

Rela%ive clauses3
(42/ Fa%a care a veni% !irl-%he 9hich has come >The !irl 9ho came?

1=

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

Pre5osi%ional 5hrases3 - Com5lemen%s3


(44/ ra5or%area la ceilalRi reference-%he %o o%hers >%he reference %o %he o%hers?

- :o#ifiers3
(4,/ cur%e cu flori 0ar# 9i%h flo9ers >cour%0ar# 9i%h flo9ers?

Non-fini%e verbal cons%i%uen%s - Com5lemen%s3


(4./ Encercarea Y#e a 5lecaZ %rial-%he of %o leave$INF

- :o#ifiers3
(4</ lucru Y#e #a%Z %hin!s of !ive$SDP >%hin- %o !ive?

Fini%e clauses in%ro#uce# b0 a com5lemen%iAer (com5lemen%s onl0/3


(4B/ a$ afirmaRia YcL nimeni nu M%ie mai mul%Z claim-%he %ha% nobo#0 no% -no9s more much >The claim %ha% nobo#0 -no9s more? b$ #orinRa YsL fii cel mai bunZ #esire-%he SD'N be$1SG %he more !oo# >The #esire %o be %he bes%?

Dn#er %he %heor0 -no9n as >V-bar %heor0? %he #ifference be%9een com5lemen%s an# a#6unc%s is s%an#ar#l0 associa%e# %o a s%ruc%ural #ifference3 com5lemen%s a%%ach imme#ia%el0 %o %he le;ical hea# bein! selec%e# b0 i%$ The cons%i%uen% YNHCom5lemen%Z is no%a%e# N_ (rea# Nbar/$ To %his cons%i%uen% ma0 be a##e# non-selec%e# 5hrases an# %he ma;imal cons%i%uen% %ha% -ee5s %he label N is no%a%e# NP or N__ (%he noun 5hrase/$ :o#ifiers 9ere su55ose# %o be a%%achable %o NP also (b0 an o5era%ion calle# Choms-0-a#6unc%ion/$ In a more recen% version of %he !enera%ive frame9or- (-no9n as 'are Phrase S%ruc%ure/ bar-levels have been elimina%e# so %ha% %here isn?% an0 #is%inc%ion be%9een mo#ifiers a%%ache# %o N_ an# mo#ifiers a%%ache# %o NP$ Oo9ever %he assum5%ion %ha% com5lemen%s a%%ach imme#ia%el0 %o %he le;ical hea# (in %he 5resen% case N/ has been main%aine#$ The %9o re5resen%a%ions are sho9n belo93
(4C/ (,=/ YNP YNP (:o#ifier/ YN_ N Com5lemen%Z (:o#ifier/Z (:o#ifier/Z YNP (:o#ifier/ YNP N Com5lemen%Z (:o#ifier/Z (V-bar %heor0/ ('are-Phrase s%ruc%ure/

I% shoul# be observe# %ha% %he assum5%ion %ha% %he com5lemen% is a%%ache# a% %he lo9es% level (i$e$ %o %he le;ical hea#/ is no% su55or%e# b0 DP-in%ernal 9or# or#er in Romanian since a#6ec%ives 9hich are normall0 5os%nominal ma0 se5ara%e a noun from i%s com5lemen%3
(,+/ o Y%ra#ucere nouL a Ilia#eiZ a %ransla%ion ne9 G7N Ilia#$G7N >a ne9 %ransla%ion of %he Ilia#?

1+

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

If 9e 9an% %o main%ain %he s%an#ar# assum5%ion abou% com5lemen% 5lacemen% %here are %9o 5ossible anal0ses3 (i/ %he N has raise# %o a func%ional hea# an# %he a#6ec%ive is lef%-a#6oine# %o %he base 5osi%ion of NI (ii/ %he com5lemen% has been ri!h%-e;%ra5ose#$
(,1/ (i/ De% YF NHF YAP Y%N Com5lemen%ZZZ (ii/ De% Y YYN %Com5lemen%Z APZ Com5lemen%Z

The %9o anal0ses ma-e #ifferen% 5re#ic%ions for %hose confi!ura%ions in 9hich more %han one 5os%nominal a#6ec%ive is 5resen%$ (i/ 5re#ic%s %ha% in a se@uence N A+ A1 (Com5lemen%/ A+ is hi!her %han A1 (ii/ 5re#ic%s %he o55osi%e$ As 9ill be sho9n in cha5%er < (see es5eciall0 sec%ion 2$1/ all %he em5irical #a%a su55or% %he 5re#ic%ion ma#e b0 anal0sis (ii/3 in %he or#er N A + A1 A1 is hi!her %han A+$ The or#er of Romanian 5os%nominal a#6ec%ives is %hus %he reverse (or >mirror?/ or#er 9i%h res5ec% %o %he or#er of 7n!lish 5renominal a#6ec%ives P re!ar#less of 9he%her a com5lemen% is 5resen% or no% as sho9n in %he follo9in! e;am5les3
(,2/ a$ a Yremar-able Y%echnical %alen%ZZ b$ un YY%alen% %ehnicZ #eosebi%Z a %alen% %echnical remar-able c$ Xun %alen% #eosebi% %ehnic a %alen% remar-able %echnical a$ o YYre#are 5ic%uralLZ amLnunRi%LZ a a%mosferei e5ocii a re5resen%a%ion 5ic%orial #e%aile# of a%mos5here-%he$ G7N %ime-%he$G7N b$ a #e%aile# 5ic%orial re5resen%a%ion of %he a%mos5here of %he %ime

(,4/

Ue conclu#e %ha% 5os%nominal a#6ec%ives in Romanian are no% lef%-a#6oine# bu% ri!h%a#6oine#$ The 5lacemen% of com5lemen%s af%er a#6ec%ives is 5robabl0 #ue %o %he #is5lacemen% of %he com5lemen% (ri!h% e;%ra5osi%ion/$ A 5ossible reason for %his e;%ra5osi%ion is %he #ifference in &ei !t be%9een com5lemen%s an# a#6ec%ives3 a#6ec%ives are %05icall0 li !t 5hrases (%he0 rarel0 con%ain ma%erial o%her %han %he le;ical hea#/ 9hile com5lemen%s are al9a0s com5le; 5hrases (DPs i$e$ DHNP see belo9 PPs i$e$ PHDPs e%c$/$ The relevance of 9ei!h% is sho9n b0 %he fac% %ha% if an a#6ec%ive has a com5lemen% or a (lon!/ #e!ree mo#ifier %he AP ma0 follo9 a com5lemen% of %he noun3
(,,/ a$ 5ar%ea 5arcului Y5linL #e floriZ 5ar%-%he 5ar--%he$G7N full$FSG of flo9ers >%he area of %he 5ar- (%ha% is/ full of flo9ers? b$ o re#are a a%mosferei e5ocii Y#eosebi% #e amLnunRi%LZ a re5ro#uc%ion G7N a%mos5here-%he$G7N %ime-%he$G7N 5ar%icularl0 of #e%aile# >a 5ar%icularl0 #e%aile# re5ro#uc%ion of %he a%mos5here of %he %ime?

A res%ric%e# class of a#6ec%ives can a55ear onl0 in %he 5renominal 5osi%ion (see cha5%er < sec%ion 2$+I %hese are for %he mos% 5ar% non-in%ersec%ive3 fost >former? aa-(is >alle!e#?/I %hose a#6ec%ives %ha% allo9 bo%h 5osi%ions e;hibi% #ifferen% in%er5re%a%ions #e5en#in! on %heir 5osi%ion$ The o%her a#nominal cons%i%uen%s are onl0 5os%nominal 9i%h %he e;ce5%ion of 5ossessives an# &!- !eni%ives 9hich can some%imes a55ear before %he N (see cha5%er ./$ Ue conclu#e %ha% %he Romanian nominal #omain is hea#-ini%ial$ The 5renominal fiel# com5rises func%ional ca%e!ories for %he mos% 5ar% (see +$2 belo9/$ Since func%ional ca%e!ories ma0 be anal0Ae# as hea#in! %heir o9n 5ro6ec%ions 9hich %a-e %he NP as %heir com5lemen% %he hea#ini%iali%0 of %he nominal #omain 5roves %o be more consis%en%$ The 5renominal 5lacemen% of some a#6ec%ives 9hich is !enerall0 lin-e# %o 5ar%icular meanin!s ma0 also be anal0Ae# b0 resor%in! %o func%ional 5ro6ec%ions (see cha5%er < *2 9here i% is 5ro5ose# %ha% %hese a#6ec%ives occu50 %he s5ecifier 5osi%ion of func%ional 5ro6ec%ionsI s5ecifiers are a%%ache# %o %he lef% in 11

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

Romanian/$ $.2. A3no6.nal 6o3.f.e0s 2s. DP+a371n/ts. A55os.t.ons. In sec%ion 4$+ 9e have seen %ha% %he NP ma0 com5rise various a#nominal cons%i%uen%s3 a#6ec%ives 5re5osi%i%ional 5hrases (PPs/ bare nouns !eni%ive DPs rela%ive clauses non-fini%e verbal cons%i%uen%s an# fini%e clauses in%ro#uce# b0 a com5lemen%iAer$ All %hese e;5ressions %o!e%her 9i%h %he N form %he #eno%a%ion of %he NP as a 9hole 9hich is a property #eno%a%ion P a class of ob6ec%s sharin! a 5ro5er%0 ou% of 9hich %he De%erminer selec%s an in#ivi#ual or over 9hich %he De%erminer @uan%ifies (in case %he #e%erminer is @uan%ifica%ional e$!$ fiecare >ever0? orice >an0? niciun >no?/$ Given %ha% all %hese e;5ressions narro9 #o9n %he #eno%a%ion of %he 5hrase %he0 a55l0 %o (for ins%ance scaun rou >re# chair? #eno%es a sub-se% of %he class >chair? namel0 %he se% of ob6ec%s 9hich are chairs an# are re# P %he in%ersec%ion of %he 5re#ica%es c!air an# red/ %he0 are sai# %o be restrictive (%he %erm 5ro5erl0 onl0 a55lies %o mo#ifiersI com5lemen%s ac%uall0 chan!e %he #eno%a%ion %05e re#ucin! %he number of o5en 5osi%ions of %he 5re#ica%e/$ Cer%ain mo#ifiers are non-res%ric%iveI %he0 in%ro#uce an in#e5en#en% 5re#ica%ion abou% %he en%i%0 %he DP #eno%es$ Non-res%ric%ive mo#ifiers can be realiAe# b0 rela%ive clauses a#6ec%ives PPs or DPs3
(,./ a$ Fiul meu care s-a En%ors #e la mun%e mi-a %elefona% son-%he m0 9hich R7FL-has re%urne# from moun%ain me$ DAT-has 5hone# >:0 son 9ho !o% bac- from %he moun%ains has calle# me$? b$ 'Lia%ul bucuros cL a cWM%i!a% s-a #us sL #anseAe$ bo0-%he ha550 %ha% has 9on R7FL-has !one SD'N #ance >The bo0 ha550 %ha% he 9on 9en% #ancin!? c$ Ion cu Ma5ca 5e ca5 Mi %eniMi En 5icioare s-a #us la 5rimLrie$ Ion 9i%h ca5-%he on hea# an# %ennis-shoes in fee% R7FL-has !one %o ci%0-hall >Ion 9earin! a ca5 on his hea# an# %ennis shoes 9en% %o %he ci%0 hall$? #$ Vecinul meu un bun 5rie%en al :ariei ne aM%ea5%L acolo nei!hbor-%he m0 a !oo# frien# G7N :aria$G7N us$ACC 9ai%s %here >:0 nei!hbor a !oo# frien# of :aria is 9ai%in! for us %here$?

These cons%i%uen%s 9hich are usuall0 se5ara%e# b0 a comma from %he DP %he0 a%%ach %o are of%en referre# %o b0 %he %erm apposition$ This %erm is some%imes res%ric%e# %o DPsI for rela%ive clauses %he %erm appositive relative is use# as o55ose# %o %he %erm restrictive relative$ Ue 9ill use %he %erm appositive modifiers as a cover %erm for %hese various non-res%ric%ive mo#ifiers an# 9e 9ill assume %ha% %he0 a%%ach %o %he DP in con%ras% 9i%h res%ric%ive mo#ifiers 9hich a%%ach %o %he NP cons%i%uen%$ Some%imes a DP %ha% a%%aches %o ano%her DP #oes no% func%ion as a non-res%ric%ive mo#ifier bu% is essen%ial in es%ablishin! %he reference3 %he secon# DP a55ears %o choose a value from several 5ossible #eno%a%ions of %he firs% DP$ This cons%ruc%ion is use# %o mo#if0 5ro5er nouns in %he referen%ial use an# 5ersonal 5ronouns because %hese cons%i%uen%s are imme#ia%el0 #omina%e# b0 %he DP no#e an# %herefore #o no% a#mi% NP-mo#ifiers3
(,</ a$ Geor!escu #iri6orul Geor!escu con#uc%or-%he >Geor!escu %he con#uc%or? b$ Noi romWnii 9e Romanians-%he >Ue Romanians?

12

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

:ore rarel0 %he firs% DP is base# on a common noun3


(,B/ Prie%enii mei ma%ema%icienii frien#s-%he m0 ma%hema%icians-%he >:0 frien#s %he ma%hema%icians?

Re!ar#in! %he seman%ic com5osi%ion of (,</b an# (,B/ %he reference of noi romnii an# prietenii mei matematicienii is no% ob%aine# b0 in%ersec%in! %he se% of Romanians or of ma%hema%icians 9i%h %he se% #eno%e# b0 us an# my friends res5ec%ivel0 bu% is coe;%ensive 9i%h %he #eno%a%ion of %he secon# DP3 Romanians an# ma%hema%icians res5ec%ivel0$ The firs% member 5rovi#es fur%her informa%ion abou% %he en%i%0 or !rou5 #eno%e# b0 %he secon# DP (%ha% %he s5ea-er belon!s %o %he Romanian 5eo5le or %ha% ma%hema%icians are frien#s of %he s5ea-er res5ec%ivel0/$ The #efini%e #e%erminer of %he firs% member ac%s %hus as a #e%erminer of %he 9hole 5hrase an# %he rela%ion be%9een %he #eno%a%ion of %he 9hole 5hrase an# %he #eno%a%ion of %he secon# member is one of i#en%i%0$ The in%er5re%a%ion of %he firs% member is ob%aine# b0 removin! %he #efini%e #e%erminer 9hich is re5resen%e# as Descr (DP+/ (%he #escri5%ive 5ar% of DP+/3
(,C/ YY DP+ DP1ZZ [ ; $ Descr(DP+/(;/ ;[YYDP1ZZ

For an anal0sis of %he cons%ruc%ion in (,</a see cha5%er +4 *2$1$ Conversel0 some mo#ifiers 9hich a%%ach lo9er %han #e%erminers ma0 have a nonres%ric%ive in%er5re%a%ion$ Some%imes %he s0n%ac%ic s%ruc%ure si!nals %his in%er5re%a%ion3 5renominal a#6ec%ives are normall0 non-res%ric%ive (see cha5%er ./I 5os%nominal a#6ec%ives are res%ric%ive3
(.=/ a$ frumoasele case beau%iful-%he houses b$ casele frumoase houses-%he beau%iful >%he beau%iful houses?

$.3. Fo/al Pa0t./les 'esi#es a55osi%ive mo#ifiers 9hich are al9a0s 5os%5ose# DPs also allo9 5re5ose# o5%ional elemen%s P %he so-calle# )focal* particles c!iar >even? i >also? doar% numai >onl0? tot >also s%ill?$ These are func%ional in %he sense %ha% %he0 belon! %o a close# class an# have an o5era%or meanin! bu% %he0 #iffer from o%her func%ional i%ems in %ha% %he0 are no% s5ecific %o DPs bu% ma0 a%%ach %o a varie%0 of (ma;imal/ cons%i%uen%s P APs clauses PPs (see (.1//$
(.+/ a$ chiar el even/reall0 he b$ numai Yaceas%L 5roblemLZ onl0 %his 5roblem c$ Mi Yun co5ilZ even a chil# a$ 7ra chiar Yalbas%rLZ 9as$2SG reall0 blue >I% 9as reall0 blue? b$ Vreau numai YsL %aciZ 9an%$+SG onl0 SD'N shu%-u5$1SG >I 6us% 9an% 0ou %o shu% u5$?

(.1/

14

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions c$ Doar aici se !Lsesc fruc%e onl0 here R7FL fin#$2PL frui%s >Gne can fin# frui%s onl0 here?

Since %hese elemen%s are no% s5ecific %o nominal 5ro6ec%ions %he0 9ill be no% %rea%e# in #e%ail in %his volume$

%. D.st0.b1t.on an3 S9nta/t./ F1n/t.ons of No6.nal P0o7e/t.ons


%.1. F1n/t.ons an3 3.st0.b1t.on of DPs The !rou5in! %o!e%her of 5hrases hea#e# b0 #e%erminers (in%ro#ucin! an over% or null/elli5%ical noun/ 5ro5er nouns an# 5ronouns un#er %he hea#in! >DP? is base# on %he common #is%ribu%ion of %hese cons%i%uen%s$ DPs %05icall0 func%ion as ar uments sa%ura%in! o5en 5osi%ions of 5re#ica%ive ca%e!ories P verbs a#6ec%ives 5re5osi%ions or nouns$ As ar!umen%s of verbs or of 5re#ica%es occurrin! in small clauses DPs ma0 bear s%ruc%ural case (nomina%ive accusa%ive/3
(.2/ a$ Un /o5.l @ Ion @ El cWn%L Sub6ec% Fini%e T ar!$ of V a chil# Ion he sin!s >A chil#/In/he sin!s? b$ A a5Lru% Enain%e a 5leca Mon./a @ ea @ b:.eA.. Sub6ec% Non-fini%e T ar!$ of V has a55eare# before %o leave :onica / she / bo0s-%he >Oe a55eare# before :onica/she/%he bo0s lef%? c$ El @ O0./e /o5.l @ T13o0 e im5resionabil Sub6ec% Fini%e T e;%ernal ar!$ of A he / an0 chil# / Tu#or is sensi%ive (raise# Sub6$ of small-clause/ >Oe/An0 chil#/Tu#or is sensi%ive? #$ C:0A.le @ Ele au fos% 5ier#u%e Sub6ec% Fini%e T in%ernal ar!$ of V boo-s-%he / %he0 have been los% (5assive3 Gb6ec% %o Sub6ec% raisin!/ >The boo-s/The0 have been los%? a$ Am ci%i% /a0tea @ /e2a Gb6ec% in%ernal ar!$ of V have$+ rea# boo--%he / some%hin! >I have rea# %he boo-/some%hin!? b$ Am invi%a%-o 5e Mon./a @ 5e ea have$+ invi%e#-her$ACC DG: :onica / DG: her >I/Ue have invi%e# :onica/her? c$ Pe Ion @ 5e el @ 5e a/est /o5.l El consi#er 5rea im5resionabil DG: Ion/ DG: him/ DG: %his chil# him$ACC consi#er$+SG %oo sensi%ive >Ion/Oim/This chil# I fin# him %oo sensi%ive$? Gb6ec% e;%ernal ar!$ of A (Sub6$ of small-clause raise# %o Gb6/

(.4/

In G'- accoun%s i% use# %o be assume# %ha% s%ruc%ural cases are license#/assi!ne# in #esi!na%e# 5osi%ions P accusa%ive in %he com5lemen% of (%ransi%ive/ V nomina%ive in %he s5ecifier of InflP (9here Infl is fini%e/$ :ore recen%l0 in minimalis% accoun%s i% is assume# %ha% s%ruc%ural cases are assi!ne# b0 func%ional hea#s P nomina%ive b0 T(ense/ accusa%ive b0 %he func%ional ca%e!or0 labele# li%%le v (9hich %a-es VP as a com5lemen%/$ Some lan!ua!es allo9 %his assi!nmen% %o %a-e 5lace 9i%hou% movemen% of %he DP in%o a s5ecifier 5osi%ion (%hus Romanian allo9s nomina%ive sub6ec%s in a 5os%verbal 5osi%ion 9hich is anal0Ae# as %he base 5osi%ion of %he sub6ec%/$

Ar!umen%s can also carr0 inheren% cases$ The inheren% cases of Romanian are %he #a%ive assi!ne# b0 (normall0 bi-%ransi%ive/ verbs an# some%imes b0 a#6ec%ives an# %he accusa%ive of secon#ar0 ob6ec%s assi!ne# b0 verbs3

1,

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions (.,/ a$ I-am scris 1n1. 50.eten @ l1. Robe0t @ l1. him$DAT-have$+ 9ri%%en a$DAT frien# / G'L Rober% / he$DAT >I 9ro%e %o a frien#/%o Rober%/%o him? b$ un co5il #ra! 6.e @ t1t10o0 50ofeso0.lo0 @ San3e. a chil# #ear me$ DAT / all$DAT %eachers-%he$DAT / San#a$DAT >A chil# #ear %o me/%o all %eachers/%o San#a$? c$ `l EnvLRLm o 5oeB.e @ /e2a him$ACC %each$+PL a 5oem / some%hin! >Ue %each him a 5oem/some%hin!$? Da%ive ar!$ of V Da%ive ar!$ of A Secon#ar0 ob6ec%

In e;am5les such as (../ #a%ive-mar-e# DPs al%hou!h %he0 a55ear insi#e %he VP are in%er5re%e# as 5ossessors of an ar!umen% of %he verb (%05icall0 %he ob6ec% or %he sub6ec% of unaccusa%ives/3
(../ a$ I-au fo%o!rafia% casa Elene. her$DAT-have %oo--5ho%o$2PL house-%he 7lena$DAT >The0 %oo- 5ic%ures of 7lena?s house? b$ I-au veni% musafirii Ma0.e. her$DAT-have come !ues%s-%he :aria$DAT >:aria?s !ues%s have come?

DPs ma0 a55ear as com5lemen%s of 5re5osi%ions$ In %his case %he0 func%ion ei%her as ar!umen%s of %he 5re5osi%ion i%self (see (.</a/ or as ar!umen%s of ano%her ca%e!or0 9hich subca%e!oriAes %he 5re5osi%ion ((.</b/$ Pre5osi%ions can also func%ion as s%ruc%ural case mar-ers (see %he accusa%ive ob6ec% mar-er peI see also *+$4 above an# cha5%er . on %he use of de in %he nominal #omain/$
(.</ aflL 5e o 6as: @ ea Com5lemen% of P ar!umen% of P fin#s on a %able / her >I%?s on a %able/her? b$ De5in#e #e el @ 3.0e/to01l 1B.ne. @ Pet01 Com5lemen% of (subca%e!oriAe#/ P #e5en#s on him / #irec%or-%he fac%or0-%he$ G7N / Pe%ru ar!umen% of V >I%?s u5 %o him/%he #irec%or of %he fac%or0/Pe%ru?
R7FL

a$ Se

Insi#e NPs 9hich #o no% %a-e com5lemen%s DPs mar-e# 9i%h !eni%ive can func%ion as a#6unc%s %he !eni%ive e;5ressin! various rela%ions of%en 5ossession (see cha5%er ./3
(.B/ casa 6.n.st01l1. house-%he minis%er-%he$G7N >%he minis%er?s house?

DPs ma0 also a55ear in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion e$!$ af%er %he co5ula of i#en%i%0 9hich is e;5ec%e# since %his 5osi%ion re@uires an en%i%0-%05e #eno%a%ion (see (.C//3
(.C/ as%a e #eo04e @ el @ 0e4ele %his$:SG is Geor!e / he / -in!-%he >This is Geor!e/him/%he -in!?

Some DPs ma0 also a55ear in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion 9i%h a shif%e# 5ro5er%0 #eno%a%ion3
(<=/ `l consi#er 50.eten1l 6e1 @ /el 6a. b1n 0e4.Bo0 him consi#er$+SG frien#-%he m0 / %he more !oo# (film/#irec%or >I consi#er him m0 frien#/%he bes% #irec%or?

1.

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

DPs can also func%ion as a55osi%ions (see *4$1 above an# cha5%er +4/ 9hich are a#6unc%s of o%her DPs$ %.2. F1n/t.ons an3 3.st0.b1t.on of NPs Nominal 5hrases 9i%hou% #e%erminers (9hich are calle# >bare nouns?/ a55earin! in ar!umen% 5osi%ions an# in%er5re%e# as 9ea- in#efini%es can be ar!ue# %o be DPs 9i%h a null De% ra%her %han NPs as 9ill be sho9n in cha5%er 1$ In %his sub-sec%ion 9e 9ill briefl0 5resen% %he #is%ribu%ion of %hose nominal 5hrases 9i%hou% #e%erminers 9hich #o no% con%ain a null D$ 'are nouns 9i%hou% a null De% can a55ear in %he follo9in! environmen%s3 (a/ As 5re#ica%es (af%er %he co5ula in small-clause com5lemen%s in small-clause a#6unc%s 9i%h %he 5re#ica%ive hea# ca/3
(<+/ a$ :arin e 50ofeso0 :arin is 5rofessor b$ L-au numi% 3.0e/to0 him$ACC-have a55oin%e# mana!er >The0 a55oin%e# him mana!er? c$ Liviu vorbeM%e acum ca 50.eten Liviu s5ea-s no9 as frien# >Liviu is no9 s5ea-in! as a frien#?

As a55osi%ions (a%%ache# %o DPs/ %he0 can also be anal0Ae# as 5re#ica%es of small clauses3
(<1/ :ihai 5e a%unci 50ofeso0 3e 6ate6at./: ne viAi%a #es :ihai %hen %eacher of ma%hs us$ ACC visi%e# of%en >:ihai a ma%h %eacher a% %he %ime use# %o visi% us of%en?

b/ As com5lemen%s of some 5re5osi%ions P de >of? in%ro#ucin! a#nominal mo#ifiers cu >9i%h? in%ro#ucin! 5ossessees3
(<2/ a$ 5erioa#L #e 0:Bbo. 5erio# of 9ar b$ bluAL cu 41le0 blouse 9i%h collar

c/ As a#nominal a#6unc%s as sho9n in 4$+ above in%er5re%e# as in%ersec%ive mo#ifiers (5re#ica%e# of %he en%i%0 #eno%e# b0 %he DP in con6unc%ion 9i%h %he 5re#ica%e #eno%e# b0 %he hea# noun/3
(<4/ a$ o femeie 50eot a 9oman 5ries% b$ oraM 0eCe3.nA: 3e 713eA %o9n ca5i%al of coun%0

&. T8e Se6ant./s of Dete06.ne0s an3 Dete06.ne0 P80ases


&.1. T95es of DPs The seman%ics of nominals is concerne# 9i%h %heir reference or >#eno%a%ion?$ Then #e5en#in!

1<

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

on %he %05e of nominal o%her @ues%ions arise such as ana5horic an# #eic%ic rela%ions @uan%ifica%ion !enerici%0 e%c$ The no%ion of >seman%ic com5osi%ion? 5oin%s %o %he fac% %ha% %he #eno%a%ion of an e;5ression is com5ose# ou% of %he #eno%a%ions of i%s s0n%ac%ic 5ar%s$ I% is %herefore e;5ec%e# %ha% %he seman%ic anal0sis of nominals #e5en#s on %heir in%ernal s%ruc%ure$ Since canonical DPs 5ro5er names an# 5ronouns #iffer in %heir in%ernal s%ruc%ure 9e 9ill briefl0 5resen% %he main seman%ic 5ro5er%ies of each of %hese %hree %05es of nominals$ Dnless o%her9ise s5ecifie# 9e 9ill be concerne# 9i%h %heir occurrence in ar!umen% 5osi%ionsI %he 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion 9hich is no% relevan% for 5ronouns an# 5ro5er names 9ill be briefl0 #iscusse# in rela%ion 9i%h canonical DPs$ Canonical DPs are hea#e# b0 a D (recall %ha% %his label covers inter alia ar%icles li-e o >In#ef$S!$Fem? or -a >Def$S!$Fem? an# @uan%ifiers li-e fiecare >ever0?/ %ha% %a-es as a com5lemen% an NP hea#e# b0 a C(ommon/ N(oun/$ The NP 5rovi#es a 5re#ica%e (#escri5%ive con%en%/ %ha% res%ric%s %he referen% of %he DP %o en%i%ies %ha% are charac%eriAe# b0 %ha% 5re#ica%e$ :os% nouns are one-ar!umen% 5re#ica%es an# as such %he0 are assume# %o #eno%e 5ro5er%ies or P in e;%ensional %erms P se%s of en%i%ies$ In a sim5le DP %ha% consis%s of a De%erminer an# a Noun e$!$ o femeie >a 9oman? %he De%erminer is vie9e# as a func%ion %ha% a55lies %o %he se% of en%i%ies #eno%e# b0 N$ The resul% of %his a55lica%ion corres5on#s %o %he #eno%a%ion of %he overall DP$ Uhen N is mo#ifie# e$!$ o femeie deteapt >a 9oman smar%? >a smar% 9oman? i% is assume# %ha% %he 5ro5er%0 #eno%e# b0 %he mo#ifier in%ersec%s 9i%h %he 5ro5er%0 #eno%e# b0 N an# %he #e%erminer a55lies %o %he resul%in! 5ro5er%0 corres5on#in! %o %he #eno%a%ion of %he NP cons%i%uen%$ There are ho9ever man0 o%her s0n%ac%ic confi!ura%ions %ha% canno% be subsume# un#er such a sim5le anal0sis3 man0 a#6ec%ives are no% in%ersec%ive rela%ional nouns have com5lemen%s rela%ive clauses even %he res%ric%ive ones canno% be %rea%e# on a 5ar 9i%h res%ric%ive a#6ec%ives e%c$ S5ecific 5ro5osals re!ar#in! %he seman%ic anal0ses of %hese various s0n%ac%ic confi!ura%ions 9ill be ma#e in %he cha5%ers #e#ica%e# %o %hem$ In %he follo9in! in%ro#uc%or0 no%es 9e 9ill be concerne# onl0 9i%h %he basic seman%ic no%ions an# %ools %ha% 9ill be ma#e use of in %he !rammar$ Ue also aim a% es%ablishin! some correla%ions re!ar#in! %he seman%ics of %he various %05es of DPs$ De5en#in! on %he seman%ic 5ro5er%ies of %heir D full DPs can #eno%e ei%her en%i%ies (in %05e-%heore%ic %erms %he0 are e(n%i%0/-%05e e;5ressions/ or !eneraliAe# @uan%ifiers a no%ion %o 9hich 9e 9ill come bac- belo9$ &.1.1. Ent.t9+Denot.n4 DPs 7n%i%0-%05e #eno%a%ion is common %o all DPs re!ar#less of 9he%her %he0 are canonical DPs 5ronouns of 5ro5er names$ Oo9ever %he 9a0 in 9hich en%i%0-#eno%a%ion is com5ose# #iffers from one %05e of DP %o ano%her$ The en%i%0-#eno%a%ion of full DPs can be vie9e# as %he resul% of a55l0in! D %o %he se% of en%i%ies #eno%e# b0 %he NP$ Such an o5era%ion is ar!uabl0 no% a% 9or- in %he case of 5ronouns an# 5ro5er names$ The label >5ronoun? #oes no% concern %he DPs 9i%hou% an over% N invo-e# in sec%ion 2 above3 once %he con%en% of %he null N is recovere# %heir seman%ic com5osi%ion 5rocee#s in %he same 9a0 as %ha% of a full-fle#!e# DP$ Com5are 5ersonal 5ronouns 9hich sho9 no se5ara%ion be%9een D an# NP an# %herefore %heir seman%ic com5osi%ion #oes no% involve an0 o5era%ion on a se% of en%i%ies (for some e;ce5%ions in 9hich a #escri5%ive 5ar% is im5lie# in %he in%er5re%a%ion of 5ronouns such as %he so-calle# >5ronouns of laAiness? see Cha5%er , *+$B/$ Ins%ea# %he0 #irec%l0 in%ro#uce a #iscourse referen% (or a free variable/ #ue %o %he seman%ic fea%ures %ha% %he0 carr0 mos% 5rominen%l0 %he Person fea%ure$ The i#en%ifica%ion of a 5ar%icular referen% is achieve# b0 means of %he ana5horic an# #eic%ic rela%ions %ha% 5ronouns en%er%ain 9i%h some o%her elemen% in %heir lin!uis%ic or non-lin!uis%ic environmen% (see %he Cha5%er on Pronouns P cha5%er ,/$ Pro5er names are li-e 5ronouns insofar as no se% of en%i%ies in%ervenes in %heir seman%ic com5osi%ion$ 'u% %he0 cruciall0 #iffer from 5ronouns insofar as %he0 #o no% behave

1B

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

as variables bu% ra%her as cons%an%s$ Common %o all PNs across lan!ua!es is %he fac% %ha% %he0 are connec%e# b0 5ar%icularl0 s%ron! %ies %o a 5ar%icular en%i%0 %ha% serves as %heir seman%ic value$ Ano%her s0n%ac%ic %05e of nominal is cons%i%u%e# b0 >bare nominals? i$e$ ma;imal nominal 5ro6ec%ions %ha% are buil% on common nouns (9hich ma0 %a-e an0 mo#ifiers or com5lemen%s/ an# lac- an0 (over%/ #e%erminers as e;em5lifie# in (<,/3
(<,/ a$ Ileana 5oar%L mereu fus%L$ Ileana 9ears al9a0s s-ir% >Ileana al9a0s 9ears a s-ir%$ b$ :aria EnvaRL limbi s%rLine$ :aria learns lan!ua!es forei!n >:aria is learnin! forei!n lan!ua!es$?

Romanian allo9s no% onl0 bare 5lurals e;em5lifie# in ((<,/b/ an# mass nouns (no% illus%ra%e# here/ bu% also bare sin!ulars e;em5lifie# in ((<,/a/$ Com5are French 9hich #isallo9s an0 -in# of bare nominal (if 9e leave asi#e cer%ain ver0 res%ric%e# con%e;%s/ an# 7n!lish 9hich allo9s bare 5lurals an# bare mass nouns bu% no% bare sin!ulars$ A curren% con%rovers0 concernin! %hese %05es of nominals is 9he%her %he0 are in fac% full-fle#!e# DPs 9i%h a D %ha% is 5honolo!icall0 null bu% s0n%ac%icall0 an# seman%icall0 5resen% or 9he%her %he0 are 9ha% %he0 a55ear %o be NPs 9i%h no D 5ro6ec%ions$ In Cha5%er 1 evi#ence is a##uce# in favor of %he DP-anal0sis$ Gran%in! such a vie9 %he seman%ic com5osi%ion of bare nominals is %ha% of a com5le%e DP 9i%h %he null D func%ionin! as a 5lural in#efini%e #e%erminer %he 5lural coun%er5ar% of %he sin!ular in#efini%e ar%icle$ In lan!ua!es such as 7n!lish (bu% no% in Romanian/ bare 5lurals ma0 have no% onl0 e;is%en%ial in#efini%e bu% also !eneric rea#in!s (e$!$ Do s are intelli ent$&idespread 9hich nee# %o be %ransla%e# 9i%h a #efini%e 5lural in Romanian/ in 9hich case %he null De% has a #ifferen% seman%ic anal0sis$ &.1.2. -1ant.f./at.onal DPs Le% us no9 briefl0 consi#er DPs such as fiecare copil% toi copiii% cei mai muli copii% 678 din copii 9hich canno% be anal0Ae# as #eno%in! en%i%ies$ The reason 9h0 %he0 canno% #o so is %ha% %heir #e%erminers im5ose no% onl0 con#i%ions on %he (car#inali%0 of %he/ se% #eno%e# b0 %he NP bu% %he0 also s5ecif0 %he 5ro5or%ion be%9een %he car#inali%0 of %he nominal 5re#ica%e an# %he car#inali%0 of %he in%ersec%ion be%9een %he nominal 5re#ica%e an# %he sen%en%ial 5re#ica%e3
(<./ a$ Fiecare co5il are o 6ucLrie ever0 chil# has a %o0 >7ver0 chil# has a %o0$? b$ Cei mai mulRi co5ii au o 6ucLrie %he more man0 chil#ren have a %o0 >:os% chil#ren have a %o0?

Com5are %he e;am5les in (<</ buil% 9i%h #efini%es in#efini%es or in#efini%e DPs hea#e# b0 car#inals 3
(<</ a$ Co5ilul are o 6ucLrie chil#-%he has a %o0 >The chil# has a %o0? b$ Dn co5il are o 6ucLrie a chil# has a %o0 >A chil# has a %o0?

1C

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions c$ Trei co5ii au o 6ucLrie %hree chil#ren have a %o0 >Three chil#ren have a %o0?

In %he e;am5les in (<</ %he #e%erminers im5ose various con#i%ions on %he #iscourse referen% %he0 in%ro#uce3 i% mus% be a%omic have car#inali%0 %hree e%c$ The sen%ences in (<</ are %rue if %he #iscourse referen%s %ha% sa%isf0 %hese con#i%ions are such %ha% %he0 also sa%isf0 %he con#i%ions im5ose# b0 %he sen%en%ial 5re#ica%es$ In e;am5les (<./ on %he o%her han# %he relevan% DPs #o no% #eno%e en%i%ies 3 %heir #e%erminers #o no% #efine con#i%ions on some #iscourse referen% bu% ins%ea# %he0 s5ecif0 a cer%ain 5ro5or%ion of %he se% of en%i%ies %ha% sa%isf0 %he nominal 5re#ica%e$ The sen%ence is %rue if %ha% 5ro5or%ion of %he en%i%ies %ha% sa%isf0 %he nominal 5re#ica%e also sa%isfies %he sen%en%ial 5re#ica%e$ DPs of %his %05e are sai# %o be necessaril0 @uan%ifica%ional an# %he0 can be re5resen%e# b0 usin! 5re#ica%e calculus lo!ic 9i%h res%ric%e# variables (see * <$1$+ belo9/$ An al%erna%ive anal0sis of @uan%ifica%ional DPs is in %erms of !eneraliAe# @uan%ifiers (see * <$1$2/$ This %05es of re5resen%a%ion can P bu% nee# no% P be use# for all DPs inclu#in! 5ro5er names$ The brief remar-s ma#e above are mean% %o !ive a !eneral overvie9 of %he common an# #ifferen%ia%in! seman%ic 5ro5er%ies of %he various s0n%ac%ic %05es of DPs$ De%aile# observa%ions re!ar#in! %he seman%ics of each %05e can be foun# in %he various cha5%ers of %his volume e$!$ %hose #e#ica%e# %o De%erminers 'are Nominals Pronouns or Pro5er names$ In %he remainin! 5ar% of %his In%ro#uc%ion 9e 9ill briefl0 5resen% %he mos% 9i#es5rea# %heore%ical a55roaches for %he seman%ics of DPs$ &.2. T8eo0et./al 5e0s5e/t.2es &.2.1 P0e3./ate Cal/1l1s D.t8o1t an3 D.t8 0est0./te3 2a0.ables :a%%ers concernin! %he seman%ics of DPs in !eneral an# %he seman%ics of #e%erminers in 5ar%icular have been crucial in sha5in! formal a55roaches %o na%ural lan!ua!e seman%ics$ Follo9in! earl0 %9en%ie%h cen%ur0 5ro5osals in %he 5hiloso5h0 of lan!ua!e formal a55roaches %o na%ural lan!ua!e seman%ics relie# ini%iall0 on associa%in! na%ural lan!ua!e sen%ences 9i%h formulas of a Pre#ica%e Calculus lan!ua!e for 9hich %ru%h con#i%ions are 9ell #efine#$ In %his in#irec% manner %hen %ru%h con#i%ions are associa%e# %o na%ural lan!ua!e sen%ences as 9ell$ In %he lo!ical %ra#i%ion s%emmin! from Russell (+C=,/ %he sen%ences in (<B/ are associa%e# 9i%h %he formulas in (<C/ i!norin! ma%%ers 5er%ainin! %o %ense an# as5ec%$
(<B/ a$ A 5leca% 1n s%u#en%$ has lef% a s%u#en% >A s%u#en% lef%$? b$ 9tudentul a plecat0 s%u#en%-%he has lef% >The s%u#en% lef%$? c$ Fiecare student a plecat$ ever0 s%u#en% has lef% >7ver0 s%u#en% lef%$? #$ Niciun student nu a plecat0 no s%u#en% no% has lef% >No s%u#en% lef%$? a$ ;bc (STDD7NT(;/ L7AV7(;// b$ d;bc (STDD7NT(;/ L7AV7(;// c$ ; (STDD7NT(;/ L7AV7(;//

(<C/

2=

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions #$ ; (bcSTDD7NT(;/ L7AV7(;//

In (<C/ %he e;5ressions in small ca5s s%an# for %he Pre#ica%e Calculus 5re#ica%es corres5on#in! %o na%ural lan!ua!e nouns verbs an# a#6ec%ives$ The >d? mar- is shor% for %he uni@ueness re@uiremen% associa%e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle$ Formulas in a Pre#ica%e Calculus lan!ua!e (PC/ are in%er5re%e# rela%ive %o a mo#el : consis%in! minimall0 of a se% of en%i%ies D an# a valua%ion func%ion V %ha% assi!ns #eno%a%ions %o 5re#ica%es an# o%her cons%an%s of %he lan!ua!e$ Pre#ica%es are %05e# for %he number of ar!umen%s %he0 %a-e$ The %ru%h con#i%ions of %he formulas in (<C/ ensure %ha% ((<C/a/ is %rue in a mo#el : if an# onl0 if %here is an en%i%0 d in D such %ha% d is a s%u#en% in : an# d lef% in :$ The formula in ((<C/b/ a##s an e;%ra re@uiremen% of uni@ueness3 %here shoul# be no d. d such %ha% d. is a s%u#en% in : an# d. lef% in :$ The %ru%h con#i%ions for %he universal formula in ((<C/c/ re@uire i% %o be %he case %ha% for ever0 en%i%0 d in D if d is a s%u#en% d lef%$ The ne!a%ive formula in ((<C/#/ is %rue 6us% in case %he e;5ression 9i%hin %he sco5e of %he ne!a%ive o5era%or is false an# %herefore i% 9ill be %rue 6us% in case %here is no en%i%0 d in D %ha% is a s%u#en% an# %ha% lef%$ In %his s0s%em %he #omain from 9hich variables boun# b0 @uan%ifiers !e% %heir values is D %he se% of en%i%ies in %he mo#el :$ There are %9o un9elcome conse@uences of %his assum5%ion3 (i/ The corres5on#ence be%9een %he cons%i%uen%s of %he PC formulas an# %he s0n%ac%ic ma-e-u5 of %he sen%ences %he0 %ransla%e is 5roblema%ic$ In 5ar%icular %here is no s0s%ema%ic correla%ion be%9een %he DPs of in%eres% here un#erline# in (<B/ an# %heir con%ribu%ion %o %he formulas %ha% %ransla%es %hese sen%ences un#erline# in (<C/$ (ii/ The a55roach 6us% ou%line# canno% !eneraliAe %o o%her @uan%ifier-li-e e;5ressions such as most% more t!an !alf% or car#inals$ In or#er %o reme#0 %his si%ua%ion 9e ma0 use 5re#ica%e calculus lo!ic 9i%h res%ric%e# variables$ In such PC lan!ua!es variables boun# b0 @uan%ifiers are res%ric%e# i$e$ %heir values are %a-en from subse%s of D subse%s #e%ermine# b0 Res%ric%or e;5ressions$ The formulas %ransla%in! %he sen%ences in (<B/ in a Pre#ica%e Calculus lan!ua!e 9i%h res%ric%e# variables are !iven in (B=/3
(B=/ a$ ;3b9:UDE3:)'* L7AV7(;/ b$ d;3b9:UDE3:)'* L7AV7(;/ c$ ;3 9:UDE3:)'* L7AV7(;/ #$ ;3b9:UDE3:)'* L7AV7(;/

The i%aliciAe# e;5ressions in (B=/ are referre# %o as %he Res%ric%or 5ar% of %he @uan%ifica%ional formula 9hile %he 5ar% lef% unun#erline# an# uni%aliciAe# is %he N(uclear/ S(co5e/$ The %ru%h con#i%ions for (B=/a re@uire %here %o be some en%i%0 amon! %hose en%i%ies in D of 9hich %he Res%ric%or is %rue such %ha% %he Nuclear Sco5e is %rue of i% as 9ellI %he e;%ra re@uiremen% im5ose# b0 (B=/b is %ha% %here be a sin!le en%i%0 of 9hich %he Res%ric%or is %rue$ For (B=/c %o be %rue i% mus% be %he case %ha% ever0 en%i%0 of 9hich %he Res%ric%or is %rue is such %ha% %he NS is %rue of i% as 9ell an# for (B=/# %o be %rue (B=/a mus% no% be %rue$ These %ru%h con#i%ions %urn ou% %o be e@uivalen% %o %hose !iven for (<C/ e;ce5% %ha% i% is no9 5ossible %o assume %ha% 5ar%icular #e%erminers 5lace 5ar%icular res%ric%ions on %he se% #eno%e# b0 %heir Res%ric%or res%ric%ions %ha% are >5resu55ose#? in %he sense %ha% %he0 have %o be me% in or#er for %he sen%ence %o have a %ru%h value a% all$ Thus for fiecare >ever0? one can assume %ha% %his se% is 5resu55ose# %o be non-em5%0 an# %herefore !e% no %ru%h-value for (B=/c in a mo#el 9i%hou% s%u#en%s 9hile (<C/c 9oul# be %rue in such a mo#el$ A ma6or a#van%a!e of %his a55roach is %ha% fur%her @uan%ifiers such as most or more t!an !alf can be a##e# 9i%hou% an0 #ifficul%0$ Ue can no9 !eneraliAe over DPs %ha% serve as ar!umen%s of 5re#ica%es$ Their D 2+

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

con%ribu%es a @uan%ifier an# a variable 9hile %heir NP con%ribu%es %he Res%ric%or$ 7;5ressions %ha% form %he Res%ric%or as 9ell as %hose %ha% form %he NS ma0 be com5le; an# ma0 con%ain @uan%ifica%ional formulas in %heir %urn lea#in! %o more com5le; %ru%h con#i%ions$ In %his cha5%er 9e a#o5% %he res%ric%e# variable version of Pre#ica%e Calculus as %he lin!ua franca of formal seman%ics$ Turnin! no9 bac- %o ar%icles no%e %ha% so far %he #ifference be%9een #efini%e an# in#efini%e #e%erminers (un vs$ -)u*l/ a55ears %o be a ma%%er of %he la%%er brin!in! an e;%ra re@uiremen% rela%ive %o %he former$ Dn#ers%an#in! %his re@uiremen% an# i%s s%a%us is crucial %o an0one in%eres%e# in %he seman%ics of #e%erminers since i% involves un#ers%an#in! %he #efini%e/in#efini%e #icho%om0$ There are %9o issues %ha% have been raise# in connec%ion 9i%h Russell?s uni@ueness 5ro5osal from %he s%ar%3 (i/ In or#er %o a55l0 %he uni@ueness %rea%men% of %he #efini%e ar%icle %o or#inar0 e;am5les in or#inar0 lan!ua!e one has %o be able %o rela%iviAe i% since (B=/b is 6u#!e# as %rue in man0 con%e;%s in %he absence of an assum5%ion %ha% 9oul# re@uire %he se% of s%u#en%s in %he mo#el %o be sin!le%on$ The uni@ueness re@uiremen% %herefore mus% be con%e;%uall0 res%ric%able$ (ii/ An in#e5en#en% 5roblem raise# b0 S%ra9son (+C,=/ is 9he%her or no% %he uni@ueness con#i%ion %o!e%her 9i%h %he e;is%ence re@uiremen%s 5ac-e# in%o %he #efini%e ar%icle have %he same s%a%us as %he NS re@uiremen%s$ In a Russellian a55roach 9hich ma-es no #is%inc%ions be%9een %hese con#i%ions an e;5ression such as (B=/b is ren#ere# false un#er an0 of %he follo9in! circums%ances3 (a/ %he mo#el/con%e;% con%ains no s%u#en%sI (b/ %he se% of s%u#en%s in %he mo#el/con%e;% is no% a sin!le%onI (c/ %here is a sin!le%on se% of s%u#en%s in %he mo#el/con%e;% bu% %he s%u#en% in %his se% #i# no% in fac% leave$ S%ra9son ar!ue# %ha% %he con#i%ions un#er (a/ an# (b/ shoul# be seen as havin! a #ifferen% s%a%us from %he con#i%ion un#er (c/3 (a/ an# (b/ a55ear %o be pre-con#i%ions %ha% have %o be me% in or#er for %he use of %he #efini%e ar%icle %o be felici%ous$ This vie9 le# %o %rea%in! %he e;is%ence an# uni@ueness re@uiremen%s %ha% ma-e u5 %he con%ribu%ion of %he #efini%e ar%icle as presuppositions ra%her %han as bein! 5ar% of 9ha% %he sen%ence con%ainin! %he DP asser%s$ Dn#er a S%ra9sonean (5resu55osi%ional/ a55roach 9e are le# %o %he follo9in! vie9 of %he four Romanian #e%erminers bol#-face# in (<B/3 (a/ %he unmar-e# in#efini%e is a sim5le e;is%en%ialI (b/ %he #efini%e is an e;is%en%ial %ha% 5resu55oses %ha% i%s Res%ric%or #eno%es a sin!le%on se% (rela%ive %o %he con%e;%/I (c/ fiecare is a universal 5ossibl0 5resu55osin! %ha% i%s Res%ric%or is no% em5%0I (#/ niciun is an e;is%en%ial %ha% mus% occur in %he imme#ia%e sco5e of %he ne!a%ive o5era%or $ This la%%er cons%rain% is enco#e# in %he ne!a%ive mor5heme nici$ The ne!a%ive o5era%or is in%ro#uce# b0 %he verbal ne!a%ion nu as 9ell as b0 o%her mor5hemes such as %he com5lemen%iAer fr >9i%hou%?3
(B+/ :aria a 5leca% fLrL sL ia nicio car%e$ :aria has lef% 9i%hou% SD'N %a-e N7G-a boo>:aria lef% 9i%hou% %a-in! an0 boo-$?

The re@uiremen% %ha% nici in#efini%es occur 9i%hin %he immediate sco5e of ne!a%ion means %ha% in or#er for nici in#efini%es %o be !ramma%ical %he smalles% clause in 9hich %he0 occur mus% be ne!a%e#$ 3ici in#efini%es %hen are a s%ric% %05e of 9ha% is -no9 in seman%ics as a N(e!a%ive/ P(olari%0/ I(%em/$ Uha% 9e have seen so far is %ha% #e%erminers #eci#e 9ha% @uan%ifier is involve# in %he in%er5re%a%ion of %heir DP i$e$ %he0 #e%ermine %he @uan%ifica%ional force of %he DP$ In a##i%ion %he0 ma0 im5ose various res%ric%ions on %he 5ro5er%ies of %he Res%ric%or or on %he s0n%ac%ic/seman%ic environmen% of %he DP$ The former is e;em5lifie# b0 %he h05o%hesiAe# uni@ueness 5resu55osi%ion associa%e# 9i%h %he #efini%e #e%erminer %he la%%er 9i%h %he s5ecial re@uiremen% carrie# b0 %he ne!a%ive mor5heme nici0

21

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

&.2.2. T8e 0elat.onal anal9s.s of Dete06.ne0s Ui%h res5ec% %o %heore%ical a55roaches %o #e%erminers an al%erna%ive an# ver0 influen%ial vie9 of e;is%en%ial universal an# o%her >@uan%ifica%ional? DPs %ha% is a small s%e5 a9a0 from %he one 6us% 5resen%e# 9as #evelo5e# in 'ar9ise an# Coo5er (+CB+/$ The 5ro5osal is %o %rea% #e%erminers as e;5ressin! rela%ions be%9een %9o se%s A an# ' 9here in our %erms %he se% A is !iven b0 %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he e;5ression in %he Res%ric%or an# %he se% ' is !iven b0 %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he e;5ression in %he NS$ For our sim5le e;am5les A is %he se% of s%u#en%s an# ' is %he se% of 5eo5le 9ho lef%$ The rela%ion #eno%e# b0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle a is %ha% 9hich ob%ains be%9een %9o se%s 9hen %heir in%ersec%ion is non-null$ The e;%ra re@uiremen% im5ose# b0 %he #efini%e ar%icle t!e is %ha% A be a sin!le%on$ The universal #e%erminer every on %he o%her han# re@uires A %o be a subse% of ' e;5resse# formall0 as A ' [ A$ The ne!a%ive #e%erminer no #eno%es a rela%ion %ha% hol#s be%9een A an# ' 6us% in case %he in%ersec%ion of A an# ' is %he em5%0 se% e;5resse# formall0 as A ' [ $ In%eres%in! formal 5ro5er%ies of #e%erminers have been #efine# un#er %his a55roach an# universal 5ro5er%ies of na%ural lan!ua!e #e%erminers have been formula%e#$ Gne in%ri!uin! such universal 5ro5er%0 is conserva%ivi%0 a 5ro5er%0 %ha% is e@uivalen% %o %he claim %ha% all @uan%ifica%ion in na%ural lan!ua!e is res%ric%e#$ Gf 5ar%icular use in charac%eriAin! %he #is%ribu%ional 5ro5er%ies of NPIs men%ione# above in connec%ion 9i%h nici in#efini%es are %he mono%onici%0 5ro5er%ies of #e%erminers$ Assumin! %ha% a #e%erminer D rela%es %9o se%s 9 an# 9. mono%one increasin! an# mono%one #ecreasin! #e%erminers can be #efine# as in (+1/3
(B1/ a$ A #e%erminer is monotone increasin on 9 iff for ever0 su5erse% 9. of 9 if D hol#s be%9een 9 an# 9. %hen D hol#s be%9een 9. an# 9. as 9ell$ b$ A #e%erminer D is monotone decreasin on 9 iff for ever0 subse% 9. of 9 if D hol#s be%9een 9 an# 9. %hen D hol#s be%9een 9. an# 9. as 9ell$

The rea#er can verif0 %ha% %he #e%erminer every is mono%one #ecreasin! on i%s Res%ric%or an# mono%one increasin! on i%s NSI %he #e%erminer no is mono%one #ecreasin! on bo%h i%s Res%ric%or an# NS$ The mono%one #ecreasin! 5ro5er%0 has %urne# ou% %o be useful in charac%eriAin! %he con%e;%s in 9hich cer%ain NPIs occur 5ar%icularl0 in 7n!lish (see La#usa9 (+C<C/ for %he classic 9or- on %his %o5ic$/ The issue of %he seman%ics of NPIs has #evelo5e# in%o a subfiel# of i%s o9n an# since 9e canno% #o i% 6us%ice in %his cha5%er 9e leave i% ou% of i%s sco5e$ &.2.3. Monta4o2.an a550oa/8es The 5ro5er %rea%men% of DPs has 5la0e# a crucial role in %he seminal :on%a!ovian %ra#i%ion in formal seman%ics 9hose foun#in! s%one is :on%a!ue (+C<2/$ The ma6or force #rivin! %he en%er5rise is %he 9ish %o s%a0 as close as 5ossible %o %he Fre!ean no%ion of com5osi%ionali%0$ For Fre!e %he in%er5re%a%ion of a com5le; e;5ression is a func%ion of %he in%er5re%a%ion of i%s imme#ia%e cons%i%uen%s an# %he 9a0 %he0 are combine#$ The beau%0 an# 5o9er of %he %heor0 lie in ho9 narro9l0 %he s0n%a; of an e;5ression is assume# %o #e%ermine i%s in%er5re%a%ion 9hich in %urn #e5en#s on 9ha% mo#es of com5osi%ions one acce5%s an# ho9 narro9l0 one #efines %he seman%ics of each s0n%ac%ic ca%e!or0$ (Fre!e allo9e# a sin!le mo#e of combina%ion namel0 func%ion ar!umen% a55lica%ion a res%ric%ion %ha% has 5roven %oo s%ric%$/ A% %he same %ime %he a55roach ma#e 5ossible a shif% %o >#irec%? in%er5re%a%ion 9hereb0 e;5ressions of na%ural lan!ua!e are assi!ne# seman%ic values #irec%l0 9i%hou% %he nee# of !oin! %hrou!h a 5rocess of %ransla%ion in%o a formal lan!ua!e$ In %his %ra#i%ion %he s0n%ac%ic ca%e!or0 of an e;5ression is %i!h%l0 connec%e# %o %he na%ure of i%s seman%ic value$ Leavin! mo#al issues asi#e %he in%er5re%a%ion of a sen%ence is a %ru%h-valueI for o%her lin!uis%ic e;5ressions 9e can assume %heir in%er5re%a%ion %o be 5ar%icular

22

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

en%i%ies in D %he #omain of %he mo#el or func%ions of various #e!rees of com5le;i%0 involvin! en%i%ies an# %ru%h-values (as 9ell as a##i%ional a%omic %05es in more com5le; s0s%ems/$ Na%ural lan!ua!e e;5ressions are assi!ne# seman%ic %05es #e5en#in! on %he na%ure of %he #eno%a%ion %he0 have$ In sim5les% s0s%ems %here are %9o basic #eno%a%ion %05es3 e for e;5ressions referrin! %o en%i%ies an# t for e;5ressions referrin! %o %ru%h-values (+ for %rue = for false/$ Com5le; %05es 9ri%%en as 1 a% b 2 are func%ions from en%i%ies of %05e a %o en%i%ies of %05e b 9here a an# b are sim5le %05es or com5le; ones$ Sen%ences are e;5ressions of %05e tI 5re#ica%es such as leave or see 5ary are e;5ressions of %05e e e% t f i$e$ %he0 #eno%e func%ions from en%i%ies %o %ru%h-values$ 7;5ressions 9hose %05e is e e% t f are calle# properties0 In se% %heore%ic %erms 9e can %hin- of %hem as %he se% of en%i%ies for 9hich %he 5re#ica%e re%urns %he value + i$e$ %he se% of elemen%s in D 9ho lef% or sa9 :ar0 res5ec%ivel0$ Ue 9ill refer %o such se%s as %he #eno%a%ion of e;5ressions of %05e e e% t f$ Uhen %9o s0n%ac%ic e;5ressions s; an# s< combine %o form a com5le; e;5ression s= %he in%er5re%a%ion of s= mus% be %he resul% of combinin! %he in%er5re%a%ions of i%s %9o #au!h%ers$ A#herin! %o s%ric% Fre!ean 5rinci5les %he in%er5re%a%ion of one of %hese #au!h%ers mus% be a func%ion an# %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he o%her mus% be such as %o fi% %he ar!umen% of %ha% func%ion$ The in%er5re%a%ion of s= 9ill %hen be %he resul% of a55l0in! %he func%ion #au!h%er %o %he ar!umen% #au!h%er (func%ion ar!umen% a55lica%ion/$ To illus%ra%e 9i%h a sim5le e;am5le assume %ha% %he seman%ic value of Pro5er Names is an en%i%0 in D an# %herefore %ha% %heir seman%ic %05e is e$ Assume also %ha% in%ransi%ive verbs are in%er5re%e# as func%ions from en%i%ies %o %ru%h-values i$e$ %he0 are of %05e e e% t 2 !ivin! %he value + 9henever %he en%i%0 %ha% serves as %heir ar!umen% has %he 5ro5er%0 #eno%e# b0 %he verb$ The seman%ic %05es associa%e# %o %he cons%i%uen%s of %he sen%ence in (B2/a are as in (B2/b 9here %he %05e of an e;5ression is 9ri%%en un#er i%3
(B2/ a$ Ion 5leacL$ >Ion is leavin!$? b$ >on pleac t >on ee2 pleac eetf

Oere %he sub6ec% func%ions as %he ar!umen% of %he 5re#ica%e$ Dn#er %he above assum5%ions 9e !e% %he follo9in! in%ui%ivel0 5leasin! resul%3 %he #eno%a%ion of (B2/a is + 6us% in case %he en%i%0 #eno%e# b0 %he sub6ec% is in %he #eno%a%ion of %he 5ro5er%0 #eno%e# b0 %he in%ransi%ive verb$ In o%her 9or#s (B2/a is 5re#ic%e# %o be %rue in a mo#el : 6us% in case %he en%i%0 #eno%e# b0 >on is amon! %he leavers in :$ :on%a!ue?s aim 9as %o ca5%ure 9ha% is common %o all DPs$ Oe aime# a% !ivin! %hem a uniform %rea%men% in or#er %o accoun% for %heir rela%ivel0 uniform s0n%ac%ic #is%ribu%ion as 9ell as for %he fac% %ha% one can con6oin DPs across sub%05es in e;am5les such as ?ane and every student in !er class$?ane and no student in !er class (see sec%ion +$./$ Trea%in! Pro5er Names as sim5l0 bein! of %05e e becomes 5roblema%ic !iven %ha% DPs such as every student an# no student canno% be %rea%e# as #eno%in! an en%i%0 an# %herefore canno% be of %05e e$ The s%ra%e!0 :on%a!ue use# 9as %o re#uce all DPs %o %he mos% com5le; case %ha% of DPs such as fiecare student >ever0 s%u#en%? or niciun student >no s%u#en%? e;em5lifie# in Romanian an# 7n!lish in (B4/$

24

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions (B4/ a$ F.e/a0e st13ent a 5leca%$ E2e09 st13ent lef%$ b$ N./.1n st13ent nu a 5leca%$ No st13ent lef%$

In :on%a!ue?s anal0sis %he #eno%a%ion of %he bol#-face# sub6ec%s is %he func%ion an# %he #eno%a%ion of %he VP is i%s ar!umen%$ The DP %hen is an e;5ression of %05e e e e% t f t f 3 i% is a func%ion %ha% %a-es a 5ro5er%0 as i%s ar!umen% an# i% 0iel#s a %ru%h value as i%s value$ The %05e of %he D in each DP is a func%ion from 5ro5er%ies %o %he func%ions #eno%e# b0 %he DP i$e$ a func%ion from e;5ressions of %05e e e% t f %o e;5ressions of %05e e e e% t f t f$ De%erminers %hen are e;5ressions of %05e e e e% t f e e e% t f t f f$ The func%ion #eno%e# b0 every$fiecare %hen %a-es a 5ro5er%0 / as an ar!umen% an# 0iel#s as value a func%ion %ha% %a-es a 5ro5er%0 @ as an ar!umen% an# 0iel#s %he value + 6us% in case / @$ The func%ion #eno%e# b0 no$niciun %a-es a 5ro5er%0 / an# 0iel#s a func%ion %ha% %a-es a 5ro5er%0 @ as an ar!umen% an# 0iel#s %he value + 6us% in case / @ [ $ These %ru%h con#i%ions as 0ou can see are 5arallel %o 'ar9ise an# Coo5er?s rela%ional a55roach (9here / is %he Res%ric%or se% 9e #eno%e# b0 A above an# @ is %he NS se% #eno%e# above b0 '/$ Ue e;em5lif0 in (B,/ ho9 %he %05es of %he cons%i%uen%s of (B4/a combine$ Oere %he #eno%a%ion of student 5la0s %he role of %he 5ro5er%0 / above an# %he #eno%a%ion of leave 5la0s %he role of %he 5ro5er%0 @3
(B,/ 7ver0 s%u#en% lef% t ever0 s%u#en% e e e% t f t f ever0 e e e% t f e e e% t f t f f s%u#en% e e%t f lef% e e%t f

The func%ion #eno%e# b0 every student can be %hou!h% of as %he se% of 5ro5er%ies for 9hich i% !ives %he value + i$e$ %he se% of 5ro5er%ies %ha% ever0 s%u#en% has$ The sen%ence Every student left %hen #eno%es + 6us% in case %he 5ro5er%0 of leavin! is 9i%hin %he se% of 5ro5er%ies %ha% ever0 s%u#en% has i$e$ 6us% in case for ever0 s%u#en% in D %ha% s%u#en% lef% 9hich is as i% shoul# be$ The %05e !iven %o every student above is %he mos% com5le; %05e a DP ma0 have an# i% !oes un#er %he name of enerali(ed quantifier %05e$ No9 if our aim is %o !ive all DPs a uniform %05e all %he o%her DPs 9e loo-e# a% so far inclu#in! Pro5er Names mus% be !eneraliAe# @uan%ifiers i$e$ %he0 mus% be of %05e e e e% t f t f$ For in#efini%e an# #efini%e DPs %he anal0sis 9oul# 9or- 6us% li-e in %he case of universal DPs 9i%h %he #ifference %ha% %he rela%ion im5ose# b0 %he in#efini%e 9oul# re@uire / @ 9hile %he #efini%e 9oul# im5ose an a##i%ional s5ecial 5resu55osi%ion concernin! %he car#inali%0 of /$ The func%ion #eno%e# b0 a student can be %hou!h% of as %he se% of 5ro5er%ies such %ha% some s%u#en% or o%her has %hose 5ro5er%ies$ The sen%ence A student left %hen #eno%es + 6us% in case leavin! is amon! %hese 5ro5er%ies i$e$ 6us% in case 0ou can fin# some s%u#en% in D 9ho lef%$ 7;%en#in! %he anal0sis %o Pro5er Names means %rea%in! %heir #eno%a%ion as a func%ion from 5ro5er%ies %o %ru%h-values as 9ell$ As before 9e can %hin- of %his func%ion as %he se% of 5ro5er%ies for 9hich %he value i% !ives us is +$ In %he case of ?o!n %his se% 9ill be %he se% of 5ro5er%ies %ha% a 5ar%icular en%i%0 (%he one 9e call ?o!n/ has$ The sen%ence ?o!n left is %rue 6us% in case %he 5ro5er%0 of leavin! is amon! %he se% of 5ro5er%ies %ha% Nohn has$ Se%s of 5ro5er%ies bein! re5resen%able as lamb#a e;5ressions over 5ro5er%ies %he !eneraliAe#-@uan%ifier anal0sis can be re5resen%e# as follo9s3

2,

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions (B./ a$ a man P$;3:AN(;/ P(;/ b$ %he man P$ d;3:AN(;/ P(;/ c$ ever0 man P$;3:AN(;/ P(;/ #$ Nohn P$P(6/

No%e %ha% in each case 9e arrive a% %ru%h con#i%ions close or e@uivalen% %o %hose 9e ha# for our res%ric%e# PC formulas bu% via a rou%e %ha% com5u%es %he #eno%a%ions of e;5ressions s%e5 b0 s%e5 an# 9i%hou% resor%in! %o an in%erme#ia%e level of re5resen%a%ion$ A s0s%em li-e %he one s-e%che# above %ha% assi!ns s0n%ac%ic ca%e!ories a sin!le uniform %05e an# 9hich allo9s a sin!le mo#e of combina%ion namel0 func%ion ar!umen% a55lica%ion is alas no% rich enou!h %o accoun% for %he com5le;i%ies of na%ural lan!ua!e$ There are %9o 5ossible rou%es %o9ar# enrichin! %he s0s%em3 allo9 a richer inven%or0 of mo#es of combina%ion an# allo9 a sin!le e;5ression %o be associa%e# 9i%h a se% of %05es$ 'o%h rou%es have been %a-en in %he li%era%ure$ The mul%i5le %05e rou%e is mos% #irec%l0 relevan% %o DP seman%ics$ Uhile :on%a!ue?s unif0in! s9ee5 e;5lains %he similari%ies 9e fin# across various DP %05es i% is unable %o !ive us an e;5lana%ion for %he e@uall0 im5or%an% s0n%ac%ic an# seman%ic #ifferences 9e encoun%er$ Thus as no%e# in Sam5 (+CB+/ an# Oeim (+CB1/ for ins%ance Pro5er Names as 9ell as #efini%e an# in#efini%e DPs ma0 serve as an%ece#en%s %o #efini%e 5ronouns in #iscourse 9hile DPs 9hose D is a universal or 5ro5or%ional @uan%ifier ma0 no%3
(B</ a$ Jo8n@a st13ent@t8e st13ent lef%$ e 9as %ire#$ b$ E2e09 st13ent@6ost st13ents lef%$ X e 9as %ire#$

Sen%ences such as (B</b are fine 9i%h a 5lural 5ronoun$ 'u% no%e %ha% in%ra-sen%en%iall0 every can bin# sin!ular 5ronouns an# %herefore %he fac% %ha% %his canno% ha55en in%er-sen%en%iall0 remains 5roblema%ic3 (i/ E2e09 5ol.t./.an %hou!h% %ha% 8e 9as safe0 No%e also %ha% un#er s5ecial con#i%ions such in%er-sen%en%ial bin#in! becomes 5ossible3 (ii/ 7ver0 sol#ier a55roache# %he 5la%form$ Oe shoo- han#s 9i%h %he Presi#en% an# !o% his me#al$

No%e also %ha% 9hile in#efini%e DPs are @ui%e na%ural as 5re#ica%ive nominals (e;em5lifie# belo9 for 7n!lish an# Romanian/ DPs 9i%h universal Ds are no%3
(BB/ a$ Nohn is a famous #oc%or$ Ion e un #oc%or ves%i%$ b$ XNohn an# :ar0 are ever0 famous #oc%or in our famil0$ XIon Mi :aria sun% fiecare #oc%or ves%i% #in familia noas%rL$

Finall0 i% has been sho9n %ha% s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ionin! 9i%hin a clause is sensi%ive in some lan!ua!es such as Oun!arian %o 9he%her %he D in a DP is a universal or 5ro5or%ional @uan%ifier or no%$ These con%ras%s lea# %o a #is%inc%ion be%9een 5urel0 @uan%ifica%ional DPs an# non@uan%ifica%ional DPs e;em5lifie# belo93 Fi!ure +3 Seman%ic DP classifica%ion non- @uan%ifica%ional DPs 5ary% !e% somebody% t!e$a$t!is student @uan%ifica%ional DPs every student% most students

A fur%her #is%inc%ion 9i%hin %he non-@uan%ifica%ional DP ca%e!or0 is nee#e# %o se5ara%e %hose

2.

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

%ha% ma0 func%ion as 5re#ica%ive DPs in or#inar0 sen%ences such as %he one e;em5lifie# in (BB/ from %hose %ha% ma0 no%$ Pro5er Names an# #efini%e 5ronouns belon! %o %he la%%er 9hile DPs 9i%h #efini%e an# in#efini%e ar%icles an# 5ossibl0 in#efini%e 5ronouns belon! %o %he former (Ue #isre!ar# here s5ecifica%ional sen%ences such as :!e student t!at solved t!e problem &as ?o!n$!im/$ Turnin! bac- %o seman%ic %05es i% a55ears %ha% nominal cons%i%uen%s live in %he follo9in! %hree %05es3 (i/ e 9here non-@uan%ifica%ional DPs are a% home bu% @uan%ifica%ional DPs are no%I (ii/ e e t f %he %05e assume# b0 DPs an# o%her nominals 9hen ac%in! as 5re#ica%ive nominals as in (+<a/ 9hich onl0 a subse% of non-@uan%ifica%ional nominals ma0 inhabi%I (iii/ e e e%t f t f %he %05e 9e fin# @uan%ifica%ional DPs in an# 9hich o%her DPs ma0 %a-e on as 9ell 9hen in con6unc%ion 9i%h @uan%ifica%ional DPs$ In Par%ee (+CB./ %he classic on %his sub6ec% %his mess0 si%ua%ion is ele!an%l0 cleane# u5$ The 5ro5osal in essence is %o in#ee# allo9 %he ca%e!or0 of DPs (or more !enerall0 nominals/ %o live in all %hree %05es men%ione# above an# %o #efine %05e shif%in! rules %ha% chan!e %he %05e of a nominal %o a more com5le; %05e (%05e lif%in!/ or %o a sim5ler %05e (%05e lo9erin!/$ The in%eres%e# rea#er is referre# %o Par%ee?s 5a5er an# %he lar!e li%era%ure i% s5a9ne# for #e%ails an# #iscussion$ In%eres%in!l0 Par%ee su!!es%s %ha% %he >unmar-e#? %05e for DPs is e an# e e e%t f t f %he %05es 9e nee# for nominals 9hen no% in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion$ The u5sho% as far as %he anal0sis of #e%erminers !oes is %ha% %he #efini%e ar%icle for ins%ance is !iven %9o rela%e# in%er5re%a%ions bo%h 5resu55osi%ional3 (a/ a func%ion (calle# iota/ %ha% %a-es a 5ro5er%0 / an# re%urns %he uni@ue en%i%0 in %he mo#el %ha% has %ha% 5ro5er%0I (b/ a func%ion (calle# TO7/ %ha% %a-es a 5ro5er%0 / an# re%urns a !eneraliAe# @uan%ifier meanin! (%he se% of 5ro5er%ies charac%eriAin! %he uni@ue in#ivi#ual in //$ The former meanin! is 9ha% 9e !e% in or#inar0 e;am5les of #efini%e DPs such as t!e student in sim5le e;am5les li-e :!e student left 9here %he #eno%a%ion of student is %he 5ro5er%0 /I %he la%%er is 9ha% 9e !e% 9hen a #efini%e DP is con6oine# 9i%h a @uan%ifica%ional one (e$!$ :!e teac!er and every student left/$ Finall0 for cases 9here a #efini%e DP func%ions as a 5re#ica%e nominal (as in 9am is the treasurer/ Par%ee 5ro5oses a func%ion %ha% %a-es %he !eneraliAe# @uan%ifier meanin! of a #efini%e #escri5%ion an# lo9ers i% bac- %o a 5re#ica%e meanin!$ &.2.$. D9na6./ a550oa/8es Par% of %he im5e%us %ha% le# %o #ifferen%ia%in! @uan%ifica%ional DPs from all %he o%hers came as men%ione# above in Sam5 (+CB+/ an# Oeim (+CB1/ 9or-s %ha% 9ere essen%ial %o %he #evelo5men% of #0namic a55roaches %o seman%ics$ The former is %he foun#in! s%one for %he frame9or- -no9n as D(iscourse/ R(e5resen%a%ion/ T(heor0/I %he la%%er is %he source of #0namic a55roaches %o seman%ics -no9n un#er %he name of C(on%e;%/ C(han!e/ S(eman%ics/$ 'o%h vie9s 5a0 5ar%icular a%%en%ion %o ho9 %he in%er5re%a%ion of a lin!uis%ic e;5ression affec%s an# is affec%e# b0 i%s con%e;%$ The #0namic na%ure of %he s0s%em resi#es in %rea%in! lin!uis%ic u%%erances as occurrin! a!ains% %he bac-!roun# of an in5u% DRS (Discourse Re5resen%a%ion S%ruc%ure/ or con%e;% an# causin! a series of chan!es %ha% lea# %o an ou%5u% DRS or con%e;%$ The s0s%em is com5osi%ional in as much as %he chan!es a 5ar%icular e;5ression brin!s abou% are #e%ermine# b0 %he imme#ia%e cons%i%uen%s of %ha% e;5ression an# %he 9a0 %he0 are com5ose#$ The en!ine %ha% #rove earl0 9or- in DRT is %he nee# %o 5rovi#e a uniform accoun% of #efini%e 5ronouns$ Gne issue a% %he roo% of Oeim (+CB1/ is %o accoun% for %he #ifferences be%9een in#efini%e an# #efini%e DPs on %he one han# an# %hose DPs 9hose #e%erminer is a universal or 5ro5or%ional @uan%ifier on %he o%her$ This is 9ha% is behin# %he #is%inc%ion in Fi!ure 2$ The o%her core issue in Oeim (+CB1/ is %he 5ro5er charac%eriAa%ion of %he #ifference be%9een or#inar0 in#efini%es (a DPs/ an# or#inar0 #efini%es (t!e DPs/ in 7n!lish (for a #iscussion of %his #is%inc%ion see cha5%er 4/$

2<

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions

'o%h DRT an# CCS assume an in%erme#ia%e level of re5resen%a%ion %ha% me#ia%es be%9een lin!uis%ic e;5ressions an# seman%ic in%er5re%a%ion calle# D(iscourse/ R(e5resen%a%ion/ S(%ruc%ure/ in DRT $ For our 5ur5oses %he %9o a55roaches can be seen as e@uivalen%$ Ue 9ill use DRT %erminolo!0 belo9$ An in!re#ien% of DRSs %ha% is crucial for our 5ur5oses is %he no%ion of discourse referent (or variable/ an en%i%0 %ha% me#ia%es be%9een a nominal use# as an ar!umen% (of %05e e or e e e% t f t f in %05e-%heore%ical %erms/ an# i%s in%er5re%a%ion$ (The no%ion of discourse referent an# 9i%h i% %he no%ion of con%e;% chan!e 9as firs% in%ro#uce# in Sar%%unen (+C<./ a classic 5a5er on %he role of (in/#efini%e DPs$/ Crucial here is %he i#ea %ha% a% %he level of DRS non-@uan%ifica%ional nominals in%ro#uce a #iscourse referen% (or free variable/ accom5anie# b0 a res%ric%ive e;5ression 9hile @uan%ifica%ional DPs besi#es #oin! %his also in%ro#uce a com5le; s%ruc%ure %ha% en#s u5 #e%erminin! %he @uan%ifica%ional force of %he DP$ The #iscourse referen%s in%ro#uce# b0 non@uan%ifica%ional DPs ac@uire e;is%en%ial force b0 #efaul% as i% 9ere via %he %ru%h con#i%ions associa%e# 9i%h %he re5resen%a%ions in 9hich %he0 a55ear$ To e;em5lif0 9i%h a sim5le case assume %he sen%ence in (BC/ is a##e# %o an em5%0 con%e;%$
(BC/ A s%u#en% came in$

The DRS resul%in! af%er %he 5rocessin! of (BC/ a!ains% an em5%0 in5u% con%e;% is of %he form in (C=/ 9here %he con%ribu%ion of %he DP is bol#-face#3
(C=/

< student(;/ came in(;/ Sim5le #iscourse re5resen%a%ions li-e %he one in (C=/ (%hose %ha% #o no% involve s%ruc%ures in%ro#uce# b0 @uan%ifica%ion for ins%ance/ are ma#e u5 of a se% of #iscourse referen%s (in %his case g;h/ an# a se% of con#i%ions 5lace# on %hem (in %his case g student(;/ come in(;/h/$ S5ecific >cons%ruc%ion rules? s5ecif0 %he 9a0 DRSs are cons%ruc%e# base# on 5ar%icular lin!uis%ic e;5ressions$ In%er5re%a%ion rules connec% DRSs %o %heir %ru%h con#i%ions rela%ive %o a mo#el$ '0 !eneral rules a DRS A is %rue in a mo#el : 6us% in case one fin#s a func%ion from %he se% of #iscourse referen%s in A %o %he en%i%ies in D such %ha% %his func%ion mee%s all %he con#i%ions im5ose# b0 A0 A func%ion f %ha% mee%s %he con#i%ions im5ose# b0 a DRS A rela%ive %o a mo#el : is an embeddin function for A in :0 A DRS A is %rue in : iff %here is an embe##in! func%ion for A in :$ The con%en%s of %he DRS are in essence cons%rain%s on %he embe##in! func%ion$ For %he DRS in (C=/ %his amoun%s %o re@uirin! %here %o be an en%i%0 d in D %ha% is a s%u#en% an# %ha% came in$ 7;is%en%ial force is %rea%e# here as a #efaul% conferre# on #iscourse referen%s b0 !eneral %ru%h con#i%ions$ A @uan%ifica%ional #e%erminer such as fiecare$every is res5onsible for %he in%ro#uc%ion of a com5le; s%ruc%ure ma#e of %9o DRSs lin-e# b0 an o5era%or$ The firs% DRS is %he Res%ric%or %he secon# %he Nuclear Sco5e an# %he connec%in! o5era%or is #e%ermine# b0 %he na%ure of %he #e%erminer$ The DRS resul%in! af%er in%er5re%in! (C+/ rela%ive %o an em5%0 in5u% DRS is !iven in (C1/3

2B

In%ro#uc%ion$ Nominal Fea%ures an# Nominal Pro6ec%ions (C+/ 7ver0 s%u#en% came in$

(C1/

; ; student(;/ A. A. A The DRS A. is %he Res%ric%orI %he DRS A. is %he NS$ The com5le; con#i%ions associa%e# 9i%h such com5le; DRSs sa0 %ha% a func%ion f is an embe##in! func%ion for A in : 6us% in case ever0 f. %ha% e;%en#s f an# is an embe##in! func%ion for A. can be e;%en#e# %o a func%ion f. %ha% is an embe##in! func%ion for A. (embe##in! func%ions are 5ar%ial func%ions from #iscourse referen%s %o DI a func%ion f. e;%en#s a func%ion f iff f. an# f a!ree on values for %he #iscourse referen%s for 9hich f is #efine#$/$ Crucial for #0namic issues concernin! in%er- an# in%ra-sen%en%ial 5ronominal reference %he Res%ric%or is 5rocesse# 5rior %o %he NS an# %herefore informa%ion 5rovi#e# in %he Res%ric%or is accessible %o %he NS bu% no% %he o%her 9a0 aroun#$ Fur%hermore no%e %ha% %he @uan%ifica%ional DP has no% con%ribu%e# a #iscourse referen% in %he main DRS A (unli-e 9ha% ha55ens in %he case of non-@uan%ifica%ional nominals/$ This 5ro5er%0 is res5onsible for %he fac% %ha% such DPs canno% normall0 ac% as an%ece#en%s for #iscourse 5ronouns$ Non-@uan%ifica%ional nominals sim5l0 in%ro#uce a #iscourse referen% an# a con#i%ion on %ha% referen% bu% #o no% crea%e e;%ra s%ruc%ure$ A s5ecial con#i%ion ma0 re@uire %he in%ro#uce# #iscourse referen% %o be i#en%ical %o some #iscourse referen% 5resen% in %he in5u% DRS in 9hich case no ac%ual increase in #iscourse referen%s is involve#$ The effec% of in%ro#ucin! a #iscourse referen% (9he%her novel or no%/ is %he e@uivalen% of bein! an e-%05e nominal$ 8uan%ifica%ional DPs (%hose of %05e e e e%t f t f / have %he com5le; effec% 6us% s-e%che#$ The effec% of nominals ac%in! as 5re#ica%ive nominals is %o sim5l0 in%ro#uce a 5re#ica%ive con#i%ion as e;em5lifie# in (C2/ an# i%s DRS in (C4/3
(C2/ (C4/ Nohn is a #oc%or$

came in(;/

; ; [ ?o!n doctor(;/ These nominals %hen (of %05e e e t f/ #o no% in%ro#uce a #iscourse referen% in#e5en#en%l0 of %heir s0n%a;I %heir con%ribu%ion is %he same as %ha% of a 5re#ica%e such as leave0 The crucial @ues%ion %ha% arises if 9e are in%eres%e# in %he seman%ics of #e%erminers 9i%hin %his frame9or- is ho9 %o fur%her #is%in!uish be%9een %05es of non-@uan%ifica%ional nominals of various sor%s$ The #is%inc%ions can be ma#e a% %he level of %he 5ro5er%ies of %he #iscourse referen% in%ro#uce# (such as 9he%her i% refers %o an or#inar0 en%i%0 or a -in#-level en%i%0/ as 9ell as a% %he level of %he con#i%ions %he nominal brin!s alon!$ Fur%hermore #is%inc%ions ma0 involve %he 5ro5er%ies of %he #iscourse s%ruc%ure %ha% serves as in5u% %o %he relevan% e;5ression or %he 5ro5er%ies of %he ou%5u% s%ruc%ure$ These #is%inc%ions 9ill be #evelo5e# in %he cha5%er #e#ica%e# %o %he seman%ics of #e%erminers (cha5%er 4/$

2C

'are Nouns

2. Ba0e No1ns
CAR:7N DG'RGVI7-SGRIN

1. Int0o31/t.on
+$+ The Dis%ribu%ion of 'are Nouns +$1 The s0n%ac%ic s%ruc%ure of 'are Nouns +$2 The Seman%ics of 'are Nouns3 Lac- of Ar%icle an# Domain of Reference

2. Ba0e Pl10als an3 Ba0e Mass No1ns .n A0416ent Pos.t.ons 1$+ :or5holo!ical Case is incom5a%ible 9i%h 'are Nouns
1$1 The 5reverbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion

3. Se6ant./ Const0a.nts on Ba0e No1ns .n A0416ent Pos.t.ons


2$+ 'are Nouns an# T05es of Pre#ica%es 2$1 VP-level 7;is%en%ial Closure 2$2 7;is%en%ial vs$ Presu55osi%ional Pre#ica%es 2$4 Sco5e 2$, Ana5horic 5eculiari%ies 2$. As5ec%ual 5eculiari%ies

$. Co1nt Ba0e S.n41la0s .n A0416ent Pos.t.ons


4$+ Classes of verbs 4$1 Fur%her le;ical cons%rain%s 4$2 'are Sin!ulars in sub6ec% 5osi%ions 4$4 'are Sin!ulars af%er 5re5osi%ions 4$, The Seman%ic Anal0sis of 'are Sin!ulars

%. Ba0e No1ns .n a3no6.nal 5os.t.ons &. Ba0e Abst0a/t No1ns .n A0416ent Pos.t.ons (. Ba0e No1ns .n P0e3./ate Pos.t.ons. A /o65a0.son D.t8 S.n41la0 In3ef.n.tes
<$+$ Classes of nouns <$1 The in%ernal ma-e-u5 of 'are Sin!ulars an# Sin!ular In#efini%es <$2 T9o %05es of co5ular sen%ences <$4 'are nouns in im5ersonal cons%ruc%ions

4=

'are Nouns

1. Int0o31/t.on
Romanian is a lan!ua!e %ha% has #efini%e an# in#efini%e ar%icles bu% never%heless allo9s NPs 9i%hou% ar%icles or o%her #e%erminers (hencefor%h >bare NPs? abbrevia%e# 'Ns/ %o occur in ar!umen% 5osi%ions mos% 5rominen%l0 ob6ec% 5osi%ions$ Ui%h %he !rea% ma6ori%0 of verbs %he lac- of #e%erminer is allo9e# for coun% 5lurals an# mass nouns$ 'are coun% sin!ulars on %he o%her han# can be use# 9i%hou% %he sin!ular in#efini%e ar%icle onl0 in cer%ain res%ric%e# con%e;%s$ Af%er e;aminin! %he cons%rain%s on %he #is%ribu%ion an# in%er5re%a%ion of 'Ns in ar!umen% 5osi%ions 9e 9ill %urn %o 'Ns in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions$ Ue 9ill no% be concerne# here 9i%h 5ro5er names (see Cha5%er +1/ nor 9i%h %he 5henomenon of ar%icle-#ro5 af%er 5re5osi%ions (see Cha5%er B/$ 1.1. T8e D.st0.b1t.on of BNs 'are 5lurals ('Ps/ an# bare mass nouns (':Ns/ can freel0 a55ear as #irec% ob6ec%s of mos% verbs as 9ell as in %he 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion$ No%e %ha% %hese nominal e;5ressions are bare insofar as %he0 lac- #e%erminers bu% %he0 #o allo9 mo#if0in! a#6ec%ives PPs or rela%ives3
(+/ a$ Am #esena% co5aci$ have$+ #ra9n %rees >I/Ue have #ra9n %rees$? b$ Ion mLnWncL numai brWnAL$ Ion ea%s onl0 cheese >Ion ea%s onl0 cheese$? a$ Aici se s5alL rufe #elica%e$ Oere R7FL 9ash$2 clo%hes #elica%e >Delica%e clo%hes !e% 9ashe# here$? b$ Se vor 5une En funcRiune mi6loace #e asi!urare a liniM%ii 5ublice$ R7FL 9ill$2PL 5u% in func%ion means of ensurin! G7N %ran@uili%0-%he$G7N 5ublic >There 9ill be im5lemen%e# means %o 5reserve 5ublic %ran@uili%0 ? c$ Li5seM%e/a mai rLmas cafea$ misses has s%ill lef% coffee >There is coffee missin!/There is coffee lef%? #$ Ieri s-a bLu% vin roMu$ 0es%er#a0 R7FL-has #run- 9ine re# >Re# 9ine 9as #run- 0es%er#a0$? e$ Pe s%ra#L cur!ea noroi$ on s%ree% flo9$I:PF$2SG mu# >There 9as mu# flo9in! on %he s%ree%$? f$ Dins5re mun%e venea !rin#inL$ from moun%ain come$ I:PF$2SG hail >There 9as hail comin! from %he moun%ain$? !$ Pe masL era Em5rLM%ia%L fLinL$ on %able 9as$2SG s5rea# flour$ >There 9as flour s5rea# on %he %able$? h$ `n fiecare Ai mL cau%L 5rie%eni$ in ever0 #a0 me$ACC loo--for$2 frien#s >There are frien#s loo-in! for me ever0 #a0$?

(1/

The #is%ribu%ion of 'Ns is never%heless more res%ric%e# %han %ha% of full DPs (nominals 9i%h an over% #e%erminer/$ Thus 'Ns canno% a55ear in %he 5reverbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion (see sec%ion 1$1 for a refinemen% of %his !eneraliAa%ions/ nor as %he ob6ec% of e;5eriencer-sub6ec% 5s0ch-verbs

4+

'are Nouns

such as love !ate detest respect e%c$


(2/ a$ X Prie%eni mL cau%L En fiecare Ai$ frien#s me$ ACC loo--for in ever0 #a0 b$ - Co5ii au a6uns$ chil#ren have arrive# X Ion res5ec%L 5rofesori$ Ion res5ec%s 5rofessors

(4/

The #is%ribu%ion of coun% bare sin!ulars ('Ss hencefor%h/ is much more res%ric%e# %han %ha% of 'Ps an# ':Ns$ Thus 'Ss are !enerall0 rule# ou% in %he con%e;%s illus%ra%e# above3
(,/ a$ -Am #esena% co5ac0 have$+ #ra9n %ree b$ X Li5seM%e car%e$ misses boo-

The e;am5le in (,/ becomes !ramma%ical 9i%h %he a##i%ion of a sin!ular in#efini%e #e%erminer$
(./ a$ Am #esena% un co5ac$ have$+ #ra9n a %ree >I/Ue have #ra9n a %ree$? b$ Li5seM%e o car%e$ misses a boo>There is a boo- missin!?

Never%heless bare sin!ulars can a55ear @ui%e 5ro#uc%ivel0 in %he ob6ec% 5osi%ion of a re#uce# number of verbs e$!$ !ave an# ac@uisi%ion verbs in%ensional verbs such as loo# for some verbs such as &ear or use% li!h% verbs an# also in i#ioma%ic e;5ressions3
(</ a$ Ion are casL$ (maMinL/ co5il mic/car%e #e cre#i%/5aMa5or%/ Ion has house car chil# car# of cre#i% 5ass5or% >Ion has a house/car/chil#/cre#i% car#/5ass5or%? b$ Casa as%a are lif%$ house-%he %his has eleva%or >This house has an eleva%or$? c$ Ne-au 5us En sfWrMi% lif%$ us$DAT-have$2PL 5u% finall0 eleva%or >A% las% %he0 5u% in an eleva%or$? #$ Ion Mi-a cum5Lra% casL$ Ion R7FL$DAT-has bou!h% house >Ion bou!h% a house (for himself/?

The #a%a 6us% revie9e# 5oin%s %o %he necessi%0 of a %hree-9a0 #is%inc%ion3 (i/ DPs 9i%h over% #e%erminersI (ii/ bare 5lurals an# bare mass nouns (also abs%rac% nouns see * 1$4/ (iii/ coun% bare sin!ulars$ The anal0sis of 'Ns shoul# also %a-e in%o accoun% 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions 9here 'Ss al%erna%e in a remar-able 9a0 9i%h sin!ular in#efini%es3
(B/ Ion e (un/ 5rofesor$ Ion is a 5rofessor >Ion is (a/ 5rofessor?

41

'are Nouns

1.2. T8e s9nta/t./ st01/t10e of BNs The %hree-9a0 #is%inc%ion in %he #is%ribu%ion of nominal cons%i%uen%s observe# above can be correla%e# 9i%h a %hree-9a0 #is%inc%ion in s0n%ac%ic s%ruc%ure3
(C/ a$ NP copil chil# b$ NumP NumT
PL

NP copii chil#$PL

c$ De% un a

DP NumP NumT NP copil chil#$SG

SG

The %9o %05es of bare nominals are similar in %ha% %he0 bo%h lac- %he func%ional ca%e!or0 De% bu% none%heless belon! %o #ifferen% s0n%ac%ic ca%e!ories3 bare 5lurals are NumPs 5ro6ec%ions of %he func%ional ca%e!or0 of Number 9hereas bare (coun%/ sin!ulars are 5urel0 le;ical 5ro6ec%ions of %he noun NPsI bo%h %05es of 'Ns #iffer from full-fle#!e# DPs 9hich are hea#e# b0 a De%(erminer/$ Problems arise ho9ever as soon as 9e %a-e in%o accoun% %he #is%ribu%ion of 'Ns in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions (see sec%ion 2 belo9/$ I% 9ill %urn ou% %ha% 9e canno% %rea% 'Ns in ar!umen% 5osi%ions on a 5ar 9i%h 'Ns in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions an# one 9a0 of #is%in!uishin! be%9een %he %9o is %o assume %ha% 'Ns in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions are bare NPs 9hereas 'Ns in ar!umen% 5osi%ions are full DPs hea#e# b0 a null De%$ This h05o%hesis is 9elcome insofar as i% is in line 9i%h a 9i#el0 assume# homomor5hism be%9een #is%ribu%ion s0n%a; an# seman%ics3 ar!umen% 5osi%ions are occu5ie# b0 full DPs 9hich are en%i%0-#eno%in! cons%i%uen%sI 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions are occu5ie# b0 bare NPs 9hich #eno%e 5ro5er%ies$
The h05o%hesis %ha% 'Ns in ar!umen% 5osi%ions are full DPs ra%her %han mere NPs is su55or%e# b0 a lan!ua!e such as French 9hich allo9s 'Ns in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions bu% no% in ar!umen% 5osi%ions 9here de-5hrases are use# ins%ea#3 (i/ (ii/ a$ Nean es% 5rofesseur$ b$ Nean e% :arie son% 5rofesseurs$ a$ Nean a une voi%ure/Xvoi%ure$ b$ Nean lisai% #es romans/Xromans$

42

'are Nouns
The French #a%a can be ca5%ure# b0 assumin! %ha% (i/ ar!umen% 5osi%ions mus% hos% full DPs (universal cons%rain%/ an# (ii/ French #oes no% have null De%?s bu% mus% ins%ea# use des$ No eas0 accoun% can be 5ro5ose# if 9e assume %he al%erna%ive vie9 accor#in! %o 9hich bare NPs are allo9e# in ar!umen% 5osi%ions3 since French allo9s bare NPs in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions 9e canno% un#ers%an# 9h0 %he0 shoul# no% be allo9e# in ar!umen% 5osi%ions$

1.3. T8e Se6ant./s of BNs? La/> of A0t./le an3 Do6a.n of Refe0en/e Coun% sin!ular nouns #iffer from 5lurals an# mass nouns in %erms of %heir #omain of reference3 coun% sin!ular nouns refer %o a%omic en%i%ies 9hereas 5lurals as 9ell as mass nouns refer %o sums (i$e$ en%i%ies %ha% consis% of o%her en%i%ies/$ Sum-reference is correla%e# 9i%h %he so-calle# >cumula%ive? 5ro5er%03 if a cer%ain amoun% of ma%%er A is coffee an# a cer%ain amoun% of ma%%er ' is coffee %hen A an# ' is coffeeI in %he same 9a0 if a !rou5 of animals A are ca%s an# a !rou5 of animals ' are ca%s %hen A an# ' are ca%s$ In shor% a sum en%er%ains a 5ar%-9hole rela%ion 9i%h o%her sums 9hereas an a%omic en%i%0 is #is6oin% from all %he o%her a%omic en%i%ies$ The use of an in#efini%e ar%icle vs$ %he use of a bare noun %hus a55ears %o be correla%e# %o a #ifference in #eno%a%ion3 coun% sin!ular nouns 9hich refer %o a%omic en%i%ies (necessaril0 #is6oin% from each o%her/ are !enerall0 use# 9i%h an in#efini%e ar%icle 9hereas 5lurals as 9ell as mass nouns 9hich refer %o sums (overla55in! en%i%ies/ ma0 be use# >bare?$ Le% us no9 recall %ha% coun% sin!ulars can be use# bare in cer%ain res%ric%e# con%e;%s$ Gne mi!h% be %em5%e# %o assume %ha% in such con%e;%s bare sin!ulars #eno%e sums on a 5ar 9i%h bare 5lurals an# bare mass nouns$ This h05o%hesis can be a#o5%e# onl0 if 9e allo9 %he no%ion of >sum? %o be #efine# in %he a%omic #omain$ A less cos%l0 al%erna%ive is %o assume %ha% bare coun% sin!ulars are no% referen%ial e;5ressions in o%her 9or#s %he0 #o no% in%ro#uce a variable in%o %he seman%ic re5resen%a%ion bu% ins%ea# %he0 are 5ro5er%0-#eno%in! e;5ressions$

2. Ba0e Pl10als an3 Ba0e Mass No1ns .n A0416ent Pos.t.ons


As announce# in sec%ion +$+ above %he #is%ribu%ion of bare nouns is more res%ric%e# %han %ha% of DPs 9i%h over% #e%erminers$ In %his sec%ion 9e 9ill illus%ra%e %his !eneraliAa%ion in more #e%ail for 5lurals an# mass nouns$ The #is%ribu%ion of abs%rac% nouns an# coun% sin!ulars 9ill be e;amine# se5ara%el0 since %he0 raise s5ecific 5roblems$ Coun% bare sin!ulars have a #is%ribu%ion %ha% is much more cons%raine# %han %ha% of %he o%her 'Ns$ Abs%rac% nouns can a55ear in cer%ain im5ersonal cons%ruc%ions 9hich are inaccessible %o o%her (bare or non bare/ nominals$ Ui%h mos% 5re#ica%es bare 5lurals an# bare mass nouns can a55ear in %he #irec% ob6ec% 5osi%ion as 9ell as in %he 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion (see e;am5les (+/-(1/ in %he In%ro#uc%ion above/$ Some 5re#ica%es bloc- %his 5ossibili%0 an issue %ha% 9ill be e;amine# in %he sec%ion #evo%e# %o %he seman%ics of 'Ns$ In %his sec%ion 9e 9ill concen%ra%e on %he mor5ho-s0n%ac%ic cons%rain%s on %he #is%ribu%ion of 'Ns$ 2.1. Mo058olo4./al Case .s .n/o65at.ble D.t8 BNs In Romanian mor5holo!ical Case mar-in! (9hich e;is%s for %he Da%ive-Geni%ive an# %he Voca%ive/ #e5en#s on %he 5resence of an over% #e%erminer (see Cha5%er + *+$4/$ Therefore bare 5lurals canno% be mar-e# 9i%h mor5holo!ical Da%ive-Geni%ive Case$ Pre5osi%ional mar-ers are use# ins%ea# namel0 de for Geni%ives an# la for Da%ives (see Cha5%er + *+$4 an# Cha5%er . *2/$ The follo9in! e;am5les illus%ra%e %he al%erna%ion be%9een inflec%ional an# 5re5osi%ional de-mar-in! for Geni%ives in %he ob6ec% 5osi%ion of #everbal nouns3 44

'are Nouns

(+=/

a$ acor#area 5remiilor / unor 5remii / #e 5remii a9ar#$INF-%he 5riAes-%he$G7N some$G7N 5riAes of 5riAes >%he a9ar#in! of 5riAes/of some 5riAes/of 5riAes? b$ cons%rucRia blocurilor / unor blocuri/ #e blocuri buil#in!-%he bloc-s-%he$G7N some$G7N bloc-s of bloc-s >%he buil#in! of bloc-s/of some bloc-s/of bloc-s? c$ cunoaM%erea limbilor s%rLine / unor limbi s%rLine /#e limbi s%rLine -no9$INF-%he lan!ua!es-%he$G7N forei!n some$G7N lan!ua!es forei!n of lan!ua!es forei!n >%he -no9le#!e of forei!n lan!ua!es/of some forei!n lan!ua!es/of forei!n lan!ua!es? #$ vWnAarea maMinilor /unor maMini / #e maMini sell$INF-%he cars-%he$G7N some$G7N cars of cars >%he sale of cars/of some cars/of cars?

A#nominal 'Ns 5rece#e# b0 de ma0 also func%ion as a#6unc%s (noun mo#ifiers/$ Ue 9ill #iscuss %his use in %he sec%ion #e#ica%e# %o 'Ss (see 1$2$, belo9/ because 'Ss %oo are allo9e# in %his 5osi%ion$ The follo9in! e;am5les illus%ra%e %he al%erna%ion be%9een inflec%ional mar-in! an# lamar-in! 9i%h #a%ives$ Dnli-e de %he mar-er la is no% res%ric%e# %o 'Ns bu% also a55ears 9i%h uninflec%e# #e%erminers (nite% car#inals an# o%her @uan%i%0 e;5ressions see cha5%er 2 *,$2/3
(++/ a$ Am #a% bomboane co5iilor / unor co5ii / la co5ii / la Aece have$+ !iven can#ies chil#ren-%he$DAT some$DAT chil#ren %o chil#ren %o %en co5ii / la niM%e co5ii chil#ren %o some chil#ren >I !ave can#ies %o %he chil#ren/%o some chil#ren/%o chil#ren/%o %en chil#ren/%o some chil#ren? b$ Din %onul vocii se ve#ea cL se a#reseaAL la subor#onaRi nu from %one-%he voice-%he$G7N R7FL sa9$I:PF$2SG %ha% R7FL a##resses %o subor#ina%es no% la 5rie%eni$ %o frien#s >Gne coul# see from %he %one of his voice %ha% he 9as %al-in! %o subor#ina%es no% %o frien#s? c$ Dn acci#en% se 5oa%e En%Wm5la Mi la 5ersoane a%en%e$ an acci#en% R7FL can ha55en also %o 5ersons careful >An acci#en% can occur %o careful 5eo5le as 9ell? #$ DL#ea lecRii #e ma%ema%icL la a#ulRi$ !ave$I:PF$2SG lessons of ma%hema%ics %o a#ul%s >(S/he !ave ma%h lessons %o a#ul%s? e$ `n %im5ul vacanRei a scris la s%u#enRi avansaRi$ in %ime-%he holi#a0-%he$G7N has 9ri%%en %o s%u#en%s a#vance# >Durin! %he holi#a0 (s/he 9ro%e %o a#vance# s%u#en%s? f$ DL#ea lecRii #e ma%ema%icL la a#ulRi analfabeRi$ !ave$I:PF$2SG lessons of ma%hema%ics %o a#ul%s illi%era%e >(S/he !ave ma%h lessons %o illi%era%e a#ul%s?

The 5re5osi%ionall0 mar-e# 'Ns illus%ra%e# in %hese e;am5les have %he non-s5ecific in%er5re%a%ion %ha% charac%eriAes 'Ns in ob6ec% or 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ions (9here %he0 have no Case inflec%ion/$ Uhen reference %o a s5ecific en%i%0 is in%en#e# an in#efini%e #e%erminer is use# 9hich can be mar-e# ei%her 9i%h mor5holo!ical Case or 9i%h a 5re5osi%ion$ 2.2. T8e 50e2e0bal s1b7e/t 5os.t.on 'are 5lurals an# bare mass nouns are sub6ec% %o %he 3a#ed 3oun ,onstraint )9hich also hol#s

4,

'are Nouns

in S5anish an# I%alian/$ I% shoul# be s%resse# %ha% >na-e#? means no% onl0 #evoi# of #e%erminer bu% also #evoi# of an0 -in# of mo#ifier3
(+1/ An unmo#ifie# common noun in %he 5reverbal 5osi%ion canno% be %he surface sub6ec% of a sen%ence un#er con#i%ions of normal s%ress an# in%ona%ion$

This cons%rain% is illus%ra%e# b0 %he e;am5les in (+2/a-c$ The e;am5les in (+4/ sho9 %ha% na-e# nouns are allo9e# in %he 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion3
(+2/ a$ Xvaci 5LM%eau 5e 5a6iM%e$ co9s !raAe#$I:PF on mea#o9 b$ XMoareci au ieMi% #in #ula5 mice have !o%-ou% from close% c$ XsmWn%WnL cLAuse 5e 6os cream fall$PLPF$2SG on #o9n #$ X:unci%ori cLlL%oresc En %renul Ls%a 9or-ers %ravel in %rain-%he %his a$ Pe 5a6iM%e 5LM%eau vaci on mea#o9 !raAe#$I:PF$2PL co9s >There 9ere co9s !raAin! on %he mea#o9? b$ Au ieMi% Moareci #in #ula5$ have$2PL !o%-ou% mice from close% >There have been mice comin! ou% from %he close%? c$ CLAuse smWn%WnL 5e 6os fall$PLPF$2SG cream on #o9n >Cream ha# fallen on %he !roun#? #$ `n %renul Ls%a cLlL%oresc munci%ori in %rain-%he %his %ravel$2PL 9or-ers >Uor-ers %ravel 9i%h %his %rain?

(+4/

No%e no9 %ha% 5reverbal bare sub6ec%s are acce5%able if %he0 are mo#ifie# b0 an a#6ec%ive or a PP (see (+,// or con6oine# (see (+.// even 9i%h a neu%ral in%ona%ion3
(+,/ a$ Valuri uriaMe loveau s%Wncile $ 9aves hu!e hi%$I:PF roc-s-%he >There 9ere hu!e 9aves hi%%in! %he roc-s? b$ S%ea!uri mul%icolore flu%urau En vWn%$ fla!s mul%icolore# 9ave#$I:PF in 9in# >There 9ere mul%icolore# fla!s 9avin! in %he 9in#? c$ Lumini elec%rice in%ermi%en%e anunRau a%eriALrile$ li!h%s elec%ric in%ermi%%en% announce#$ I:PF lan#in!s-%he >In%ermi%%en% elec%ric li!h%s announce# %he lan#in!s? #$ A5L mur#arL se 5relin!ea #e sub #ula5$ 9a%er #ir%0 R7FL ooA-ou%$I:PF from un#er close% >There 9as #ir%0 9a%er ooAin! ou% from un#ernea%h %he close%? (+./ a$ Nu era o #emons%raRie obiMnui%L$ :ineri Mi RLrani femei Moferi Mi vWnAL%ori no% 9as a #emons%ra%ion usual miners an# farmers 9omen #rivers an# sellers %oRi ieMiserL En s%ra#L$ all !e%-ou%$PLPF$2PL in s%ree% >I% 9as no% a usual #emons%ra%ion$ :iners an# farmers 9omen #rivers an# sellers all ha# come ou% on %he s%ree%? b$ CLrRi caie%e #osare Mi fo%oco5ii um5leau %o% biroul boo-s no%eboo-s files an# 5ho%oco5ies fill-ou%$ I:PF 9hole #es--%he >'oo-s no%eboo-s files an# 5ho%oco5ies fille# ou% %he en%ire #es-?

4.

'are Nouns

The acce5%abili%0 of mo#ifie# an# con6oine# 'Ns mi!h% be #ue %o 5roso#ic reasons3 mo#ifie# or con6oine# nouns coun% as >heav0? an# as such %he0 ma0 be allo9e# %o occu50 s5ecial 5osi%ions$ Le% us also consi#er %he e;am5les in (+</ an# (+B/ 9hich in#ica%e %ha% na-e# sub6ec%s can occur in %he 5reverbal 5osi%ion 5rovi#e# %ha% %he0 are focuse# or %o5icaliAe#3
(+</ iGAR7CI au ieMi% #in #ula5 (Mi nu 5Lian6eni/ $ :ice have !o%-ou% from close% an# no% s5i#ers >I% is mice %ha% 9ere comin! ou% of %he close% (no% s5i#ers/? (+B/ a$ Camere S7 GaS7SC rooms R7FL fin#$2PL >Gne can fin# rooms? b$ La5%e S7 GaS7iT7 mil- R7FL fin#s >Gne can fin# mil-?

No%e ho9ever %ha% %he 5reverbal 5osi%ions in e;am5les of %his %05e are no% sub6ec% 5osi%ions (in %echnical %erms %he 5osi%ion of 5reverbal sub6ec%s is S5ec IP/ bu% ra%her Focus or To5ic 5osi%ions 9hich can hos% DPs o%her %han sub6ec%s e$!$ #irec% or in#irec% ob6ec%s PPs e%c$ In o%her 9or#s %hese e;am5les are irrelevan% for %he Na-e# Sub6ec% Cons%rain%$ In or#er %o be%%er un#ers%an# %his cons%rain% 9e mus% un#ers%an# 9h0 i% #oes no% hol# in o%her lan!ua!es 7n!lish in 5ar%icular$ An im5or%an% #ifference be%9een %he %9o lan!ua!es is %ha% sub6ec%s can occur bo%h 5os%verball0 an# 5reverball0 in Romanian 9hereas in 7n!lish %he0 mus% occur 5reverball0 (9i%h %he e;ce5%ion of t!ere-sen%ences an# loca%ive inversion/$ In more %echnical %erms 9e ma0 sa0 %ha% Nomina%ive Case is assi!ne# in %he 5reverbal 5osi%ion (more 5recisel0 in S5ec IP/ in 7n!lish bu% in %he 5os%verbal 5osi%ion (insi#e %he VP e$!$ in S5ec VP/ in Romanian$ Since %he0 are assi!ne# Nomina%ive Case in a VP-in%ernal 5osi%ion Romanian bare sub6ec%s nee# no% raise %o %he 5reverbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion$ 'u% 9e s%ill #o no% -no9 9h0 bare sub6ec%s cannot raise %o %he 5reverbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion in clear con%ras% 9i%h DPs hea#e# b0 over% De%?s 9hich can #o so$ Ue 9oul# li-e %o su!!es% %ha% %he follo9in! cons%rain% bearin! on informa%ion s%ruc%ure mi!h% be a% 9or-3
(+C/ Uea- in#efini%e 'Ns canno% func%ion as Themes$

The im5ossibili%0 of bein! Themes charac%eriAes 9ea- in#efini%e 'Ns as o55ose# %o !eneric 'Ns (see 7n!lish 'Ps in 5ar%icular/$ Since Romanian #oes no% have !eneric 'Ns 9e mean >9ea- in#efini%e? 'Ns 9henever 9e %al- abou% 'Ns$ The no%ion of Theme use# in (+C/ is #is%inc% from %he no%ion of To5ic3 (i/ %he Theme is in%ernal %o %he minimal sen%en%ial #omain (%he IP/ 9hereas %he To5ic is hi!her %han %he IPI (ii/ To5ics nee# no% corres5on# %o one of %he ar!umen%s of %he sen%ence bu% ma0 ins%ea# be merel0 rela%e# %o one ar!umen% via an ana5horic rela%ion e$!$ John% > met his mot!er yesterdayI (iii/ To5ics ma0 refer %o 5ro5er%ies (see %he e;am5les in (+B// 9hereas Themes mus% refer %o en%i%ies$ The reason for %he im5ossibili%0 s%a%e# in (+C/ follo9s from %he con%ra#ic%ion be%9een %he follo9in! %9o 5ro5osi%ions each of 9hich is @ui%e uncon%roversial3
(1=/ (1+/ Themes are e;is%en%iall0 5resu55ose#$ Uea- in#efini%e 'Ns #o no% 5resu55ose %he e;is%ence of %heir referen%$

(1=/ is inheren% %o %he ver0 no%ion of Theme if 9e a#mi% %ha% %he Theme-Rheme

4<

'are Nouns

confi!ura%ion 5resu55oses %he e;is%ence of %he in#ivi#ual #eno%e# b0 %he Theme %o 9hom %he 5re#ica%e #esi!na%e# b0 %he Rheme is a%%ribu%e#$ (1+/ is also uncon%roversial an# is curren%l0 im5lemen%e# b0 assumin! %ha% 'Ns mus% be boun# b0 e;is%en%ial closure (see sec%ion 2$1 belo9/$ Goin! bac- %o 5reverbal sub6ec%s 'Ns are rule# ou% from %ha% 5osi%ion because in Romanian an unmar-e# 5reverbal sub6ec% is a Theme$ This is no% %he case in lan!ua!es such as 7n!lish or French 9here %he 5reverbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion mus% be reache# in or#er for Nomina%ive Case %o be assi!ne#$
Ano%her accoun% for %he cons%rain% on 5reverbal sub6ec% bare nouns 9hich has been 5ro5ose# is %ha% bare nouns have an em5%0 D 9hich canno% be license# in %he 5reverbal 5osi%ion because i% re@uires 5ro5er !overnmen%$ Pos%verbal sub6ec%s on a 5ar 9i%h ob6ec%s 9oul# have %heir null D license# in %he 5os%verbal 5osi%ion un#er c-comman# b0 %he verb$ This accoun% is 5roblema%ic for %he follo9in! reasons3 (i/ if %he cons%rain% 9ere s0n%ac%ic 9e 9oul# no% e;5ec% i% %o be 9ea-ene# or %o #isa55ear if %he sub6ec% is heav0I (ii/ %he connec%ion 9i%h %he free#om of sub6ec% 5lacemen% in Romance lan!ua!es an# %he rela%ion be%9een sub6ec% 5lacemen% an# informa%ion s%ruc%ure 9hich un#erlies (,B/-(,C/ is los% in %his accoun%$ Ue shoul# ho9ever no%e %ha% %he accoun% base# on %he no%ion of Theme is no% sufficien% ei%her %o e;5lain %he #isa55earance of %he cons%rain% 9i%h heav0 sub6ec%s$

In sum %he 5reverbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion can be reache# onl0 as a resul% of a 5ar%icular re@uiremen% e$!$ Case mar-in! (in lan!ua!es such as 7n!lish or French 9here Nomina%ive Case is canonicall0 assi!ne# in %he 5reverbal 5osi%ion/ Theme-mar-in! (in Romance lan!ua!es 9here Nomina%ive case can be assi!ne# 5os%verball0/ or 5roso#ic re@uiremen%s rela%e# %o %he >9ei!h%? of %he sub6ec% (9he%her i% is a sim5le elemen% or a mo#ifie# or con6oine# e;5ression/$ 'esi#es %he cons%rain% in (+1/ %here are some o%her cons%rain%s on sub6ec% bare nouns 9hich are no% 0e% full0 un#ers%oo# nor %horou!hl0 #escribe#$ Thus sub6ec% bare nouns seem %o be e;clu#e# 9i%h %ransi%ive verbs even in %he 5os%verbal 5osi%ions3
(11/ a$ X:i-au a#us cole!i niM%e ca#ouri me$DAT-have$2PL brou!h% collea!ues some 5resen%s b$ KKFlorile mi le-au a#us cole!i flo9ers-%he me$DAT CL$ACC-have$2PL brou!h% collea!ues c$ KK:-au invi%a% 5rie%eni la cinL me$ACC-have$2PL invi%e# frien#s %o #inner #$ X:-au invi%a% s%u#enRi la cinL me$ACC-have$2PL invi%e# s%u#en%s %o #inner

A mo#ifie# bare noun some%imes allevia%es %his cons%rain% (see (12//$ The same effec% a55ears in %he 5reverbal 5osi%ion as 9e have seen in (+,/a an# c above re5ea%e# belo93
(12/ ClL#irile as%ea le-au cons%rui% oameni care aveau simRul frumosului buil#in!s-%he %hese CL$ACC-have buil% 5eo5le 9ho ha# sense-%he beau%iful-%he$ G7N >The buil#in!s 9ere ma#e b0 5eo5le 9ho ha# %he sense of beau%0? (+,/ a$ Valuri uriaMe loveau s%Wncile $ 9aves hu!e hi%$I:PF roc-s-%he >There 9ere hu!e 9aves hi%%in! %he roc-s? c$ Lumini elec%rice in%ermi%en%e anunRau a%eriALrile$ li!h%s elec%ric in%ermi%%en% announce#$ I:PF lan#in!s-%he >In%ermi%%en% elec%ric li!h%s announce# %he lan#in!s?

Pos%verbal sub6ec%s are fine even in %ransi%ive sen%ences 9hen %he0 are un#er con%ras%ive focus usuall0 in sen%ence-final 5osi%ion$ In %his case %he0 #o no% seem %o be use# in or#er %o

4B

'are Nouns

in%ro#uce an en%i%0 bu% ra%her %o insis% on %he class of an en%i%0 involve# in an even%$
(14/ a$ De cW%va %im5 Emi scriu scrisori numai 5rie%eni of some %ime me$DAT 9ri%e le%%ers onl0 frien#s >La%el0 onl0 frien#s 9ri%e me le%%ers? b$ Pe Ion l-au muMca% jkNjARI nu 5Lien6eni DG: Ion CL$ACC-have$2PL bi%%en mos@ui%oes no% s5i#ers >Ion has been bi%%en b0 mos@ui%oes no% b0 s5i#ers? c$ K:-au invi%a% PRI7T7NI la cinL nu necunoscuRi$ me$ ACC-have$2PL invi%e# frien#s %o #inner no% s%ran!ers >I% is frien#s %ha% invi%e# me %o #inner no% s%ran!ers?

Preverbal sub6ec% bare nouns in neu%ral con%e;%s are 5referabl0 use# in sen%ences #escribin! a scene as 9e can see in (+,/ above$ Com5are (+,/c-# re5ea%e# belo9 9i%h %he e;am5les in (1,/3
(+,/ c$ Lumini elec%rice in%ermi%en%e anunRau a%eriALrile$ li!h%s elec%ric in%ermi%%en% announce#$I:PF lan#in!s-%he >In%ermi%%en% elec%ric li!h%s announce# %he lan#in!s? #$ A5L mur#arL se 5relin!ea #e sub #ula5$ 9a%er #ir%0 R7FL ooA-ou%$I:PF from un#er close% >There 9as #ir%0 9a%er ooAin! ou% from un#ernea%h %he close%? (1,/ a$ KLumini elec%rice in%ermi%en%e s-au a5rins a%unci En salL li!h%s elec%ric in%ermi%%en% R7FL-have li% %hen in room >In%ermi%%en elec%ric li!h%s %hen li% in %he room? b$ KKA5L mur#arL s-a 5relins #e sub #ula5$ 9a%er #ir%0 R7FL-has ooAe#-ou% from un#er close% >Dir%0 9a%er ooAe# ou% from enea%h %he close%?

A s%ill #ifferen% case is illus%ra%e# in (1./ belo93


(1./ a$ Ar!umen%e #e aces% !en sun% nesemnifica%ive$ ar!umen%s of %his -in# are insi!nifican% >Ar!umen%s of %his -in# are insi!nifican%? b$ 'LrbaRi ca Ls%a ERi a#uc numai 5a!ubL$ men li-e %his 0ou$DAT brin! onl0 #ama!e >:en li-e %his can onl0 cause 0ou #ama!e?

In %his case i% seems %ha% i% is %he #eic%ic com5onen% of %he mo#ifier P de acest en% ca sta P 9hich allo9s %he use of %he bare noun$ Dnli-e %he e;am5les (+,/ %hese sen%ences are no% #escri5%ions of a scene bu% ra%her !eneraliAa%ions %ha% hol# of %he sub-in#s in%ro#uce# b0 #emons%ra%ives of %he %05e >of %his -in#? >li-e %his? e%c %he e;am5les bein! 5ara5hrasable b0 >%ha%/%his -in# of N?3 acest en de ar umente >%his -in# of ar!umen%s? acest en de brbai% asemenea brbai >%his -in# of men such men?$ This in%er5re%a%ion is no% o%her9ise foun# 9i%h bare nouns (see sec%ion 2 9here i% 9ill be sho9n %ha% bare nouns are 9ea- in#efini%es boun# b0 e;is%en%ial closure/$ Sen%ences 9i%h 5reverbal mo#ifie# bare nouns can also e;5ress !eneraliAa%ions if %he mo#ifier is an even%ive 5re#ica%e as can be seen b0 com5arin! (1</a-b 9i%h a_-b_3
(1</ a$ 7lefanRi albi 5limbWn#u-se 5e s%ra#L s%Wrnesc En%o%#eauna curioAi%a%ea$ ele5han%s 9hi%e 9al-in!-R7FL on s%ree% s%ir al9a0s curiosi%0-%he >Uhi%e ele5han%s 9al-in! on %he s%ree% al9a0s s%ir curiosi%0?

4C

'are Nouns a_$ X7lefanRi albi s%Wrnesc En%o%#eauna curioAi%a%ea$ ele5han%s 9hi%e s%ir al9a0s curiosi%0-%he b$ CWini care se hWr6onesc nu 5rovoacL niciun 5ericol #o!s 9hich R7FL s-0lar- no% 5rovo-e no #an!er >Do!s s-0lar-in! are no #an!er? b_$ XCWini mici nu 5rovoacL niciun 5ericol Do!s small no% 5rovo-e no #an!er

The res%ric%ion on %he mo#ifier in#ica%es %ha% %he !eneric rea#in! is ob%aine# b0 @uan%ifica%ion over even%s ra%her %han over in#ivi#uals$ In o%her 9or#s %he bare noun is an e;is%en%ial license# b0 %he even%ive 5re#ica%e of %he res%ric%ion sco5in! un#er a @uan%ifier over even%s$ Thus (1</a can be 5ara5hrase# as follo9s3
(1</_ a$ for all even%s e of ele5han%s 9al-in! in %he s%ree% e s%irs curiosi%0$

3. Se6ant./ Const0a.nts on BNs .n A0416ent Pos.t.ons


Some of %he res%ric%ions on %he #is%ribu%ion of 'Ns in ar!umen% 5osi%ions can be a%%ribu%e# %o seman%ic fac%ors$ Ue 9ill %hus sho9 %ha% bare nouns are allo9e# 9i%h >e;is%en%ial? 5re#ica%es an# bloc-e# 9i%h >5resu55osi%ional? 5re#ica%es (sec%ion 2$+//$ This #ifference 9ill be re5resen%e# in %erms of a mechanism of e;is%en%ial closure (sec%ion 2$1/ 9hich is 5ossible 9i%h cer%ain 5re#ica%es labele# >e;is%en%ial? bu% no% 9i%h o%hers calle# >5resu55osi%ional?$ In sec%ion 2$2$ 9e sho9 %ha% %hese %9o classes of 5re#ica%es #iffer re!ar#in! 9he%her %he0 allo9 or #o no% allo9 %he s5a%ial localiAa%ion of %heir ar!umen%s$ Sec%ions 2$4 an# 2$, res5ec%ivel0 5resen% %he ana5horic an# as5ec%ual 5eculiari%ies of 'Ps an# 'PNs$ 3.1. Ba0e No1ns an3 T95es of P0e3./ates 'are nouns are rule# ou% in %he ar!umen% 5osi%ions of cer%ain 5re#ica%es$ This im5ossibili%0 is e;%remel0 clear for %he ob6ec%s of verbs such as a iubi% a ur% a detesta e%c$3
(1B/ a$ X:aria a#orL cafea :aria a#ores coffee b$ XIon #e%es%L mere Ion ha%es a55les

'Ns are also rule# ou% from %he 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion of cer%ain 5re#ica%es$ The e;am5les in (1C/ e;hibi% minimal 5airs %ha% #iffer b0 %he use of bare sub6ec%s versus in#efini%e or #efini%e 5os%verbal sub6ec%s3
(1C/ a$ XNu M%iam cL seamLnL En%re ele civiliAaRii 5rimi%ive$ No% -ne9$+SG %ha% resemble$2PL be%9een %hem civiliAa%ions 5rimi%ive a?$ Nu M%iam cL seamLnL En%re ele unele civiliAaRii 5rimi%ive$ no% -ne9$+SG %ha% resemble$2PL be%9een %hem cer%ain-%he civiliAa%ions 5rimi%ive$ >I #i# no% -no9 %ha% cer%ain 5rimi%ive civiliAa%ions are ali-e? b$ X:ariei Ei 5lace ciocola%L$ :aria$DAT her$DAT li-es chocola%e$ b?$ :ariei Ei 5lace ciocola%a$ :aria$DAT her$DAT li-es chocola%e-%he >:aria li-es chocola%e?

In in%ui%ive %erms %he 5re#ica%es in (1C/a an# (1C/b can be charac%eriAe# as necessaril0

,=

'are Nouns

5resu55osin! %he e;is%ence of %heir ob6ec% or sub6ec% res5ec%ivel0 hence %he label >5resu55osi%ional 5re#ica%es? use# hencefor%h$ The observe# un!ramma%icali%0 is #ue %o %he fac% %ha% 'Ns #o no% 5resu55ose %he e;is%ence of %heir referen% an# %herefore 'Ns are le!i%ima%e onl0 in %hose con%e;%s %ha% allo9 %he e;is%ence of %heir referen% %o be asser%e#I in more %echnical %erms 'Ns mus% be le!i%ima%e# b0 e;is%en%ial closure$ 3.2. 'P+le2el E<.stent.al Clos10e In or#er %o un#ers%an# 9h0 %he e;am5les in 1C(a?/-(b?/ are un!ramma%ical le% us firs% see ho9 !ramma%ical e;am5les such as (2=/ can be anal0Ae#3
(2=/ (2=?/ Ion scria scrisori$ Ion 9ro%e$I:PF le%%ers >Ion 9as 9ri%in! le%%ers? A (9ri%e (6 A/ l le%%ers (A//

Turnin! no9 %o 5re#ica%es such as love% !ate% e%c$ %he0 can be charac%eriAe# as 5resu55osin! %he e;is%ence of %heir #irec% ob6ec%$ Since 5resu55osi%ion of e;is%ence an# asser%ion of e;is%ence are e;clusive of each o%her such 5re#ica%es bloc- VP-level e;is%en%ial closure$ The im5ossibili%0 of 'Ns %o combine 9i%h 5re#ica%es of %his %05e (see %he un!ramma%icali%0 of e;am5les (1B/ above an# (2+/ belo9/ can no9 be a%%ribu%e# %o %he fac% %ha% %he variable su55lie# b0 %he 'N canno% be le!i%ima%e# via e;is%en%ial closure$ Sin!ular in#efini%e DPs can combine 9i%h 5resu55osi%ional 5re#ica%es because DPs %ha% are !overne# b0 over% De%erminers (in 5ar%icular b0 in#efini%e ar%icles/ can be referen%iall0 in#e;e# an# as such %he0 #o no% nee# %o be le!i%ima%e# via e;is%en%ial closure$ In con%e;%s of %his %05e sin!ular in#efini%es %a-e a referen%ial/s%ron! in%er5re%a%ion (see cha5%er 4 on %he Seman%ics of De%erminers/3
(2+/ a$ XIon a#mirL 5rofesori$ Ion a#mires 5rofessors b$ Ion a#mirL un 5rofesor$ Ion a#mires a 5rofessor >Ion a#mires a 5rofessor?

3.3. E<.stent.al 2s. P0es155os.t.onal P0e3./ates Le% us no9 %r0 %o #efine %he em5irical cri%erion %ha% allo9s us %o #is%in!uish be%9een e;is%en%ial an# 5resu55osi%ional 5re#ica%es$ A 9ell--no9n #is%inc%ion is %ha% be%9een s(%a!e-/level (i$e$ 5re#ica%es 9i%h %ransi%or0 in%er5re%a%ions/ an# i(n#ivi#ual-/level (i$e$ 5re#ica%es 9i%h 5ermanen% or s%able in%er5re%a%ions/ 5re#ica%es$ :os% s-level 5re#ica%es in#ee# allo9 bare nouns in bo%h 5os%verbal sub6ec% an# ob6ec% 5osi%ions an# mos% i-level 5re#ica%es #isallo9 %hem$ Oo9ever %he e;am5les in (21/ sho9 %ha% cer%ain s-level 5re#ica%es #isallo9 bare nouns an# %hose in (22/ sho9 %ha% cer%ain i-level 5re#ica%es allo9 bare nouns3
(21/ a$ XPe scenL erau %riM%i co5ii$ on s%a!e 9ere$2PL sa# chil#ren b$ X`n uAinL erau obosiRi munci%ori$ in 5lan% 9ere$2PL %ire# 9or-ers c$X:ariei i-au 5lLcu% 5rL6i%uri$ :aria$DAT her$DAT-have$2PL li-e# ca-es

,+

'are Nouns (22/ a$ Co5aci EnalRi Encon6oarL cas%elul$ %rees %all surroun# cas%le-%he >Tall %rees surroun# %he cas%le? b$ Aces% manuscris conRine !reseli$ %his manuscri5% con%ains errors >This manuscri5% con%ains errors?

7;am5les of %his %05e sho9 %ha% %he s-level vs i-level #is%inc%ion is no% 5erfec%l0 correla%e# 9i%h %he #is%inc%ion be%9een e;is%en%ial an# 5resu55osi%ional 5re#ica%es$ Ano%her relevan% em5irical cri%erion is s5ace localiAa%ion$ Ue ma0 in#ee# observe %ha% %hose 5re#ica%es %ha% allo9 s5ace a#verbials also allo9 bare nouns$ Those %ha% canno% be combine# 9i%h s5ace a#verbials #o no% allo9 bare nouns ei%her$
(24/ a$ X`n cur%e era %ris%/neliniM%i%/bolnav Ion in cour%0ar# 9as$2SG sa# res%less ill Ion b$ X `n cur%e erau %riM%i/neliniM%iRi/bolnavi co5ii in cour%0ar# 9ere$2PL sa# res%less ill chil#ren a$ Dn#e a #ansa% /a lucra% IonK Uhere has #ance# has 9or-e# Ion >Uhere #i# Ion #ance/9or-K? b$ `n cur%e #anseaAL /lucreaAL co5ii in cour%0ar# #ance$2 9or-$2 chil#ren >Chil#ren #ance/9or- in %he cour%0ar#?

(2,/

Dnli-e %he #is%inc%ion %ransi%or0/s-level vs 5ermanen%/i-level 9hich affec%s %he 5re#ica%ion in i%s en%ire%0 an# conse@uen%l0 %he 9hole ran!e of ar!umen%s of a cer%ain 5re#ica%e %he cri%erion of s5a%ial localiAa%ion leaves o5en %he 5ossibili%0 %ha% onl0 cer%ain ar!umen%s are localiAe# in s5ace an# as such onl0 %hose ar!umen%s can be boun# b0 e;is%en%ial closure an# conse@uen%l0 be e;5resse# b0 bare nouns$ Thus %he verbs in (2./a-b #escribe %he 5osi%ion of %he sub6ec% rela%ive %o %he ob6ec% an# %he 5osi%ion of %he ob6ec% rela%ive %o %he sub6ec% res5ec%ivel0$ Gnl0 %he loca%e# ar!umen% P %he sub6ec% in ((2./a// %he ob6ec% in ((2./b/ - can be a bare noun$
(2./ a$ Dale #e 5ia%rL aco5ereau %erenul$ slabs of s%one covere# !roun#-%he >Slabs of s%one covere# %he !roun#? b$ ColecRia conRinea %ablouri #e :one%$ collec%ion-%he con%aine# 5ain%in!s b0 :one% >The collec%ion con%aine# 5ain%in!s b0 :one%?

3.$. S/o5e Sin!ular in#efini%es sho9 sco5e ambi!ui%ies 9i%h res5ec% %o ano%her @uan%ifier an a#verb or an in%ensional verb 9hereas bare 5lurals necessaril0 have narro9 sco5e$ Thus bo%h of %he %9o e;am5les in (2</a an# (2</b allo9 %he "o5a@ue& narro9-sco5e rea#in! bu% onl0 (+/a buil% 9i%h an in#efini%e sin!ular allo9s %he "%rans5aren%& "s5ecific& 9i#e-sco5e rea#in! 5ara5hrasable b0 >%here is a lo!ician such %ha% :aria assumes %ha% Pe%re s5o-e %o him?3
(2</ a$ :aria 5resu5une cL Pe%re a vorbi% cu un lo!ician$ :aria assumes %ha% Pe%re has %al-e# 9i%h a lo!ician >:aria assumes %ha% Pe%re has %al-e# %o a lo!ician? b$ :aria 5resu5une cL Pe%re a vorbi% cu lo!icieni$ :aria assumes %ha% Pe%re has %al-e# 9i%h lo!icians

,1

'are Nouns >:aria assumes %ha% Pe%re has %al-e# %o lo!icians?

7;am5les (2B/-(2C/ illus%ra%e sco5e 9i%h res5ec% %o a @uan%ifie# e;5ression3


(2B/ a$ ToRi 5rofesorii ne-au recoman#a% o car%e$ all 5rofessors-%he us$DAT-have recommen#e# a boo>All %eachers recommen#e# us a boo-? b$ `n fiecare Ai a %elefona% un s%u#en%$ in ever0 #a0 has calle# a s%u#en% >A s%u#en% calle# ever0 #a0? a$ ToRi 5rofesorii ne-au recoman#a% cLrRi$ all 5rofessors-%he us$DAT-have recommen#e# boo-s >All %eachers recommen#e# us boo-s? b$ `n fiecare Ai au %elefona% s%u#enRi$ in ever0 #a0 have$2PL calle# s%u#en%s >S%u#en%s calle# ever0 #a0?

(2C/

The e;am5les in (2C/ onl0 allo9 %he narro9-sco5e# rea#in! of %he bare 5lurals3 %he boo-s an# %he s%u#en%s co-var0 9i%h 5rofessors an# #a0s res5ec%ivel0$ The e;am5les in (2B/ on %he o%her han# also allo9 %he 9i#e-sco5e# rea#in!3 %he 5rofessors recommen#e# %he same booan# %he same s%u#en% %ele5hone# ever0 #a0 res5ec%ivel0$ Sco5e 9i%h res5ec% %o ne!a%ion sho9s an even clearer con%ras% be%9een sin!ular in#efini%es an# bare 5lurals3 bare 5lurals canno% esca5e %he sco5e of ne!a%ion 9hereas sin!ular in#efini%es are in%er5re%e# as sco5in! ou% of a ne!a%ive con%e;% un#er a neu%ral in%ona%ion ((4=/a can have a narro9 sco5e rea#in! 9i%h heav0 s%ress on un an# student% meanin! >no% even one?/3
(4=/ a$ N-am e;amina% un s%u#en%$ no%-have$+ e;amine# a s%u#en% >I haven?% e;amine# a s%u#en%? b$ N-am e;amina% s%u#enRi$ no%-have$+ e;amine# s%u#en%s >I haven?% e;amine# s%u#en%s?

Re!ar#in! sco5e 5ro5er%ies bare 5lurals con%ras% no% onl0 9i%h sin!ular in#efini%es bu% also 9i%h 5lurals hea#e# b0 in#efini%e #e%erminers such as car#inal numerals or %he in#efini%e ar%icle nite >(9ea- form of/ some?3
(4+/ a$ :aria cre#e cL Pe%re a fura% niM%e cLrRi$ :aria %hin-s %ha% Pe%re has s%olen some boo-s >:aria believes %ha% Pe%re has s%olen some boo-s? b$ `n fiecare searL au %elefona% %rei s%u#enRi$ in ever0 evenin! have$2PL calle# %hree s%u#en%s >Three s%u#en%s calle# ever0 ni!h%? c$ Trei 5rofesori au fos% 5reAenRi Mi %rei nu$ Three 5rofessors have been 5resen% an# %hree no% >Three 5rofessors 9ere 5resen% an# %hree (o%hers/ 9ere no%?

'are mass nouns resemble 'Ps in %ha% %he0 are necessaril0 narro9-sco5e#3
(41/ a$ :aria cre#e cL Ion a fura% lemn$ :aria %hin-s %ha% Ion has s%olen 9oo# >:aria %hin-s Ion has s%olen 9oo#?

,2

'are Nouns b$ Trei s%u#enRi au a#us vin$ %hree s%u#en%s have brou!h% 9ine >Three s%u#en%s have brou!h% 9ine?

The %heore%ical anal0sis of sco5e in%er5re%a%ions is curren%l0 un#er #eba%e$ Accor#in! %o %he %ra#i%ional vie9 sco5e ambi!ui%ies are #ue %o a #ifference in %he rela%ive hierarchical 5osi%ions of %9o @uan%ifiers$ Ui%hin %his %05e of accoun% %he obli!a%or0 narro9 sco5e of 'Ns can be a%%ribu%e# %o %he fac% %ha% %he variable %ha% %he0 in%ro#uce is boun# b0 VP-level e;is%en%ial closure (see * +$2 an# 1$2 above/3 assumin! %ha% @uan%ifiers a%%ach %o %he IP #omain %he0 9ill al9a0s %a-e sco5e over VP-level e;is%en%ial closure$ Accor#in! %o an al%erna%ive accoun% %he so-calle# >sco5al? cons%ruals are not #ue %o #ifferen% sco5e assi!nmen%s of %9o @uan%ifiers bu% ra%her %o #e5en#enc0 rela%ions %ha% are es%ablishe# be%9een a @uan%ifier an# a #e5en#en% e;5ression (see Cha5%er 4 *2$+$+/$ Ui%hin %his accoun% %he so-calle# >narro9-sco5e? rea#in! of in#efini%es (see e;am5les (1/a-b above/ is #ue %o %he fac% %ha% %he in#efini%e DP is #e5en#en% on %he @uan%ifie# DP$ No%e no9 %ha% i% is reasonable %o believe %ha% %his accoun% #oes no% e;%en# %o narro9-sco5e# 'Ns3 !ran%in! %ha% onl0 referen%ial %erms are #e5en#en% (see cha5%er 4 *2$+$+/ 'Ns canno% be #e5en#en% because %he0 are no% referen%ial$ The so-calle# >narro9 sco5e? of 'Ns can ins%ea# be vie9e# as a conse@uence of %he fac% %ha% %he variable %he0 su55l0 can onl0 be le!i%ima%e# via VP-level e;is%en%ial closure$ The fac% %ha% bare 5lurals an# bare mass nouns necessaril0 %ransla%e as variables is ar!uabl0 rela%e# %o %heir cumula%ive reference$ Cumula%ive reference charac%eriAes 'Ns re!ar#less of %he con%e;% in 9hich %he0 a55ear an# in 5ar%icular re!ar#less of %he 5resence of ano%her o5era%or$ Dn#er %his vie9 i% is cumula%ive reference %ha% e;5lains 9h0 'Ns lac- 9i#e-sco5e in%er5re%a%ions$ 3.%. Ana58o0./ 5e/1l.a0.t.es 'Ps canno% func%ion as an%ece#en%s of al%erna%ive 5ronouns such as alii >o%hers? or ceilali >%he o%hers?3
(42/ a$ Ion a recoman#a% %rei /niM%e romane iar :aria a recoman#a% al%ele Ion has recommen#e# %hree some novels an# :aria has recommen#e# o%hers-%he >Ion recommen#e# %hree/some boo-s an# :aria recommen#e# o%hers? b$ mIon a recoman#a% romane iar :aria a recoman#a% al%ele Ion has recommen#e# novels an# :aria has recommen#e# o%hers-%he a$ AAi au veni% niM%e /%rei oas5eRi s%rLini$ :Wine vor a6un!e ceilalRi$ %o#a0 have$2PL come some %hree !ues%s forei!n %omorro9 9ill$2PL arrive %he-o%hers >Some/%hree forei!n !ues% have come %o#a0$ The o%hers 9ill arrive %omorro9? b$ mAAi au veni% oas5eRi s%rLini$ :Wine vor a6un!e ceilalRi$ %o#a0 have$2PL come !ues%s forei!n %omorro9 9ill$2PL arrive %he-o%hers

(44/

No%e %ha% res%ric%ions of %his %05e #o no% in#ica%e %ha% 'Ps are non-referen%ial$ In#ee# %he0 allo9 a55osi%ive rela%ives 9hich are %05ical of referen%ial DPs3
(4,/ :aria a#ucea #e la biblio%ecL cLrRi 5e care Ion le ci%ea$ :aria brou!h%$I:PF from librar0 boo-s DG: 9hich Ion CL$2PL$ACC rea#$I:PF >:aria use# %o brin! boo-s from %he librar0 9hich Ion rea#?

The unacce5%abili%0 6u#!men%s illus%ra%e# in (42/b an# (44/b can be a%%ribu%e# %o %he nonin#ivi#ualiAable %05e of reference %ha% charac%eriAes 'Ps i$e$ %o %he fac% %ha% %he0 refer %o sums an# correla%ivel0 %ransla%e as non-in#e;e# variables$ (see *+$2 above/$ 'are mass nouns behave li-e bare 5lurals3

,4

'are Nouns (4./ (4</ :aria a#ucea vin 5e care Ion El bea$ :aria brou!h%$I:PF 9ine DG: 9hich Ion CL$2SG$ACC #ran-$I:PF >:aria use# %o brin! 9ine 9hich Ion #ran-? m:aria a bLu% vin iar Ion a bLu% al%ul$ :aria has #run- 9ine an# Ion has #run- o%her-%he

No%e %ha% mass nouns resis% in#ivi#ualiAa%ion even 9he0 %he0 are 5rece#e# b0 a #e%erminer in clear con%ras% 9i%h coun% 5lurals3
(4B/ a$ m:aria a bLu% niM%e vin iar Ion a bLu% al%ul :aria has #run- some 9ine an# Ion has #run- o%her-%he b$ :aria a vLAu% niM%e filme iar Ion a vLAu% al%ele$ :aria has seen some movies an# Ion has seen o%hers >:aria sa9 some movies an# Ion sa9 some o%hers?

The con%ras% sho9n in (4B/a-b in#ica%es %ha% nite Bsome. has a #ifferen% role #e5en#in! on 9he%her i% !overns a mass noun or a 5lural coun% noun3 9i%h mass nouns nite >some? in%ro#uces a @uan%i%0 of mass (much li-e %he bare mass noun i%self/ 9hereas 9i%h 5lural coun%s nouns nite >some? ma0 in%ro#uce an in#ivi#ualiAe# 5lural en%i%0 #is%in!uishable from o%her 5lural en%i%ies of %he same -in#$ From %he 5oin% of vie9 of ana5horic rela%ions in#efini%e mass DPs #iffer in in%eres%in! 9a0s from in#efini%e 5lural DPs bu% %his is ou% of %he sco5e of our 5resen% #iscussion 9hich concerns 'Ns$ 3.&. As5e/t1al 5e/1l.a0.t.es 'are 5lurals are no% ca5able of 5rovi#in! %he -in# of #elimi%a%ion necessar0 for %elici%0$ Thus cer%ain 5re#ica%es have achievemen% an# accom5lishmen% rea#in!s 9hen %heir ob6ec% is an in#efini%e DP bu% ac%ivi%0 rea#in!s 9hen %heir ob6ec% is a bare 5lural$ The e;am5les in (4C/ab sho9 %ha% %he al%erna%ion be%9een culmina%ive a#verbs of a limi%e# #ura%ion (e$!$ n dou luni >in %9o mon%hs?/ an# non-culmina%ive a#verbs (timp de dou luni >#urin! %9o mon%hs?/ is correla%e# 9i%h %he al%erna%ion be%9een an in#efini%e 5lural an# a bare 5lural occu50in! %he ob6ec% 5osi%ion3
(4C/ a$ Am scris %rei ar%icole gEn #ouL lunih /gX%im5 #e #ouL lunih$ have$+ 9ri%%en %hree ar%icles in %9o mon%hs %ime of %9o mon%hs >I/Ue 9ro%e %hree ar%icles in %9o mon%hs/for %9o mon%hs? b$ A cLlca% o mulRime #e cLmLMi gEn %rei oreh/gX%im5 #e %rei oreh$ has irone# a lo% of shir%s in %hree hours %ime of %hree hours >She irone# a lo% of shir%s in %hree hours/for %hree hours? a$ Am scris ar%icole gXEn #ouL lunih /g%im5 #e #ouL lunih$ have$+ 9ri%%en ar%icles in %9o mon%hs %ime of %9o mon%hs >I/Ue 9ro%e ar%icles in %9o mon%hs/for %9o mon%hs? b$ A cLlca% cLmLMi gXEn %rei oreh/g%im5 #e %rei oreh$ has irone# shir%s in %hree hours %ime of %hree hours >She irone# shir%s in %hree hours/for %hree hours?

(,=/

No%e fur%hermore %ha% %he use of bare 5lurals im5oses a "#ura%ive& rea#in! %o 5re#ica%es such as a omor >%o -ill? or a descoperi >%o #iscover? 9hich are o%her9ise non-#ura%ive$ This e;5lains 9h0 such 5re#ica%es can be embe##e# or no% un#er %he as5ec%ual verb a continua "%o con%inue& #e5en#in! on 9he%her %heir ob6ec% is a bare 5lural or a 5lural in#efini%e3

,,

'are Nouns (,+/ a$ XA con%inua% sL omoare %rei !Lini$ has con%inue# SD'N -ill$2 %hree hens b$ XA con%inua% sL #esco5ere niM%e !reMeli$ has con%inue# SD'N #iscover some mis%a-es a$ A con%inua% sL omoare !Lini$ has con%inue# SD'N -ill$2 hens >Oe -e5% on -illin! hens? b$ A con%inua% sL #esco5ere !reMeli$ has con%inue# SD'N #iscover$2 mis%a-es >Oe -e5% on fin#in! mis%a-es?

(,1/

The same observa%ion can be ma#e re!ar#in! %he 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion in 5ar%icular 9i%h in%ransi%ive verbs e;5ressin! a chan!e of s%a%e3
(,2/ a$ Con%inuau sL a6un!L ginvi%aRih/gKKniM%e invi%aRih$ con%inue$I:PF$2PL SD'N arrive$2 !ues%s some !ues%s >Gues%s/some !ues%s -e5% on arrivin!? b$ Au e;5lo#a% gbombeh/gX5a%ru bombeh %rei Aile #e-a rWn#ul$ have$2PL e;5lo#e# bombs four bombs %hree #a0s in-a-ro9 >'ombs/Four bombs have e;5lo#e# for %hree #a0s in a ro9?

These observa%ions cons%i%u%e evi#ence in favour of a ne!a%ive charac%eriAa%ion of bare 5lurals3 %he0 canno% refer %o a @uan%iAe# en%i%0 (%he0 can onl0 refer %o amoun%s of ma%%er of unboun#e# @uan%i%0/ an# as such %he0 canno% con%ribu%e %he -in# of #elimi%a%ion necessar0 for Jboun#e#J 5rocesses$ 7;am5les (,4/-(,,/ sho9 %ha% bare 5lurals are e;clu#e# if boun#e#ness is force# b0 some o%her elemen% of %he con%e;% e$!$ as5ec%ual verbs such as a ncepe >%o be!in? or a termina >%o finish? or 5re5osi%ions such as dup >af%er?3
(,4/ a$ Am Ence5u% %rei romane/KKromane$ have$+ be!un %hree novels novels >I s%ar%e# %hree novels/novels? b$ Am %ermina% #ouL 5or%re%e/K5or%re%e$ have$+ finishe# %9o 5or%rai%s 5or%rai%s >I finishe# %9o 5or%rai%s/5or%rai%s? a$ Du5L #ouL/cW%eva s%icle #e vin ^ af%er %9o/ some bo%%les of 9ine >Af%er %9o/some bo%%les of 9ine ^? b$ XDu5L s%icle #e vin $$$ af%er bo%%les of 9ine

(,,/

A similar effec% can be observe# 9i%h absolu%e 5ar%ici5les %ha% follo9 o dat >once?$ The meanin! of %he follo9in! e;am5les can be rou!hl0 5ara5hrase# as >as soon as (%he/ e;ercises have been correc%e#?3
(,./ a$ G#a%L corec%a%e e;erciRiile $$ once correc%e# e;ercises-%he >The momen% %he e;ercises have/ha# been correc%e# ^? b$ XG#a%L corec%a%e e;erciRii $$$ once correc%e# e;ercises $$$

'are mass nouns behave li-e bare 5lurals in %ha% %he0 in#uce a%elici%03

,.

'are Nouns (,</ a$ Ion a bLu% vin g%im5 #e o orLh/gXEn%r-o orLh$ Ion has #run- 9ine %ime of an hour in an hour >Ion #ran- 9ine for an hour/in an hour? b$ Ion a %ermina% vinul @Xvin$ Ion has finishe# 9ine-%he 9ine >Ion finishe# %he 9ine/9ine?

Com5are mass nouns !overne# b0 over% #e%erminers or @uan%i%0 e;5ressions 9hich refer %o boun#e# en%i%ies an# as such in#uce %elici%0 effec%s on a 5ar 9i%h sin!ular an# 5lural in#efini%es3
(,B/ a$ :aria a mWnca% #ouL -ilo!rame #e #ulceaRL gEn%r-o orLh/g X%im5 #e o orLh$ :aria has ea%en %9o -ilo!rams of 6am in one hour %ime of an hour >:aria a%e %9o -ilos of 6am in an hour/for an hour? b$ Ion a %ermina% #ouL s%icle #e vin$ Ion has finishe# %9o bo%%les of 9ine >Ion finishe# %9o bo%%les of 9ine?

$. Co1nt Ba0e S.n41la0s .n A0416ent Pos.t.ons


The #is%ribu%ion of coun% bare sin!ulars ('Ss/ in ar!umen% 5osi%ions is more res%ric%e# %han %ha% of bare 5lurals 9hich su!!es%s %ha% %he0 are no% referen%ial e;5ressions (in o%her 9or#s %he0 #o no% #eno%e an en%i%0/ bu% ra%her %he0 func%ion as mo#ifiers of %he verbal 5re#ica%e (in more %echnical %erms %he0 #eno%e 5ro5er%ies %ha% mo#if0 %he 5ro5er%0 #eno%e# b0 %he verbal 5re#ica%e/$ $.1. Classes of 2e0bs Ui%h mos% classes of verbs coun% bare sin!ulars are #isallo9e# no% onl0 in sub6ec% bu% also in ob6ec% 5osi%ions in clear con%ras% 9i%h bare 5lurals3
(,C/ a$ Am vLAu% (#ouL /niM%e /cW%eva/ 5LsLri have$+ seen %9o some several bir#s >I/Ue sa9 %9o/some/several bir#s? b$ Am vLAu% X(o/ 5asLre have$+ seen a bir# >I/Ue sa9 a bir#?

Cer%ain 5re#ica%es #o ho9ever allo9 'Ss in ob6ec% 5osi%ions (bu% no% in sub6ec% 5osi%ions see * 2$+$, belo9/$ Such 5re#ica%es can be !rou5e# in %hree le;ical classes3 (i/ a avea B%o have? an# ac@uisi%ion verbsI (ii/ verbs such as a purta or a folosi >%o 9ear %o use? 9hich can be vie9e# as 5resu55osin! %he verb >have? i%selfI (iii/ in%ensional verbs such as a cuta >loofor? 9hich can also be vie9e# as im5l0in! some -in# of 5ros5ec%ive 5ossession3 E.F a avea Gto 8a2eH an3 a/I1.s.t.on 2e0bs
(.=/ a$ Ion are gcasL maMinL co5il mic car%e #e cre#i% 5aMa5or% bucL%LreasLh Ion has house car chil# car# of cre#i% 5ass5or% coo-( F7:/ >Ion has a house/car/chil#/cre#i% car#/5ass5or%/coo-? b$ Casa as%a are glif% scarL #e serviciu !rL#inLh$ house-%he %his has eleva%or s%aircase of service !ar#en >This house has an eleva%or/s%aircase/!ar#en?

,<

'are Nouns c$ Ne-au 5us En sfWrMi% lif%$ us$DAT-have$2PL 5u% finall0 eleva%or >A% las% %he0 5u% in an eleva%or$? #$ Ion Mi-a cum5Lra% casL$ Ion R7FL$DAT-has bou!h% house >Ion bou!h% a house (for himself/?

E..F a purta Gto Dea0H= a folosi= a conduce Gto 30.2eH


(.+/ a$ :aria 5oar%L 5an%alon/5LlLrie/uniformL/5oMe%L/crava%L/cLmaML/rochie scur%L$ :aria 9ears 5an% ha% uniform 5urse %ie shir% #ress shor% >:aria is 9earin! 5an%/ha%/uniform/5urse/%ie/shir%/shor% #ress? b$ Ion foloseM%e s%ilou/creion$ Ion uses 5en 5encil >Ion uses a 5en/5encil? c$ Ion con#uce camion$ Ion #rives %ruc>Ion #rives a %ruc-?

E...F 50os5e/t.2e 5ossess.on ? a cuta, a gsi, a vrea, a dori


(.1/ a$ Ion cau%L secre%arL/ nevas%L/femeie /5rofessor bucL%ar$ Ion see-s secre%ar0 9ife 9oman 5rofessor coo>Ion is loo-in! for a secre%ar0/9ife/9oman/%eacher/coo-? b$ Ion #oreM%e nevas%L %WnLrL$ Ion 9ishes 9ife 0oun! >Ion 9ishes a 0oun! 9ife?

There are %9o o%her con%e;%s in 9hich bare sin!ulars are allo9e# namel0 9i%h li!h% verbs an# 9i%h i#ioms3
(.2/ a$ a lua loc /5ar%e/fiinRL /no%L #e$$$ %o %a-e 5lace 5ar% bein! no%e of >%o %a-e 5lace/ %o %a-e 5ar%/ %o come in%o bein!$ %o %a-e no%e of? b$ a #a loc /e;em5lu /#ova#L #e$$$ %o !ive 5lace e;am5le 5roof of >%o !ive rise %o/%o !ive an e;am5le/%o sho9? c$ a Rine loc #e$$$ %o -ee5 5lace of >%o be a subs%i%u%e for?

'are sin!ulars can also occur in cer%ain i#ioma%ic s%ruc%ures 9hich are charac%eriAe# b0 %he re5e%i%ion of %he same 'S occurrin! as a sub6ec% an# as %he ar!umen% of a 5re5osi%ion3
(.4/ a$ Cui 5e cui se scoa%e$ nail DG: nail R7FL 5ulls-ou% >Gne nail #rives ou% ano%her? b$ 'an la ban %ra!e$ mone0 %o mone0 #ra9s >:one0 a%%rac%s mone0? c$ Deal cu #eal se En%WlneM%e #ar om cu omK hill 9i%h hill R7FL mee%s bu% man 9i%h man >7ven hills mee% le% alone men?

,B

'are Nouns
I% is no% clear %ha% 'Ss in %he la%%er %9o con%e;%s shoul# be anal0Ae# in %he same 9a0 as %hose a55earin! in %he 5revious con%e;%s$ A #ifferen%ia%in! anal0sis is su!!es%e# b0 %he fac% %ha% in cer%ain lan!ua!es e$!$ in French bare sin!ulars (as 9ell as bare 5lurals/ are allo9e# 9i%h cer%ain li!h% verbs an# in cer%ain i#ioma%ic e;5ressions bu% consis%en%l0 banne# 9i%h %he verbs lis%e# in (i/-(iii/ inclu#in! avoir >have?$

$.2. F10t8e0 Le<./al Const0a.nts The e;am5les in (.,/a-b sho9 %ha% %he choice of %he noun i%self is cons%raine#3
(.,/ a$ Ion are / a cum5Lra% (un/ a5ar%amen%/ (o/ casL /(o/ maMinL /(un/ calcula%or$ Ion has has bou!h% an a5ar%men% a house a car a com5u%er >Ion has/bou!h% an a5ar%men%/a house/a car/a com5u%er? b$ Ion are/ a cum5Lra% KK(un/ cas%el/X(un/ bloc/X(o/ fabricL$ Ion has has bou!h% a cas%le a bloc- a fac%or0 >Ion has/bou!h% a cas%le/a bloc-/a fac%or0?

Uha% seems %o ma%%er is %ha% %he verb %o!e%her 9i%h %he 'S refers %o a conven%ionaliAe# ac%ivi%0 or a conven%ionaliAe# %05e of 5ossession$ $.3. Ba0e S.n41la0s .n s1b7e/t 5os.t.ons 'Ss can also a55ear in %he 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion of im5ersonal S7-5assives buil% 9i%h %he %05es of verbs %ha% allo9 'Ss in ob6ec% 5osi%ions3
(../ a$ Ni s-a 5us En sfWrMi% lif%$ us$DAT R7FL-has 5u% finall0 eleva%or >A% las% %he0 5u% in an eleva%or (for us/? b$ Anul Ls%a s-a cum5Lra% cu5%or anul vii%or se va cum5Lra masinL 0ear-%he %his R7FL-has bou!h% oven 0ear-%he ne;% R7FL 9ill$2SG bu0 machine #e s5Lla% of 9ashin! >This 0ear an oven 9as bou!h% ne;% 0ear a 9ashin! machine 9ill be bou!h%? c$ De anul %recu% se 5oar%L 5an%alon/5LlLrie/uniformL/crava%L/cLmaML/rochie scur%L$ since 0ear-%he las% R7FL 9ears 5an% ha% uniform %ie shir% #ress shor% >Since las% 0ear i% is fashionable %o 9ear 5an%s/ha%/uniform/%ie/shir%/shor% #ress? #$ Se cau%L secre%arL/5rofesor #e ma%ema%icL bucL%ar$ R7FL see-s secre%ar0 5rofessor of ma%hema%ics coo>A secre%ar0/ma%hema%ics 5rofessor/coo- is nee#e#?

'Ss can also be 5os%verbal sub6ec%s of %he verb a fi >%o be?$ No%e %ha% %hese e;am5les are all 5ara5hrasable b0 sen%ences 9i%h a avea >%o have? e$!$ (.</a an# (.</b res5ec%ivel0$
(.</ a$ La facul%a%e e secre%arL$ a% facul%0 is secre%ar0 >The facul%0 has a secre%ar0? b$ `n bloc nu e 5or%ar$ in bloc- no% is #oorman >The buil#in! has no #oorman?

The same res%ric%ion a55lies here as for %he ob6ec% 5osi%ion3 %he 5resence of a cer%ain %05e of en%i%0 in a loca%ion is conven%ionaliAe# for %he res5ec%ive %05e of loca%ion$ SummariAin! %he res%ric%e# #is%ribu%ion of 'Ss in %he 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion is no% #ue %o a s0n%ac%ic 5rohibi%ion bu% ra%her %o %he le;ical res%ric%ions %ha% have also been observe# ,C

'are Nouns

above for %he ob6ec% 5osi%ion$ Such le;ical res%ric%ions are %o be anal0Ae# as cons%rain%s on %he %05e of ar!umen% %ha% can be e;5resse# b0 'Ss3 'Ss canno% be e;%ernal ar!umen%sI %he0 can be in%ernal ar!umen%s bu% onl0 9i%h a limi%e# number of verbs$ The !eneraliAa%ion seems %o be %ha% onl0 >5ossessees? (%a-en in a ver0 !eneral sense/ can be e;5resse# b0 'Ss$ $.$. Ba0e S.n41la0s afte0 50e5os.t.ons 'efore illus%ra%in! %he use of 'Ss af%er 5re5osi%ions le% us ma-e i% clear %ha% 9e are onl0 in%eres%e# in %he non-#efini%e rea#in! of 'Ss$ Ue 9ill leave asi#e %he 5henomenon of >#efini%e ar%icle #ro5? af%er 5re5osi%ions (see Cha5%er B *+$2/$ 'Ss are allo9e# af%er %he 5re5osi%ion &it! in%ro#ucin! %he 5ossessee as e;5ec%e# !iven %he 5re#ilec%ion of 'Ss %o a55ear as 5ossessee ar!umen%s3
(.B/ a$ femeie cu fus%L scur%L 9oman 9i%h s-ir% shor% >9oman 9i%h shor% s-ir%? b$ Vorbea cu voce %are %al-e#$2SG 9i%h voice lou# >he %al-e# ou% lou#?

'Ss ma0 also a55ear af%er loca%ive an# ins%rumen%al 5re5osi%ions$ In %his con%e;% %he0 are allo9e# onl0 if %he !rou5 verb H PP e;5resses a conven%ionaliAe# ac%ivi%0/s%a%e of affairs3
(.C/ a$ Dorm 5e 5a% %are$ slee5$+SG on be# har# >I slee5 on a har# be#? a?$ KKDorm 5e masL %are$ slee5$+SG on %able har# >I slee5 on a har# %able? b$ Car%ofii se 5rL6esc En %i!aie #e Teflon$ 5o%a%oes R7FL fr0 in 5an of Teflon >Po%a%oes nee# %o be frie# in a Teflon 5an? c$ Taie cu cuRi% AimRa%$ cu%s 9i%h -nife #en%a%e >Oe cu%s 9i%h a #en%a%e -nife?

8ui%e e;5ec%e#l0 'Ps an# bare mass nouns are also allo9e# af%er 5re5osi%ions3
(<=/ a$ un co5ac cu flori frumoase a %ree 9i%h flo9ers beau%iful >a %ree 9i%h beau%iful flo9ers? b$ o canL cu la5%e a cu5 9i%h mil>a cu5 of mil-? c$ Dorm 5e frunAe usca%e/ 5e 5LmWn% ume#$ slee5$+SG on leaves #r0 on !roun# 9e% >I slee5 on #r0 leaves/on 9e% soil?

$.%. T8e Se6ant./ Anal9s.s of Ba0e S.n41la0s $.%.1. Ba0e S.n41la0s as P0o5e0t9+Denot.n4 E<50ess.ons In in%ui%ive %erms 'Ss can be sai# %o be non-s5ecific an#/or non-referen%ial as o55ose# %o

.=

'are Nouns

sin!ular in#efini%e DPs 9hich can be sai# %o be s5ecific an#/or referen%ial$ Oo9ever %heir non-s5ecifici%0/non-referen%iali%0 shoul# be #is%in!uishe# from %he non-s5ecifici%0 of bare 5lurals an# bare mass nouns$ In sec%ions +$2 an# 2 above 9e have 5ro5ose# %ha% %he lac- of ar%icle si!nals cumulative reference$ Since sin!ular coun% nouns #o no% have cumula%ive reference (each a%omic en%i%0 is #is%inc% from all %he o%her a%omic en%i%ies of a !iven #omain/ bare coun% sin!ulars canno% be assume# %o %ransla%e as variables over sums$ Ue ma0 ins%ea# assume %ha% %he0 are 5ro5er%0-#eno%in! e;5ressions$ In sum non-s5ecific in%er5re%a%ions corres5on# %o %9o #is%inc% %05es of #eno%a%ion3 reference %o ran#om sums on %he one han# (e-%05e #eno%a%ion/ an# 5ro5er%0-#eno%a%ion (ee %f %05e #eno%a%ion/ on %he o%her han#$ $.%.2. In/o05o0at.n4 P0e3./ates 'ecause 'Ss are 5ro5er%0-#eno%in! e;5ressions %he0 canno% combine 9i%h 5re#ica%es of %he canonical %05e 9hich mus% be sa%ura%e# b0 e-%05e e;5ressions$ The0 can onl0 combine 9i%h cer%ain 5re#ica%es call %hem >incor5ora%in!? 5re#ica%es re5resen%e# as in (<+/3
(<+/ P 0 ; Yhave (; 0/ P(0/Z

Re5resen%e# in %his 9a0 5re#ica%es such as to !ave to &ear to loo# for e%c$ have ar!umen% 5osi%ions %ha% are alrea#0 sa%ura%e# a% %he level of %he Le;icon (because %he0 are boun# b0 e;is%en%ial closure in %he le;ical re5resen%a%ion i%self/ bu% %he0 remain 5ar%iall0 unsa%ura%e# insofar as %he0 9ai% for 5ro5er%ies %ha% res%ric% %he varia%ion #omain of %he ar!umen% variable$ Accor#in! %o %his anal0sis %hen 'Ss %ransla%e as 5ro5er%ies %ha% sa%ura%e incor5ora%in! 5re#ica%es re5resen%e# as in (<+/$ To illus%ra%e consi#er an e;am5le such as (<1/3
(<1/ Casa as%a are lif%$ house-%he %his has eleva%or (<1?/ (P$0$ ; (have (; 0/ ) P (0/// (%his house / (eleva%or/

The re5resen%a%ion in (<1&/ can no9 be ob%aine# %hrou!h a 5rocess of -conversion 9hich inser%s %he 5ro5er%0-#eno%in! bare noun elevator in %he 5osi%ion P boun# b0 %he hi!hes% lamb#a-o5era%or3
(<1??/ (;$ 0$ have (; 0/ ) eleva%or (0// (%his house /

Finall0 (<1&?/ can be ob%aine# %hrou!h a secon# o5era%ion of -conversion3


(<1???/ 0$ have (%his house 0/ ) eleva%or (0//

In sum %he anal0sis of %he #is%ribu%ion of bare nouns has le# %o #is%in!uish be%9een %he follo9in! %hree classes of 5re#ica%es3 (<2/ a$ Dnmar-e# 5re#ica%es3 %he0 allo9 VP-level e;is%en%ial closure an# as such %he0 ma0 combine 9i%h 'Ps an# ':Ns in a##i%ion %o run-of-%he-mill DPs$ b$ Presu55osi%ional 5re#ica%es3 #o no% allo9 VP-level e;is%en%ial closure an# as such canno% combine 9i%h 'Ps an# ':Ns$ c$ Incor5ora%in! 5re#ica%es3 e;is%en%ial o5era%or in %heir le;ical re5resen%a%ion C!ave% buy% &ear% intensional loo# for% 00D allo9in! %hem %o combine 9i%h 'Ss

$.%.3. Na00oD s/o5e D.t8 0es5e/t to Ne4at.on .+

'are Nouns

All bare nouns ('Ps bare mass nouns an# 'Ss/ %a-e narro9 sco5e 9i%h res5ec% %o ne!a%ion3
(<4/ a$ N-am ci%i% romane #e Tols%oi$ no%-have$+ rea# novels b0 Tols%o0 >I haven?% rea# novels b0 Tols%o0? b$ De #oi ani n-am bLu% vin$ of %9o 0ears no%-have$+ #run- 9ine >I haven?% #run- 9ine for %9o 0ears (no9/? c$ Ion nu are/ nu Mi-a cum5Lra% a5ar%amen%/ maMinL/ calcula%or$ Ion no% has/no% himself$DAT-has bou!h% a5ar%men% car com5u%er >Ion #i#n?% bu0 himself an a5ar%men%/car/com5u%er?

No%e no9 %ha% in e;am5les such as (<,/a-b buil% 9i%h non-incor5ora%e# verbs narro9 sco5e 9i%h res5ec% %o ne!a%ion canno% be in#ica%e# b0 usin! a 'S3
(<,/ a$ XN-am ci%i% roman #e Tols%oi$ no%-have$+ rea# novel b0 Tols%o0 b$ XDe #oi ani n-am En%Wlni% 5rie%en$ of %9o 0ears no%-have$+ me% frien#

These e;am5les in#ica%e %ha% %he #ifference be%9een incor5ora%in! an# non-incor5ora%in! verbs is main%aine# un#er ne!a%ion3 !iven %ha% 'Ss can onl0 be le!i%ima%e# b0 incor5ora%in! verbs %he0 are rule# ou% in (<,/$ Ui%h non-incor5ora%in! verbs coun% sin!ular nouns in %he sco5e of ne!a%ion mus% be 5rece#e# b0 a ne!a%ive 9or#3
(<./ a$ N-am ci%i% niciun roman #e Tols%oi$ no%-have$+ rea# no novel b0 Tols%o0 >I haven?% rea# an0 novel b0 Tols%o0? b$ De #oi ani n-am En%Wlni% niciun 5rie%en$ of %9o 0ears no%-have$+ me% no frien# >I haven?% me% an0 frien# for %9o 0ears (no9/?

The use of niciun 9i%h verbs allo9in! 'Ss is mar-e#I i% is 5ossible if %he corres5on#in! affirma%ion !ave$E a F 9as 5resu55ose#3 (i/ N-am nicio maMinL no%-have$+ no car >I have no car? (ii/ Nu cau% nicio secre%arL$ no% loo- for$+SG no secre%ar0 >I?m no% loo-in! for an0 secre%ar0?

There are no ne!a%ive 9or#s for 5lurals an# mass nouns 9hich are use# bare 9hen occurrin! in %he sco5e of ne!a%ion as in (<2/a-b$ No%e no9 %ha% in e;am5les u%%ere# 9i%h an unmar-e# in%ona%ion DPs hea#e# b0 over% De%erminers an# in 5ar%icular sin!ular coun% in#efini%es are force# %o %a-e 9i#e sco5e 9i%h res5ec% %o ne!a%ion3
(<</ a$ N-am ci%i% un roman #e Tols%oi$ no%-have$+ rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0 Gnl0 5ossible rea#in!3 >There is a novel b0 Tols%o0 9hich I haven?% rea#$? b$ N-am ci%i% un RG:AN #e Tols%oi no%-have$+ rea# a NGV7L b0 Tols%o0 >I haven?% rea# a sin!le novel b0 Tols%o0?

.1

'are Nouns

Par%s of %he in#efini%e can be in%er5re%e# in %he focus of %he ne!a%ion 5rovi#e# %ha% %he0 are con%ras%ivel0 s%resse#$ The al%erna%ive mus% usuall0 be e;5lici%l0 asser%e#$ Uhen i% is %he in#efini%e ar%icle %ha% is con%ras%ivel0 focuse# i% is in%er5re%e# as a numeral3 (i/ a$ N-am ci%i% DN roman #e Tols%oi (ci #ouL/$ no%-have$+ rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0 bu% %9o >I haven?% rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0 (bu% %9o/? b$ N-am ci%i% un RG:AN #e Tols%oi (ci o nuvelL/$ no%-have$+ rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0 bu% a shor%-s%or0 >I haven?% rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0 (bu% a shor% s%or0/?

If %he in#efini%e as a 9hole is ne!a%e# Focus s%ress canno% be assi!ne# bu% %he al%erna%ive mus% be asser%e# as in (ii/ (com5are (i/ 9here %he al%erna%ive ma0 be lef% uns5ecifie#/3 (ii/ N-am ci%i% un roman #e Tols%oi ci o nuvelL #e Dos%oievs-i$ no%-have$+ rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0 bu% a shor% s%or0 b0 Dos%oievs-i >I haven?% rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0 bu% a shor% s%or0 b0 Dos%oievs-i?

Ui%h an unmar-e# in%ona%ion sin!ular coun% in#efini%es canno% combine 9i%h ne!a%e# incor5ora%in! verbs %he use of 'Ss becomin! @uasi-obli!a%or0$ Com5are %he e;am5les in (<B/ belo9 9i%h %hose in (.1/ (.,/ 9here a 'S al%erna%es 9i%h an in#efini%e3
(<B/ a$ Ion nu are/ nu Mi-a cum5Lra% (Xun/ a5ar%amen%/ (Xo/ casL/ (Xo/ maMinL/ Ion no% has no% himself$DAT-has bou!h% an a5ar%men% a house a car (Xun/ calcula%or$ a com5u%er >Ion #oesn?% have/#i#n?% bu0 an a5ar%men%/a house/a car/a com5u%er? b$ AAi :aria nu 5oar%L (Xun/ 5an%alon/ (Xo/ 5LlLrie/ (Xo/ uniformL/(Xo/ 5oMe%L/ To#a0 :aria no% 9ears a 5an% a ha% a uniform a 5urse (Xo/ crava%L/ (Xo/ cLmaML/(Xo/ rochie scur%L a %ie a shir% a #ress shor% >To#a0 :aria isn?% 9earin! (a 5air of/ 5an%s/a ha%/a uniform/a 5urse/a %ie/a shir%/a shor% #ress? c$ Ion nu cau%L (Xo/ secre%arL/ (Xo/ nevas%L/(Xo/ femeie/(Xun/ 5rofesor/ (Xun/ bucL%ar$ Ion no% see-s a secre%ar0 a 9ife a 9oman a 5rofessor a coo>Ion #oesn?% loo- for a secre%ar0/a 9ife/a 9oman/a 5rofessor/a coo-?

The unacce5%abili%0 of %he in#efini%e ar%icle in %hese e;am5les is #ue %o %he fac% %ha% 9i%h incor5ora%in! verbs s5ecific rea#in!s of in#efini%e ob6ec%s are mar-e# unusual com5are# %o %he non-s5ecific rea#in!s$ Uhenever a s5ecific or a 5ar%i%ive rea#in! is in%en#e# %he in#efini%e ar%icle mus% be use#$ Thus for houses %ha% are close# 9i%h %hree -e0s one ma0 sa0 (<C/ 9here o c!eie means >one of %he -e0s? ra%her %han >a -e0?3
(<C/ Nu 5o% in%ra fiin#cL nu am o cheie no% can$+SG en%er because no% have$+SG a -e0 >I canno% en%er because I #o no% have one -e0?

In sum usin! a bare noun ei%her sin!ular or 5lural is a 9a0 of in#ica%in! narro9es% 5ossible sco5e in 5ar%icular narro9 sco5e 9i%h res5ec% %o ne!a%ion$ The im5or%an% #ifference be%9een 'Ps an# 'Ss is %ha% 'Ss can be use# onl0 9i%h incor5ora%in! verbs$

%. Ba0e No1ns .n a3no6.nal 5os.t.ons

.2

'are Nouns

'are nouns an# in 5ar%icular 'Ss are also allo9e# in a#nominal 5osi%ions ei%her as mo#ifiers or as ar!umen%s of a N-hea#$ In bo%h cases %he0 mus% be 5rece#e# b0 %he 5re5osi%ion de (9e leave asi#e %hose con%e;%s in 9hich %he 'N is embe##e# in an a#nominal PP/ 9hich is 5resumabl0 nee#e# as a s0n%ac%ic le!i%imiAer (recall %ha% inflec%ional !eni%ive Case canno% be assi!ne# %o 'Ns in Romanian/$ In e;am5les such as (B=/ 'Ss #eno%e 5ro5er%ies %ha% mo#if0 %he 5ro5er%0 e;5resse# b0 %he hea# noun (see cha5%er . *2 an# cha5%er B *2$1$+ for %he various meanin!s %hese PPs ma0 conve0/$
(B=/ hainL #e 6u#ecL%or #ress of 6u#!e >6u#!e #ress?

This use is also foun# 9i%h bare 5lurals3


(B+/ a$ !rL#iniRL #e co5ii !ar#en of chil#ren >-in#er!ar%en? b$ casL #e oas5eRi house of !ues%s >!ues% house?

No%e %ha% in a##i%ion %o %his use bare 5lurals an# bare mass nouns (in%ro#uce# b0 de/ bu% no% 'Ss ma0 also func%ion as ob6ec%s of #everbal nouns in com5le; even% nominaliAa%ions (see cha5%er ++/ in a mor5holo!0-#riven al%erna%ion 9i%h %he !eni%ive (as sho9n in cha5%er . sec%ion 1$1$+/$ Ar!umen%al 'Ns are s%ruc%urall0 #ifferen% from mo#ifier 'Ns3 %he0 occu50 an obli!a%or0 5osi%ion 9i%h com5le; even% nominaliAa%ions (see cha5%er ++/ an# %he0 are res%ric%e# %o 5lural an# mass 9hile mo#ifier de H 'Ns as 9e have seen ma0 have an0 number3
(B1/ a$ a#ucerea #e ca#ouri brin!$INF-%he of 5resen%s >%he brin!in! of 5resen%s? b$ Xa#ucerea #e ca#ou brin!$INF-%he of 5resen%

7ven nouns comin! from verbs 9hich allo9 'S ob6ec%s a55ear %o #isallo9 ar!umen%al 'Ss3
(B2/ a$ XcLu%area #e #oc%or search$INF-%he of #oc%or b$ XcLu%a%ul #e bucL%ar search$SDP-%he of cooc$ X5ur%a%ul #e 5LlLrie 9ear$SDP-%he of ha%

The #is%inc%ion be%9een ar!umen%al an# mo#if0in! a#nominal 'Ns ma0 corres5on# %o a ca%e!orial #is%inc%ion$ :o#if0in! 'Ns are %rul0 bare NPs 9hich lac- %he D-level of re5resen%a%ion$ Gn %he o%her han# 9e have seen %ha% %here are ar!umen%s in favor of %he DPanal0sis of 'Ns %ha% occu50 ar!umen%al 5osi%ions in %he sen%en%ial #omain3 s%ric%l0 s5ea-in! such 'Ns are no% bare NPs ra%her %he0 are !overne# b0 a cover% De%erminer$ This anal0sis seems %o e;%en# %o a#nominal ar!umen%al 'Ns$ The fac% %ha% 'Ss can a55ear in ar!umen% 5osi%ions in %he sen%en%ial #omain bu% no% in a#nominal ar!umen% 5osi%ions remains %o be .4

'are Nouns

e;5laine#$ :a0be %he nominal suffi; 5reven%s %he inser%ion of %he e;is%en%ial o5era%or$

&. Ba0e abst0a/t no1ns .n a0416ent 5os.t.ons


Abs%rac% nouns are allo9e# %o a55ear bare in %he ob6ec% 5osi%ion of cer%ain verbs3
(B4/ a$ AM%ea5%L #e la noi EnRele!ere Mi com5asiune $ 9ai%s from us un#ers%an#in! an# com5assion >(S/he e;5ec%s un#ers%an#in! an# com5assion from us? b$ Cau%L liniM%e$ see-s %ran@uili%0 >(S/he see-s %ran@uili%0? c$ Cere subal%ernilor 5unc%uali%a%e$ #eman#s subor#ina%es$DAT 5unc%uali%0 >(S/he #eman#s 5unc%uali%0 from his/her subor#ina%es? #$ Im5une subal%ernilor e;ac%i%a%e$ im5oses subor#ina%es$DAT e;ac%i%u#e >(S/he im5oses e;ac%i%u#e on his/her subor#ina%es? e$ Ne-a ceru% caAare$ us$DAT-has as-e# lo#!in!$? >(S/he as-e# us for lo#!in!?

The bare use of abs%rac% nouns is e;5ec%e# !iven %he fac% %ha% %he0 are com5arable %o mass nouns P for ins%ance %he0 allo9 @uan%i%0 5hrases (see (B,// P$ This 5ro5er%0 is #ue %o %he fac% %ha% %he0 have a scalar #imension (%he scale inheren% %o %he @uali%0/ on a 5ar 9i%h concre%e mass nouns 9hich have a scalar #imension corres5on#in! %o %he ammoun% of ma%%er$
(B,/ mul%L EnRele!ere /com5asiune/ liniM%e much un#ers%an#in! com5assion %ran@uili%0 >a lo% of un#ers%an#in!/com5assion/%ran@uili%0?

'are abs%rac% nouns can a55ear 5ro#uc%ivel0 in 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ions 9i%h im5ersonal S7-verbs in e;am5les %ha% are com5arable in in%er5re%a%ion %o %hose in (B4/3
(B4?/ a$ Se aM%ea5%L #e la noi EnRele!ere Mi com5asiune $ R7FL 9ai%s from us un#ers%an#in! an# com5assion >I% is e;5ec%e# from us (%o sho9/ un#ers%an#in! an# com5assion? b$ Se cau%L liniM%e$ R7FL see-s %ran@uili%0 >Tran@uili%0 is sou!h%? c$ Se cere subal%ernilor 5unc%uali%a%e$ R7FL #eman#s subor#ina%es-%he$DAT 5unc%uali%0 >Punc%uali%0 is #eman#e# from subor#ina%es? #$ Se im5une subal%ernilor e;ac%i%a%e$ R7FL im5oses subor#ina%es-%he$DAT e;ac%i%u#e >7;ac%i%u#e is im5ose# on subor#ina%es? e$ Ni s-a ceru% caAare$ us$DAT R7FL-has as-e# lo#!in!$? >Ue 9ere as-e# for lo#!in!$?

'are abs%rac% nouns also a55ear 9i%h su55or% verbs an# in i#ioma%ic e;5ressions3

.,

'are Nouns (B./ a$ a avea %im5 /nevoie/obicei %o have %ime nee# cus%om b$ a face s5or% /baie/ #ra!os%e/amor/ febrL /scan#al /curLRenie %o ma-e s5or% ba%h love love fever scan#al cleanin! c$ a 5rin#e cura6 /urL /ciu#L %o !a%her coura!e ha%e s5i%e

(. Ba0e S.n41la0s .n P0e3./ate Pos.t.ons. A /o65a0.son D.t8 S.n41la0 In3ef.n.tes


This sec%ion focuses on coun% bare sin!ulars in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions 9hich sho9 in%eres%in! con%ras%s 9i%h sin!ular in#efini%es$ No such con%ras%s e;is% for 'Ps 9hich are un#er#e%ermine# in %he sense %ha% %he0 can func%ion as %he 5lural coun%er5ar%s of ei%her 'Ss or sin!ular in#efini%es$ Sec%ion <$+ 5resen%s %he classes of nouns for 9hich coun% bare sin!ulars are 5ro#uc%ivel0 use# (ins%ea# of sin!ular in#efini%es/ in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions$ In %his con%e;% 'Ss func%ion as !enuine 5re#ica%es %heir #is%ribu%ion bein! 5arallel %o %he #is%ribu%ion of a#6ec%ives an# con%ras%in! 9i%h %he #is%ribu%ion of sin!ular in#efini%es$ 'Ss in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions can %herefore be anal0Ae# as bare NPs an# correla%ivel0 as #eno%in! 5ro5er%ies$ Co5ular sen%ences buil% 9i%h unmo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es behave in a ver0 #ifferen% 9a0 9hich su!!es%s %ha% %he0 are no% 5re#ica%ional bu% ra%her i#en%ifica%ional/s5ecifica%ional sen%ences$ :o#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es as 9ell as unmo#ifie# in#efini%es %ha% e;5ress %he s5ea-er?s a%%i%u#e (e$!$ un clovn >a clo9n?% un imbecil >an i#io%?/ behave on a 5ar 9i%h 'Ss 9hich su!!es%s %ha% %he0 are sub6ec% %o a %05e-shif%in! rule$ (.1. Classes of no1ns Nouns %ha% refer %o 5rofessions roles social 5osi%ions or hobbies can a55ear 9i%hou% %he in#efini%e ar%icle 9hen %he0 occur as 5re#ica%es in co5ular sen%ences3
(B</ Ion e elev/ me#ic/ #ansa%or$ Ion is 5u5il #oc%or #ancer >Ion is a 5u5il/#oc%or/#ancer?

Nouns of %his %05e are s5ecial insofar as %he0 #escribe func%ions or roles of en%i%ies ra%her %han %he en%i%ies %ha% have %hose func%ions$ Com5are ob6ec%-referrin! nouns such as man% &oman% c!ild% bird% cat% c!air e%c$ 9hich #escribe en%i%ies ra%her %han %heir func%ions or roles$ In or#er %o #is%in!uish be%9een %hese %9o %05es of nouns 9e 9ill use %he labels > sortal. nouns 9hich #eno%e %he Bsortal. properties of en%i%ies (i$e$ %hose 5ro5er%ies %ha% charac%eriAe en%i%ies as belon!in! %o a cer%ain class sor% or -in# of ob6ec%s/ an# Brole. nouns 9hich #eno%e %heir func%ions or roles$ A !iven en%i%0 has onl0 one sor%al 5ro5er%0 bu% cer%ain en%i%ies ma0 have more %han one role3 %he same in#ivi#ual canno% be bo%h a man an# a 9oman (or if i% is bo%h i% is ano%her sor% of en%i%0 9hich is #efine# b0 %he con6unc%ion of %hose %9o sor%al 5ro5er%ies/ bu% he or she can be no% onl0 a #ancer bu% also a 5rofessor a la90er e%c$ The secon# class of nouns %ha% can a55ear 9i%hou% an ar%icle in co5ular sen%ences are rela%ional nouns3
(BB/ a$ 'Lia%ul Ls%a nu mi-e vLr /5rie%en /cole!$ bo0-%he %his no% me$DAT-is cousin frien# collea!ue >This bo0 is no% m0 cousin/frien#/collea!ue? b$ Ion nu e vLr 5rie%en cole! cu mine / cu :aria$

..

'are Nouns Ion no% is cousin frien# collea!ue 9i%h me >Ion is no% m0/:aria?s cousin/frien#/collea!ue? 9i%h :aria

No%e %ha% %he ar!umen% of %he rela%ional noun can be ei%her a full DP as in (BBb/ or a mo#if0in! bare NP in%ro#uce# b0 de3
(BC/ Ion e fiu #e avoca%$ Ion is son of la9er >Ion is a son of la90er?

Finall0 nouns such as candidat >can#i#a%e? or pri(onier >5risoner? 9hich refer %o a 5ar%ici5an% %o an even% can also a55ear bare3
(C=/ a$ Ion e can#i#a% la munici5ale$ Ion is can#i#a%e %o munici5als >Ion is can#i#a%e %o munici5al elec%ions? b$ Ion e 5riAonier #e #oi ani$ Ion is 5risoner of %9o 0ears >Ion has been a 5risoner for %9o 0ears (no9/?

The %05e of #a%a #escribe# so far can be foun# in all Romance lan!ua!es inclu#in! French$ French is in%eres%in! insofar as i% allo9s coun% bare sin!ulars an# coun% bare 5lurals in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions bu% no% in ar!umen% 5osi%ions (9here des mus% be use# 9i%h coun% 5lurals an# un$une >a:ASC/F7:? is obli!a%or0 9i%h coun% sin!ulars 9i%h %he onl0 e;ce5%ion of li!h% verbs an# i#ioms/$ The case of French s%ron!l0 su!!es%s %ha% bare nouns in ar!umen% 5osi%ions canno% be anal0Ae# in %he same 9a0 as bare nouns in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions$

Romanian #iffers from mos% of %he o%her Romance lan!ua!es in %ha% even sor%al nouns such as cat% do % c!air e%c$ can be use# bare in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions$ Uhen %he0 #o so %he0 are in%er5re%e# as >be of %he -in# #o!? or >have %he -in#-5ro5er%0 #o!?3
(C+/ a$ 7l e EncL co5il$ he is s%ill chil# >Oe is s%ill a chil#? b$ Ninou e 5a5a!al Mi :inou e 5isicL$ Ninou is 5arro% an# :inou is ca% >Ninou is a 5arro% an# :inou is a ca%? c$ Aces% obiec% ciu#a% e scaun$ %his ob6ec% s%ran!e is chair >This s%ran!e ob6ec% is a chair? #$ Cre# cL 5asLrea #e-acolo e rWn#unicL %hin-$+SG %ha% bir#-%he of-%here is s9allo9 >I %hin- %ha% bir# over %here is a s9allo9?

(.2. T8e .nte0nal 6a>e+15 of Ba0e S.n41la0s an3 S.n41la0 In3ef.n.tes Nominal 5re#ica%es nee# no% be bare$ Thus e;am5les such as (B</ an# (C+/ al%erna%e 9i%h %hose in (C1/ an# (C2/ 9here a sin!ular in#efini%e !overne# b0 an over% ar%icle is 5resen%3
(C1/ (C2/ Ion e un elev/ me#ic/ #ansa%or$ Ion is a 5u5il #oc%or #ancer >Ion is a 5u5il/#oc%or/#ancer? a$ 7l e EncL un co5il$ he is s%ill a chil#

.<

'are Nouns >Oe is s%ill a chil#? b$ Ninou e un 5a5a!al Mi :inou e o 5isicL$ Ninou is a 5arro% an# :inou is a ca% >Ninou is a 5arro% an# :inou is a ca%? c$ Aces% obiec% ciu#a% e un scaun$ %his ob6ec% s%ran!e is a chair >This s%ran!e ob6ec% is a chair? #$ Aceas%L 5asLre e o rWn#unicL$ This bir#-%he is a s9allo9 >This bir# is a s9allo9?

In 9ha% follo9s 9e 9ill e;amine %he #ifferences be%9een nominal 5re#ica%es 9i%h an# 9i%hou% an ar%icle$ (.2.1. A0416ents of DP+.nte0nal No1ns an3 a0416ents of Ba0e No1ns Ui%h rela%ional nouns %he 5resence versus absence of %he ar%icle #e5en#s on %he mor5hos0n%ac%ic 5ro5er%ies of %he secon# ar!umen% of %he rela%ion$ No%e %ha% %he e;am5les in (BB/ re5ea%e# belo9 in 9hich %he secon# ar!umen% is realiAe# as a Da%ive or in%ro#uce# b0 %he 5re5osi%ion &it! are buil% 9i%h a bare noun$ If %he in#efini%e ar%icle is inser%e# %he e;am5les become un!ramma%ical3
(BB/ a$ 'Lia%ul Ls%a nu mi-e vLr /5rie%en /cole!$ bo0-%he %his no% me$DAT-is cousin frien# collea!ue >This bo0 is no% m0 cousin/frien#/collea!ue? b$ Ion nu e vLr 5rie%en/ cole! cu mine/ cu :aria$ Ion no% is cousin frien# collea!ue 9i%h me 9i%h :aria >Ion is no% m0/:aria?s cousin/frien#/collea!ue? (BB?/ a$ X'Lia%ul Ls%a nu mi-e un vLr /un 5rie%en/un cole!$ bo0-%he %his no% me$DAT-is a cousin a frien# a collea!ue b$ XIon nu e un vLr /un 5rie%en /un cole! cu mine/ cu :aria$ Ion no% is a cousin a frien# a collea!ue 9i%h me 9i%h :aria0

The un!ramma%icali%0 of %hese e;am5les is no% rela%e# %o %he 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion$ The e;am5les belo9 illus%ra%e %he same 5rohibi%ion for %he ob6ec% 5osi%ion 9i%h #e%erminers such as %he in#efini%e ar%icle %he #emons%ra%ive an# %he #efini%e ar%icle3
(C4/ a$ XAm gvLAu% En%Wlni%h un 5rie%en glui Ion cu Ionh$ have$+ seen me% a frien# G'L Ion 9i%h Ionh b$ XAm gvLAu% En%Wlni%h aces% 5rie%en glui Ion cu Ionh$ have$+ seen me% %his frien# G'L Ion 9i%h Ion c$ XAm gvLAu% En%Wlni%h 5rie%enul gcu Ionh$ have$+ seen me% frien#-%he 9i%h Ion

The !eneraliAa%ion un#erl0in! %his %05e of un!ramma%icali%0 concerns %he in%ernal ma-e-u5 of nominal cons%i%uen%s 3 Da%ive DPs an# &it!- PPs canno% occu50 DP-in%ernal 5osi%ions re!ar#less of 9he%her %he DP occu5ies a 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion as in (BB/ or an ar!umen% 5osi%ion as in (C4/ an# re!ar#less of %he %05e of De%erminer (bu% see %he Remar- a% %he en# of %his subsec%ion/$ No%e also %ha% %he same 5rohibi%ion hol#s for ar!umen%al 'Ps 9hich s%ron!l0 su!!es%s %ha% %hese nominal 5ro6ec%ions are DPs (ra%her %han bare NPs or bare NumPs/3
(C,/ a$ XI-am gvLAu% / En%Wlni%h 5rie%eni lui Ion$ him$DAT-have$+ seen me% frien#s G'L Ion

.B

'are Nouns b$ XAm gvLAu% / En%Wlni%h 5rie%eni gcu Ionh$ have$+ seen me% frien#s 9i%h Ion

The un!ramma%icali%0 of (C,/a-b con%ras%s 9i%h %he !ramma%icali%0 of %he e;am5les in (C./ 9hich sho9 %ha% 'Ps in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions allo9 Da%ive-mar-e# ar!umen%s as 9ell as PPs hea#e# b0 cu >9i%h?3
(C./ a$ 'LieRii LM%ia nu-mi sun% veri/ 5rie%eni cole!i$ bo0s-%he %hese no%-me$DAT are cousins frien#s collea!ues >These bo0s are no% m0 cousins/frien#s/collea!ues? b$ Ion Mi Dan nu-s veri/ 5rie%eni / cole!i cu mine/ cu :aria$ Ion an# Dan no%-are cousins frien#s collea!ues 9i%h me 9i%h :aria >Ion an# Dan are no% m0/:aria?s cousins/frien#s/collea!ues?

This arra0 of #a%a in#ica%e %ha% 9hen %he0 are cons%ruc%e# 9i%h Da%ives an# 9i%h-PPs 'Ss an# 'Ps in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions (see (BB/ an# (C./ res5ec%ivel0/ are no% DPs (if %he0 9ere %hese e;am5les 9oul# be un!ramma%ical/ bu% ra%her bare NPs$ This con%ras% su55or%s %hus %he anal0sis of 'Ss in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions in !eneral as NPs$ The Number fea%ure i%self is no% an in%er5re%able fea%ure of %he nominal 5re#ica%e bu% ra%her is inheri%e# from %he sub6ec% DP via a!reemen%$ 'Ps in ar!umen% 5osi%ions on %he o%her han# behave on a 5ar 9i%h full DPs insofar as %he0 #isallo9 Da%ives an# &it!-PPs$ To conclu#e bare nominals in co5ular sen%ences are allo9e# %o %a-e %he same %05e of ar!umen%s an# mo#ifiers e$!$ Da%ives an# PPs as o%her clausal 5re#ica%es such as verbs or a#6ec%ives$ Ue ma0 sa0 %ha% such cons%i%uen%s canno% be syntactically le!i%ima%e# b0 %he noun qua ob6ec%-#escribin! 5re#ica%e (al%hou!h %he0 ma0 be selec%e# b0 %he noun in o%her 9or#s %he0 ma0 be ar!umen%s of %he noun/ bu% ra%her b0 %he noun qua clausal 5re#ica%e$ The un!ramma%icali%0 of %he e;am5les buil% 9i%h sin!ular in#efini%es (see XHX/ s%ron!l0 su!!es%s %ha% sin!ular in#efini%es in 5os%co5ular 5osi%ions #o no% func%ion as !enuine clausal 5re#ica%es bu% ra%her as DPs$ No%e also %ha% bare rela%ional nouns such as %hose in (C./ #isallo9 !eni%ive DPs 9hile %he corres5on#in! sin!ular in#efini%es allo9 %hem3
(C</ 'Lia%ul Ls%a nu e X(un/ vLr / 5rie%en/ cole! al lui$ bo0-%he %his no% is a cousin frien# collea!ue G7N his >This bo0 is no% a cousin/frien#/collea!ue of his?

This res%ric%ion is no% foun# 9i%h o%her 'Ss %a-in! com5lemen%s3 (i/ 7l e #e mulRi ani a#minis%ra%or al uAinei / an!a6a% al com5aniei he is of man0 0ears a#minis%ra%or G7N 5lan%-%he$G7N em5lo0ee G7N com5an0-%he$G7N >Oe has been a 5lan% a#minis%ra%or /com5an0 em5lo0ee for man0 0ears?

(.2.2. P0e5os.t.onal an3 a32e0b.al a371n/ts A similar al%erna%ion be%9een a 'S an# an in#efini%e can be foun# 9i%h 5rofession names 3
(CB/ a$ Ion e (Xun/ 5rofesor En 'ucureM%i/ la RarL$ Ion is a 5rofessor in 'uchares% a% coun%r0si#e >Ion is a %eacher in 'uchares%/a% %he coun%r0si#e? b$ Ion e X(un/ 5rofesor #in 'ucureM%i/ #e la RarL$ Ion is a 5rofessor from 'uchares% of a% coun%r0si#e >Ion is a %eacher from 'uchares%/from %he coun%r0si#e?

In or#er %o #escribe %he #a%a in (CB/a-b 9e mus% recall %ha% in Romanian 5re5osi%ional .C

'are Nouns

a#6unc%s mus% be 5rece#e# b0 de 9henever %he0 occur in a#nominal 5osi%ions ne;% %o an en%i%0-#eno%in! noun 3
(CC/ a$ Ion are/ a vLAu% Yo casLZ YEn 'ucureM%i/ la mareZ$ Ion has has seen a house in 'uchares% a% sea >Ion has/has seen a house in 'uchares%/b0 %he sea? b$ YCasa lui Ion #in ([ #e HEn/ 'ucureM%i / #e la mareZ$ house-%he G7N Ion from ([ of H in/ 'uchares% of a% sea >Ion?s house in/from 'uchares%/b0 %he sea?

Since in (CB/a %he PP is no% 5rece#e# b0 de i% canno% be le!i%ima%e# in a DP-in%ernal 5osi%ion I %his e;5lains 9h0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle is e;clu#e#$ If %he noun remains bare i% ma0 func%ion as a clausal 5re#ica%e (ra%her %han as a DP-in%ernal 5re#ica%e/ an# as such i% can le!i%ima%e %he PP$ Conversel0 PPs 5rece#e# b0 de are of necessi%0 DP-in%ernal an# %herefore %he in#efini%e ar%icle is nee#e# (see (CB/b/$ No%e %ha% %he same al%erna%ion can be foun# 9i%h sor%al i$e$ ob6ec%-referrin! nouns$ The onl0 com5lica%in! fac%or is %ha% sor%al nouns are com5a%ible 9i%h DP-e;%ernal PPs onl0 in con%ras%ive con%e;%s3
(+==/ a$ :iRu e (Xo/ 5isicL la oraM si (Xun/ cWine la RarL$ :iRu is a ca% a% ci%0 an# a #o! in coun%r0si#e >:iRu is a ca% in %he ci%0 an# a #o! a% %he coun%r0si#e? b$ :iRu e o 5isicL #e la oraM$ :iRu is a ca% of a% ci%0$ >:iRu is a ci%0 ca%?

Tem5oral a#verbials 9i%hou% de can be use# onl0 DP-e;%ernall0 an# correla%ivel0 %he noun (9hich can be of an0 %05e/ mus% be bare3
(+=+/ a$ Prie%enul meu e (Xun/ s%u#en% Aiua Mi (Xun/ #is--6oc-e0 noa5%ea$ frien#-%he m0 is a s%u#en% #a0-%he an# a DN ni!h%-%he >:0 frien# is a s%u#en% #urin! %he #a0 an# a DN #urin! %he ni!h%? b$ Gol#ora- e (Xun/ miel Aiua Mi (Xun/ lu5 noa5%ea$ Gol#oea- is a lamb #a0-%he an# a 9olf ni!h%-%he >Gol#oea- is a lamb #urin! %he #a0 an# a 9olf #urin! %he ni!h%?

The use of bare sor%al nouns illus%ra%e# here has a clear seman%ic effec%3 %he sub6ec% mus% be in%er5re%e# as some fan%as%ic crea%ure %ha% has %he !if% of me%amor5hosis$ Uha% is 5ar%icularl0 in%eres%in! is %ha% %he 5resence of sen%en%ial a#verbials coerces sor%al 5ro5er%ies 9hich are necessaril0 s%able viA$ 5ermanen% in%o s-level (%em5orar0/ 5ro5er%ies 9hich are incom5a%ible 9i%h %he 5resence of an in#efini%e ar%icle$
Re6a0> +$ In e;am5les of %he %05e in (/ bare sor%al nouns are allo9e# even in %he o%her Romance lan!ua!es 9hich are curren%l0 #escribe# as #isallo9in! %hem in %he 5os%co5ular 5osi%ion$ Re6a0> 2. The !eneraliAa%ion %ha% Da%ives loca%ive an# &it!- PPs an# a#verbials canno% be DPin%ernal hol#s for en%i%0-referrin! DPs$ 7ven%-referrin! DPs 9hich are no% #irec%l0 relevan% here allo9 %hem (see Cha5%er ++ P Deverbal nouns/3 Prie%enia cu Ion nu #uce la nimic bun$ frien#shi5-%he 9i%h Ion no% lea#s %o no%hin! !oo# >'ein! frien#s 9i%h Ion #oesn?% lea# %o an0%hin! !oo#? Nas%erea En 'ucureM%i ERi oferL mari avan%a6e$ bir%h-%he in 'uchares% 0ou$DAT offers bi! a#van%a!es >'ein! born in 'uchares% offers 0ou !rea% a#van%a!es?

(i/ (ii/

<=

'are Nouns

(.2.3. Mo3.f.e0s an3 A0416ents of Ba0e S.n41la0s Consi#er no9 %he case of bare 5re#ica%es accom5anie# b0 a#6ec%ives3
(+=1/ a$ Ion e un me#ic !eneralis%/ cins%i%/ care are 5es%e ,= ani$ Ion is a #oc%or !eneralis% hones% 9ho has over ,= 0ears >Ion is a !eneralis% #oc%or/ an hones% #oc%or/ a #oc%or 9ho has over ,= 0ears? b$ Ion e me#ic !eneralis%/Xcins%i%/Xcare are 5es%e ,= ani$ Ion is #oc%or !eneralis% hones% 9ho has over ,= 0ears c$ Pe%re e 5rofesor #e ma%ema%icL/ #ansa%or #e %an!o$ Pe%re is %eacher of ma%hema%ics #ancer of %an!o >Pe%re is a ma%h %eacher/%an!o #ancer?

These e;am5les seem %o sho9 %ha% onl0 classif0in! a#6ec%ives an# PPs can mo#if0 a coun% bare sin!ular 0iel#in! reference %o more s5ecific roles func%ions 5rofessions e%c$ No%e ho9ever %ha% in cer%ain con%e;%s 'Ss in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions can be mo#ifie# b0 a#6ec%ives %ha% are no% classif0in!3
(+=2/ a$ Paul e avoca% bun$ Paul is la90er !oo# >Paul is a !oo# la90er? b$ Ion e 5rofesor 5ros%$ Ion is %eacher ba# >Ion is a ba# %eacher? c$ :aria e 5ianis%L bunL$ :aria is 5ianis% !oo# >:aria is a !oo# 5ianis%? #$ Ion e 5ensionar %WnLr$ Ion is re%ire# 0oun! >Ion is a 0oun! re%ire# 5erson?

In %hese e;am5les ood la&yer bad professor or ood pianist are no% sub%05es of 5rofessionI ho9ever %hese a#6ec%ives are no% in%ersec%ive ei%her3 e;am5le (a/ #oes no% mean %ha% Paul is bo%h a la90er an# !oo# a% hear% bu% onl0 %ha% he is !oo# as a la90er$ No%e finall0 %ha% %hese e;am5les #o no% im5l0 %ha% %he sub6ec%s are 5rofessional la90ers or 5ianis%s %he0 ma0 be un#ers%oo# as havin! %hose roles as hobbies$ :oreover %he a#6ec%ive seems %o 5rovi#e %he ne9 informa%ion of %he sen%ence$ Thus @ues%ions of %he %05e in (+=4/ 9hich are @ues%ions re!ar#in! 5rofessions canno% be ans9ere# 9i%h %his %05e of mo#ifie# 'SI onl0 classif0in! mo#ifiers are allo9e#3
(+=4/ a$ Ce e Ion K 9ha% is Ion >Uha% is Ion? b$ Ion e 5rofesor (#e ma%ema%icL/$ Ion is %eacher of ma%hema%ics >Ion is a (ma%h/ %eacher? c$ mIon e 5rofesor bun$ Ion is %eacher !oo# >Ion is a !oo# %eacher?

The in%ui%ive rea#in! associa%e# %o e;am5les of %he %05e in (+=2/ can be 5ara5hrase# b0 >Paul is !oo# as a la90er? e%c$ Similar e;am5les can be buil% 9i%h rela%ional nouns3

<+

'are Nouns (+=,/ :aria va fi mamL bL%rWnL$ :aria 9ill be mo%her ol# >:aria 9ill become mo%her ol#?

Cer%ain @uasi-i#ioms are anal0Aable in a similar 9a03


(+=./ a$ :aria e fa%L bL%rWnL$ :aria is !irl ol# >:aria is a s5ins%er? b$ Ion e %a%L %WnLr$ Ion is fa%her 0oun! >Ion is a 0oun! fa%her?

(.3. TDo t95es of /o51la0 senten/es The observa%ions ma#e in %he 5revious sec%ion clearl0 in#ica%e %ha% %he 5re#ica%e nominals a55earin! in co5ular sen%ences ma0 be ei%her bare NPs or DPs$ Ue ma0 9on#er 9he%her %his #ifference correla%es 9i%h a #ifference be%9een %9o %05es of co5ular sen%ences or 9he%her some %05e-shif%in! mechanism can be 5os%ula%e# 9hich shif%s a DP-%05e #eno%a%ion (%05e e/ occurrin! in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion %o a 5re#ica%e-%05e #eno%a%ion (%05e ee %f/$ No%e %ha% if %05eshif%in! 9ere a% 9or- for sin!ular in#efini%es 9e 9oul# no% e;5ec% %he choice of a 'S versus a sin!ular in#efini%e %o #e5en# on %he lar!er con%e;%3 a DP 9oul# func%ion as a 5re#ica%e as soon as 9e combine# i% 9i%h %he co5ula$ In 9ha% follo9s 9e sho9 %ha% sin!ular in#efini%e DPs %ha% are buil% 9i%h a non-mo#ifie# noun (e$!0% un actor >an ac%or?% un student >a s%u#en%?% e%c$/ occurrin! in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions cannot be shif%e# %o a 5ro5er%0-%05e of #eno%a%ion 0iel#in! clear con%ras%s 9i%h bare Ns$ Oo9ever %hese con%ras%s are much less clear viA$ #isa55ear 9hen %he sin!ular in#efini%e is buil% 9i%h an a#nominal mo#ifier (e$!$ un actor bun >a !oo# ac%or? un student silitor >a har#-9or-in! s%u#en%? e%c$/ 9hich su!!es%s %ha% %his -in# of sin!ular in#efini%es can be shif%e# %o 5ro5er%0-%05e #eno%a%ion$ The 5ro5er%0 #eno%a%ion also a55ears 9i%h cer%ain unmo#ifie# nouns #eno%in! @uali%ies such as un dobitoc >an i#io%? un eniu >a !enius? an# 9i%h o%her nouns in a me%a5horical use 9here %he0 #eno%e (sub6ec%ive/ scalar @uali%ies (see <$2$2 belo9/$ These em5irical !eneraliAa%ions 5oin% %o %he necessi%0 of #is%in!uishin! be%9een %9o %05es of co5ular sen%ences$ Co5ular sen%ences buil% 9i%h bare sin!ulars (as 9ell as %hose buil% 9i%h mo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es/ rel0 on !enuine 5re#ica%ion 9hereas co5ular sen%ences buil% 9i%h unmo#ifie# in#efini%es are %o be anal0Ae# as (a 5ar%icular %05e of/ i#en%ifica%ional sen%ences$ '0 a >!enuine? rule of 5re#ica%ion 9e mean %ha% %he sen%ence asser%s %ha% %he sub6ec% has %he 5ro5er%0 (or %he 5rofession role/ or en%er%ains %he rela%ion #escribe# b0 %he 5re#ica%e$ In i#en%ifica%ional sen%ences on %he o%her han# %he sub6ec% refers %o a 0e% noni#en%ifie# en%i%0 (9hich has no 5ro5er%0 o%her %han %he (sor%al/ 5ro5er%0 #eno%e# b0 i%s nominal #escri5%ion/ %ha% is i#en%ifie# %o %he en%i%0 #eno%e# b0 %he 5re#ica%e$ (.3.1. P0e3./at.onal senten/es In %his sec%ion 9e enumera%e %he con%e;%s in 9hich a clear con%ras% a55ears be%9een bare sin!ulars 9hich are allo9e# an# sin!ular in#efini%es 9hich are rule# ou%$ This con%ras% can be anal0Ae# b0 sa0in! %ha% %he relevan% con%e;%s re@uire a !enuine 5re#ica%ion rela%ion$ For each class of e;am5les 9e sho9 %ha% mo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es are allo9e# 9hich in#ica%es %ha% %05e-shif%in! from en%i%0- %o 5ro5er%0-#eno%a%ion is 5ossible 5rovi#e# %ha% %he noun is mo#ifie#$

<1

'are Nouns

; P0e3./ate 5os.t.on of s6all /la1ses In %he 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion of small clauses 'Ss are allo9e# 9hereas sin!ular in#efini%es are #isallo9e#$ The fac% %ha% %his 5osi%ion allo9s !enuine 5re#ica%ion is in#ica%e# b0 %he 5ossibili%0 of o%her %05es of 5os%-co5ular 5re#ica%es e$!$ a#6ec%ives or PPs$ The e;am5le in (+=<_/ sho9s %ha% a mo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%e can func%ion as %he 5re#ica%e of a small clause3
(+=</ a$ 7u El cre#eam/ soco%eam (Xun/ 5rofesor$ I him$ACC %hou!h% consi#ere# a %eacher >I consi#ere# him a %eacher? b$ 7u El cre#eam #eM%e5%$ I him$ACC %hou!h% smar% >I consi#ere# him smar%? c$ 7u El cre#eam En 5rime6#ie$ I him$ACC %hou!h% in #an!er >I consi#ere# him in #an!er? #$ 7u El cre#eam la Paris I him$ACC %hou!h% a% Paris >I consi#ere# him in Paris? (+=<_/ 7u El soco%eam un 5rofesor bun$ I him$ACC consi#ere# a %eacher !oo# >I consi#ere# him a !oo# %eacher?

Dnmo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es are acce5%able for nouns #eno%in! (scalar/ @uali%ies3
(+=B/ a$ Te consi#er un #obi%oc 0ou$ACC consi#er$+SG an i#io% >I consi#er 0ou an i#io%? b$ `l soco%eam un !eniu him$ACC consi#ere#$+SG a !enius >I consi#ere# him a !enius?

G%her nouns ma0 behave in %he same 9a0 9hen %he0 are me%a5horicall0 use# meanin! >li-e an N havin! %he 5ro5er%ies of an N?3
(+=C/ `l soco%ea un come#ian / un clovn him$ACC consi#ere#$2SG a come#ian a clo9n >Oe consi#ere# him a comic/a clo9n?

n Se/on3a09 50e3./ates Secon#ar0 5re#ica%ion bearin! on %he sub6ec% is ano%her con%e;% in 9hich 'Ss con%ras% 9i%h unmo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es$ A!ain mo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es as 9ell as %hose #eno%in! scalar @uali%ies are acce5%able3
(++=/ Ion s-a nLscu% (Xun/ 5rinR Mi a muri% (Xun/ cerMe%or$ Ion R7FL-has born a 5rince an# has #ie# a be!!ar >Nohn 9as born a 5rince an# #ie# a be!!ar? (+++/ Ion s-a nLscu% un 5rinR bo!a% Mi a muri% un cerMe%or sLrac$ Ion R7FL-has born a 5rince rich an# has #ie# a be!!ar 5oor >Ion 9as born a rich 5rince an# #ie# a 5oor be!!ar? (++1/ Ion s-a nLscu% un !eniu Mi a muri% un #obi%oc$ Ion R7FL-has born a !enius an# has #ie# an i#io% >Ion 9as born a !enius an# #ie# an i#io%?

<2

'are Nouns

n -1ant.f./at.onal s1b7e/ts3 The e;am5les in (++2/ sho9 %ha% 'Ss can be 5re#ica%e# of @uan%ifica%ional sub6ec%s 9hereas sin!ular unmo#ifie# in#efini%es canno% #o so (9i%h %he e;ce5%ion no%e# above see (c//3
(++2/ a$ Nimeni nu e (Xun/ ac%or$ nobo#0 no% is an ac%or >Nobo#0 is an ac%or? b$ Gricine 5oa%e fi (Xun/ me#ic$ an0bo#0 can be a #oc%or >An0bo#0 can be a #oc%or? c$ Nu oricine 5oa%e fi un !eniu$ no% an0bo#0 can be a !enius >No% an0bo#0 can be a !enius?

8uan%ifie# e;5ressions #eno%e !eneraliAe# @uan%ifiers i$e$ se%s of 5ro5er%ies ra%her %han en%i%ies an# %herefore %he main 5re#ica%e 9i%h 9hich %he0 combine #eno%es a 5ro5er%0$ The un!ramma%icali%0 of unmo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es in#ica%es %ha% %hese e;5ressions canno% be anal0Ae# as #eno%in! 5ro5er%ies$ This un!ramma%icali%0 ma0 be e;5laine# un#er %he assum5%ions %ha% %he0 #eno%e en%i%ies an# %he i#en%ifica%ional co5ula re@uires an en%i%0 #eno%a%ion in bo%h ar!umen%s of %he rela%ion 9hich e;clu#es !eneraliAe# @uan%ifiers as sub6ec%s$ :o#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es are never%heless acce5%able in %he same con%e;%3
(++4/ a$ Nimeni nu e un ac%or #esLvWrMi% 5WnL nu 6oacL Re!ele Lear$ nobo#0 no% is an ac%or accom5lishe# before no% 5la0s Sin! Lear >Noone is an accom5lishe# ac%or un%il he 5la0s Sin! Lear? b$ Gricine 5oa%e fi un me#ic bun #acL M%ie sL vorbeascL cu bolnavii$ an0bo#0 can be a #oc%or !oo# if -no9s SD'N s5ea9i%h ill-5eo5le-%he >An0one can be a !oo# #oc%or is (s/he -no9s %o %al- %o %he sic-?

; Ante/e3ents of /eea /e GD8./8H E.n non+0est0./t.2e 0elat.2e /la1sesF The e;am5les in (++,/ can be un#ers%oo# b0 assumin! %ha% ceea ce >9hich? can onl0 resume a 5ro5er%0-#eno%in! e;5ression$ Gnce a!ain 'Ss as 9ell as mo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es func%ion as 5ro5er%0-#eno%in! 9hereas unmo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es canno% #o so3
(++,/ a$ Ion e (Xun/ me#ic ceea ce eu nu voi fi nicio#a%L$ Ion is a #oc%or 9hich I no% 9ill be never >Ion is a #oc%or some%hin! I 9ill never be? b$ :aria e in%eli!en%L ceea ce eu nu voi fi nicio#a%L$ :aria is smar% 9hich I no% 9ill be never >:aria is smar% some%hin! I 9ill never be? c$ Ion e (un/ me#ic bun ceea ce eu nu voi fi nicio#a%L$ Ion is a #oc%or !oo# 9hich I no% 9ill be never >Ion is a !oo# #oc%or some%hin! I 9ill never be?

; Qua senten/es @ua-mo#ifiers can be use# 9i%h 'Ss because %hese e;5ressions #eno%e roles 5rofessions e%c$ bu% no% 9i%h sin!ular in#efini%es 9hich #eno%e en%i%ies %ha% have a cer%ain role or 5rofession3
(++./ a$ Ion e #e 5rofesie (Xun/ avoca% Ion is of 5rofession a la90er

<4

'are Nouns >Ion is a la90er? b$ Ca reli!ie Ion e (Xun/ creM%in$ As reli!ion Ion is a Chris%ian >As for his reli!ion Ion is a Chris%ian?

In %his case mo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es are also un!ramma%ical3


(++</ XIon e #e 5rofesie un avoca% bun$ Ion is of 5rofession a la90er !oo#

This is e;5ec%e#3 #ue %o %05e-shif%in! mo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es #eno%e %he 5ro5er%0 of bein! a !oo#/ba# la90er bu% %he0 canno% #eno%e %he 5rofession of !oo#/ba# la90er$ (.3.2. I3ent.f./at.onal+s5e/.f./at.onal senten/es Ue have so far !iven a ne!a%ive charac%eriAa%ion of 5os%co5ular unmo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es3 %he0 canno% func%ion as !enuine 5re#ica%es i$e$ as 5ro5er%0-#eno%in! e;5ressions$ Ue shoul# no9 %urn %o a 5osi%ive charac%eriAa%ion3 (i/ 9ha% are %he con%e;%s in 9hich %he0 are allo9e#K (ii/ 9ha% %05e of rela%ion is es%ablishe# be%9een %he sub6ec% an# a 5os%co5ular sin!ular in#efini%eK Uhen %he0 are no% mo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es can be use# as 5re#ica%es onl0 in a res%ric%e# number of con%e;%s3 ; AnsDe0s to cine+I1est.ons In cine-@ues%ions %he 5os%co5ular DP is a sub6ec% %ha% refers %o an en%i%0 %ha% is no% 0e% i#en%ifie# b0 %he s5ea-er (%he @ues%ioner/I cine >9ho? i%self is %he 5re#ica%e of %he @ues%ion3
(++B/ Cine e :aria K 9ho is :aria >Uho is :ariaK?

The 5re#ica%ional s%a%us of cine is clear 9hen 9e consi#er %he ans9ers %o cine-@ues%ions3
(++C/ a$ :aria e sora mea$ :aria is sis%er-%he m0 >:aria is m0 sis%er? b$ :aria e o cole!L #e-a mea$ :aria is a collea!ue of-G7N mine >:aria is a collea!ue of mine? c$ :aria e o 5rofesoarL$ :aria is a %eacher(F7:/ >:aria is a %eacher? #$ m:aria e 5rofesoarL$ :aria is %eacher(F7:/ >:aria is %eacher?

In %hese sen%ences %he 5os%co5ular DPs 9hich re5lace cine >9ho? are 5re#ica%es$ An# since %he sub6ec%-5re#ica%e 5ar%i%ion is 5resumabl0 %he same in @ues%ion-ans9er 5airs 9e are le# %o anal0Ae cine as a 5re#ica%e$ No%e %ha% %he sub6ec% 5osi%ion of &!o-@ues%ions canno% hos% referen%ial #efini%e e;5ressions (unless &!o is in%er5re%e# as &!ic! i$e$ D-lin-e# see %he #iscussion 5rece#in! e;am5les (+11/ or as >9ha% is %he im5or%an% 5erson %ha% ; is?$$$/3

<,

'are Nouns (+1=/ a$ (X/ Cine e fra%ele luiK 9ho is bro%her-%he his >Uho is his bro%herK? b$ (X/ Cine e vecinul K 9ho is nei!hbor-%he >Uho is %he nei!hborK? (9i%h non-D-lin-e# cine/

'esi#es 5ro5er names %he onl0 DPs %ha% are allo9e# in cine-@ues%ions are a%%ribu%ive #efini%es an# DPs 9i%h referen%s i#en%ifie# b0 #ei;is 9hose i#en%i%0 is un-no9n3
(+1+/ a$ Cine e asasinul lui Ion K 9ho is assassin-%he G'L Ion >Uho is Ion?s mur#ererK? b$ Cine e aces% omK 9ho is %his man >Uho is %his manK?

No%e %ha% %he 5ro5er names %ha% are use# in cine-@ues%ions can %hemselves be vie9e# as a%%ribu%ive bein! 5ara5hrasable b0 >%he 5erson calle# :aria?3
(++B?/ Cine e (5ersoana care se numeM%e/ :aria K 9ho is 5erson 9hich R7FL calls :aria >Uho is (%he 5erson name#/ :ariaK?

These res%ric%ions in#ica%e %ha% in cine-@ues%ions %he sub6ec% DP can onl0 refer %o a no% 0e% i#en%ifie# en%i%0 9hich %he hearer is ur!e# %o i#en%if0/s5ecif0$ In 9ha% follo9s 9e 9ill refer %o such sen%ences as identificational/specificational sen%ences$ Uhenever cine >9ho? is in%er5re%e# as >9hich (one/? (b0 bein! D-lin-e# or over%l0 mo#ifie# b0 cer%ain a#verbials e$!$ cine aici de fa >9ho here 5resen%? >9ho amon! %he 5eo5le here?/ %he sen%ences in (+1=/ become acce5%able$ This observa%ion is no% sur5risin! !iven %he fac% %ha% care-@ues%ions (>9hich?-@ues%ions/ allo9 referen%ial sub6ec%s 3
(+11/ a$ Care e fra%ele avoca%uluiK 9hich is bro%her-%he la90er-%he$G7N >Uho is %he la90er?s bro%herK? b$ Care e vecinulK 9hich is nei!hbor-%he >Uhich is %he nei!hborK?

This observa%ion su!!es%s %ha% care-sen%ences are no% i#en%ifica%ional bu% ra%her i#en%i%0 sen%ences 9hich es%ablish an i#en%i%0 rela%ion be%9een %9o e@uall0 i#en%ifie# referen%ial e;5ressions$ The res%ric%ion %o a%%ribu%ive #efini%e DPs observe# above for cine >9ho?- @ues%ions can also be observe# for co5ular sen%ences buil% 9i%h unmo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es$ The e;am5le in (+12/c is acce5%able 9hereas %he e;am5les in (+12/a-b are unacce5%able un#er %he normal rea#in! of un avocat an# un medic (i$e$ 9hen %hese nouns are no% me%a5horicall0 use# for @uali%ies/0 The e;am5les in (+12/a-c are acce5%able if %he in#efini%es have a s5ecific in%er5re%a%ion (un avocat an# un medic 9oul# be in%er5re%e# as >a la90er I -no9? or >a #oc%or from %he Sal5o%ripre?/ in 9hich case %he co5ular sen%ences are i#en%i%0 s%a%emen%s ra%her %han i#en%ifica%ional/s5ecifica%ional sen%ences3
(+12/ a$ mFra%ele lui Ion e un avoca%$

<.

'are Nouns bro%her-%he G'L Ion is a la90er >Ion?s bro%her is a la90er? b$ mVecinul e un me#ic$ nei!hbor-%he is a #oc%or >The nei!hbor is a la90er? c$ Asasinul lui Ion e un me#ic$ assassin-%he G'L Ion is a #oc%or >Ion?s mur#erer is a #oc%or?

; P0esentat.onal /onte<ts Co5ular sen%ences buil% 9i%h neu%er sub6ec%s of %he %05e t!is$t!at are curren%l0 classifie# as i#en%ifica%ional an# as such %he0 are e;5ec%e# %o allo9 sin!ular in#efini%es in %he 5os%co5ular 5osi%ion3
(+14/ a$ as%a e un creion$ (9hen %eachin! a chil# %he names of %hin!s/ %his is a 5encil >This is a 5encil? b$ ala e un elefan%$ (9i%h a chil# in a Aoo/ %ha% is an ele5han% >Tha% is an ele5han%?

Demons%ra%ive DPs in sub6ec% 5osi%ion ma0 be vie9e# as a sub-%05e of i#en%ifica%ional sen%ences in 9hich %he en%i%0 #eno%e# b0 %he sub6ec% is i#en%ifie# as belon!in! %o a -in# an# %he 5re#ica%e is more s5ecific in %ha% i% i#en%ifies %he same en%i%0 as belon!in! %o a sub--in#$
(+1,/ PasLrea as%a e o rWn#unicL$ bir#-%he %his is a s9allo9 >This bir# is a s9allo9?

The e;am5le (+1=/b above is %he in%erro!a%ive coun%er5ar% of %his cons%ruc%ion 9here cine is %he 5re#ica%e$ ; Be4.nnn.n4 of a sto09 Sin!ular in#efini%es are also allo9e# as co5ular 5re#ica%es a% %he be!innin! of a s%or03
(+1./ Ion ges%eh/gerah gun bLrba% #e 2= anih/ gun avoca%h$ Ion is 9as a man of 2= 0ears a la90er >Ion {is/9as} {a 2=-0ear-ol#/a la90er }

Ion is no% 0e% -no9n %o %he rea#er an# %he 9ri%er in%ro#uces Ion b0 i#en%if0in! him 9i%h a ran#om in#ivi#ual 9ho is a la90er$ ; Def.n.t.ons Sin!ular in#efini%es are also allo9e# in #efini%ional s%a%emen%s3
(+1</ a$ Flu%urele e un le5i#o5%er$ bu%%erfl0-%he is a le5i#o5%eron >The bu%%erfl0 is a le5i#o5%eron? b$ 'alena e un mamifer$ 9hale-%he is a mammal >The 9hale is a mammal?

<<

'are Nouns

Defini%ions can be anal0Ae# as involvin! an a%%ribu%ive use of a name of -in# e$!$ %he -in# abou% 9e #o no% -no9 an0%hin! else besi#es i%s name e$!$ >bu%%erfl0? or >9hale? an# a 5re#ica%e %ha% #eno%es a class of -in#s (or %he h05er--in#/ %o 9hich %ha% -in# belon!s e$!$ %he class of le5i#o5%erons 9hich con%ains o%her sub--in#s besi#es bu%%erflies$ Similarl0 in (+1</b %he -in# 9hale is #efine# as belon!in! %o %he class of -in#s #eno%e# b0 %he h05er--in# mammalI in o%her 9or#s %he 9hale is a sub--in# of mammals$ (.3.3. Meta58o0./ 1ses of s.n41la0 .n3ef.n.tes Ue have seen %ha% sin!ular in#efini%es 9i%h @uali%0 rea#in!s 9hich are of%en base# on me%on0mic shif%s 5a%%ern 9i%h 'Ss (an# a#6ec%ives/ ra%her %han 9i%h o%her (unmo#ifie#/ sin!ular in#efini%es3
(+1B/ Ion es%e un clo9n/ un 5orc/ un mL!ar/ un i#io%$ Ion is a clo9n a 5i! a #on-e0 an i#io% >Ion is a clo9n/a 5i!/a #on-e0/an i#io%?

A 5ossible e;5lana%ion for %his behaviour is %ha% %hese nouns allo9 %05e-shif%in! of %he in#efini%e DPs %o a 5ro5er%0 rea#in! 5robabl0 #ue %o %he @uali%0 in%er5re%a%ion$ Therefore sen%ences of %his %05e are 5re#ica%ional an# as such %he0 are com5a%ible 9i%h referen%ial sub6ec%s$ (.3.$. Con/l1s.ons Three %05es of co5ular sen%ences 9ere i#en%ifie# above3 5re#ica%ional i#en%ifica%ional/s5ecifica%ional an# i#en%i%0 sen%ences$ Gu% of %hese %05es onl0 %he firs% %9o 9ere e;amine# in some #e%ail$ The main !eneraliAa%ions concernin! each of %hem can be summariAe# as follo9s$ Pre#ica%ional sen%ences can %a-e referen%ial or @uan%ifica%ional sub6ec%s %heir 5re#ica%e is 5ro5er%0-#eno%in! an# (limi%in! ourselves %o sin!ular sub6ec%s/ can be e;5resse# b0 'Ss or mo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es (via %05e-shif%in!/$ I#en%ifica%ional/ s5ecifica%ional sen%ences on %he o%her han# can %a-e onl0 non-i#en%ifie# referen%ial sub6ec%s (a%%ribu%ive #efini%e DPs or #eic%ic DPs referrin! %o #irec%l0 5erceive# ob6ec%s/ an# %he0 are buil% 9i%h en%i%0-#eno%in! 5re#ica%es e;5resse# b0 sin!ular in#efini%e or #efini%e DPs$ The co5ular verb '7 %o!e%her 9i%h an en%i%0-#eno%in! DP #eno%es an i#en%i%0 rela%ionI 9hen %he 5re#ica%e is a sin!ular in#efini%e %he sub6ec% is i#en%ifie# %o a ran#om member of %he class$ The fac% %ha% unmo#ifie# sin!ular in#efini%es canno% be %05e-shif%e# is no% a >#ee5? 5ro5er%0$ Ra%her i% mi!h% be #ue %o econom0 consi#era%ions3 if 9e 9an% %o 5re#ica%e %he 5ro5er%0 of havin! a 5rofession/role e%c$ an# if %he lan!ua!e has 'Ss 9hich #irec%l0 refer %o 5rofessions roles %hen 9e 9ill use 'Ss ra%her %han a sin!ular in#efini%e %ha% 9oul# mean >%he class of in#ivi#uals %ha% have %ha% 5rofession?$ (.$. Ba0e no1ns .n .65e0sonal /onst01/t.ons Finall0 bare abs%rac% nouns can a55ear in im5ersonal cons%ruc%ions of %he %05e sho9n belo93
(+1C/ (+2=/ :i-e fri!/ fricL/ se%e/ silL %eamL/ !reaRL me$DAT-is col# fri!h% %hirs% #is!us% fear sic-ness >I am col#/fri!h%ene#/%hirs%0/#is!us%e#/afrai#/sic-? 7 En%uneric/ soare/ fri!/ iarnL is #ar-ness sun col# 9in%er >I% is #ar-/sun/col#/9in%er?

<B

'are Nouns

'o%h classes of e;am5les in (+1C/ an# (+2=/ are buil% 9i%h %he verb '7 use# im5ersonall0 in %he 2r# 5erson sin!ularI %he0 #iffer in %ha% %he e;am5les in (+1C/ e;5ress 5s0cholo!ical s%a%es an# correla%ivel0 %he0 are buil% 9i%h a Da%ive-mar-e# 7;5eriencer 9hereas %he e;am5les in (+2=/ e;5ress me%eorolo!ical s%a%es$ The %9o classes of e;am5les behave ali-e in %9o no%e9or%h0 res5ec%s$ Firs% a#6ec%ives can subs%i%u%e for %he abs%rac% bare nouns ( bine >!oo# 9ell? in (+2+/ is %he !en#erless form of %he a#6ec%ive bun >!oo#? see Cha5%er < *+$+/3
(+2+/ :i-e cal# / :i-e bine me$DAT-is 9arm me$ DAT-is !oo# >I am 9arm/ I am fine? (+21/ 7 cal# / e bine$ is 9arm is !oo# >I%?s 9arm/i%?s fine?

The fac% %ha% a#6ec%ives occu50 (or a% leas% seem %o occu50/ %he same s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ion as nominal cons%i%uen%s su!!es%s %ha% %hese nouns occu50 a 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion3 %he onl0 o%her con%e;% in 9hich a#6ec%ives an# nouns sho9 %he same #is%ribu%ion as nominal cons%i%uen%s is %he 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion (e$!$ >on e elev an# >on e inteli ent/$ Com5are ar!umen% 5osi%ions 9here a#6ec%ives are #isallo9e# even in %hose con%e;%s %ha% allo9 bare nouns$ Thus %he e;am5les in (+22/ 9hich minimall0 #iffer from (B4/ b0 havin! an a#6ec%ive ins%ea# of a bare noun are un!ramma%ical3
(+22/ a$ XAM%ea5%L #e la noi cal# Mi amabil$ e;5ec%s from us 9arm an# charmin! b$ XCau%L rece$ see-s col# c$ XCere mo#ern$ #eman#s mo#ern #$ XIm5une an%ic/ vechi$ im5oses an%i@ue ol# e$ XSe aM%ea5%L #e la noi cal# Mi amabil$ R7FL e;5ec%s from us 9arm an# charmin! f$ XSe cau%L rece$ R7FL see-s col# !$ XSe cere mo#ern$ R7FL #eman#s mo#ern h$XSe im5une an%ic/ vechi$ R7FL im5oses an%i@ue ol#

The secon# observa%ion is %ha% in %hese im5ersonal cons%ruc%ions bare nouns can be mo#ifie# b0 #e!ree a#verbs such as foarte >ver0?% e'trem de >e;%remel0?% att de >so? e%c$3
(+24/ a$ :i-e foar%e foame$ me$DAT-is ver0 hun!er >I?m ver0 hun!r0? b$ 7 a%W% #e beAnL EncW% nu vL# la #oi 5aMi$ is so #ar-ness %ha% no% see$+SG a% %9o s%e5s >I% is so #ar- %ha% I can?% see %9o s%e5s in fron% of me?

No%e a!ain %ha% #e!ree a#verbs are no% allo9e# in %he %05e of e;am5les !iven in (+22/3

<C

'are Nouns (+2,/ a$ XAM%ea5%L #e la noi foar%e EnRele!ere$ e;5ec%s from us ver0 com5rehension b$ XSe cau%L a%W% #e liniM%e$ R7FL see-s so %ran@uili%0

No%e also %ha% i% is onl0 in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions %ha% cer%ain bare nouns can be mo#ifie# b0 #e!ree a#verbs3
(+2./ a$ Ion e foar%e bLrba%/ co5il$ Ion is ver0 man chil# >Ion is ver0 manli-e/chil#li-e? b$ :aria e a%W% #e femeied :aria is so-much of 9oman ":aria is so feminined& c$ Xun gfoar%e /a%W% #e h bLrba% a lua%-o #e soRied a ver0 so-much of man has %a-en-her as 9ife

These observa%ions su!!es% %ha% bare abs%rac% nouns func%ion as en%i%0-#eno%in! e;5ressions 9hen %he0 occur in canonical ar!umen% 5osi%ions bu% as 5ro5er%0-#eno%in! 9hen %he0 occur in im5ersonal cons%ruc%ions of %he %05es illus%ra%e# in (+2=/$ Therefore 9e 5ro5ose %ha% in %he cons%ruc%ions e;amine# here %he noun #oes no% occu50 an ar!umen% 5osi%ion bu% a 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion (%he com5lemen% of %he co5ula or of a 5re#ica%ive hea# Pre# selec%e# b0 %he co5ula/$

B=

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

3. T8e S9nta< of Dete06.ne0s an3 ot8e0 F1n/t.onal Cate4o0.es


IGN GIDRG7A

,. Int0o31/t.on. No6.nal f1n/t.onal /ate4o0.es 1. F1n/t.onal /ate4o0.es as 8ea3s of 6a<.6al no6.nal 50o7e/t.ons. T8e DP t8eo09 2. D.st0.b1t.onal /lasses 3. No1n ell.5s.s= 50o+N an3 50o+DP
2$+$ Nominal func%ional elemen%s %ha% never allo9in! N-elli5sis 2$1$ Nominal func%ional elemen%s %ha% allo9 N-elli5sis 2$2$ Pro-DPs (5ronouns/

$. Mo3.f.e0s an3 /o65le6ents l./ense3 b9 no6.nal f1n/t.onal /ate4o0.es= 580asal NFCs an3 t8e .ss1e of 5a0t.t.2e PPs
4$+$ A55ro;ima%ion mo#ifiers an# o%her mo#ifiers license# b0 @uan%ifiers 4$1$ Phrasal car#inals 4$2$ Scalar @uan%i%a%ives 4$4$ Par%i%ive PPs

%. -1ant.tat.2e e<50ess.ons
,$+$ A#6ec%ival @uan%i%a%ives ,$1$ Car#inals ,$2$ NominaliAe# car#inals @uan%i%0 nouns an# o%her func%ional nouns ,$4$ 8uan%i%0 e;5ressions %ha% al9a0s occu50 %he D la0er ,$,$ 8uan%i%0 e;5ressions in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion ,$.$ No%e on %he 9or# un >a one?

&. Co66on 50o5e0t.es of I1ant.tat.2es an3 so6e .n3ef.n.te 3ete06.ne0s (. T8e alte0nat.2e an3 t8e .3ent.t9 3ete06.ne0
<$+$ Al%erna%ive #e%erminers <$1$ The i#en%i%0 #e%erminer <$2$ Com5lemen%s of e@uali%0 an# #ifference

). Def.n.te 3ete06.ne0s
B$+$ The #efini%e ar%icle B$1$ Demons%ra%ives B$2$ Defini%e 5hrases in S5ecDP

*. P0e+3ete06.ne0s 1,. T8e s9ste6 of /o65o1n3 3ete06.ne0s= 50o+DPs an3 50o+lo/at.2e+a32e0b.als

B+

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

,. Int0o31/t.on. No6.nal f1n/t.onal /ate4o0.es


This cha5%er is #e#ica%e# %o func%ional 9or#s in %he nominal 5hrase 9hich can be !rou5e# in%o %he follo9in! #is%ribu%ional classes3 (i/ De%erminers (Ds/ (ii/ Pos%-D func%ional i%ems 9hich ma0 also occu50 %he D 5osi%ion (iii/ Func%ional i%ems 9hich are al9a0s 5os%-D (iv/ Pre-D func%ional i%ems De%erminers are %he 9or#s 9i%h %he #is%ribu%ion of %he in#efini%e ar%icle an# of %he #is%ribu%ive universal fiecare >ever0 each? as sho9n in (+/$
(+/ a$ o (Xaceas%L/orice/fiecare/unele/niM%e/cW%eva/ car%e(Xa/ a %his an0 each some s?m a-fe9 boo-(-%he/ b$ aceas%L (Xo/fiecare/orice/niM%e/cW%eva/ car%e(Xa/ c$ fiecare (Xo/aceas%L/orice/niM%e/cW%eva/ car%e(Xa/ #$ orice (Xo/aceas%L/unele/niM%e/cW%eva/ car%e(Xa/ e$ unele (Xo/aces%e/orice/niM%e/cW%eva/ cLrRi(Xle/ some a %hese an0 s?m a fe9 boo-s(-%he/ f$ niM%e (Xo/aces%e/orice/cW%eva/ cLrRi(Xle/ !$ cW%eva (Xo/aces%e/orice/unele/niM%e/ cLrRi(Xle/ h$ (Xo/aceas%L/orice/unele/niM%e/cW%eva/ car%ea/cLrRile

These elemen%s al9a0s 5rece#e never follo9 mo#ifiers of %he noun3


(1/ (XfrumoasL/ o (frumoasL/ car%e (frumoasL/ beau%iful a beau%iful boo- beau%iful

A number of func%ional 9or#s 9hich can co-occur 9i%h #e%erminers (follo9in! %hem/ P car#inals altul >o%her? @uan%i%a%ives such as mult% muli >much man0? puin% puini >fe9? P ma0 also a55ear in %he firs% 5osi%ion of %he nominal 5ro6ec%ion 9i%hou% a #e%erminer (com5are (2/a c e %o (2/b # f/I in %his case %he0 ma0 be assume# %o 5la0 %he role of %he #e%erminer ma55in! %he 5ro5er%0 #eno%e# b0 %he NP in%o a referen%ial or @uan%ifica%ional e;5ression$ Ue ma0 %hus assume %ha% in e;am5les such as (2/b # f/ %hese i%ems occu50 %he D 5osi%ion3
(2/ a$ Cei Ca5te 5rie%eni s-au En%Wlni% la barul >Vic%oria?$ %he seven frien#s R7FL-have me% a% 5ub-%he Vic%oria >The seven frien#s me% a% %he Vic%oria bar$? b$ Ja5te 5rie%eni s-au En%Wlni% la barul >Vic%oria?$ seven frien#s R7FL-have me% a% 5ub-%he Vic%oria >Seven frien#s have me% a% %he Vic%oria bar$? c$ AceM%i 61lA. ani i-am 5e%recu% En Grecia$ %hese man0 0ears CL$ACC -have$+ s5en% in Greece >These man0 0ears I s5en% in Greece$? #$ M1lA. ani i-am 5e%recu% En Grecia$ :an0 0ears CL$ACC-have$+ s5en% in Greece >:an0 0ears I s5en% in Greece$? e$ Aces%e alte En%rebLri le lLsLm 5en%ru mai %WrAiu$ %hese o%her @ues%ions CL$ACC le%$+PL for more la%e >Ue leave %hese o%her @ues%ions for la%er$? f$ Alte En%rebLri le lLsLm 5en%ru mai %WrAiu$ o%her @ues%ions CL$ACC le%$+PL for more la%e

B1

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories >Ue leave o%her @ues%ions for la%er$?

'esi#es %his #is%ribu%ional fac% #e%erminers share 9i%h %he o%her func%ional ca%e!ories (9hich 9e labele# 5re-D an# 5os%-D/ a number of o%her 5ro5er%ies3 (i/ The0 are !ramma%ical or func%ional 9or#s$ This is %o sa0 %ha% unli-e ma6or le;ical ca%e!ories (verbs nouns a#6ec%ives a#verbs an# 5re5osi%ions/ %he0 form close# classes 9i%h a fi;e# an# @ui%e abs%rac% lo!ic in%er5re%a%ion (car#inals are car#inali%0 5re#ica%esI 5re-Ds e;5ress universal @uan%ifica%ionI %he al%erna%ive e;5resses %he ne!a%ion of an i#en%i%0 rela%ion/$ Such 9or#s are in %he mo#el of !rammar use# in %his boo- anal0Ae# as func%ional ca%e!ories$ Func%ional ca%e!ories !enerall0 re@uire %he su55or% of one an# onl0 one le;ical ca%e!or0$ For %he func%ional ca%e!ories #iscusse# here %his ca%e!or0 is %he Noun hence %he label nominal functional cate ories use# here$ For in#ivi#ual i%ems belon!in! %o %hese ca%e!ories 9e 9ill use %he label nominal functional elements0 (ii/ The0 allo9 %he elli5sis of %he noun$ There are bu% a fe9 e;ce5%ions %o %his !eneraliAa%ion 9hich 9ill be #iscusse# in sec%ion 2 belo9 (see es5eciall0 2$+/( nite >s?m? alde ce >9ha%? orice >9ha%ever?/$ The #efini%e ar%icle (-L$cel/ an# %he in#efini%e ar%icle un are no% an e;ce5%ion %o %his rule bu% %he0 sim5l0 have s5ecial forms 9hen combine# 9i%h em5%0 nouns3 cel an# unul (see (4/e/$ Some researchers also anal0Ae 5ersonal 5ronouns as forme# b0 a #efini%e ar%icle an# an elli5%ical/em5%0 noun$ See sec%ion 2 for ar!umen%s in favor an# a!ains% such an anal0sis$ The mo#ifiers of %he noun #on?% allo9 N-elli5sis$ Some%imes #e%erminers have s5ecial forms 9hen combinin! 9i%h an em5%0 noun ((4/#-e/$ Some%imes ins%ea# of elli5sis %he nominal con%en% is incor5ora%e# in%o %he #e%erminer 9hich %hus func%ions as a 5ro-DP (5ronoun/ ((,// ( nimeni >nobo#0? con%ains besi#e %he ne!a%ive @uan%ifier e;5resse# b0 niciun %he #escri5%ive con%en% /H5erson// (see * 2 for a #e%aile# #iscussion of %his issue/3
(4/ a$ F.e/a0e a veni% la conferinRL$ each has come %o conference >7ver0one came %o %he conference? b$ (Cei/ t0e. au veni% la conferinRL$ %he %hree have come %o conference ?(The/ %hree have come %o %he conference$? c$ ToA. au veni% la conferinRL$ all$:PL have come %o conference ?All came %o %he conference$? #$ N./.1n1l nu a veni% la conferinRL$ none no% has come %o conference >No one came %o %he conference? e$ Doar 1n1l a veni%$ onl0 one has come >Gnl0 one came? N.6en. nu a veni%$ nobo#0 no% has come >Nobo#0 came$?

(,/

(iii/ The0 a55ear before o%her mo#ifiers of %he noun an# (9i%h %he e;ce5%ion of lon! #emons%ra%ives acesta% acela %he #efini%e al%ena%ive cellalt >%he o%her? or#inals an# %he universal @uan%ifiers toi% tot >all? amndoi >bo%h?/ before %he noun i%self3
(./ a$ (Xfrumoase/ aces%e (frumoase/ lalele (frumoase/ beau%iful %hese beau%iful %uli5s beau%iful

B2

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories b$ (Xfrumoase/ Aece (frumoase/ lalele (frumoase/ beau%iful %en beau%iful %uli5s beau%iful

In %ra#i%ional !rammar %he various nominal func%ional ca%e!ories enumera%e# above 9ere s5li% in%o several classes3 ar%icles 5ronominal a#6ec%ives 5ronouns numeralsI onl0 %he ar%icle 9as consi#ere# a func%ional elemen% %he o%hers 9ere consi#ere# mo#ifiers of %he noun bein! assimila%e# %o a#6ec%ives an# 5ronouns 9hen %he0 s%an# alone (9i%hou% an N/$ Oo9ever %he #is%ribu%ional fac%s concernin! #e%erminers an# %he 5ro5er%ies (i/-(iii/ nea%l0 in#ica%e %ha% nominal func%ional ca%e!ories form a na%ural class ver0 #ifferen% from a#6ec%ives$ The a#6ec%ival s%a%us of nominal func%ional ca%e!ories is su55or%e# b0 one 5ro5er%0 %ha% %he0 share 9i%h a#6ec%ives3 %he0 a ree in !en#er an# number 9i%h %he hea# noun$ Oo9ever #e%erminers are #ifferen% from a#6ec%ives 9i%h re!ar# %o ano%her fea%ure Case3 %he fea%ure of case is realiAe# on %he #e%erminer an# %ransmi%%e# %o %he noun an# i%s #e5en#en%s b0 an a!reemen% rela%ion$ This is in#ica%e# b0 %9o fac%s3 (i/ onl0 #e%erminers are unambi!uousl0 mar-e# for case (5u%%in! asi#e %he voca%ive 9hich an09a0 has a s5ecial s%a%us/ (e;$(<// an# (ii/ 9hen no #e%erminer is 5resen% %he noun canno% a#o5% %he obli@ue form bu% an in#e5en#en% case-mar-er - a >#umm0? 5re5osi%ion - mus% be inser%e# (e;$ (B//$
(</ sin!ular N$A$ o/aceas%:/al%: /fiecare fa%: a %his o%her each !irl G$D$ une./aces%e./al%e./fiecLre. fe%e N$A$ un/aces%/al% /fiecare bLia% a %his o%her each bo0 G$D$ un1./aces%1./al%1./fiecLr1. bLia% (B/ 5lural niM%e(unele//aces%e/al%e fe%e s?m some %hese o%her !irls uno0/aces%o0/al%o0 fe%e niM%e(un..//aceM%./alR. bLieR. s?m some %hese o%her bo0s uno0/aces%o0/al%o0 bLieRi

a$ cum5Lrarea #ro!urilo0 /uno0 #ro!uri bu0in!-%he #ru!s-%he$G7N/ some-PL$G7N #ru!s b$ cum5Lrarea 3e #ro!uri bu0in!-%he of #ru!s

:ore 5recisel0 Case is realiAe# on %he D 5osi%ion an# on 5re-Ds (see also cha5%er + *+$4/$ Uhen several nominal func%ional elemen%s co-occur onl0 %he firs% one bears %he unambi!uous case mar-in! (see (C/a com5are# %o (C/b/ unless %he firs% is a 5re-D universal an# %he secon# a (#efini%e/ #e%erminer (see (C/c/I in a##i%ion 9hen %he firs% #e%erminer is a 5os%-D i%em func%ionin! as a D %he secon# one ma0 receive %he case inflec%ion (see (C/#//3
(C/ a$ aces%o0 al%e 5robleme %hese$PL$G'L o%her$PL 5roblems b$ al%o0 5robleme o%her$PL$G'L 5roblems c$ %u%uro0 aces%o0 5robleme all$PL$G'L %hese$PL$G'L 5roblems #$ a%W%o0 al%o0 /al%e 5robleme so-man0$ PL$G'L o%her$PL$G'L/o%her$PL 5roblems

1. F1n/t.onal /ate4o0.es as 8ea3s of 6a<.6al no6.nal 50o7e/t.ons. T8e DP t8eo09


Func%ional ca%e!ories 9hich are s5ecifie# for a !iven le;ical ca%e!or0 (in our case N/ are B4

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

anal0Ae# in %he curren% !enera%ive frame9or- as !eads (V=-elemen%s/ %a-in! %he le;ical ca%e!or0/5ro6ec%ion (in %his case %he NP/ as a com5lemen%$ Recall %ha% besi#es belon!in! %o a close# class %he %9o follo9in! 5ro5er%ies charac%eriAe func%ional hea#s3 (i/ %he0 al9a0s re@uire a com5lemen% mar-e# 9i%h a 5ar%icular ca%e!orial fea%ure (in %his case (N// an# (ii/ %he0 are sim5le (#on?% have a##i%ional mo#ifiers or com5lemen%s/$ :os% nominal func%ional elemen%s com5l0 9i%h %hese cri%eria (for e;ce5%ions see above * = %he #iscussion un#er 5ro5er%0 (iii//$ Oo9ever %here are also cases in 9hich a (@uasi-/!ramma%icaliAe# i%em 5ro6ec%s a 5hrase of i%s o9n li-e le;ical i%ems (see * 4 for #iscussion/3 %he @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions muli ?man0?% puini ?fe9?% mult .much?% puin ?li%%le? have a #e!ree 5ro6ec%ion li-e re!ular a#6ec%ives (mai muli >more? foarte muli >ver0 man0? att de muli >so man0?/$ Car#inals ma0 combine 9i%h 5re5osi%ions (sub (ece persoane li%$ >un#er %en 5ersons? meanin! >less %han %en 5ersons?/ an# en%er cer%ain #e!ree cons%ruc%ions ( mai mult de (ece persoane >more %han %en 5ersons?/(see 4$1/$ In such case 9e can assume %ha% %he func%ional elemen% occu5ies a S5ecifier 5osi%ion$ The %ra#i%ional anal0sis an# %he !enera%ive vie9 5ro5ose# here are com5arable in %he case of ar%icles insofar as such elemen%s 9ere seen as #e5en#en% !ramma%ical 9or#s (%he coun%er5ar% of au;iliaries in %he verb 5hrase/ enco#in! %he H/-#efini%e fea%ure of %he noun 5hrase$ The !enera%ive a55roach is never%heless #ifferen% insofar as ar%icles are no% %rea%e# as fea%ures of %he le;ical elemen% bu% ra%her as func%ional hea#s 5ro6ec%in! %heir o9n 5hrase3 (+=/ un co5il > a chil#? -%ra#i%ional3 N - curren% frame9or-3 DP D_ D= un (in#ef/ copil un NP copil

Gn %he o%her han# elemen%s such as acest >%his? fiecare >ever0 each? att >so much? toi >all? 9ere %ra#i%ionall0 labelle# >5ronominal a#6ec%ives? an# consi#ere# %o be nominal mo#ifiers (>a%%ribu%es?/$ Ue have alrea#0 seen %ha% %here are s%ron! s0n%ac%ic as 9ell as seman%ic ar!umen%s %o inclu#e %hem in%o %he class of nominal func%ional ca%e!ories (NFCs/ %o!e%her 9i%h ar%icles an# 5ronouns an# a5ar% from nominal mo#ifiers (a%%ribu%es/$ 'elo9 9e 5resen% o%her ar!umen%s for #is%in!uishin! #e%erminers from mo#ifiers3 In cer%ain s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ions such as %he 5reverbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion #e%erminers canno% be omi%%e#$ :o#ifiers can al9a0s be omi%%e#3
(++/ X (Doi/niM%e/cWRiva/ co5ii au veni%$ %9o s?m a-fe9 chil#ren have come

In o%her 5osi%ions #e%erminer-less 5lural or mass nouns are allo9e# 9hile #e%erminer-less (>bare?/ sin!ulars are ei%her forbi##en (%he 5os%verbal sub6ec%/ or res%ric%e# %o some %05es of 5re#ica%es (%he ob6ec% 5osi%ion/3
(+1/ a$ Am vLAu% 5LsLri

B,

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories have$+ seen bir#s b$ Am vLAu% X(o/ 5asLre have$+ seen a bir# c$ FboarL 5LsLri/X5asLre fl0$2 bir#s /bir#

For a uni%ar0 %rea%men% of cases of %05e (+1/ 9e coul# ei%her sa0 %ha% a null 5lural-mass #e%erminer is 5resen% or %ha% %hese con%e;%s re@uire %he 5resence of an in%erme#ia%e 5ro6ec%ion be%9een N an# D %he number 5hrase (NumP/ 9hich is realiAe# ei%her as abs%rac% H5lural/ Hmass or as %he in#efini%e ar%icle un$o$ Ue 9ill no% #eci#e here be%9een %hese al%erna%ives$ I% can be sho9n %ha% %he #ifference be%9een %he levels 5ro6ec%e# in %he nominal s%ruc%ure correla%e 9i%h seman%ic #ifferences$ This can easil0 be sho9n b0 com5arin! a#nominal DPs 9i%h a#nominal NPs in%ro#uce# b0 %he #umm0 5re5osi%ion de (9hich ar!uabl0 func%ions as a case-mar-er/$ In (+2/a %he !eni%ive-mar-e# DP refers %o an in#ivi#ual (a 5ar%icular en%i%0/ 9hereas in (+2/b no 5ar%icular en%i%0 is involve# ra%her %he N 5reserves i%s basic 5ro5er%0-rea#in!3
(+2/ a$ haina sol#a%ului coa%-%he sol#ier-%he$G7N >%he sol#ier?s coa%? b$ haina #e sol#a% coa%-%he de sol#ier >%he sol#ier coa%?

I% is 9or%h no%in! %ha% in or#er %o e;5ress %he #ifference e;5resse# in (+2/a-b %he lan!ua!es 9i%h no obli!a%or0 D-level (no ar%icles/ use a #erive# a#6ec%ive for %he 5ro5er%0 rea#in! (%he case b/3 (+4/ a$ mili%is ves%is sol#ier$G7N clo%hin! >%he/a sol#ier?s clo%hin!? b$ mili%aris ves%is sol#ier$ADN clo%hin! >sol#ier clo%hin!? La%in

'are NPs al9a0s have 5ro5er%0 #eno%a%ion$ Cases as (+,/a in 9hich 5re5osi%ions combine 9i%h bare nouns 9i%h a referen%ial #efini%e in%er5re%a%ion are onl0 an a55aren% e;ce5%ion3 in %he 5resence of an0 e;5ansion of %he N %he #efini%e ar%icle is re@uire# ((+,/b/$ This lea#s us %o assume %ha% in %he con%e;% 9here a 5re5osi%ion in%ro#uces a DP 9hich imme#ia%el0 #omina%es %he #efini%e ar%icle an# N (no in%erme#ia%e level is 5resen%/ %he #efini%e ar%icle %a-es a 5ar%icular mor5holo!ical realiAa%ion ei%her as a null mor5heme or as confla%e# 9i%h %he 5re5osi%ion$ This 5ro5osal is base# no% onl0 on %he in%er5re%a%ion bu% also on %he fac% %ha% an over% #efini%e ar%icle is e;clu#e# af%er 5re5osi%ions 9hen no >e;5ansion? of %he N is 5resen% ((+,/c/ (see cha5%er B *+$2/$
(+,/ a$ Pisica s-a ascuns sub scaun$ ca%-%he R7FL-has hi##en un#er chair >The ca% hi# un#er %he chair$? b$ Pisica s-a ascuns sub scaunX(ul/ ro%un# ca%-%he R7FL-has hi##en un#er chair-%he roun# >The ca% hi# un#er %he roun# chair$? c$ XPisica s-a ascuns sub scaunul$ ca%-%he R7FL-has hi##en un#er chair-%he

B.

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories


No% all 5re5osi%ions behave li-e %ha%$ The e;ce5%ions are cu >9i%h? an# %he 5re5osi%ions %a-in! an obli@ue case (!eni%ive or #a%ive/$ In e;am5les such as (+,/b P 9hich con%ain a mo#ifier or a com5lemen% of %he N P %he ar%icle is obli!a%or0 if %he 5hrase is in%er5re%e# as #efini%e (>%he roun# chair?/I bare nouns are of course 5ossible (see cha5%er 1/ P e$!$ sub scaune vec!i >un#er ol# chairs? P bu% are in%er5re%e# as in#efini%es$

Ue conclu#e %ha% #e%erminers unli-e mo#ifiers an# com5lemen%s of N are sensi%ive %o %he s0n%ac%ic environmen% of %he nominal 5hrase$ This in#ica%es %ha% #e%erminers are hea#s bein! s0n%ac%icall0 selec%e# or license# from ou%si#e %he nominal 5hrase$ If 9e acce5% %ha% elemen%s ou%si#e %he nominal 5hrase s0n%ac%icall0 selec% for %he #e%erminer 9e can un#ers%an# 9h0 #e%erminers are al9a0s 5resen% in cons%ruc%ions 9i%h Nelli5sis (for 5ossible coun%ere;am5les see 2$4 belo9 9here 9e ar!ue %ha% a null D or Num is 5resen% in (mos% of/ %hese cases/$ Dnli-e noun com5lemen%s an# mo#ifiers NFCs are no% sensi%ive %o %he seman%ic con%en% of %he noun P %he onl0 fea%ure %he0 are sensi%ive %o is coun%/mass 9hich is a !ramma%icaliAe# fea%ure$ This !eneraliAa%ion is e;5ec%e# !iven %he charac%eriAa%ion of NFCs as !ramma%ical 9or#s 9hich 9e !ave in %he in%ro#uc%ion un#er (iii/3
(+./ a$ com5or%amen%ul /Xmun%ele /X5Lrul faRL #e el behaviour-%he moun%ain-%he hair-%he %o9ar#s him b$ Xcom5or%amen%ul/ mun%ele /KK5Lrul calcaros behaviour-%he moun%ain-%he hair-%he calcareous c$ Xcom5or%amen%ul /KKmun%ele /5Lrul blon# behaviour-%he moun%ain-%he hair-%he blon# #$ aces% com5or%amen% /mun%e /5Lr %his behaviour moun%ain hair

Uhen several nominal func%ional elemen%s (NF7s/ co-occur %heir or#er is fi;e#$ The cons%rain%s are s%ric%er %han %hose a55l0in! for a#6ec%ival a#6unc%s$ This fac% can be ca5%ure# b0 anal0Ain! each of %hese func%ional elemen%s as in%ro#ucin! a func%ional la0er (ei%her as %he hea# or as %he s5ecifier of a fuc%ional 5ro6ec%ion see belo9/ an# consi#erin! %ha% %he or#er of %hese func%ional 5ro6ec%ions is fi;e# (see (+</c an# * 1 belo9/$ The ri!i# or#er 9oul# be har#er %o re5resen% in an anal0sis 9here #e%erminers are mo#ifiers3
(+</ a$ aces%e al%e %rei cLrRi /(K/Xaces%e %rei al%e cLrRi %hese o%her %hree boo-s %hese %hree o%her boo-s b$ al%e cW%eva Aile / XcW%eva al%e Aile o%her a-fe9 #a0s a-fe9 o%her #a0s c$ [D [Al% [Car# [NP]]]]

There are NF7s 9hich selec% for a 5ar%icular NF73 %he universals toi >all? amndoi >bo%h? selec% #efini%e DPs (i$e$ DPs in%ro#uce# b0 %he #efini%e ar%icle #emons%ra%ives %he #efini%e al%erna%iveI see * C for #e%ails/$ No%e ho9ever %ha% unli-e %he 5resence of a% leas% one F7 9hich is obli!a%or0 in some s0n%ac%ic environmen%s (see e;am5le (++/ above/ %he co-occurrence of several NF7s is al9a0s o5%ional$ Therefore if 9e a#o5% %he h05o%hesis %ha% each NF7 in%ro#uces a func%ional 5ro6ec%ion 9e shoul# consi#er %ha% %he func%ional 5ro6ec%ions belo9 D an# above D are o5%ional P 9e ma0 call %hem minor functional pro+ections$ The fac% %ha% NF7s allo9 N-elli5sis can easil0 be formula%e# in %he anal0sis of NF7s as hea#s3 %he i#en%ifica%ion of %he eli#e# ca%e!or0 is ensure# b0 %heir selec%ional 5ro5er%ies$ B<

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

The h05o%hesis %ha% NF7s are func%ional hea#s or s5ecifiers of #e#ica%e# func%ional 5ro6ec%ions also accoun%s for %heir 5lacemen% before %he noun con%ras%in! 9i%h %ha% of com5lemen%s an# mos% a#6ec%ives3 Romanian as %he o%her Romance lan!ua!es is a hea#ini%ial lan!ua!e$ The or#er of elemen%s insi#e %he nominal 5ro6ec%ions %hus obe0s %he !eneral 5a%%ern of %he lan!ua!e$ Ue assume %ha% a func%ional la0er ma0 be 5ro6ec%e# ei%her b0 fillin! i%s hea# or b0 fillin! i%s s5ecifier$ This is nee#e# because 5hrasal elemen%s (see * 4/ %oo ma0 @ualif0 as func%ional elemen%s un#er %he cri%eria 5resen%e# above al%hou!h %he0 canno% be assume# %o !ead a func%ional 5ro6ec%ion since %he0 are 5hrases no% hea#s3
(+B/ Y:ai mul% #e AeceZ co5ii sun% En o#aie$ more much %han %en chil#ren are in room >:ore %han %en chil#ren are in %he room$?

2. T8e 3.st0.b1t.onal /lasses


Ue have sai# %ha% several NF7s ma0 co-occur 9i%h one ano%her$ Ue have 5ro5ose# %ha% in %his case one of %hem occu5ies %he D 5osi%ion (normall0 %he firs%I %he onl0 e;ce5%ions are 5reD universals see belo9/ an# %he o%hers realiAe minor functional nominal pro+ections$ Le% us no9 classif0 NF7s accor#in! %o %he co-occurrence 9i%h o%her #e%erminers an# %he 9or# or#er 9hich ob%ains in such cases es%ablishin! %hus %he lis% of minor func%ional 5ro6ec%ions$ Ue 9ill limi% ourselves here %o 5hrases 9i%h an over% noun$ The func%ional elemen%s 9hich a55ear in 5hrases 9i%hou% an over% noun 9ill be anal0Ae# in %he ne;% sec%ion$ I$ De%erminers (Ds/3 %he0 are never 5rece#e# b0 ano%her NFI e;ce5% for %he 5re-Ds (see II/$ The0 in%ro#uce a nominal 5ro6ec%ion in 9ha% 9e i#en%ifie# as DP con%e;%s (see * +/3 %he #efini%e ar%icle (9i%h %he varian%s -L an# cel see * B/ %he in#efini%es un >a(n/ one? nite >some s?m? unii >(5ar%i%ive/ some? vreun >a an0 some?% %he ne!a%ive niciun)ul* >no no one? %he in%erro!a%ive ce >9ha% 9hich? an# i%s com5oun# orice >an0? %he in%erro!a%ive-rela%ive care >9hich? an# i%s com5oun#s fiecare >ever0 each?% oricare >an0? %he @uan%i%a%ives ct% ci >ho9 much ho9 man0? % ceva >some?% orict% orici >ho9ever much/man0? att% ati >as/so/%ha% much/man0? % niel >a li%%le a bi%? (collo@uial/ 5robabl0 also %he @uo%a%ive cutare >so an# so?$ The i#en%i%0 #e%erminer (acelai >%he same?/ is usuall0 no% 5rece#e# b0 a #e%erminer bu% ma0 e;ce5%ionall0 combine 9i%h %he in#efini%e ar%icle so i% is 5erha5s be%%er inclu#e# un#er III (5ossibl0 onl0 for some s5ea-ers i% is of %05e II see * </$ Shor% #emons%ra%ives (acest >%his one? acel >%ha% one?/ ma0 also be inclu#e# here if 9e consi#er %hem %o be #ifferen% i%ems from lon! #emons%ra%ives (acela$la/ 9hich occur imme#ia%el0 af%er %he #efini%e ar%icle$ Ambii >bo%h? %oo 9oul# belon! here unless 9e consi#er %ha% i% con%ains %he #efini%e ar%icle$ I% has in#ee# %he mor5holo!0 of an a#6ec%ive suffi;e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle bu% since a non-#efini%e form Xamb #oes no% e;is% an# i% behaves as a #e%erminer no% onl0 seman%icall0 bu% also b0 allo9in! N-elli5sis an# b0 al9a0s occu50in! %he firs% 5osi%ion in %he DP 9e 9ill sim5l0 %rea% i% as a D$ I% is 9or%h no%icin! %ha% unli-e i%s 5re-D s0non0m amndoi i% canno% a55ear in %he so-calle# floa%in! @uan%ifier cons%ruc%ion (see * C/3
(+C/ Casele au cLAu% amWn#ouL (KKambele/ houses-%he have fallen bo%h bo%h

II$ Pre-Ds3 %he universals toi >all? tot >all %he 9hole? amndoi >bo%h? all combinin!

BB

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

9i%h a #efini%e D3
(1=/ a$ %oa%e caseX(le/ all houses-%he b$ amWn#oi co5iiX(i/ bo%h chil#ren-%he

The0 9ill be %rea%e# in #e%ail in sec%ion C$ III$ NF7s 9hich ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 Ds bu% ma0 also a55ear as %he firs% NF7 of %he 5hrase in%ro#ucin! a nominal 5ro6ec%ion in a DP-con%e;% %hus func%ionin! as Ds3 (i/ imme#ia%el0 5os%-D 3 (lon!/ #emons%ra%ives$ Demons%ra%ives a55ear ei%her in D or imme#ia%el0 follo9in! NH#efini%e ar%icle$ The0 sho9 a shor% form 9hen %he0 are in D an# %a-e an (over%/ noun (see (1+/a/ an# a >lon!? or e;%en#e# form in %he 5ronominal use ((1+/c/ an# in 5os%-nominal (5os%-D/ 5osi%ion ((1+/b/$ This form is buil% b0 a##in! an - a %o %he shor% form$ For an anal0sis of %his behaviour see * B belo9$
(1+/ a$ aces%e case %hese houses b$ casele aces%ea houses-%he %hese-a c$ Nu-mi 5lac aces%ea no%-me$CL$DAT li-e$2PL %hese

Ue also encoun%er some com5oun#s forme# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle or a #emons%ra%ive H %he al%erna%ive #e%erminer3 cellalt >%he o%her? (9i%h %he sub-s%an#ar# varian% lalalt/% stlalt >%his o%her? (collo@uial/3
(11/ a$ cealal%L maMinL %he-o%her car b$ maMina cealal%L car-%he %he-o%her

Since %he or#er of %he mor5hemes obe0s %he !eneral 5a%%ern for al%erna%ives (9hich if a D or #emons%ra%ive is 5resen% follo9 i% see (1./-(1</ belo9/ an# bo%h 5ar%s of %he com5oun# re inflec%e# (e$!$ feminine cealalt% 5lural ceilali% celelalte% obli@ue s!$ celuilalt% celeilalte 5l$ ceilali% celeilalte/ 9e ma0 consi#er %ha% %hese com5oun#s are forme# in or af%er s0n%a; 9i%h cel an# %he #emons%ra%ive occu50in! %he D or %he 5os%-D #emons%ra%ive 5osi%ion (in (11/a an# b res5ec%ivel0/ an# %he al%erna%ive bein! a 5os%-D (%05e (iii/ belo9/$ (ii/ before %he al%erna%ive alt (bu% af%er (i//3 %he in#efini%e @uan%i%a%ives mult% muli >much man0? puin% puini >fe9? destul% destui >enou!h?I 9or#s of %his class are ei%her scalar (cf$ prea$foarte muli >%oo/ver0 man0?/ or incor5ora%e a #e!ree fea%ure ( destul [ destul de muli Benou!h?/ (iii/ %he al%erna%ive alt >o%her? (iv/ af%er alt3 car#inals ctva% civa >some a fe9 several?I no%e %ha% as o55ose# %o i%ems of class (ii/ %he0 are non-scalar @uan%i%a%ives$ Ue e;em5lif0 here %he co-occurrence an# or#erin! res%ric%ions of %hese func%ional ca%e!ories3

BC

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

(12/

Pos%-D as D3
%rei /al%e /mul%e/aces%e mere %hree/o%her/man0/%hese a55les

(14/

Pos%-D (i/3
merele aces%ea (bune/ a55les-%he %hese-a (!oo#/

(1,/

Pos%-D (i/ H Pos%-D (ii//(iv/3


a$ aces%e 5uRine/%rei mere %hese fe9 /%hree a55les b$ merele aces%ea 5uRine/%rei a55les-%he %hese-a fe9 /%hree

(1./

(DH/Pos%-D (ii/ H Pos%-D (iii/3


(aces%e/ mul%e al%e Aile %hese man0 o%her #a0s

(1</

(DH/ Pos%-D (iii/ H Pos%-D (iv/3


(aces%e/ al%e %rei Aile %hese o%her %hree #a0s

To %hese 9e ma0 a## some NF7s 9hich onl0 e;ce5%ionall0 co-occur 9i%h o%her NF7s3 %he 9or# acelai >same? (see also I above/ 9hich ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle a% leas% for some s5ea-ersI 5ossibl0 also %he @uo%a%ive cutare >so an# so? 9hich is e;ce5%ionall0 5rece#e# b0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle or b0 a #emons%ra%ive$ 'ase# on %hese co-occurrence 5ossibili%ies an# or#erin! res%ric%ions %he follo9in! hierarch0 of func%ional 5ro6ec%ions can be es%ablishe# usin! %he labels Dniv for 5re-D universals Dem for 5os%-D #emons%ra%ives 8uan%+ for scalar @uan%i%a%ives Al% for %he al%erna%ive 8uan%1 for non-scalar @uan%i%03
(1B/ [Dniv [ D [ Dem [8uan%+ [Al% [8uan%1 [ NP]]]]]]]

IV$ Al9a0s 5os%-D$ These ma0 be calle# @uasi-a#6ec%ive F7s$ The0 have in common 9i%h F7s %he fac% %ha% %he0 belon! %o a close# class (%he0 have !ramma%ical meanin!/ %he 5lacemen% before o%her a#6ec%ives an# for some of %hem %he 5ossibili%0 of allo9in! N elli5sis$ The elemen%s %ha% belon! %o %his class are %he follo9in!3 or#inals 9hich are al9a0s in%ro#uce# b0 al (abou% al see 2$2$2 belo9/ 9i%h %he e;ce5%ion of prim >firs%? an# ultim >las%?I %he0 9ill be #iscusse# in sec%ion B #e#ica%e# %o #efini%e #e%erminersI divers an a#6ec%ive meanin! >#ifferen%? a55ears 9i%h 5lurals in environmen%s %05ical for bare 5lurals (cf$ (1C/c/ 9i%h %he #e%erminer-li-e meanin! >various?$ I% also allo9s Nelli5sis3
(1C/ a$ Am cum5Lra% 3.2e0se /:0A. have$+ bou!h% various$FPL boo-s(F/ >I bou!h% various boo-s? b$ Am cum5Lra% 3.2e0se have$+ bou!h% various$FPL >I bou!h% various s%uff? c$XD.2e0se E/:0A.F sun% #e vWnAare various$FPL (boo-s(F// are %o sell in%en#e# meanin!3 >various s%uff/boo-s is/are for sale?

Diferit >#ifferen%? has similar 5ro5er%ies bu% in %he #e%erminer-li-e meanin! #oes no% easil0

C=

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

allo9 N-elli5sis$ The #emons%ra%ive an# %he in%erro!a%ive care ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 de resul%in! in a cons%ruc%ion 9i%h %he meanin! >%his/9ha% sor% of?$ In %his case deHDem follo9s %he noun 9hich is in#efini%e 9hile deH9h- occu5ies %he firs% 5osi%ion in %he DP 5resumabl0 in or#er %o mar- %he DP as H9h$ No%ice also %ha% bo%h allo9 N elli5sis$
(2=/ a$ N-am !Lsi% bluAe 3e+astea no%-have$+ foun# blouses de-%hese >I/Ue #i#n?% fin# %his sor% of blouses? b$ De /a0e bluAe ai !Lsi%K de 9hich blouses have$1SG foun# >Uha% sor% of blouses have 0ou foun#K? c$ N-am !Lsi% 3e+astea no%-have$+ foun# de-%hese >I/Ue #i#n?% fin# %his sor%? #$ De /a0e n-ai !Lsi%K de 9hich no%-have$1SG foun# >Uha% sor% #i#n?% 0ou fin#K?

Ue consi#er %ha% de %urns %he #e%erminers in%o a#6ec%ival mo#ifiers$ The cons%ruc%ions 9hich resul% ma0 be calle# pro-ad+ectives$ No%e %ha% %he #emons%ra%ive a!rees 9i%h %he noun ( care is an09a0 uninflec%e#/$ This means %ha% de #oes no% in%ro#uce an em5%0 noun of %he %05e #ind (%hen 9e 9oul# have e;5ec%e# %o fin# sin!ular a!reemen% 9i%h %his noun as in 7n!lish t!is sort of G/$
G%her 9or#s 9hich func%ion as 5ro-a#6ec%ives ma0 be consi#ere# %rue a#6ec%ives (see cha5%er </3 asemenea% atare >such?$ The0 resemble func%ional ca%e!ories in %ha% %he0 are obli!a%oril0 5renominal an# %he0 in%erac% 9i%h %he #e%erminer la0er P %he0 are onl0 allo9e# in in#efini%e DPs$

%he a#6ec%ive anumi% >cer%ain? combinin! onl0 9i%h %he in#efini%e ar%icle for sin!ular coun% nouns an# 9i%h bare nouns o%her9ise (un anumit (iar >a cer%ain ne9s5a5er? vs$ -anumitul (iar >%he cer%ain ne9s5a5er? -orice anumit (iar >an0 cer%ain ne9s5a5er?/$ I% is !enerall0 5renominal$ The same behaviour is sho9n b0 %he in#eclinable a#6ec%ive anume 9i%h %he #ifference %ha% i% a55ears more of%en in 5os%nominal 5osi%ion$ Harecare >a cer%ain some? is usuall0 5rece#e# b0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle or b0 no #e%erminer bu% in %he la%%er case i% is no% a D-elemen% since %he noun mus% be non-coun%able or 5lural$ This res%ric%ion %o!e%her 9i%h %he s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ions in 9hich %his s%ruc%ure ma0 a55ear sho9s %ha% 9e have %o #eal %o a >bare 5lural/mass noun? (9hich ma0 be anal0Ae# ei%her as involvin! a null D or no D a% all an# licensin! of %he ar!umen% b0 5ro6ec%in! %he Num level see above/
(2+/ a$ A fos% anunRa% X(1n/ oa0e/a0e Dumi%ru An!helescu$ has been announce# a oarecare Dumi%ru An!helescu >A cer%ain Dumi%ru An!helescu 9as announce#$? b$ Are (oa0e/a0e/ %alen%$ has oarecare %alen% >Oe has some %alen%$?

Ano%her 5eculiari%0 of %his i%em is %ha% i% ma0 also a55ear 5os%-nominall0 9i%h a #ifferen% meanin!3 >no% havin! an0 relevan% 5ro5er%ies common? (fr$ quelconque/$ Ui%h %he secon# meanin! i% is %o be anal0Ae# as a re!ular a#6ec%ive3

C+

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

(21/

a$ Nu-mi 5lac oa6en.. :Ct.a oa0e/a0e$ No%-me$CL$DAT li-e 5eo5le-%he %hese oarecare >I #on?% li-e %hese or#inar0 5eo5le? b$ 7l nu e 1n a/to0 oa0e/a0e$ 7 o ve#e%L$ he no% is an ac%or oarecare$ is a s%ar >Oe?s no% 6us% an0 ac%or$ Oe?s a s%ar?

In %he case of N-elli5sis i% has %he rea#in! corres5on#in! %o %he 5os%-nominal 5osi%ion so 9e ma0 sa0 %ha% as a F7 i% #oes no% allo9 N elli5sis
(22/ A veni% 1n oa0e/a0e has come a oarecare >Somebo#0 or#inar0/insi!nifican% came?$

Dnli-e mos% NIFs i% is uninflec%e# in 5resen%-#a0 Romanian (i% use# %o have a 5lural oarecari/$ The in#eclinable oarece >some of a cer%ain level? (mos%l0 use# for %he level of a @uali%0/ is al9a0s 5renominal$ I% is !enerall0 5rece#e# b0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle un or b0 no #e%erminer bu% in %his case i% onl0 %a-es mass nouns an# 5lurals 9hich sho9s %ha% i% is never a D$
Ambii >bo%h? 9oul# also belon! here if 9e consi#ere# %ha% i% con%ains a suffi;e# #efini%e ar%icle$ For %he #ifference be%9een i% an# re!ular a#6ec%ives see I above$

V$ Dn-inflec%e# 5re-D3 (i/ The #is%ribu%ivi%0 mar-er cte 9hich mar-s an in#efini%e DP as bein! #is%ribu%e# b0 some @uan%ifica%ional o5era%or$ I% ma0 also a55ear 9i%h car#inals in a#verbial 5osi%ions li-e a floa%in! @uan%ifier3
(24/ a$ ToRi au veni% cu /Kte 1n 50.eten all$:PL have come 9i%h cte a frien# >7ver0one came 9i%h a frien# (of his/? b$ Fe%ele au 5leca% /Kte t0e. !irls-%he have lef% cte %hree >The !irls lef% %hree b0 %hree?

The re!ional an# sub-s%an#ar# 5re-#e%erminer alde is use# 9i%h #efini%e DPs P 5ro5er names 5ersonal common nouns 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle 5ersonal 5ronouns an# #emons%ra%ives P referrin! %o 5ersons3 (2,/ a$ al#e Dumi%ru alde Dumi%ru b$ al#e 5rimarul alde mair-%he c$ al#e Lia alde %hose$:PL This 9or# is #ifficul% %o %ransla%e$ Some%imes i% e;5resses familiari%0 #eference or iron0 leavin! %he #eno%a%ion of %he DP unchan!e#$ I% ma0 also chan!e %he reference of %he DP bein! %ransla%able b0 >somebo#0 li-e V? (9here V is %he referen% of %he DP/$ In %his use i% is of%en 5rece#e# b0 de an# of%en has an affec%ive conno%a%ion mos%l0 #e5recia%ive$ Formerl0 an# no9a#a0s onl0 re!ionall0 i% has %he meanin! >%he !rou5 of V? >V an# his famil0?$ This mus% have been %he ori!inal meanin! of %he 9or# since i% comes from %he ar%icle al (formerl0 an in#e5en#en% form of %he #efini%e ar%icle/ an# %he 5re5osi%ion de 9hich ha# a 5ar%i%ive meanin! in %he ol# lan!ua!e$

C1

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

3. No1n ell.5s.s= 50o+N an3 50o+DP


NF7s ma0 be classifie# accor#in! %o 9he%her %he0 mus% combine 9i%h over% nouns or %he0 ma0 a55ear in a DP 9i%hou% an over% noun$ :os% NF7s belon! %o %he la%%er %05e 9hich 9ill be sho9n %o come in %9o varie%ies #e5en#in! on 9he%her %he NF7 is %o be anal0Ae# as %he sis%er of an em5%0 N (a 5ro-N/ or as a 5ro-DP$ 3.1. No6.nal F1n/t.onal Ele6ents t8at ne2e0 alloD N+ell.5s.s The onl0 un#is5u%able cases are nite >some s?m? %he uninflec%e# 5re-Ds alde an# cte an# %he a#6ec%ival F7s anumit% oarecare an# oarece$ I% is si!nifican% %ha% e;ce5% for anumit all %hese 9or#s are uninflec%e#$ A#nominal ce >9ha%? an# orice >an0 9ha%ever? ma0 be inclu#e# here if %he corres5on#in! inanima%e 5ronouns are %rea%e# as homon0mous forms$ See #iscussion belo9 un#er 2$2$+$ The encli%ic #efini%e ar%icle -L 9oul# belon! here unless 9e consi#er %he 5rocli%ic form cel 9hich ma0 occur 9i%h YNeZ %o be an allomor5h of %he #efini%e ar%icle (see * B/$ 3.2. No6.nal F1n/t.onal Ele6ents t8at alloD N+ell.5s.s Uhen a55earin! 9i%hou% over% nouns cer%ain NF7s have s5ecial >5ronominal? (or >au!men%e#?/ forms (see also cha5%er +./3 %he in#efini%e ar%icle un >a(n/ one? an# %he 5lural 5ar%i%ive unii >some? 5ronominal unul% unii an# i%s com5oun#s vreun >some an0 (non-s5ecific/?% 5ronominal vreunul niciun >no? 5ronominal niciunul %he al%erna%ive alt >o%her?% 5ronominal altul %he #emons%ra%ive acest% acel% 5ronominal acesta% acela% familiar sta% la (for a #iscussion of %he use of 5ronominal forms see * B/ %he in%erro!a%ive-rela%ive 5ronoun care >9hich? an# i%s com5oun#s oricare >an0 9hoever? fiecare >each? have s5ecial 5ronominal forms onl0 in %he obli@ue3 cruia% creia% crora$ some NF7s have s5ecial 5ronominal forms onl0 in %he 5lural obli@ue3 %his is %he case of NF7s #is5la0in! %he 5lural obli@ue en#in! - or (an0 #e%erminer 9i%h %his en#in! 9ill have %he 5ronominal form -ora/3 %he universals toi >all? an# amndoi >bo%h? an# %he @uan%i%a%ives muli >man0? ci (>ho9 man0?/ orici (>an0 number?/ ati (>so/%ha% man0?/3 tuturora% amndurora% multora% ctora% orictora% attora$ This onl0 ha55ens 9hen -or is 9or#-final$ Cf$ ctorva 5renominal as 9ell as 5ronominal (%here is no -ctorava/ All %he o%her NF7s have %he same form 9hen combinin! 9i%h over% nouns an# 9i%h a 5ro-N em5%0 ca%e!or03 car#inals (doi >%9o? trei >%hree? e%c$/ %he @uan%i%a%ive #e%erminers civa >some a fe9? puin% puini (>li%%le? >fe9?/ destul (>enou!h?/ %he s%ron! forms of %he #efini%e ar%icle cel% cea e%c$ (9hich ma0 also a55ear 9i%h over% nouns in cons%ruc%ions 9i%h car#inalsI see * B/ %he #irec% case (i$e$ nomina%ive-accusa%ive/ of care an# i%s com5oun#s$ Gn %he @ues%ion 9he%her ce >9ha%? an# orice >an0(%hin!/? also belon! here see %he #iscussion un#er 2$2$+$ In mos% cases %he absence of a noun can be anal0Ae# as noun elli5sis$ A con%en% for %he missin! noun has %o be recovere# from %he lin!uis%ic or e;%ra-lin!uis%ic con%e;% (in %he follo9in! e;am5les %he em5%0 (i$e$ non-realiAe#/ noun 9ill be mar-e# b0 YNeZ/3
(2./ a$ AAi am ci%i% %rei ca5i%ole$ Ieri am mai ci%i% 3o1: [Ne]$

C2

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories %o#a0 have$+ rea# %hree cha5%ers 0es%er#a0 have$+ more rea# %9o [Ne] [ capitole >cha5%ers? >To#a0 I?ve rea# %hree cha5%ers$ qes%er#a0 I rea# %9o? b$ AM vrea Mi eu /Kte2a [Ne]$ Uoul#$+SG 9an% also I a fe9/some >I 9oul# li-e some %oo? u%%ere# in fron% of a ca-e-#is5la0 [Ne] ma0 be pr+ituri >ca-es?

The recovere# con%en% ma0 inclu#e besi#e %he noun com5lemen%s or mo#ifiers of %he noun$ The number of %he nominal an%ece#en% ma0 be #ifferen% (see (2</b/3
(2</ a$ Am EnvLRa% mai mul%e 5oeAii #e 7minescu #ar nu mai M%iu #ecW% 3o1: [Ne] have$+ learne# more man0 5oems b0 7minescu bu% no% more -no9$+SG onl0 %9o >I?ve learne# several 5oems b0 7minescu bu% I can onl0 remember %9o? [Ne] [ poe(ii de Eminescu ?5oems b0 7minescu? b$ CW%e in%er5re%Lri bune ale aces%ei sona%e cunoM%iK P Nu cunosc n./.1na [Ne] ho9-man0 5erformin!s !oo# al0FSG %his$G7N sona%a -no9$1SG no% -no9$+SG none >Oo9 man0 !oo# 5erformin!s of %his sona%a #o 0o -no9K P I #on?% -no9 an0$ [Ne] [ interpretare bun a acestei sonate ?!oo# 5erformin! of %his sona%a?

'u% %he eli#e# cons%i%uen% #oes no% necessaril0 inclu#e all %he NP-in%ernal ma%erial$ :o#ifiers an# com5lemen%s of an em5%0 (eli#e#/ noun ma0 be over%l0 e;5resse#3
(2B/ a$ o %ra#ucere a Ilia#ei Mi 3o1: [ Ne] ale O3.see. a %ransla%ion of Ilia#-%he$G7N an# %9o al0FPL G#0sse0-%he$G7N >a %ransla%ion of Ilia# an# %9o of %he G#0sse0? [Ne] [ traducere ?%ransla%ion? b$ Du5L aceas%L #escriere a 5re!L%irilor urmeaAL [ 1na [ Ne] tot aCa 3e af%er %his #escri5%ion al0FSG 5re5ara%ions-%he$G7N follo9s one all so of a6:n1nA.t: a l15telo0] #e%aile# al0FSG fi!h%s-%he$G7N >This #escri5%ion of %he 5re5ara%ions is follo9e# b0 an e@uall0 #e%aile# #escri5%ion of %he fi!h%s? [Ne] [ descriere ?#escri5%ion?

The eli#e# ma%erial mus% con%ain %he noun an# mus% form a cons%i%uen%$ Thus (2C/b is e;clu#e# because %he eli#e# ma%erial sticle de vin #oes no% form a cons%i%uen% P %he a#6ec%ive alb a55ears insi#e %he PP de vin an# is no% eli#e#3 (2C/ a$ Avem #e6a %rei [s%icle #e vin] $ Ne mai %rebuie 3o1: [ Ne] have$+PL alrea#0 %hree bo%%les of 9ine us$CL$DAT s%ill nee#s %9o >Ue alrea#0 have %hree bo%%les of re# 9ine$ Ue nee# %9o more?$ b$ Avem #e6a %rei [s%icle [#e vin roMu]] $ X Ne mai %rebuie 3o1: [Ne] alb have$+PL alrea#0 %hree bo%%les of 9ine re# us$CL$DAT s%ill nee#s %9o 9hi%e

In %he absence of a con%e;%ual an%ece#en% [Ne] ma0 receive a con%en% b0 #efaul% !enerall0 Hhuman ((4=/a-b #/ an# 9i%h a s5ecial !en#er form (feminine 5lural/ -anima%e or non-s5ecifie# for animac0 ((4=/c e/3
(4=/ a$ F.e/a0e EMi ve#e numai in%eresul lui$ each R7FL$DAT sees onl0 in%eres%-%he his >7ver0bo#0 sees onl0 his o9n in%eres%?

C4

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories b$ ToA. cau%L fericirea$ all$:PL see- ha55iness-%he >7ver0bo#0 see-s ha55iness$? c$ Toate se vor 5reface En cenuML$ all$FPL R7FL 9ill$2PL %urn in ashes >7ver0%hin! (all %hin!s/ 9ill %urn in%o ashes$? #$ :-au cLu%a% 61lA.$ me$CL$ACC -have$2PL searche# man0$ :PL >:an0 5eo5le have as-e# for me$? e$ A a#us 61lte$ has brou!h% man0$ FPL >Oe brou!h% man0 %hin!s$?

The in%er5re%a%ional 5ossibili%ies no%e# above are i#en%ical for NF7s 9i%h au!men%e# forms an# for NF7s 9hich #o no% have s5ecial forms in %he absence of an over% N$ The au!men%e# forms in mos% cases are buil% 9i%h an elemen% -a 9hich ma0 be anal0Ae# ei%her as an incor5ora%e# 5ro-N (a 5ro-N surfacin! as P a/ (see (4+/c/ or as a s5ecial form of %he NF7 in %he con%e;% rYNeZ (see (4+/#/3
(4+/ a$ a/est co5il %his chil# b$ a/esta %his-one c$ [[Dacest][Na]] #$ [[Dacesta][Ne]]

In %9o cases P un >a(n/ one? an# i%s com5oun#s vreun >some an0? niciun >no? an# alt >(an/o%her? P %he 5ronominal form loo-s li-e a #efini%e #eclension (i$e$ affi;a%ion 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle PL/3
(41/ a$ 1n co5il a chil# a_$ 1n1l [Ne] a-ul >one? b$ alt: 5roblemL o%her 5roblem >ano%her 5roblem? b_$ alta [Ne] o%her-a >ano%her one?

This #oesn?% mean %ha% a #efini%e D is reall0 5resen% in %his case3 %he meanin! is clearl0 in#efini%e an# %he forms of %he obli@ue case are #ifferen% from %hose of %he #efini%e #eclension in %he masculine sin!ular an# in %he 5lural (%he obli@ue en#in!s of %he #efini%e #eclension are masc$s! -lui% f$s!$ -ei% m$f$5l$ -lorI %he au!men%e# #eclension of un an# alt have %he obli@ue en#in!s m$s!$ -ui f$s!$ -ei% m$f$5l$ -or %o 9hich -a is a##e# as can be seen in %he %able belo9/3

C,

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories (42/ #irec% obli@ue #irec% obli@ue m$s!$ al% al%ui un unui f$s!$ al%L al%ei o unei Prenominal m$5l$ alRi al%or unii/niM%e unor f$5l$ al%e al%or unii/niM%e unor m$s!$ al%1l al%uia un1l unuia Au!men%e# f$s!$ m$5l$ al%a alRi. al%eia al%ora una uni. uneia unora f$5l$ al%ele al%ora unele unora

The meanin! is no% necessaril0 5ar%i%ive ei%her (so in s5i%e of %he su5erficial similari%0 %he a55aren% #efini%e mar-ers #o no% e;5ress 5ar%i%ivi%0 li-e in French l.un% l.autre/3
(44/ a$ Ce rochie frumoasLd P Am Mi eu 1na aMa$ 9ha% #ress(F/ nice have$+SG also I one-a li-e-%ha% >Uha% a nice #ressd P I %oo have one li-e %ha%$? b$ S-a %ermina% filmulK Las? cL 5un eu alt1l. R7FL-has finishe# film(N/-%he le% %ha% 5u%$+SG I o%her-ul >The film is overK Don?% 9orr0 I?ll 5la0 ano%her one$?

Ue ma0 no%ice %ha% %he #efini%e inflec%ion is use# for cases 9here %he a##i%ion of - a 9oul# have ma#e %he %ermina%ions in#is%in!uishable (masc$ Xun-a [ fem$ un-a/ (in %he case of #emons%ra%ives %he forms are s%ill #is%in!uishable #ue %o s%em al%erna%ions3 masc$ acesta% acela% fem$ aceasta% aceea/$ 'u% %his s%ill #oesn?% e;5lain 9h0 s5ecial 5ronominal forms 9ere nee#e# for %his case since o%her NF7s sho9 no formal #ifference in cases of nominal elli5sis3 mult% muli >much man0? (i%s onl0 s5ecial 5ronominal form is %he obli@ue 5lural multora/ %he #irec% form of care e%c$ In line 9i%h %hese observa%ions 9e ma0 anal0Ae Pul an# Pa as 5ro-Ns (see (4,// %ha% are inflec%e# for !en#er an# number (com5are %he invariable P a %ha% combines 9i%h #emons%ra%ive #e%erminers 9hich are %hemselves inflec%e# for !en#er an# number/ or as s5ecial forms of %hese NF7s use# in %he con%e;% r[Ne] (see (4.//3
(4,/ (4./ a$ [[Dun][Nul]] b$ [[Dalt][Na]] [Dunul][Ne]

Tra#i%ionall0 NF7s in %his con%e;% 9ere calle# >5ronouns? 9hile in 5renominal 5osi%ion %he0 9ere calle# >5ronominal a#6ec%ives?$ Oo9ever %he anal0sis in %erms of [Ne] is su5erior on %he follo9in! !roun#s3 firs% of all an# mos% im5or%an% i% %rea%s as uni@ue le;ical en%ries i%ems 9hich 9ere consi#ere# ambivalen% in %he %ra#i%ional %heor0$ The %ra#i%ional vie9 canno% e;5lain 9h0 all %hese 9or#s sho9 %his #ual behaviour (a#6ec%ives an# 5ronouns/ an# 9i%h such a re!ulari%0 no% onl0 in a sin!le lan!ua!e bu% also across lan!ua!es$ Secon# a s%ruc%ure con%ainin! [Ne] is %he sim5les% re5resen%a%ion of %he seman%ics of %hese cons%ruc%ions3 as 9e have seen as in o%her cases of elli5sis a nominal con%en% for %he missin! NP is con%e;%uall0 recovere# (see (2./-(2B// an# onl0 in %he absence of %his 5ossibili%0 a con%en% b0 #efaul% is inferre# (see (4=//I [Ne] #oes no% s%an# for an en%i%0 as in %he case of 5ersonal 5ronouns bu% for a nominal con%en% so i% is be%%er calle# a 5ro-N$ A %hir# ar!umen% is %ha% in some lan!ua!es %his 5ro-N ma0 be over%$ 7n!lish uses in some cases %he form one 9here Romanian has [Ne]3
(4</ a$ fiecare casL ever0 house Romanian 7n!lish

C.

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories b$ fiecare [Ne] ever0 one c$ al%L 5roblemL ano%her 5roblem #$ al%a [Ne] ano%her one Romanian 7n!lish Romanian 7n!lish Romanian 7n!lish

Four%h [Ne] ma0 be foun# in#e5en#en%l0 of an0 (over%/ NFIs in Romanian (for #e%ails see * 2$4/3
(4B/ a$ Ai !Lsi% romane #e :alrau;K have$1SG foun# novels b0 :alrau; >Oave 0ou foun# novels b0 :alrau;K? b$ Nu am cum5Lra% numai [Ne] #e Gi#e$ no have$+ bou!h% onl0 of Gi#e >No I bou!h% onl0 (novels/ b0 Gi#e?

In '?s re5li@ue i% is clear %ha% 9e #o no% have a 5ro-DP ana5hor3 ' #oes no% s5ea- abou% %he same referen% as A$ Uha% %he %9o DPs have in common is 5ar% of %heir #escri5%ive con%en% namel0 %he noun romane >novels?$ If -a an# -L (-ul e%c$/ of %he au!men%e# inflec%ion are anal0Ae# as a 5ro-N or as allomor5hs use# in %he con%e;% of an em5%0 N 9e e;5ec% %hem %o a55ear 9hen several NF7s are 5resen% onl0 on %he F7 a#6acen% %o %he N 5osi%ion i$e$ %he las% one$ This e;5ec%a%ion is borne ou% e;ce5% for #emons%ra%ives 9hich al9a0s have - a in %he absence of an over% N even if %he0 are no% a#6acen% %o %he N 5osi%ion (see (4C/e/3
(4C/ a$ mul%or bLrbaRi s mul%ora man0$ PL$G'L men man0$ PL$G'L-a b$ mul%or al%or bLrbaRi s mul%or al%or a man0$ PL$G'L o%her$PL$G'L men man0$ PL$G'L o%her$PL$G'L-a c$ %u%uror elevilor s %u%urora all$PL$G'L 5u5ils all$PL$G'L-a #$ %u%uror aces%or elevi s %u%uror aces%or a all$PL$G'L %hese$G'L 5u5ils all$PL$G'L %hese$PL$G'L-a e$ aces%e #ouL case s aces%ea #ouL %hese %9o houses %hese-a %9o

The #e%erminer unii >some? 9hich is al9a0s 5ar%i%ive in a#nominal 5osi%ion is no% res%ric%e# %o %his %05e of in%er5re%a%ion in 5hrases 9i%hou% an over% noun bu% ra%her becomes %he 5lural coun%er5ar% of %he in#efini%e ar%icle un)ul/$ Tha%?s 9h0 in %he follo9in! e;am5le ((,=/a/ 9here a 5ar%i%ive in%er5re%a%ion is unli-e0 9e canno% in%ro#uce %he missin! noun an# -ee5 %he same meanin! ((,=/b/$ If 9e 9an% %o 5reserve %he meanin! 9e have %o re5lace unii 9i%h %he non-5ar%i%ive #e%erminer nite ((,=/c/3
(,=/ a$ Am cum5Lra% %ran#afiri roA iar :ihai a cum5Lra% 1n.. !albeni have$+ bou!h% roses 5in- an# :ihai has bou!h% some 0ello9 >I/Ue bou!h% 5in- roses an# :ihai bou!h% 0ello9 (ones/? b$ mAm cum5Lra% %ran#afiri roA iar :ihai a cum5Lra% 1n.. %ran#afiri !albeni$ have$+ bou!h% roses 5in- an# :ihai has bou!h% some roses 0ello9 c$ Am cum5Lra% %ran#afiri roA iar :ihai a cum5Lra% n.Cte %ran#afiri !albeni$ have$+ bou!h% roses 5in- an# :ihai has bou!h% s?m roses 0ello9 >I/Ue bou!h% 5in- roses an# :ihai bou!h% some 0ello9 (ones/?

C<

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

As 9e have no%ice# in 2$+ %he non-5ar%i%ive e;is%en%ial in#efini%e nite canno% a55ear 9i%hou% an over% noun$ So unii func%ions as a H[Ne] form no% onl0 for unii bu% also for nite$ A 5ossible e;5lana%ion is %ha% bo%h uses of unii s%em from a fea%ure >Hcon%e;%ual-recover0? (as 9e 9ill su!!es% belo9 for care/$ This ma0 be recover0 of a #efini%e referen%ial an%ece#en% in %he 5ar%i%ive use bu% of a nominal an%ece#en% for N elli5sis$ 'u% 9e mus% no%e %ha% unii ma0 also be in%er5re%e# 9i%hou% recover0 of a nominal con%en% from %he con%e;% (9i%hou% N elli5sis/ meanin! >some 5eo5le?$ So i% a55ears %ha% i% is a ra%her !eneraliAe# form for %he in#efini%e #e%erminer in %he con%e;% H[Ne]$ 3.3. P0o+DPs E50ono1nsF Cer%ain #e%erminer-li-e elemen%s e$!$ nimeni% nimic >nobo#0 no%hin!? never a55ear 9i%h an over% noun 3
(,+/ N-am a#us n./.o@Ln.6./ car%e no%-have$+ brou!h% no / no%hin! boo-

Such elemen%s 9ill be calle# pronouns or pro-D/s$ In %his case %he 5resence of a nominal elemen% as a sis%er of De% i%self is #eba%able$ These elemen%s ma0 ins%ea# be anal0Ae# ei%her as intransitive determiners (#e%erminers 9i%h no nominal com5lemen%/ or as fused !eads% incor5ora%in! a nominal elemen% (%he incor5ora%ion ma0 be 5re-s0n%ac%ic in 9hich case a cons%i%uen% of %he form DHN 9hich is lis%e# in %he Le;icon en%ers %he #eriva%ion as suchI al%erna%ivel0 NHD mi!h% be %he resul% of hea#-%o-hea# movemen% of N %o D/$ In #iscussin! %his class 9e 9ill #is%in!uish be%9een in#efini%e 5ronouns an# 5ersonal 5ronouns$ 3.3.1 In3ef.n.te 50ono1ns I% is in%eres%in! %o com5are in#efini%e 5ronouns (9hich canno% be follo9e# b0 an over% noun/ 9i%h %he corres5on#in! 5renominal #e%erminers (see %he %able in (,1//3
(,1/ e;is%en%ial in%erro!a%ive Ne!a%ive al%erna%ive free-choice Prenominal #e%erminer Hle;ical N H5ro-N un >a? unul >one? care >9hich? ce >9ha%? niciun >no? al% >(an/o%her? oricare >an0? care >9hich? niciunul >no one? al%ul >ano%her one? Pronoun Hanima%e -anima%e cinevaIcareva ceva >somebo#0? >some%hin!? cine >9ho? ce >9ha%? nimeni >nobo#0? al%cineva >somebo#0 else? oricine >an0bo#0? nimic >no%hin!? al%ceva >some%hin! else? orice >an0%hin!?

orice oricare >an0(one/?

The %9o series of elemen%s con%ain %he same o5era%ors bu% #iffer re!ar#in! %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he non-over% (or im5lici%/ nominal elemen%3 9hen use# 9i%hou% a noun 5renominal #e%erminers allo9 a con%e;%ual recover0 of %he #escri5%ive con%en% (see %he 5revious sec%ion/ 9hereas in#efini%e 5ronouns never #o so3

CB

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories (,2/ a$ N-am a#us n./.1na. no%-have$+ brou!h% no$ADG: >I/Ue #i#n?% brin! an0 (one/$? 7;$ of con%e;%ual recover03 [Ne] [ carte >boo-? b$ N-am a#us n.6./. no%-have$+ brou!h% no%hin! >I/Ue brou!h% no%hin!? No con%e;%ual recover0

If %he 5ossibili%0 of con%e;%ual recover0 is a !eneral 5ro5er%0 of an em5%0 N (no%a%e# Y NeZ/ as 9e have seen in * 2$1 %hese con%ras%s sho9 %ha% in#efini%e 5ronouns #on?% con%ain an em5%0 N$ The fuse# e;is%en%ials 5rece#e# b0 %he al%erna%ive alt (labelle# >al%erna%ive 5ronouns in %able (,1// are %rea%e# as com5oun#s b0 %he 9ri%%en norm3 altcineva >somebo#0 else? altceva >some%hin! else?$ Since %he or#er be%9een e;is%en%ials an# al%erna%ives is !enerall0 %he o55osi%e (un altul >ano%her one?/ 9e ma0 a#o5% %he su!!es%ion of %he norm an# %rea% %hese forms as com5oun#s fuse#-hea# al%erna%ives$ I% shoul# be observe# %ha% %he in%erro!a%ive ce >9ha%? an# i%s com5oun# orice >an0%hin! 9ha%ever? 9i%hou% a noun behave as 5ronouns (%he0 #on?% allo9 con%e;%ual recover0 of a #escri5%ive con%en%/ bu% %he0 ma0 also be use# as 5renominal #e%erminers$ Ue ma0 %rea% %hese 5renominal forms as homon0mous forms since %he0 #o no% have %he inanima%e fea%ure of %heir 5ronominal coun%er5ar%s ce >9ha%? orice >an0%hin!?$ Thus 9e canno% #erive (,4/b from (,4/a3
(,4/ a$ VorbeM%e cu o0./e 5rofesor d s5ea-$1SG 9i%h orice 5rofessor >Tal- %o an0 5rofessor d? b$ XVorbeM%e cu o0./e [Ne]d s5ea-$1SG 9i%h orice (in%en#e# meanin!3 >%al- %o an0oned?/

Oo9ever %he formal i#en%i%0 be%9een %he inanima%e in%erro!a%ive 5ronoun an# %he (non-Dlin-e#/ in%erro!a%ive #e%erminer is a 5ro5er%0 foun# in o%her lan!ua!es (e;$ en!l$ &!at i%$ que alb$ I/$ Since %he inanima%e 5ronoun is also use# for %he u%%ermos% !enerici%0 embracin! bo%h anima%es an# inanima%es 9e coul# sa0 %ha% %he forms ce an# orice are in fac% un#ers5ecifie# con%ainin! onl0 %he fea%ures YDZ Y9hZ an# YDZ Yfree-choiceZ res5ec%ivel0$ Their 5ronominal meanin! 9oul# resul% from %he concurrence of %he more s5ecifie# %erms (ori*cine (Hanima%e/ an# (ori*care (H5ar%i%ive/$ Since %he 5ar%i%ive fea%ure of care an# oricare re@uires con%e;%ual recover0 ce an# orice 9oul# be use# onl0 for cases in 9hich %here is no such con%e;%ual recover0 an# %he em5%0 N receives a value b0 #efaul%$ Dn#er such an anal0sis ce an# orice 9oul# belon! %o %he %05e of #e%erminers allo9in! N elli5sis (2$1$ above/$ 'u% no%ice %ha% even 9hen no 5ar%i%ivi%0 (i$e$ selec%ion from a #efini%e !rou5/ is involve# ce canno% be use# 9i%h N elli5sis3
(,,/ Are niM%e cLrRi #ar nu M%iu ce cLrRi / X/e / (#e/ care has s?m boo-s bu% no% -no9$+SG 9ha% boo-s / 9ha% / (of/ 9hich

Gne coul# ar!ue %ha% %he fea%ure of care 9hich #e%ermines %ha% i% is %he onl0 in%erro!a%ive allo9in! 5ro-N is no% sim5l0 5ar%i%ive bu% ra%her some%hin! li-e >Hcon%e;%ual recover0?3 %his ma0 refer ei%her %o a #efini%e !rou5 as in %he 5ar%i%ive use also foun# a#nominall0 or %o a nominal con%en% in cases of 5ro-N$ No%e moreover %ha% in %he absence of %he over% noun in

CC

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

or#er %o @ues%ion %he %05e of boo-s %he e;5lici% @uali%0 &!- e;5ression de care li%$ >of 9hich (sor%/? ([ >9ha% sor% of?/ mus% be use# o%her9ise %he @ues%ion as-s %o s5ecif0 %he boo-s$ (Gn #e%erminers 5rece#e# b0 de 9i%h a @uali%0 meanin! see * 1 above$/ Oere 9e 9ill no% choose be%9een %hese %9o 5ossible anal0ses of %he forms ce an# orice$ The fac% %ha% in#efini%e 5ronouns allo9 res%ric%ive mo#ifiers (e;em5lifie# in (,.// coul# be %a-en as an ar!umen% for %he 5resence of a nominal elemen% since res%ric%ive mo#ifica%ion is !enerall0 consi#ere# %o be e;5resse# insi#e %he 5ro6ec%ion 9hich is %he com5lemen% of %he #e%erminer$ Ue ma0 analiAe %his nominal elemen% as an incor5ora%e# nonana5horic !ramma%ical N 9i%h %he !eneral fea%ures H/- human$
(,./ a$ Am En%reba% 5e /.ne2a 5rice5u% la as%a$ have$+ as-e# DG: somebo#0 s-illful a% %his >I/Ue as-e# somebo#0 !oo# a% %his? b$ Vreau /e2a #ulce$ 9an%$+SG some%hin! s9ee% >I 9an% some%hin! s9ee%?

3.3.2. Pe0sonal 50ono1ns In %he case of 5ersonal 5ronouns %here are several ar!umen%s a!ains% %he 5resence of %he nominal elemen%$ Firs% unli-e in#efini%es %he0 #on?% a#mi% res%ric%ive mo#ifica%ion (com5are (,./a %o (,<//3
(,</ L-am En%reba% 5e el (X5rice5u% la as%a/ him$CL$ACC-have$+ as-e# DG: him s-illful a% %his

:oreover 9hile bo%h #emons%ra%ives an# 5ersonal 5ronouns are use# %o refer %o salien% #iscourse referen%s (!iven ei%her in %he #iscourse or in %he e;%ra-lin!uis%ic con%e;%/ 5ersonal 5ronouns bu% no% #emons%ra%ives ma0 be boun# b0 a c-comman#in! an%ece#en% (see cha5%er , * +$B$1/3
(,B/ :irceai cre#e cL eli / Xa/esta. es%e cel mai bun$ :ircea %hin-s %ha% he / %his-one is %he more !oo# ?:ircea %hin-s %ha% he/%his one is %he bes%$?

Since DPs 9i%h over% NPs can never be boun# (see (,C// %he im5ossibili%0 of bein! boun# ma0 be rela%e# %o %he e;is%ence of a NP cons%i%uen% insi#e acesta >%his?$ This is su55or%e# b0 %he fac% %ha% #emons%ra%ives ma0 a55ear 9i%h an over% noun (%he0 are a#nominal #e%erminers allo9in! N elli5sis %he %05e 2$1$ above unli-e 5ersonal 5ronouns/ (see (.=//3
(,C/ (.=/ X:irceai cre#e cL in#ivi#uli e #eM%e5% :ircea %hin-s %ha% !u0-%he is smar% a$ aces% bLia% %his bo0 b$ Xel bLia% he bo0

Thus if %he bloc-in! of %he boun#-variable rea#in! is e;5laine# b0 %he 5resence of a nominal elemen% i% follo9s %ha% 5ersonal 5ronouns #on?% have a nominal elemen%$ Gn %he o%her han# %here are also ar!umen%s in favor of %he anal0sis of 5ersonal 5ronouns as DHN$ Firs% of all in some lan!ua!es (bu% no% in Romanian/ some 5ersonal 5ronouns can %a-e an NP-com5lemen%3 +==

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

(.+/

a$ Ue lin!uis%s b$ Noi lin!uis%i c$ Nous lin!uis%es

7n!lish I%alian French

To e;5ress (.+/ Romanian mus% use a #efini%e DP in an >a55osi%ion?-li-e s%ruc%ure (see cha5%er , * +$4/3 (i/ Noi lin!viM%ii 9e lin!uis%s-%he

As for in#efini%e 5ronouns %he N-elemen% of 5ersonal 5ronouns 9oul# re5resen% %he #escri5%ive con%en% an# %he D-elemen% an o5era%or$ In #iscussin! 9ha% %hese %9o ma0 be 9e mus% #is%in!uish be%9een +s% an# 1n# 5erson sin!ular an# %he o%hers3 9e 9oul# never nee# an0 #escri5%ive con%en% in or#er %o i#en%if0 %he s5ea-er an# %he a##ressee - ho9ever 9e ma0 %hinof %he 5ossibili%0 %o use a #escri5%ion in or#er %o #is%in!uish amon! several 5ossible a##ressees as in you over t!ered -$ Gn %he con%rar0 %he 5lural forms of %he +s% an# 1n# 5erson inclu#e %he s5ea-er an# %he a##ressee res5ec%ivel0 in a !rou5 hence %he0 ma0 be en#o9e# 9i%h a #escri5%ive con%en% in%ro#ucin! %he !rou5$ This e;5lains 9h0 %he0 allo9 NPcom5lemen%s in some lan!ua!es as 9e have seen in (.+/$ In %he case of %he %hir# 5erson %he #escri5%ive con%en% coul# be re5resen%e# b0 %he !en#er fea%ures 9hile %he number coul# be !enera%e# in Num %he level in%erme#ia%e be%9een N an# D$ In#ee# %hir# 5erson 5ronouns have been anal0Ae# b0 some !rammarians as definite articleJpro-3$ This 9oul# elimina%e an a55aren% e;ce5%ion in %he behaviour of #e%erminers3 9hile mos% #e%erminers ma0 a55ear 9i%h a 5ro-N %he #efini%e ar%icle canno% #o so unless %he DP con%ains a res%ric%ive mo#ifier3
(.1/ Romanian a$ `mi 5lace /el #e acolo$ CL$+SG$DAT li-es %he of %here b$ X`mi 5lace /el$ CL$+SG$DAT li-es %he c$ `mi 5lace f.e/a0e$ CL$+SG$DAT li-es each #$ `mi 5lace a/ela$ CL$+SG$DAT li-es %ha%$ADG: e$ `mi 5lace 1na$ CL$+SG$DAT li-es a$ADG: f$ `mi 5lac 3o1:$ CL$+SG$DAT li-e$2PL %9o 7n!lish I li-e t8e one over %here$ XI li-e %he one$ I li-e ever0one$ I li-e %ha% one$ I li-e one$ I li-e %9o$

Rom$ una an# 7n!l$ one in (.1/e are anal0Ae# as %he in#efini%e ar%icle H [Ne]

Accor#in! %o %his anal0sis %he im5ossibili%0 of (.1/b 9oul# be #ue %o %he fac% %ha% definite articleJpro-3 is realiAe# as a 5ersonal 5ronoun b0 incor5ora%ion$ 'u% %hen an e;5lana%ion is nee#e# for %he lac- of incor5ora%ion in (.1/a$ The !en#er fea%ures of 5ro-N 9oul# e;5lain %he behaviour of 5ersonal 5ronouns in lan!ua!es 9i%h !ramma%ical !en#er (Romanian bein! one of %hem/$ In %hese lan!ua!es !en#er is no% al9a0s seman%icall0 mo%iva%e# bu% for some nouns i% is a (5urel0 formal/ le;ical 5ro5er%0 9hich as such mus% be !enera%e# on %he noun$ As 9e ma0 see in (.2/ 5ersonal 5ronouns referrin! %o inanima%e en%i%ies inheri% %he !en#er of %he (%e;%ual or con%e;%ual/ nominal an%ece#en%$ Since in %hese cases !en#er is no% a seman%ic fea%ure 9hich coul# in#e5en#en%l0 es%ablish reference bu% a le;ical fea%ure of nouns %he 5resence of unmo%iva%e#

+=+

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

!en#er on 5ronouns coul# be e;5laine# b0 %he e;is%ence of a 5ro-N elemen% 9hich 9oul# co50 %he !en#er fea%ure of i%s an%ece#en%3
(.2/ a$ Am 5us 5alton1l. 5e scaun$ Pes%e el. am 5us umbrela$ have$+ 5u% coa%(N/-%he$SG on chair over 2:SG have$+ 5u% umbrella-%he >I 5u% %he coa% on %he chair$ Gn %o5 of i% I 5u% %he umbrella? b$ Am 5us /:6aCa 5e scaun$ Pes%e ea. am 5us umbrela$ have$+ 5u% shir%(F/-%he$ SG on chair over 2FSG have$+ 5u% umbrella-%he >I 5u% %he shir% on %he chair$ Gver i% I 5u% %he umbrella$?

The same si%ua%ion is foun# 9hen number is le;ical3


(.4/ Am 5us 5antalon.. noi$ I-am 5rimi% ca#ou sWmbL%L$ have$+ 5u% %rousers(:/-%he$PL ne9 2:PL$ACC-have$+ receive# 5resen% Sa%ur#a0 >I 5u% on %he ne9 %rousers$ I !o% %hem as a 5resen% on Sa%ur#a0$?

Ano%her ar!umen% in favour of %he anal0sis of 5ersonal 5ronouns as def0 art0 Hpro-3 is %he fac% %ha% some%imes %he0 #on?% refer %o %he same en%i%0 as %heir an%ece#en% bu% onl0 un#er%a-e %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he an%ece#en% (such 5ronouns are calle# >5ronouns of laAiness?/3
(.,/ Dnii oameni EMi 5ier# a2e0ea la cLrRi alRii o chel%uie 5e bLu%urL$ some 5eo5le R7FL$DAT loose for%une-%he a% car#s o%hers i% s5en# on #rin-in! >Some 5eo5le loose %heir for%une a% car#s o%hers s5en# i% on #rin-in!? it[>%heir for%une?3 >Some 5eo5lei loose %heiri for%une a% car#s o%hers6 s5en# t!eir+ fortune on #rin-in!?

These 5ronouns are also calle# >5a0chec- 5ronouns? af%er %he e;am5le b0 9hich %he0 9ere firs% in%ro#uce# in%o #iscussion in %he lin!uis%ic li%era%ure3 (i/ The man 9ho !ave 8.s 5a9/8e/> %o his 9ife 9as 9iser %han %he man 9ho !ave .t %o his mis%ress?

The rela%ion be%9een 2r# 5erson 5ronouns an# %he #efini%e ar%icle is also e;5resse# in mor5holo!0 in some lan!ua!es3 for ins%ance in mos% Romance lan!ua!es %he #efini%e ar%icle an# %he 2r# 5erson 5ronoun have %he same ori!in la%$ ille hence in some cases 9e s%ill fin# a formal i#en%i%0 be%9een %he %9o (mainl0 be%9een accusa%ive cli%ics an# %he ar%icle3 French masc$ s!$ le% fem$ s!$ la% 5l$ lesI in Romanian 9e fin# in %he masculine sin!ular %he same elemen% l 9i%h various allomor5hs in %he masculine 5lural i also 9i%h several allomor5hs in %he feminine 5lural le onl0 in %he feminine sin!ular %he forms #iver!e3 o for %he 5ronoun a for %he ar%icleI %he nomina%ive an# s%ron! accusa%ive forms sho9 an e- follo9e# b0 en#in!s i#en%ical %o %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle3 el% ei% ea% ele vs$ "l% -a% -i% -le/$ There are also lan!ua!es 9here 2r# 5erson 5ronouns ma0 al9a0s be use# 9i%h a noun al%hou!h no% as a #efini%e ar%icle bu% ra%her as a #emons%ra%ive - such is %he case of La%in is (9hich onl0 in %he case of Ns mo#ifie# b0 rela%ive clauses behaves as an ar%icle/$ In %he follo9in! 9e 9on?% %rea% 5ersonal 5ronouns refle;ives an# reci5rocals 9hich are #iscusse# in cha5%er ,$ Ue have seen %ha% %he +s% an# 1n# 5erson 5lural in%ro#uce a #escri5%ive con%en% >belon!in! %o a !rou5 inclu#in! %he s5ea-er/a##ressee? 9hich can combine 9i%h o%her #escri5%ive con%en% in %he DP s5ecif0in! %his !rou5$ So 9e e;5ec% %he fea%ures +5l an# 15l %o a55ear in#e5en#en%l0 of %he #e%erminer bein! even boun# b0 o%her #e%erminers$ This is in#ee# %he case in Romanian$ In#efini%e #e%erminers (inclu#in! @uan%i%a%ives func%ionin! as D/ es5eciall0 9hen a55earin! 9i%hou% an over% noun can %ri!!er firs% or secon# 5erson 5lural a!reemen% on %he verb or a firs%/secon# 5erson 5lural cli%ic3 +=1

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

(../

a$ Un.. /f.e/a0e vrem sL a6un!em mai re5e#e$ some$:PL/ each 9an%$+PL SD'N arrive$+PL more fas% >Some/each of of us 9an% %o arrive sooner$? b$ Ne-a lLsa% 5e /KA.2a sL aM%e5%Lm$ us$CL$ACC-has le% DG: a-fe9 SD'N 9ai%$+PL >Oe le% some/a fe9 of us 9ai%in!$? c$ M1lto0a ne 5lace #ansul man0$ DAT$ADG: us$CL$DAT li-es #ance-%he >:an0 of us li-e #ancin!? #$ Ca0e vreRi sL veniRi cu mineK 9hich 9an%$1PL SD'N come$1PL 9i%h me >Uhich of 0ou 9an%s %o come 9i%h meK?

This seems %o su!!es% %he e;is%ence of an em5%0 noun mar-e# +5l or 15l$ I% shoul# be no%e# %ha% %he same a!reemen% 5a%%erns ma0 a55ear even 9hen %here is an over% noun e;5resse# in %he collo@uial re!is%er bu% %his is much more res%ric%e# (see (.</c-# com5are# %o (..//3
(.</ a$ Do1: fa6.l.. am fos% afec%a%e #e calami%a%e %9o families have$+PL been affec%e# b0 #isas%er >Ue %9o families have been affec%e# b0 %he #isas%er? b$ Sun%em 61lA. 5ens.ona0. En aceas%L RarL are$+PL man0 5ensioners in %his coun%r0 >There are a lo% of us 5ensioners in %his coun%r0? c$ XCa0e st13enA. vreRi sL veniRi cu mineK 9hich s%u#en%s 9an%$1PL SD'N come$1PL 9i%h me #$ XM1lto0 5ens.ona0. ne 5lace #ansul man0$ DAT 5ensioners us$CL$DAT li-es #ance-%he

This su!!es%s %ha% %he fea%ures +5l an# 15l ma0 a55ear on %he >in#e;? of %he DP (%he fea%ure bun#le 9hich #e%ermines e;%ernal a!reemen%/ 9i%hou% bein! e;5resse# ei%her in N or in D$ Uhile %he e;ac% locus of %heir !enera%ion is no% clear i% is im5or%an% %o no%ice %ha% %he0 are no% !enera%e# un#er D (D is occu5ie# in %hese e;am5les b0 @uan%i%a%ives such as dou >%9o? or muli >man0? !ivin! rise %o an in#efini%e in%er5re%a%ionI %he 5erson fea%ure 5ossibl0 a%%aches %o %he DP insi#e a tbi! DP? an# moves from %his 5osi%ion %o %he inflec%ional #omain of %he clause !e%%in! realiAe# as sub6ec% a!reemen% on %he verb or as cli%ics/$ In#efini%e 5ronouns 9hich never %a-e nominal com5lemen%s never allo9 %his %05e of a!reemen%$ Com5are %he ne!a%ive 5ronoun nimeni in (.B/a-b 9i%h %he ne!a%ive #e%erminer niciun in (.B/# ((.B/c sho9s %ha% nimeni is a 5ronoun (.B/e sho9s %ha% niciun is a #e%erminer %ha% selec%s an over% or cover% N/3
(.B/ a$ N.6en. #in%re noi nu a /Xam a#ormi%$ nobo#0 amon! us no% has / have$+PL fallen-aslee5 >None of us has fallen aslee5$? b$ N.6en. nu a /Xam a#ormi% nobo#0 no% has/ have$+PL fallen-aslee5 c$ XN.6en. bLia% nu a a#ormi% nobo#0 bo0 no% has fallen-aslee5 #$ N./.1n1l (#in%re noi/ nu a /am a#ormi% none$ADG: (amon! us/ no% has /have$+PL fallen-aslee5 e$ N./.1n bLia% nu a a#ormi% no bo0 no% has fallen-aslee5

+=2

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

3.3.3. T8e G4en.t.2al an3 o03.nal a0t./leH al Al is a #e%erminer-li-e elemen% %ha% is a necessar0 in!re#ien% of !eni%ive DPs an# of or#inals3
(.C/ a$ o 5oar%L a oraMului a !a%e(F/ al$FSG ci%0-%he$G7N >a !a%e of %he ci%0? b$ :i-au 5lLcu% ale Ro#icLi me$CL$DAT-have$2PL li-e# al$FPL Ro#ica$G7N >I li-e# Ro#ica?s? (a con%en% for %he N-hea# is con%e;%uall0 recovere#/ c$ al #oilea rLAboi mon#ial al0:SG %9o-lea 9ar 9orl#9i#e >%he secon# Uorl# Uar? #$ rLAboiul al #oilea 9ar-%he al0:SG %9o-lea >%he secon# 9ar? e$ A%unci a in%ra% al #oilea %hen has en%ere# al0:SG %9o-lea >Then %he secon# one en%ere#?

Al is #ifferen% from %he in#efini%e 5ronouns in 2$2$+3 9hile %hese 5ronouns have a #escri5%ive con%en% s5ecifie# for animac0 (or 5ersonhoo#/ an# #on?% re@uire con%e;%ual i#en%ifica%ion of a nominal elemen% in %he case of al %he nominal elemen% is !enerall0 con%e;%uall0 i#en%ifie# behavin! as 5ro-N$ Gnl0 in %he absence of a con%e;%ual an%ece#en% a #escri5%ive con%en% is inferre# on %he base of i%s -fea%ures3 ai lui Eod >al0:PL G7N 5rince?3 anima%e >5rince?s men (frien#s su55or%ers/? ale mele >al0FPL m0?3 inanima%e >m0 s%uff?$ So 9e ma0 conclu#e %ha% al con%ains a 5ro-N$ No%e also %ha% al has a #efini%e meanin! onl0 9hen i% is no% embe##e# in ano%her DP in 5os%nominal 5osi%ion3 in (.C/a 9e see %ha% %he 5hrase alH!eni%ive can func%ion as %he com5lemen% of an in#efini%e DP in (.C/# 9e see %ha% or#inals ma0 a55ear af%er %he noun suffi;e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle in 9hich case %he #efini%eness meanin! is obviousl0 e;5resse# b0 %he ar%icle$ Gn %he o%her han# (.C/c sho9s %ha% if %he or#inal is 5renominal i% ma0 mar- %he DP as #efini%e 5resumabl0 #ue %o %he H#ef fea%ure 9hich is in %his case ac%ive in al$ 'ecause of %hese res%ric%ions on %he #efini%e meanin! an# of %he #is%ribu%ional res%ric%ions (al has %o be sis%er of a !eni%ive or of an or#inal/ al canno% be consi#ere# as an allomor5h of %he #efini%e ar%icle in %he con%e;% of a 5ro-N elemen%$ Therefore 9e %rea% i% as a #ifferen% le;eme ma#e u5 b0 a D an# a 5ro-N elemen%$ Ois%oricall0 i% 9as a 5rocli%ic form of %he #efini%e ar%icle (comin! from la%$ ille/ bu% no9a#a0s i% is re5lace# in %his func%ion b0 cel$ For more on al see cha5%er .0 3.$. Note on no6.nal ell.5s.s .n ba0e no1ns In %he sec%ion 2$1 9e have sho9n %ha% mos% NF7s allo9 elli5sis of %he noun$ Ue have also no%ice# %ha% nominal elli5sis is also 5ossible in bare nouns 9here no over% NF7 is 5resen%$ As 9e have sho9n in sec%ion + ar!umen%al bare 5lural an# mass nouns ma0 be anal0Ae# ei%her as DPs 9i%h a null D or as NumPs (see also cha5%er 1/$ Thus 9e ma0 sa0 %ha% i% is %he null D or Num %ha% licenses %he em5%0 noun$ No%e %ha% elli5sis is 5ossible even if %he 5hrase #oesn?% con%ain an0 over% ma%erial3
(<=/ a$ A3 Nu mai avem flori$ '3 LasL cL a#uce :ihai (Q/ no% s%ill have$+PL flo9ers le%$I:PV$1SG %ha% brin!s :ihai A3>Ue have no more flo9ers lef%? '3>Don?% 9orr0 :ihai 9ill brin! (some/?

+=4

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories b$ La5%ele meu s-a %ermina%$ Di%L-%e 5oa%e a mai rLmas (Q/ la %ine En fri!i#er mil--%he m0 R7FL-has finishe# loo-$I:PV-R7FL ma0be has s%ill lef% a% 0ou in fri#!e >:0 mil- is over$ Loo- 5erha5s %here?s s%ill some lef% in 0our fri#!e?

7lli5sis also allo9s various %05es of over% ma%erial3 a#6ec%ives PP mo#ifiers (@uasi-/ ar!umen%al PPs (9e see an au%hor PP in (<+/c/ rela%ive clauses3
(<+/ A#6ec%ives3 a$ Am lua% %ran#afiri roA iar :ihai a lua% [Ne] !albeni$ have$+ %a-en roses(:/ 5in- an# :ihai has %a-en 0ello9$ :PL >I bou!h% 5in- roses an# :ihai bou!h% 0ello9$? PP-mo#ifiers3 b$ La noi sun% Mi case #e 5ia%rL$ La voi sun% numai [Ne] #e cLrLmi#L a% us are also houses of s%one a% 0ou are onl0 of bric>Ue also have s%one-ma#e houses 0ou onl0 have bric- houses$? (8uasi/-ar!umen%al PPs3 c$ 7l cWn%L numai sona%e #e 'ee%hoven$ 7u cWn% Mi [Ne] #e Cho5in he 5la0s onl0 sona%as b0 'ee%hoven I 5la0 also b0 Cho5in >Oe 5la0s onl0 sona%as b0 'ee%hoven$ I also 5la0 sona%as b0 Cho5in? Rela%ive clauses3 #$ A$ Ai cum5Lra% #es%ule cLmLMiK have$1SG bou!h% enou!h shir%s >Di# 0ou bu0 enou!h shir%sK? '$ Da #ar n-am !Lsi% [Ne] care sL le vinL %u%uror$ 0es bu% no%-have$+ foun# 9hich SD'N CL$DAT sui%$2PL all$DAT >qes bu% I #i#n?% fin# (an0/ 9hich 9oul# sui% all$?

Geni%ives a55ear in %his con%e;% onl0 in%ro#uce# b0 de (%he s%ruc%ure de-al see cha5%er . * 4/$ In (<1/ 9e see %ha% in %he absence of an over% hea# noun or #e%erminer %he 5hrases deHalHGeni%ive behave li-e bare 5lural an# mass nouns P %he0 have an in#efini%e in%er5re%a%ion an# #is5la0 %he s0n%ac%ic cons%rain%s 9hich charac%eriAe bare 5lurals an# mass nouns (canno% a55ear before %he verb e;ce5% as a con%ras%ive focus or con%ras%ive %o5ic i$e$ #isloca%e# in %he lef% 5eri5her0/$ This in#ica%es %ha% in %his cons%ruc%ion 9e have %o #eal 9i%h a N-elli5sis or 5ro-N !overne# b0 a null D or Num3
(<1/ a$ Au veni% 3e+a. l1. have$2PL come de-al$:PL his >Rela%ives/frien#s of his came? b$ m De+a. l1. au veni% de-al0:PL his have$2PL come c$ XA veni% 3e+a l1. has come de-al$FSG$ his YYD/Num QZYNP YNQZ YDP #e-ai luiZZZ

(unless con%ras%ive/

(<1/_

Some verbs allo9 in %he ob6ec% 5osi%ion (inclu#in! #ee5 ob6ec%s of unaccusa%ives cf$ (<2/b-c %o (<2/#/ a cons%ruc%ion 9hich loo-s li-e elli5sis of a mass noun in %he con%e;% of a 5ar%i%ive com5lemen% ((<2/a-#/ sho9in! a bare noun #is%ribu%ion (cf$ (.2/e/$ No%e ho9ever %ha% %his cons%ruc%ion seems %o be 5ossible onl0 for affec%e# ob6ec%s 9hich su!!es%s %ha% 5ar%i%ive 5hrases are selec%e# b0 %he verb$
(<2/ a$ Am arunca% [Ne] #in 5Wine$ have$+ %hro9n of brea#

+=,

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories >I/Ue %hre9 a9a0 some of %he brea#? b$ A mai rLmas [Ne] #in 5Wine has s%ill lef% of brea# >There is s%ill some of %he brea# lef%? c$ Au veni% [Ne] #in invi%aRi$ have$2PL come of !ues%s >Some of %he !ues%s have come? #$ XDorm [Ne] #in co5ii slee5$2PL of chil#ren e$ X [Ne] #in 5Wine a fos% arunca%L /a cLAu% 5e 6os of brea# has been %hro9n /has fallen #o9n f$ KKAm vLAu% #in filmele lui /#in 5iese have$+ seen of films-%he his /of #ramas !$ XA#mir #in 5ic%urile lui a#mire$+SG of 5ain%in!s-%he his

The combina%ion [D/Nume][Ne] has a more res%ric%e# #is%ribu%ion %han %ha% of bare 5lural an# mass nouns$ For ins%ance i% is im5ossible af%er 5re5osi%ions unless %he NP con%ains an a#6ec%ive (in 9hich case i% is 5ossible onl0 %o some e;%en%/3
(<4/ a$ Am veni% cu %ran#afiri roA iar :ihai a veni% cu [Ne] !albeni$ have$+ come 9i%h roses(:/ 5in- an# :ihai has come 9i%h 0ello9$ :PL >I came 9i%h 5in- roses an# :ihai 9i%h 0ello9$? b$ XNoi locuim En case #e 5ia%rL$ Voi locuiRi En [Ne] #e cLrLmi#L /En albe 9e live in houses of s%one 0ou( PL/ live in of bric/in 9hi%e >Ue live in s%one-ma#e houses 0ou live in bric- houses$? c$ X7l se #esfa%L numai cu sona%e #e 'ee%hoven$ 7u mL #esfL% Mi cu [Ne] #e Cho5in he R7FL en6o0s onl0 9i%h sona%as b0 'ee%hoven I R7FL en6o0 also 9i%h b0 Cho5in >Oe amuses himself onl0 9i%h sona%as b0 'ee%hoven$ I also amuse m0self 9i%h sona%as b0 Cho5in? #$ A3 Ai veni% cu #es%ule cLmLMiK have$1SG come 9i%h enou!h shir%s >Di# 0ou brin! enou!h shir%s K? '3XDa #ar n-am veni% cu [Ne] care sL le vinL %u%uror$ 0es bu% no%-have$+ come 9i%h 9hich SD'N CL$DAT sui%$2PL all$DAT >qes bu% I #i#n?% brin! shir%s %ha% 9oul# sui% %hem all$?

This im5ossibili%0 coul# be #ue %o %he cli%ic-li-e charac%er of 5re5osi%ions 9hich nee# a com5lemen% 9i%h an over% hea#$ In con%e;%s 9here [D/NumH5l][Ne] canno% be use# %he com5le; hea# NumH5ro-N unii% unele sho9s u5$ As 9e have seen in %his case unii is no% %he same i%em as %he 5renominal #e%erminer unii (i% is no% obli!a%oril0 5ar%i%ive/ (see (,=/ above re5ea%e# here/3
(<,/ a$ Am cum5Lra% %ran#afiri roA iar :ihai a cum5Lra% 1n.. !albeni have$+ bou!h% roses(:/ 5in- an# :ihai has bou!h% some$ :PL 0ello9 >I/Ue have bou!h% 5in- roses an# :ihai bou!h% some 0ello9 ones? b$ Am veni% cu %ran#afiri roA iar :ihai a veni% cu 1n.. !albeni have$+ come 9i%h roses(:/ 5in- an# :ihai has come 9i%h some$ :PL 0ello9 >I/Ue have come 9i%h 5in- roses an# :ihai came 9i%h some 0ello9 ones?

+=.

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

$. Mo3.f.e0s an3 /o65le6ents l./ense3 b9 no6.nal f1n/t.onal ele6ents= 580asal NFEs an3 t8e .ss1e of 5a0t.t.2e PPs
Func%ional 9or#s are %05icall0 hea#s i$e$ VT elemen%s (9or#s ra%her %han 5hrases/$ Oo9ever as 9e have sai# some NF7s ma0 have #e5en#en%s of %heir o9n$ In some cases %here are reasons %o %rea% %hese #e5en#en%s as combinin! 9i%h %he F7 before %he F7 combines 9i%h %he NP (i$e$ as formin! a cons%i%uen% 9i%h %he F7/$ Such cons%i%uen%s 9ill be anal0Ae# as occu50in! a s5ecifier 5osi%ion in %he func%ional 5ro6ec%ions 9hich #omina%e %he NP$ $.1. A550o<.6at.on 6o3.f.e0s an3 ot8e0 6o3.f.e0s l./ense3 b9 I1ant.f.e0s Car#inals universals (inclu#in! %he #is%ribu%ive universal fiecare >each ever0? an# %he freechoice i%ems orice >an0-9ha%? >9ha%ever?% oricare >an0-9hich? >9hichever no ma%%er 9hich an0?/ an# ne!a%ives a#mi% a55ro;ima%ion mo#ifiers$ Ue ma0 analiAe %hese mo#ifiers as a%%ache# %o %he cons%i%uen% DHNP (see (<./_/ so i% is no% necessar0 %o %rea% %hese #e%erminers as s5ecifiers3
(<./ a$ a5roa5e %rei ani almos% %hree 0ears b$ a5roa5e %oRi 5or%ocalii almos% all oran!e-%rees-%he c$ a5roa5e orice Ai almos% an0 #a0 #$ a5roa5e nicio 5lLcere almos% no 5leasure [DP a5roa5e [DP nicio 5lLcere]]

(<./_

The #is%ribu%ive universal fiecare >each ever0? licenses %he ri!h% a#6unc% PP n parte (li%$ >in 5ar%?/ 9hich em5hasiAes %he #is%ribu%ive meanin! (>se5ara%el0?/$ $.2. P80asal /a03.nals Car#inals besi#es a#mi%%in! a 9i#er ran!e of mo#ifiers (cam >aroun#? e'act >e;ac%l0? doar >onl0? mcar >a% leas%? vreo >aroun#?/ can also en%er com5le; cons%ruc%ions in 9hich %he0 a55ear af%er 5re5osi%ions ((<</a-#/ or com5ara%ives ((<</e/ or mo#ifie# b0 a s5ecial a#verbial su5erla%ive (s5ecial b0 no% con%ainin! %he com5ara%ive #e!ree hea#3 cel mult cel puin li%$ >%he much? >%he fe9?3 >a% mos%? >a% leas%? vs$ cel mai mult li%$ >%he more much?3 >%he mos%?/ ((<</f/3
(<</ a$ En 6ur #e cinci aroun# of five b$ En%re %rei Mi Aece be%9een %hree an# %en c$ En%re unul Mi %rei 5rofesori be%9een one an# %hree %eachers #$ ClL#irea are sub Ma5%e e%a6e buil#in!-%he has un#er seven floors >The buil#in! has less %han seven floors? e$ mai mul% #e #ouLAeci more much of %9en%0 >more %han %9en%0?

+=<

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories f$ cel mul% Mais5reAece %he much si;%een >a% mos% si;%een?

These cons%ruc%ions (a5ar% from (<</f/ behave as bein! >%9o-hea#e#? havin! an in%ernal hea# an# a #ifferen% e;%ernal hea#3 insi#e %he0 loo- li-e cons%ruc%ions hea#e# b0 5re5osi%ions or #e!ree 9or#s bu% %he0 have %he #is%ribu%ion of numeral #e%erminers$ As sho9n b0 (<</c i% is %he las% 9or# 9hich behaves as %he e;%ernal hea# of %he cons%ruc%ion (%he noun is in %he 5lural a!reein! 9i%h %he secon# numeral trei an# no% in %he sin!ular as %he firs% numeral/$ No%ice also %ha% %he firs% numeral in %his com5le; cons%ruc%ions behaves as if combinin! 9i%h a 5ro-N (i% has %he 5ronominal form unul an# no% %he 5renominal form un/$ Given %his behaviour %he s%rin!s Pre5HCar# De!HCar# ma0 be anal0Ae# as formin! a cons%i%uen% %ha% occu5ies %he s5ecifier 5osi%ion of %he func%ional 5ro6ec%ion 9hich hos%s car#inals (9hich 9e labele# 8uan%1 in * 1 above/$ As 9e sai# in sec%ion + 9e assume %ha% 9hen %he s5ecifier of a func%ional 5ro6ec%ion is fille# i%s hea# ma0 remain em5%0 (see also * , for issues concernin! @uan%i%a%ive func%ional elemen%s/3 (<B/ Y8uan%1P YEn%re unul Mi %reiZY8uan%1_ 8uan%1o YNP 5rofesori ZZZ$

$.3. S/ala0 I1ant.tat.2es Some @uan%i%0 F7s allo9 %he same #e!ree mo#ifica%ion as !ra#able a#6ec%ives (%he0 5ro6ec% a #e!ree s%ruc%ure see cha5%er < *4/3
(<C/ a$ foar%e mul%e !ro5i ver0 man0 holes b$ Ilia#a are mai 5uRine versuri #ecW% :ahabhara%a Ilia# has more fe9 verses %han :ahabhara%a >The Ilia# has fe9er verses %han %he :ahabhara%a?

The @uan%i%a%ive att >so/as/%ha% much/man0? is a #e!ree hea# 9i%h a !eneral e@ua%ive meanin! >havin! %he same number/@uan%i%0 as ;? 9hich receives #ifferen% in%er5re%a%ions #e5en#in! on %he con%e;%3 (i/ if ; is !iven in %he #iscourse or in %he con%e;% i% has an ana5horic-#eic%ic rea#in!I (ii/ if ; is in%ro#uce# b0 a com5lemen% i% has an e@ua%ive rea#in!I (iii/ if ; is free i% has an e;clama%ive rea#in!$ The e@ua%ive meanin! is s%ren!%hene# b0 %he 5re5ose# mo#ifier tot3
(B=/ Are (%o%/ a%W%ea #efec%e cW%e cali%LRi$ has (tot/ so-man0$ FPL faul%s(F/ ho9-man0$ FPL @uali%ies(F/ >Oe has 6us% as man0 faul%s as @uali%ies?

Since %he #e!ree mo#ifica%ion charac%eriAes a#6ec%ives an# a#verbs 9e 9ill call %hese @uan%i%a%ive F7s ad+ectival quantitatives labelin! %hem 8A$ Ue consi#er %ha% 8As occu50 %he s5ecifier 5osi%ion of %he func%ional 5ro6ec%ion #e#ica%e# %o scalar @uan%i%a%ives (8uan% + see * 1 above/$ $.$. Pa0t.t.2e PPs Par%i%ive PPs are in%ro#uce# b0 %he 5re5osi%ions dintre s5ecialiAe# for 5lurals an# din 9hich combines bo%h 9i%h 5lurals an# mass nouns (>of amon!?/3

+=B

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories (B+/ a$ Am ci%i% mul%e #in%re / #in cLrRile recoman#a%e #e 5rofesor have$+ rea# man0 dintre $ din boo-s-%he recommen#e# b0 %eacher >I rea# man0 of %he boo-s recommen#e# b0 %he %eacher? b$ Am bLu% 5uRin X#in%re / #in vin have$+ #run- li%%le dintre $ din 9ine >I #ran- li%%le of %he 9ine?

The 5ar%i%ive PP refers %o a se% ou% of 9hich %he #e%erminer selec%s a subse% (%he 9hole DP #eno%in! a subse% of %he 5ar%i%ive DP/$ Uhen combine# 9i%h @uan%ifica%ional #e%erminers such as %he #is%ribu%ive universal fiecare >each? %he free-choice i%em oricare (9hich also has a universal rea#in! see 2$2$,/ or %he ne!a%ive niciun >no? 5ar%i%ive com5lemen%s e;5ress %he se% over 9hich %he #e%erminer @uan%ifies$ The 5resence of a 5ar%i%ive PP #oes no% #e5en# on %he noun$ Ins%ea# i% a55ears %o be sensi%ive %o %he #e%erminer$ Tha%?s 9h0 5ar%i%ive PPs have been some%imes consi#ere# %o be secon# com5lemen%s of %he #e%erminers$ Thus 9hile in#efini%e an# @uan%ifica%ional #e%erminers allo9 5ar%i%ive PPs #efini%e #e%erminers allo9 %hem onl0 on ver0 res%ric%e# con#i%ions3 ei%her %he #e%erminer is %he #is%al #emons%ra%ive acel >%ha%? 5rovi#e# %ha% i% combines 9i%h a res%ric%ive rela%ive clause (cf$ (B1/a %o (B1/b/ or i% is an or#inal usuall0 follo9e# b0 car#inals (see (B1/c-#/ or %he 5hrase con%ains a su5erla%ive in 9hich case %he 5ar%i%ive is %he so-calle# >com5lemen% of %he su5erla%ive? ((B1/e/3
(B1/ a$ Aceia #in%re voi care M%iu o 5oeAie sL ri#ice mWna$ %hose$ADG: of 0ou(PL/ 9hich -no9$2PL a 5oem SD'N raise$2PL han#-%he >Those of 0ou 9ho -no9 a 5oem shoul# raise %heir han#s? b$ XAceia #in%re voi nerLb#L%ori sL ri#ice mWna %hose$ADG: of 0ou(PL/ im5a%ien% SD'N raise$2PL han#-%he c$ Primii (%rei/ #in%re voi sL ri#ice mWna firs%-%he$:PL (%hree/ of 0ou(PL/ SD'N raise$2PL %he-han# #$ DrmL%orii 5a%ru #in%re voi vor fi 5rimiRi 5es%e o orL$ ne;%-%he$:PL four of 0ou( PL/ 9ill be receive# af%er an hour ?The ne;% four of 0ou 9ill be receive# in an hour$? e$ Cei mai buni #in%re voi vor fi 5remiaRi$ %he$:PL more !oo#$PL of 0ou$PL 9ill be a9ar#e#-a-5riAe >The bes% of 0ou 9ill receive a 5riAe$?

The #e%erminer insi#e %he 5ar%i%ive PP is also cons%raine#3 #ue %o %he seman%ics of %he cons%ruc%ion %he 5ar%i%ive com5lemen% is al9a0s #efini%e$ The onl0 e;ce5%ion is %he cons%ruc%ion 9here bo%h DPs are in%ro#uce# b0 car#inals in 9hich case %he 9hole DP has a >#is%ribu%e#? in%er5re%a%ion3 unul din (ece >one (ou%/ of %en? trei din o mie >%hree (ou%/ of one %housan#$? In some lan!ua!es (e$! 7n!lish French/ a fur%her cons%rain% bears on %he nouns in a 5ar%i%ive cons%ruc%ion3 %he0 canno% be #ifferen% (see (B2/#/ an# normall0 an over% noun a55ears ei%her in %he ma%ri; DP or insi#e %he 5ar%i%ive com5lemen% bu% no% in bo%h$ This cons%rain% is !ramma%ical (s0n%ac%ic/ ra%her %han seman%ic as 5roven b0 %he rela%ive unacce5%abili%0 of (B2/# 9hich is 5erfec%l0 in%er5re%able$ In Romanian %his cons%rain% is less s%ron! man0 5eo5le acce5%in! e;em5les such as (B2/c$ This #ifference seems %o be #ue %o %he fac% %ha% in Romanian 5ar%i%ive PPs are al9a0s e;5resse# b0 a full 5re5osi%ion (dintre$din >amon!?/ 9hile in 7n!lish 5ar%i%ive com5lemen%s in%ro#uce# b0 %he func%ional 5re5osi%ion of are #is%in!uishe# from 5ar%i%ive a#6unc%s 9hich ma0 a55ear ou%si#e %he DP an# are in%ro#uce# b0 %he >full? (meanin!ful/ 5re5osi%ion amon (see (B2/e-f/$ No%e %ha% %he noun i#en%i%0 cons%rain% #oes no% a55l0 for 5ar%i%ive a#6unc%s (see (B2/e-f/3

+=C

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories (B2/ a$ :ul%e romane #in%re cele a#use #e %ine mL in%ereseaAL man0 novels(F/ of %he$FPL brou!h% b0 0ou me in%eres% >:an0 novels of %hose 0ou brou!h% in%eres% me? b$ :ul%e #in%re romanele a#use #e %ine mL in%ereseaAL man0 of novels-%he brou!h% b0 0ou me in%eres% ?:an0 of %he novels brou!h% b0 0ou in%eres% me? c$ K(u/ :ul%e romane #in%re cLrRile a#use #e %ine mL in%ereseaAL man0 novels of boo-s-%he brou!h% b0 0ou me in%eres% #$ X:an0 novels of %he boo-s 0ou brou!h% in%eres% me? e$ Amon! %he boo-s 0ou brou!h% man0 novels in%eres% me f$ :an0 novels amon! %he boo-s 0ou brou!h% in%eres% me

Par%i%ive PPs ma0 also a55ear ou%si#e DPs usuall0 se5ara%e# b0 comma from %he res% of %he sen%ence si%%in! in a 5eri5heral 5osi%ion (normall0 %o %he lef%/$ In %his case %he0 are less cons%raine#$ The %9o nouns ma0 be #ifferen% an# %here is no res%ric%ion on %he #e%erminers of %he DP e;5ressin! >%he 5ar%?3
(B4/ Din%re cLrRile %ale mi-au 5lLcu% cel mai mul% aces%e romane / romanele amon! boo-s-%he 0ours me$ DAT-have$2PL li-e %he more much %hese novels / novels-%he ?Amon! 0our boo-s I li-e# mos% %hese novels/%he novels?

These 5ro5er%ies sho9 %ha% %hese PPs are no% 5ar%i%ive PPs move# ou%si#e %he DP bu% a #ifferen% %05e of cons%i%uen% al%hou!h %he0 have a similar seman%ic im5or%$ The lac- of s0n%ac%ic cons%rain%s 5lea#s for an a#6unc% s%a%us$ Therefore 9e 9ill call %hem 5ar%i%ive a#6unc%s$ In o%her lan!ua!es 5ar%i%ive a#6unc%s are formall0 #is%in!uishe# from 5ar%i%ive com5lemen%s b0 bein! in%ro#uce# b0 a le;ical (ra%her s5ecialiAe#/ 5re5osi%ion (7n!lish amon French parmi I%alian tra% fra/ 9hile 5ar%i%ive com5lemen%s are in%ro#uce# b0 a !eneral a#nominal mar-er P %he func%ional 5re5osi%ion of% French de% I%alian di or %he !eni%ive case in lan!ua!es 9i%h rich case mor5holo!0 such as La%in$ In Romanian as %he e;am5les above sho9 %he 5re5osi%ions are %he same for DP-in%ernal 5ar%i%ive PPs an# 5ar%i%ive a#6unc%s P dintre an# din$ The func%ional 5re5osi%ion de is no lon!er use# %o in%ro#uce 5ar%i%ive PPs bu% i% ha# %his func%ion in earlier s%a!es of %he lan!ua!e (9e fin# %his use in VVI %h-VVII%h cen%ur0 %e;%s/$ Ue ma0 assume %ha% 5ar%i%ive PPs are al9a0s a#6unc%s in Romanian or %ha% %he 5re5osi%ion din$dintre can also in%ro#uce 5ar%i%ive com5lemen%s$ The 5osi%ion %ha% 5ar%i%ive PPs occu50 insi#e %he DP ma0 be #e#uce# loo-in! a% %he e;am5les (B1/$ Ue can see %ha% %he0 a55ear insi#e %he com5lemen% of D (%he0 ma0 a55ear lo9er %han a rela%ive clause or an a#6ec%ival or#inal/ bu% hi!her %han 5renominal a#6ec%ives$ Dn#er %he h05o%hesis %ha% %here are in%erme#ia%e func%ional la0ers be%9een D an# N 5ar%i%ive com5lemen%s 9oul# be a%%ach %o one of %hose la0ers 5resumabl0 %o Number !iven %ha% %he0 e;5ress a 5ro5er%0 of 5lurali%ies or @uan%i%ies (%he 5ro5er%0 of bein! s%ric%l0 inclu#e# in a se% or @uan%i%0/$
I% has been sho9n %ha% mos% cons%rain%s on %he #e%erminers 9hich allo9 5ar%i%ive PPs follo9 from seman%ics3 a 5ar%i%ive com5lemen% such as dintre crile tale >of 0our boo-s? #eno%es a se% forme# b0 all subse%s of crile tale >0our boo-s? e;clu#in! %he 9hole se% (%he su5remum/$ Since %his se% #oes no% con%ain a ma;imal elemen% (a se% in 9hich all %he o%her se%s are inclu#e#/ i% canno% combine 9i%h %he iota o5era%or 9hich selec%s %he ma;imal elemen% from a se% of 5lurali%es$ Therefore #efini%e #e%erminers 9hich in%ro#uce %he iota o5era%or are e;clu#e#$ Oo9ever if a mo#ifier a%%ache# hi!her %han %he 5ar%i%ive PP res%ric%s %he #eno%a%ion of %he 5hrase %o a se% con%ainin! a sin!le in#ivi#ual or se% of in#ivi#uals %hen %here 9ill be no 5roblem in usin! #efini%e #e%erminers$ Ue see %his in (B1/a an# c-e 9here %he rela%ive clause %he or#inal an# %he su5erla%ive res5ec%ivel0 (for ins%ance amon! all %he subse%s of voi >0ou? a uni@ue subse% ma0 be #is%in!uishe# usin! an or#erin! rela%ion 9hich is in%ro#uce#

++=

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories


b0 %he or#inals prim >firs%? or urmtor >follo9in!?/$ 'u% 9h0 is %hen (B1/b e;clu#e#K Oere a #ifferen% cons%rain% is res5onsible 9hich is no% seman%ic (as 5roven b0 %he 9ell-forme#ness of (B1/a/ bu% ra%her s0n%ac%ic3 a#6ec%ives canno% a%%ach hi!her %han a 5ar%i%ive com5lemen% 9hile full rela%ive clauses can$ No%e ho9ever %ha% %here are some res%ric%ions in %he case of #efini%e #e%erminers 9hich canno% be e;5laine# onl0 b0 seman%ics3 al%hou!h %he res%ric%ion 5rovi#e# b0 a rela%ive clause allo9s 5hrases con%ainin! 5ar%i%ives %o combine 9i%h #efini%e #e%erminers no% all #efini%e #e%erminers are acce5%able in %his case bu% onl0 %he #is%al #e%erminer acela3 (B,/ Aceia / XCei /XAceM%ia #in%re voi care M%iu o 5oeAie %hose$:PL$ADG: / %he$:PL / %hese$:PL$ADG: of 0ou(PL/ 9hich -no9$2PL a 5oem sL ri#ice mWna$ SD'N raise$2PL han#-%he >Those/XThe ones/XThese of 0ou 9ho -no9 a 5oem shoul# raise %heir han#s?

Ue conclu#e %ha% 5ar%i%ive PPs are no% in fac% s0n%ac%icall0 #e5en#en% on %he #e%erminer so %he0 are no% secon# com5lemen%s of some #e%erminers$ The0 are 5robabl0 a%%ache# %o a nominal func%ional la0er in%erme#ia%e be%9een D an# %he NP$ $.%. Co65le6ents of eI1al.t9 an3 3.ffe0en/e Al%erna%ive an# i#en%i%0 #e%erminers license com5lemen%s in %he form of com5ara%ive 5hrases (dect >%han? for %he al%erna%ive an# ca )i* for %he i#en%i%0 #e%erminer/$ For #e%ails see * <$

%. -1ant.tat.2e e<50ess.ons
Loo-in! a% %he func%ional ca%e!ories 9hich some%imes func%ion as Ds an# some%imes follo9 Ds (%05e III in %he classifica%ion in * 1/ 9e ma0 no%ice %ha% e;ce5% for #emons%ra%ives an# al%erna%ives all of %hem are @uan%i%0 e;5ressions3
(B./ a$ (aceM%i/ #oi /mulRi /cWRiva co5aci (%hese/ %9o /man0/a-fe9 %rees b$ mul% /cW%va %im5 much/some %ime c$ aces% 5uRin aur %his li%%le !ol#

Since @uan%i%0 5hrases can be #omina%e# b0 De%?s %he0 are !enera%e# in a lo9er func%ional 5ro6ec%ion$ Ue have seen in sec%ion 1 %ha% #e5en#in! on %he 5osi%ion %he0 occu50 9i%h res5ec% %o %he al%erna%ive 9e ma0 #is%in!uish %9o %05es of @uan%i%0 e;5ressions3 scalar @uan%i%0 e;5ressions labelle# 8A (quantitative ad+ectives/ (mult% muli >much$ man0? puin% puini >fe9? destul% destui >enou!h?/ an# non-scalar @uan%i%0 e;5ressions (car#inals an# civa >a fe9?/ 9hich res5ec%ivel0 5rece#e an# follo9 %he al%erna%ive$ In sec%ion 1 9e have in%ro#uce# %he labels 8uan%+P an# 8uan%1P for %he func%ional 5ro6ec%ions %o 9hich %hese %05es of @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions res5ec%ivel0 a%%ach$ I% is also 5ossible %o consi#er %ha% one of %hese minor func%ional 5ro6ec%ions (5resumabl0 8uan%1 %he lo9er one/ is %he 5ro6ec%ion in%ro#ucin! number NumP$ Ue can %hus #erive %he rela%ive or#er of Ds an# @uan%i%ive e;5ressions #escribe# in sec%ion 1 (un#er %05e II$1$2/3
(B</ a$ [DP [Dcei] [8uan%1P/NumP [Car#P 5es%e Aece] [8uan%1/Num_ 8uan%1=/Num=] [NP bucL%ari]]]] %he over %en coo-s b$ [DP [Doricare] [8uan%1P/NumP[Car#P %rei] [8uan%1_/Num_8uan%1=/Num= [NP ru#e]]]] an0 %hree rela%ives

The shor%er label 8P has been use# for some%hin! com5le%el0 #ifferen% namel0 >@uan%ifier 5hrase?$ The

+++

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories


%erm >@uan%i%a%ive? or >@uan%i%0 e;5ression? mus% be #is%in!uishe# from %he %erm >@uan%ifier?$ >8uan%ifier? is a seman%ic no%ion referrin! %o lin!uis%ic elemen%s %ransla%able as lo!ical @uan%ifiers such as , 9hich #esi!na%e rela%ions be%9een %9o se%s$ For e;am5le %he D oricare is a @uan%ifier$ 8uan%ifiers are al9a0s Ds$ 8uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions are no% @uan%ifiers3 %he0 sim5l0 s5ecif0 %he number of a 5lurali%0 or %he amoun% of a @uan%i%0 In %he anal0sis in 9hich Number 5ro6ec%s a hea# #e5en#in! on %he s0n%ac%ic im5lemen%a%ion one chooses %o a#o5% %he N raises %o Num %o receive %he number mor5holo!0 or chec-s %he H5l fea%ure b0 A!ree$ For convenience 9e haven?% re5resen%e# movemen% in %he anal0ses un#er (B</ an# (C=/$

The fac% %ha% @uan%i%0 e;5ressions can combine 9i%h Ds can be e;5laine# as follo9s3 in %he case of co-occurrence %he s%an#ar# role of #e%erminers e;5ressin! (in/#efini%u#e or @uan%ifica%ion is 5la0e# b0 %he firs% #e%erminer 9hich is a %rue D$ The ar!umen% of %his #e%erminer is a 5lurali%0 of a%omic en%i%ies (in %he case of 5lurals/ or a @uan%i%0 of ma%%er (in %he case of mass nouns/ an# @uan%i%0 e;5ressions refer %o %he number of %ha% 5lurali%0 or %he amoun% of %ha% @uan%i%0$ In#ee# @uan%i%a%ives combine 9i%h 5lurals an# mass nouns %o %he e;clusion of coun% sin!ulars3
(BB/ Xmul% /XcW%va om much / some man

Uhen @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions a55ear in con%e;%s charac%eris%ic of DPs bu% are no% 5rece#e# b0 o%her #e%erminers 9e ma0 assume %ha% %he0 have raise# from S5ec8uan%P/S5ecNumP %o S5ecDP ma-in! %he D-level visible3
(BC/ a$ KK Co5ii sun% afarL chi#ren are ou%si#e b$ Doi co5ii sun% afarL %9o chil#ren are ou%si#e

(C=/ Car#P

DP D_ D= #oi Hin#ef Car#P 8uan%1/Num_ 8uan%1=/ Num= NP %#oi H5l co5ii 8uan%1P/NumP

%.1. A37e/t.2al I1ant.tat.2es Amon! @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions firs% 9e have %o #is%in!uish be%9een car#inals an# @uan%i%a%ives e;5ressin! in#efini%e @uan%i%0 of mass amoun%s$ Uhile %he former are res%ric%e# %o nominal 5ro6ec%ions %he la%%er have a 9i#er #is%ribu%ion bein! able %o mo#if0 a @uan%i%0 ++1

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

ar!umen% im5lici% in verbal 5re#ica%es (an im5lici%/co!na%e ob6ec% %he %ime %he #is%ance/ ((C+/a-c/ in #e!ree hea#s (%he #ifferen%ial/ (C+/#/ some 5re5osi%ions an# a#verbs ((C+/e/3
(C+/ a$ :unceM%e 61lt 9or-s much >Oe 9or-s a lo%? b$ Doarme 51A.n slee5s li%%le >Oe slee5s li%%le? c$ Am mers atKtad have$+PL 9al-e# so-much >Ue 9al-e# so muchd? #$ /e2a mai Enal% some more hi!h >some9ha% hi!her? e$ 61lt 5es%e aM%e5%Lri much above e;5ec%a%ions

The inflec%e# @uan%i%a%ives mult% muli >much man0? puin% puini >li%%le fe9? destul% destui >enou!h? sho9 in %his case an uninflec%e# form i#en%ical %o %he masculine sin!ular$ Tra#i%ionall0 %hese 5hrases 9ere anal0Ae# as a#verbs$ In#ee# Romanian unli-e 7n!lish an# o%her Romance lan!ua!es #oesn?% have an a#verbial suffi; bu% uses %he uninflec%e# form of %he a#6ec%ive %o buil# a#verbs$ Oo9ever in %he case of @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions even lan!ua!es 9hich have an a#verbial suffi; #on?% use i% (see %he e@uivalen% of (C+/a-b in French an# 7n!lish/3
(C+_/ a$ French3 Il %ravaille beaucou5$ 7n!lish3 Oe 9or-s much b$ French3 Il #or% 5eu$ 7n!lish3 Oe slee5s li%%le

'esi#es %heir #is%ribu%ion is no% limi%e# %o VP-5osi%ions as (C+/#-e sho9 so %he %erm >a#verb? is no% a55ro5ria%e an09a0$ So 9e 9ill %rea% %hem as %he same le;ical i%ems 8APs (>a#6ec%ival @uan%i%a%ives?/ 9i%h %he 5eculiar 5ro5er%0 of havin! a!reemen% forms 9henever %he0 occur 9i%h nouns$ Ue consi#er %ha% %he >a#6ec%ival? fea%ure ma0 also e;5lain %heir a#verbial use !iven %he fac% %ha% Romanian a#6ec%ives ma0 be use# as a#verbs$ A#6ec%ival @uan%i%a%ives ma0 also occur 5os%nominall0 in 9hich case %he0 behave li-e or#inar0 @uali%0 a#6ec%ives as 9e can see from %he fac% %ha% %he0 ma0 be coor#ina%e# 9i%h a#6ec%ives$
(C1/ a$ Co5acul are frunAe 51A.ne. %ree-%he has leaves(F/ fe9$FPL >The %ree has (onl0/ fe9 leaves? b$ Am 5e%recu% ani 61lA. Mi 40e. En Enchisoare$ have$+ s5en% 0ears(:/ man0$ :PL an# har#$:PL in 6ail >I s5en% man0 %ou!h 0ears in 6ail$?

In %his 5osi%ion @uan%i%a%ives #on?% acce5% a 5ar%i%ive rea#in! (a >5ar%i%ive? rea#in! ob%ains 9hen >De% NP? can be 5ara5hrase# b0 >De% of %he NP?I see cha5%er 4 * 2$1$+ for #e%ails/ $ This su55or%s %he assum5%ion %ha% 5ar%i%ivi%0 is a fea%ure realiAe# in %he func%ional la0ers of %he DP (5ossibl0 a% %he D-level 9hen no over% 5ar%i%ive com5lemen% is 5resen%/ so %ha% %he @uan%i%a%ive mus% occu50 %he D-level in or#er %o ac@uire a 5ar%i%ive rea#in!$

++2

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

%.2. Ca03.nals Car#inal numerals in Romanian have some mor5holo!ical 5ro5er%ies 9i%h im5or% %o %heir s0n%a;$ Firs% %he0 have 5oor or no inflec%ion3 doi >%9o? an# i%s com5oun#s have a feminine dou 9hich #oes no% sho9 %he re!ular feminine en#in! - e$ The o%her car#inals sho9 no !en#er a!reemen% e;ce5% for com5oun#s of un >one? for 9hich a!reemen% is o5%ional (trei(eci i una(F/$unu de (ile >%hir%0-%hree #a0s?/ (on %he s5ecial s%a%us of un >one? see ,$. belo9/$ There are no forms for %he obli@ue$ Since %he encli%ic #efini%e ar%icle can onl0 a%%ach %o a -mor5heme (a55earin! ei%her on nouns or on a#6ec%ives/ 9e e;5lain %he lac- of a #efini%e inflec%ion for car#inals b0 %he lac- of (full/ a!reemen%$ To e;5ress #efini%eness a 5rocli%ic form of %he ar%icle mus% be inser%e# (see * B/ as sho9n in (C1/a$ Com5are (C1/b 9here %he in#efini%e @uan%i%a%ive has full a!reemen% an# as such ma0 %a-e %he encli%ic #efini%e ar%icle3
(C1/ a$ cele #ouL Aile 5e%recu%e Em5reunL %he$FPL %9o$F #a0s(F/ s5en% %o!e%her b$ mul%ele Aile 5e%recu%e Em5reunL man0-%he$FPL #a0s s5en% %o!e%her

All car#inals s%ar%in! 9i%h eleven are com5oun#e#I %hose be%9een ++-+C loo- li-e le;ical com5oun#s havin! some9ha% o5a@ue forms3 unspre(ece% doispre(ece% treispre(ece% paispre(ece% cincispre(ece% aispre(ece% aptespre(ece% optspre(ece% nouspre(ece forme# 9i%h an elemen% spre (9hich P 9hen use# as a 5re5osi%ion - mean% >over? bu% no9a#a0s has onl0 %he meanin! >%o9ar#s?/I %he firs% elemen%s of %he com5oun# some%imes have s5ecial forms #is%inc% from %hose of %he corres5on#in! car#inal3 paispre(ece >four%een? bu% patru >four? aispre(ece >si;%een? bu% ase >si;?$ In collo@uial (fas%/ s5eech %hese forms are of%en re#uce# (%he final s%rin! -spre(ece is re#uce# %o -pe/3 unpe% doipe% treipe% paipe% cinpe% aipe% aptipe% opt)i*pe% noupe$ Car#inals s%ar%in! from >%9en%0? loo- li-e com5le; s0n%ac%ic cons%i%uen%s3 %he0 con%ain nouns mo#ifie# b0 car#inals sho9in! 5lural forms a!reein! 9i%h an in#efini%e #e%erminer or a car#inal ( (ece% 5l$ (eci >%en %ens? (feminine/ sut 5l$ sute >hun#re# hun#re#s? (feminine/ mie% mii >%housan# %housan#s? (feminine/ milion% milioane >million millions? an# miliard% miliarde >billion billions?/ an# %he con6unc%ion i >an#? (accor#in! %o %he norm com5oun#s of (ece >%en? are 9ri%%en in one 9or#$ Ue 5resen%e# here %he 5ar%s se5ara%e# for sa-e of clari%0 of e;5osi%ion/3
(C2/ a$ Aece / #ouL Aeci /%rei Aeci %en %9o$F %ens(F/ %hree %ens(F/ >%en? >%9en%0? >%hir%0? b$ o su%L / #ouL su%e / %rei su%e a$F hun#re#(F/ %9o$F hun#re#s(F/ %hree hun#re#s(F/ c$ 5a%ru Aeci Mi %rei four %ens an# %hree >for%0 %hree?

Oo9ever al%hou!h %hese car#inals have %he in%ernal s%ruc%ure of 5hrases DPs or coor#ina%e# DPs %he0 behave ra%her as com5oun#s$ For ins%ance %he or#er of %he con6unc%s canno% be reverse#3
(C4/ X%rei Mi 5a%ru Aeci %hree an# four %ens

++4

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

:oreover i% can be sho9n %ha% %he0 are no% hea#s of DP bu% s5ecifiers of 8uan%P/NumP as all %he o%her car#inals$ Gne %hin! %ha% seems %o !o a!ains% %his is %ha% all %hese forms e;ce5% %hose 9hich en# in %he con6unc%ion i follo9e# b0 car#inals be%9een + an# +C re@uire %ha% %he NP be in%ro#uce# b0 %he #umm0 5re5osi%ion func%ionin! as a case mar-er de >of?3
(C,/ #ouL Aeci X(#e/ 5ereRi %9o$F %ens(F/ of 9alls

'u% in %his s%ruc%ure unli-e in s%ruc%ures 9here de in%ro#uces a mo#ifier or a com5lemen% of %he noun %he -fea%ures of %he en%ire !rou5 sho9n bo%h on %he #e%erminer an# on %he a!reein! verb are %hose of %he noun an# no% %hose of %he car#inal3
(C./ AceM%i /XAces%e #ouL Aeci #e 5ereRi sun% vo5siRi /Xvo5si%e #e curWn# %hese$:PL/ %hese$FPL %9o$F %ens(F/ of 9alls(:/ are 5ain%e#$:PL/X5ain%e#$FPL of soon >These %9en%0 9alls are freshl0 5ain%e#?

:oreover %he numeral al%hou!h havin! -fea%ures usuall0 #oes no% hos% %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle so %he s%ron! (5rocli%ic/ form of %he ar%icle is inser%e# in or#er %o e;5ress #efini%eness3 Thus (C</b is more common %han (C</aI (C</a is a case of a nominaliAe# car#inal 9hich 9ill be e;amine# fur%her belo9 (see * ,$2/$
(C</ a$ (K/ Su%a #e 5oliRiM%i n-a reuMi% sL facL faRL #erbe#eilor$ hun#re#(F/-%he of 5olicemen no%-has succee#e# SD'N ma-e face hooli!ans-%he$DAT b$ Cei o su%L #e 5oliRiM%i n-au reuMi% sL facL faRL %he$:PL a$FSG hun#re#(F/ of 5olicemen no%-have succee#e# SD'N ma-e face #erbe#eilor hooli!ans-%he$DAT >The hun#re# 5olicemen #i#n?% succee# %o hol# a!ains% %he hooli!ans$?

In (C</b %he numeral o sut >a/one hun#re#? canno% be %he nominal hea# of %he DP3 a #efini%e ar%icle canno% co-occur 9i%h an in#efini%e ar%icle in %he e;%en#e# 5ro6ec%ion of %he same nounI moreover %he #efini%e an# in#efini%e ar%icles bear #ifferen% -fea%ures$ So 9e have a clear in#ica%ion %ha% com5le; numerals form a 5hrase 9hich behaves li-e a sin!le car#inal insi#e %he DP occu50in! a s5ecifier 5osi%ion$ Uha% is %hen %he e;5lana%ion for %he inser%ion of deK Gne 5ossibili%0 is %ha% i% is inser%e# for case reasons$ The a!reemen% misma%ch be%9een %he car#inal an# %he noun sho9s %ha% in %hese s%ruc%ures 9e have %9o nominal cons%i%uen%s3 %he car#inal al%hou!h a55earin! in a s5ecifier 5osi%ion (as sho9n b0 %he a!reemen% of %he #e%erminers 9i%h %he le;ical hea# as in (C</b/ s%ill has a N-fea%ure behavin! as a func%ional noun$ 7ver0 nominal elemen% mus% be s%ruc%urall0 license# b0 Case an# %9o nominals canno% be license# in %he same s%ruc%ural 5osi%ion$ Thus %he case mar-er de is inser%e# in or#er %o le!i%ima%e %he secon# nominal com5onen% of %he DP %he one con%ainin! i%s le;ical hea#$ Ano%her 5ossibili%0 is %ha% de is inser%e# in @uan%i%a%ive cons%ruc%ions as an >an%i-a!reemen% mar-er? 9here %he s5ecifier has inheren% -fea%ures an# #oes no% a!ree 9i%h %he hea#$ A similar use of de P as hea# of a func%ional 5ro6ec%ion 9hose s5ecifier is fille# P can be foun# 9i%h a#6ec%ives (see cha5%er < * 4$4$1 for de hea#in! %he func%ional 5ro6ec%ion De!P/$ Car#inals ma0 also occur 5os%5ose# %o 5ersonal 5ronouns3
(CB/ a$ ei %rei %he0 %hree

++,

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories b$ noi #ouLAeci 9e %9en%0

If 9e anal0Ae 5ronouns as 5ro-DPs %he0 9ill no% con%ain an0 8uan%P/NumP level so 9e 9ill have %o assume %ha% %he car#inal here is ri!h%-a#6oine# %o %he DP$ If an em5%0 N is 5resen% in 5ronouns ei%her as a null i%em or as an i%em move# from N %o D via incor5ora%ion i% becomes 5ossible %o consi#er %ha% in %hese e;am5les car#inals occu50 %heir normal 5osi%ion in S5ec8uan%P/NumP$ %.3. No6.nal.Be3 /a03.nals= I1ant.t9 no1ns an3 ot8e0 f1n/t.onal no1ns As 9e have seen in (C</a %he car#inals (ece >%en? sut >hun#re#?% mie >%housan#? ma0 also en%er a #ifferen% cons%ruc%ion in 9hich %he0 func%ion as @uan%i%0 nouns$ In %his case %he0 %a-e a!reein! #e%erminers even %he suffi;al ar%icle ((CC/a-b/ an# have bare 5lural uses ((CC/c/$
(CC/ a$ a%W%ea su%e #e co5ii so-much$FPL hun#re#s(F/ of chil#ren(:/ b$ su%ele #e co5ii hun#re#s(F/-%he of chil#ren(:/ c$ su%e #e co5ii hun#re#s(F/ of chil#ren(:/

Ue consi#er %ha% in %hese cases %he car#inal is %he nominal hea# of %he DP3 (+==/ DP D NumP Num N S -le H5l su%e #e NP SP NumP co5ii

Ue 9ill call car#inals in %his s%ruc%ure nominali(ed cardinals$ No%e ho9ever %ha% nominaliAe# car#inals are no% com5le%el0 5arallel %o le;ical nouns3 5re#ica%es #on?% s-selec% %hem bu% %heir nominal com5lemen%I DP-e;%ernal a!reemen% is !enerall0 es%ablishe# 9i%h %he com5lemen% ((+=+/a/I %he !eni%ive 5lural is mar-e# b0 a 9hen no #e%erminer is 5resen% 9hich is %05ical for car#inals an# no% for le;ical nouns (com5are (+=+/b %o (+=+/c3
(+=+/ a$ Fecile #e co5aci #e 5e #rum erau #esfrunAiRi /X#esfrunAi%e %ens(F/-%he of %rees(:/ of on roa# 9ere leafless$:PL/ leafless$FPL >The %ens of %rees alon! %he roa# 9ere leafless$? b$ cLrRile a Aeci #e co5ii boo-s-%he a %ens of chil#ren ]%he boo-s of %ens of chil#ren]

++.

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories c$ cLrRile #e co5ii / unor co5ii / Xa co5ii boo-s-%he de chil#ren / some$G7N chil#ren / a chil#ren ](%he/ chil#ren boo-s/some chil#ren]s boo-s/X%he boo-s of chil#ren]

This 5eculiar behavior can be ca5%ure# b0 sa0in! %ha% nominaliAe# car#inals are no% le;ical nouns bu% functional or rammaticali(ed nouns$ I% shoul# %hus be s%resse# %ha% %he #ifferen% s0n%ac%ic s%a%us a%%ribu%e# here %o >!enuine? car#inals an# >nominaliAe#? car#inals is base# on %heir #is%inc% formal 5ro5er%ies3 5resence or lac- of a!reemen% 9i%h #e%erminers (im/5ossibili%0 of 5lural forms$ Their selec%ional 5ro5er%ies are i#en%ical an# as such %he0 canno% be use# as cri%eria for s0n%ac%ic s%ruc%ure$ There e;is% o%her more or less !ramma%icaliAe# nouns 9hich can a55ear 9i%h a le;ical NP-com5lemen% in%ro#uce# b0 de$ Amon! %hem are various @uan%i%a%ives (un pic de >a bi% of? o mulime de >a cro9# of man0?/ bu% 9e can also fin# @uali%a%ive or sor%al 9or#s3 fel >sor%? (un fel de >a sor% of? ce fel de >9ha% sor% of? orice fel de >an0 sor% of? altfel de >a #ifferen% %05e of?I in a fuse# form base# on %he #emons%ra%ive ast-3 astfel de >such?/ en >-in#? soi >sor% -in#?$ For all of %hese %he e;%ernal a!reemen% 9i%h %he com5lemen% noun is %he rule3
(+=1/ Ce fel #e oameni 5o% / K5oa%e %rLi aiciK 9ha% sor% of 5eo5le can$2PL/ can$2SG live here >Uha% sor% of 5eo5le can live hereK?

So de is no% onl0 s5ecialiAe# for @uan%i%0 con%e;%s$ The !eneraliAa%ion 9hich hol#s also for e@uivalen%s of de in o%her lan!ua!es (en!l$ of fr$ s5$ de i%$ di e%c$/ is %ha% de is inser%e# in a con%e;% NrN$ The elemen% before de is no% necessaril0 a (le;ical/ noun bu% has some N 5ro5er%ies for ins%ance -fea%ures$ Ue sa9 %ha% numerals inflec%e# for number ( (ece >%en? sut >hun#re#? mie >%housan#? e%c$/ s%ill bear %his N fea%ure in Romanian$ In o%her Romance lan!ua!es %hese numerals have com5le%el0 los% %he N-fea%ure !eneraliAin! %he 5a%%ern foun# 9i%h basic numerals (+-+C in Romanian/$ Si!nifican%l0 %he0 also sho9 5oorer -fea%ures mor5holo!0 %han %heir Romanian coun%er5ar%s3
(+=2/ a$ #ue cen%o (X#i/ ra!aAAe %9o hun#re#(:/ ( of/ !irls(F/ b$ %res mil (X#e/ nivas %hree %housan# ( of/ !irls(F/ I%alian S5anish

A common 5ro5er%0 of s%ruc%ures in (HN/ de (HN/ 9hen %he firs% elemen% is a @uan%i%a%ive is %ha% 9hen %he secon# 5ar% is lef%-#isloca%e# de no lon!er a55ears (for %his %05e of lef%#isloca%ion see %he follo9in! sec%ion * ./3
(+=4/ a$ Fe%e au veni% %reiAeci$ !irls have come %hir%0 b$ XDe fe%e au veni% %reiAeci of !irls have come %hir%0 c$ XFe%e au veni% %reiAeci #e$ !irls have come %hir%0 of

Uhen %he firs% N is in#is5u%abl0 le;ical an# de is a com5lemen% in%ro#ucin! 5re5osi%ion de canno% be #ro55e#$ Com5are (+=,/a 9here %he firs% N is a @uan%i%0 noun 5resumabl0 func%ional %o (+=,/b3
(+=,/ a$ (X#e/ vin am bLu% un 5ic

++<

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories of 9ine have$+ #run- a bi% b$ X(#e/ Rembran#% am vLAu% cW%eva %ablouri of Rembran#% have$+ seen a fe9 5ic%ures

This su!!es%s %ha% de foun# in @uan%i%a%ive cons%ruc%ions is no% a %rue 5re5osi%ion$ I% coul# be %he realiAa%ion of %he 8uan% hea# 9i%h %he @uan%i%a%ive e;5ression si%%in! in i%s s5ecifier$ This 9oul# allo9 e;%rac%ion of %he NP follo9in! i% unli-e 5re5osi%ions 9hich are islan#s for e;%rac%ion in Romanian$ Ue ma0 assume %ha% 9hen %he 5hrase follo9in! de is move# de (more 5recisel0 %he V= cons%i%uen% 9hich is normall0 5hone%icall0 realiAe# as de/ remains 9i%h an em5%0 sis%er an# since i% is a 9ea- elemen% cli%iciAin! on i%s com5lemen% i% 9oul# no% be realiAe# 9hen %his com5lemen% is em5%0$ I% is a 9ell--no9n 5ro5er%0 of cli%ics %ha% %he0 canno% cli%iciAe %o em5%0 ca%e!ories$ I% %hus a55ears %ha% onl0 com5lemen%s of func%ional nouns e;5ressin! @uan%i%0 as 9ell as of a number of @uan%ifica%ional #e%erminers (as 9e 9ill see in %he follo9in! sec%ion * ./ allo9 %his %05e of #isloca%ion$ This in#ica%es %ha% @uan%i%0 nouns rel0 on a s0n%ac%ic s%ruc%ure %ha% is #ifferen% from %ha% of com5lemen%-%a-in! le;ical nouns$ Gramma%icaliAe# nouns e;5ressin! @uan%i%0 9hich 9e 9ill call quantity nouns sho9 an in%erme#ia%e behaviour be%9een com5le; car#inals an# or#inar0 nouns %a-in! a deHNP com5lemen%$ This can be seen b0 con%ras%in! @uan%i%0 nouns 9i%h roup nouns (or collectives/$ 5ulime is usuall0 a @uan%i%0 noun bu% ma0 also func%ion as a !rou5 noun (meanin! >cro9#?/$ Krmad is normall0 a @uan%i%0 noun 9hen a55lie# %o anima%es (as a concre%e noun i% means >hea5?/ an# droaie is a @uan%i%0 noun ever09here (all %hree are use# %o e;5ress a bi! number/$ There also e;is% @uan%i%0 nouns s5ecialiAe# for mass nouns3 un pic% un strop >a li%%le? e%c$ Nouns li-e rup >!rou5? an# mos% collec%ives are !rou5 nouns ra%her %han @uan%i%0 nouns$ The follo9in! 5ro5er%ies #is%in!uish @uan%i%0 nouns from !rou5 nouns an# sho9 %ha% %he0 behave li-e com5oun# car#inals of %he %05e dou (eci de 3 >%9o %ens of N?3 (i/ 8uan%i%0 nouns 9hich %a-e 5lurals re@uire 5lural a!reemen% on %he verb !rou5 nouns normall0 #e%ermine %he a!reemen% %hemselves3
(+=./ a$ G !rLma#L #e elevi au /KKa cLAu% la e;amen a lo% of 5u5ils have / has fallen a% e;am >A lo% of 5u5ils faile# %he e;am$? b$ Dn !ru5 #e elevi m-a / KKm-au viAi%a% ieri a !rou5 of 5u5ils me-has/ me-have visi%e# 0es%er#a0 >A !rou5 of 5u5ils visi%e# me 0es%er#a0?

(ii/ The #e%erminer of @uan%i%0 nouns canno% be inflec%e# for %he obli@ue case so %he func%ional 5re5osi%ions/case mar-ers la for #a%ive an# a for !eni%ive mus% be inser%e#$ This 5henomenon also encoun%ere# 9i%h com5oun# car#inals ma0 be e;5laine# if 9e assume %ha% %his #e%erminer is no% %he D of %he ma%ri; DP so %ha% %he @uan%i%0 noun occu5ies a s5ecifier 5osi%ion (S5ec8uan%P/ (in (+=</a %he na%ural rea#in! of %he sen%ence e;clu#es %he use of mulime as a !rou5 noun/3
(+=</ a$ XAm #a% no%e bune unei mulRimi #e elevi have$+ !iven mar-s !oo# a$DAT lo% of 5u5ils b$ Am #a% no%e bune la o mulRime #e elevi have$+ !iven mar-s !oo# la a lo% of 5u5ils >I !ave !oo# mar-s %o a lo% of 5u5ils? c$ KKAm #a% no%e bune unei su%e #e elevi have$+ !iven mar-s !oo# a$DAT hun#re# of 5u5ils #$ Am #a% no%e bune la o su%L #e elevi$

++B

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories have$+ !iven mar-s !oo# la a hun#re# of 5u5ils >I !ave !oo# mar-s %o a hun#re# 5u5ils? e$ Xa#Lu!area unui 5ic #e AahLr a##in!-%he a$G7N bi% of su!ar f$ a#Lu!area a un 5ic #e AahLr a##in!-%he a a bi% of su!ar

(iii/ Lef%-#isloca%ion 9hich 9e have alrea#0 seen for @uan%i%0 nouns ((+=,// is im5ossible 9i%h !rou5 nouns3
(+=B/ a$ Fe%e am En%Wlni% o mulRime !irls have$+ me% a lo% b$ XFe%e am En%Wlni% un !ru5 !irls have$+ me% a !rou5

(iv/ 8uan%i%0 nouns #o no% have 5lural forms 9hereas !rou5 nouns #o3
(+=C/ a$ XDin uAinL ieMeau !rLmeAi #e munci%ori from fac%or0 !e%-ou%$I:PF$2PL hea5s of 9or-ers b$ Din uAinL ieMeau !ru5uri #e munci%ori from fac%or0 !e%-ou%$ I:PF$2PL !rou5s of 9or-ers

(v/ 8uan%i%0 nouns a% leas% some of %hem allo9 a#verbial uses 9hich as 9e have seen charac%eriAe @uan%i%0 e;5ressions$ This is ano%her in#ica%ion %ha% %he0 have los% %heir nominal s%a%us e;ce5% for mor5holo!0 bein! reanal0se# as @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions3
(++=/ a$ un 5ic mai mare a bi% more bi! >a bi% bi!!er? b$ A #ormi% o !rLma#L has sle5% a hea5 >Oe sle5% a lo%?

Gn %he o%her han# @uan%i%0 nouns are #is%in!uishe# from com5oun# car#inals b0 allo9in! a!reein! #e%erminers - i$e$ o%her #e%erminers %han %he in#efini%e ar%icle 9hich a!ree 9i%h %he @uan%i%0 noun an# func%ion as #e%erminers of %he en%ire DP$ In %his case %he0 ma0 also have case mor5holo!0$ This sho9s %ha% in %his case @uan%i%0 nouns are no% s5ecifiers (li-e in (+=</b/ bu% nominal hea#s %a-in! %he le;ical noun as a com5lemen% (%he s%ruc%ure in (+==//3
(+++/ a$ #roaia as%a #e co5ii lo%(F/-%he %his$F of chil#ren b$ #roaiei Ls%eia #e co5ii lo%(F/-%he$DAT %his$F$DAT of chil#ren

NominaliAe# car#inals al%hou!h e;5ressin! @uan%i%0 an# no% !rou5s are #is%in!uishe# from @uan%i%0 nouns b0 havin! 5lural (see (+=+//$ The0 also allo9 a!reein! #e%erminers unli-e non-nominaliAe# car#inals$ So %he0 are more similar %o le;ical nouns %han @uan%i%0 nouns$
Frac%ional numerals behave li-e nominaliAe# car#inals ((++1//$ Their nominal s%a%us is also sho9n b0 mor5holo!03 %he0 are #erive# from car#inals b0 means of an abs%rac% nominal suffi; ((++2//3 (++1/ (cele/ #ouL %re.6. #e AahLr %he$FPL %9o$F %hir#s(F/ of su!ar

++C

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories


(++2/ Mase s Mes.6e si; si;%h (frac%ional/ Enal% s EnLlR.6e hi!h hi!hness

Car#inals ma0 also func%ion as re!ular nouns in various uses3 in ma%hema%ics as names of numbers 9i%h mar-s numbers of buil#in!s in car# !ames$ In %his case %he0 have no% onl0 %he s0n%a; bu% also %he mor5holo!0 of re!ular nouns (see %he #efini%e #eclension in (++4/a/3 (++4/ a$ Treiul e numLrul meu norocos %hree-%he is number-%he m0 luc-0 >Three is m0 luc-0 number? b$ :i-a #a% un 5a%ru me$CL$DAT-has !iven a four >(The %eacher/ !ave me a four? c$ ji-am #a% un 5a%ru ne!ru 0ou$CL$DAT-have$+ !iven a four blac>I !ave 0ou a blac- four?

%.$. -1ant.t9 e<50ess.ons alDa9s o//159.n4 t8e D la9e0 ED+I1ant.tat.2esF Ue have seen in sec%ion 1 %ha% no% all @uan%i%0 e;5ressions ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 a #e%erminer3 some @uan%i%a%ives are of %05e I al9a0s occu50in! %he D 5osi%ion3 ct% ci >ho9 much/man0? orict% orici >an0 number/amoun% of? att% ati >so/%ha%/as much/man0?$ Ue un#ers%an# %his behaviour b0 loo-in! a% %heir meanin! an# even a% %heir form3 %heir seman%ics con%ains a @uan%ifier com5onen% alon!si#e %he @uan%i%a%ive fea%ure (see (++,// an# %heir form also sho9s com5osi%ion of D-elemen%s (a- ana5horic ori- free-choice Q in%erro!a%ive-rela%ive see * += for #e%ails/ 9i%h %he same )c*t 9hich ma0 be %a-en %o re5resen% %he @uan%i%0 fea%ure$ The onl0 member of %his 5ara#i!m 9hich ma0 a55ear in a 5os%-D 5osi%ion bein! of %05e III (5os%-D 9hich ma0 also func%ion as a D/ is ctva% civa >some?$ (Ue shoul# ho9ever no%ice %ha% a %rans5aren% mor5holo!0 charac%eriAes onl0 a 5ar% of D-@uan%i%a%ivesI o%hers are non%rans5aren%3 niel% cevaI %he la%%er sho9s com5osi%ion 9i%h ce bu% ce is no% @uan%i%a%ive in o%her con%e;%s e;ce5% for oarece 9hich is a un%05ical @uan%i%a%ive b0 %he fac% %ha% is res%ric%e# %o nominal 5ro6ec%ions/3
(++,/ cW% 3 K; ;[%he number/amoun% of N(um/P oricW%3 ; ;[%he number/amoun% of N(um/P cW%va3 ; ;[%he number/amoun% of N(um/P a%W%3 ; ;[%he number/amoun% of N(um/P (; ei%her con%e;%uall0 i#en%ifie# b0 ana5hor or #ei;is or in%ro#uce# b0 an e@ua%ive/

These @uan%i%a%ives have in common 9i%h a#6ec%ival @uan%i%a%ives %he fac% %ha% %he0 can a55ear ou%si#e %he DP3 %he0 a55ear 9i%h verbs ((++./a/ bu% 9i%h #e!ree 9or#s %he0 mus% be in%ro#uce# b0 a 5re5osi%ion behavin! li-e nominals ((++./b/ (onl0 ct has a s5ecial s%ruc%ure in 9hich i% a%%aches before %he #e!ree hea# mai >more? 9i%hou% a 5re5osi%ion ((++./c// an# 9i%h a#6ec%ives an# a#verbs %he0 ma0 func%ion as #e!ree 9or#s in 9hich case %he0 re@uire %he inser%ion of de before %he a#6ec%ive 5resumabl0 #ue %o %heir N fea%ure ((++./#/3
(++./ a$ CW% a vorbi%K ho9-much has s5o-en >Oo9 lon! #i# he s5o-eK? b$ cu a%W% mai bine 9i%h so-much more !oo# >so much be%%er?

+1=

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories c$ cW% mai #e5ar%e ho9-much more far >%he fur%hes% 5ossible? #$ a%W% #e #eM%e5% so-much of in%elli!en% >so/as in%elli!en%? e$ niRel mai #e5ar%e a-li%%le more far >a li%%le bi% fur%her?

Ue conclu#e %ha% %hese 5hrases are no% sim5le D-hea#s3 %05icall0 func%ional hea#s selec% onl0 one %05e of le;ical ca%e!or0 (for e;am5le Ds such as %he ar%icles #emons%ra%ives non@uan%i%a%ive in#efini%es selec% onl0 (N/ au;iliaries selec% onl0 (V/ e%c$/$ The 9i#er #is%ribu%ion of @uan%i%a%ive 5hrases is #ue %o %heir H@uan% fea%ure$ Such e;5ressions can be uniformil0 %rea%e# as 8APs 9hich 9hen a55earin! in S5ecDP ma-e %he D-level visible$ Gne &!- 9or# namel0 ce ma0 a55ear in %he S5ec 5osi%ion of %he @uan%i%0 hea# de$ I% is %hen in%er5re%e# as an e;clama%ive @uan%i%a%ive3
(++</ Ce #e oameni au veni%d 9ha% of 5eo5le have come >Oo9 man0 5eo5le came d?

%.%. -1ant.t9 e<50ess.ons .n 50e3./at.2e 5os.t.on All @uan%i%0 e;5ressions (car#inals a#6ec%ival @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions D-@uan%i%a%ives/ have in common %he 5ossibili%0 of a55earin! in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion (normall0 5os%-co5ular bu% e;ce5%ionall0 also in secon#ar0 5re#ica%ions see (++B/b/3
(++B/ a$ 7ram Aece / mulRi / a%WRia 9ere$+PL %en / man0/ so-man0 ]Ue 9ere %e/man0/%ha% man0] b$ Am 5leca% Aece Mi ne-am En%ors #oar %rei have$+PL lef% %en an# R7FL-have$+PL re%urne# onl0 %hree

]Ue 9ere %en 9hen 9e lef% an# onl0 %hree 9hen 9e re%urne#] In %his case %he 5resence of an em5%0 N is @ui%e #oub%ful3 no nominal con%en% nee#s %o be recovere# an# in %he case of secon#ar0 5re#ica%ion ((++B/b/ %he 5resence of an over% noun is no% full0 !ramma%ical (e$!$ KAm plecat (ece persoane >have$+PL lef% %en 5ersons?/$ %.&. Note on t8e Do03 un Ga= oneH Tra#i%ionall0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle (un% o/ is anal0Ae# as a car#inal 9hen i% is s%resse# hi!hli!h%in! %he number (for ins%ance 9hen i% is use# in ans9erin! @ues%ions abou% car#inali%0 or 9hen i% bears a con%ras%ive focus of correc%ion con%ras%in! 9i%h a car#inal/$ Oo9ever 9e #o no% %rea% un$o as a car#inal bu% 9e inclu#e i% in %he class of #e%erminers because i% can never be 5rece#e# b0 #e%erminers3
(++C/ a$ cele #ouL cLrRi %he %9o boo-s b$ Xcea o car%e / Xuna car%e %he one boo- / one-%he boo-

+1+

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

In or#er %o e;5ress (++C/b Romanian ma0 use %he a#6ec%ive sin ur >onl0?$ The im5ossibili%0 of (++C/b is no% #ue %o seman%ics3 in o%her lan!ua!es 9or#s for >un? ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 #e%erminers P e$!$ La%in or 7n!lish3
(+1=/ a$ ille unus filius %ha% one son b$ %he one Go# La%in 7n!lish

&. Co66on 50o5e0t.es of I1ant.tat.2es an3 so6e .n3ef.n.te 3ete06.ne0s


(i/ Sensi%ivi%0 %o number As alrea#0 men%ione# (see * +/ some #e%erminers are sensi%ive %o %he number of %heir nominal com5lemen%$ This 5ro5er%0 charac%eriAes no% onl0 @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions bu% also mos% in#efini%e an# @uan%ifica%ional Ds$ Gnl0 #efini%e #e%erminers al%erna%ives an# 9h- #e%erminers are no% sensi%ive %o number$ Amon! #e%erminers sensi%ive %o number 9e ma0 #is%in!uish %he follo9in! selec%ional classes3 (+/ H coun% sin!ulars 9i%h res%ric%ions on %he 5lural3 %he in#efini%es un >a(n/?% vreun >a an0 some? niciun >no? #o no% %a-e 5lural in %he #irec% caseI %he0 are com5a%ible 9i%h %he 5lural onl0 in %he obli@ue (e$!$ unor$vreunor prieteni >of/%o some frien#s?/ or 9hen no over% noun is 5resen%3 niciunii% vreunii (for %he #ifference be%9een unii 9i%hou% an over% N 9hich is a 5lural form of %he in#efini%e ar%icle an# a#nominal unii 9hich is a 5ar%i%ive #e%erminer see 2$1 above/I %he #is%ribu%ive universal fiecare >each ever0? ma0 %a-e besi#es coun% sin!ulars 5lurals in%ro#uce# b0 car#inalsI (1/ H 5lurals3 car#inals %he in#efini%es unii >(5ar%i%ive/ some? diveri >various? (2/ H mass3 niel >a li%%le? atta >so/as/%ha% much? (4/ Hmass an# 5lurals3 nite >some s?m? %he @uan%i%a%ives ct% ci >ho9 much/man0? ceva% ctva% civa >some a fe9? mult% muli >much man0? puin% puini >li%%le fe9? att% ati >%ha%/as much/man0? destul% destui >enou!h? (,/ Hcoun% sin!ulars an# 5lurals3 %he in%erro!a%ive-rela%ives ce >9ha%?% care >9hich?I oricare% orice >an0? 9hile !enerall0 %a-e %he sin!ular also allo9 %he 5lural (ii/ Lef%-#isloca%ion A 5ro5er%0 9hich !enerall0 charac%eriAes @uan%i%a%ives bu% no% e;clusivel0 (see (+1+/b-c an# (+=4/a (+=,/a (+=B/a/ is %he fac% %ha% %he0 allo9 lef%-#isloca%ion of %heir nominal com5lemen% (a bare 5lural or mass noun/3
(+1+/ a$ C:0A. am !Lsi% Be/e @61lte @/Kte2a boo-s have$+ foun# %en /man0 /a fe9 >I foun# %en/man0/a fe9 boo-s / As for boo-s I foun# %en/man0/a fe9? b$ Jo/10. M%iu altele !ames -no9$+SG o%hers$ADG: >I -no9 o%her !ames / As for !ames I -no9 o%hers? c$ Pe0.. n-am lua% n./.1na$ brushes no%-have$+ %a-en none$ADG: >I #i#n?% %a-e an0 brushes / As for brushes I #i#n?% %a-e an0?

'esi#es @uan%i%a%ives %his 5ro5er%0 is foun# 9i%h %he in#efini%e #e%erminers unul >one? niciunul >no no one? vreunul >some an0? an# 9i%h %he al%erna%ive alt >o%her?$ A remar-able 5ro5er%0 of s%ruc%ures 9i%h lef%-#isloca%e# NPs is %he rela%ive in#e5en#ence of %he se5ara%e# elemen%s$ Thus %he s%ruc%ure is no% #is%in!uishe# from %he

+11

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

s%ruc%ure 9i%hou% #isloca%ion onl0 b0 a reor#erin!3 %he NF7 lef% in 5lace sho9s %he >au!men%e#? or 5re-YNeZ forms if i% has an0 ((+11//I if a NF7 #oesn?% allo9 Y NeZ i% canno% a55ear in %his s%ruc%ure even if i% has a @uan%i%a%ive meanin! of %he same %05e 9i%h %ha% of @uan%i%a%ives %ha% allo9 %his s%ruc%ure (+12/I %he #umm0-5re5osi%ion de 9hich in%ervenes in some cases be%9een %he @uan%i%a%ive an# %he NP is missin! in #isloca%e# s%ruc%ures as 9e alrea#0 no%ice# (see (+=4/ above an# (+14// 9hich is ano%her in#ica%ion %ha% %he NF7 lef% in 5lace behaves as 9hen follo9e# b0 Y NeZ since in %ha% case %oo de is no% 5resen% ((+14/c/I even %he number of %he NP ma0 be #ifferen% from %ha% of %he #e%erminer (9hen %he #e%erminer is sin!ular/ a si%ua%ion %ha% is of course e;clu#e# 9hen %he #e%erminer 5rece#es %he noun (see (+1+/c above an# (+1,//$
(+11/ a$ Am cum5Lra% alte 3.s/10.$ have$+ bou!h% o%her recor#s >I bou!h% o%her recor#s? b$ D.s/10. am cum5Lra% altele$ recor#s have$+ bou!h% o%her$ADG: c$ Am cum5Lra% altele YNeZ$ have$+ bou!h% o%her$ADG: >I bou!h% o%hers$? a$ C:0A. am lua% Ln.Cte / /Kte2a$ boo-s have$+ %a-en s?m / a fe9 >As for boo-s I %oo- some? b$ LN.Cte YNeZ/ CKte2a YNeZ sun% 5e raf%$ s]m a fe9 are on shelf >Some are on %he shelf? a$ AM%e5%Lm 3o1:Be/. 3e .n2.taA. 9ai%$+PL %9en%0 of !ues%s >Ue are 9ai%in! for %9en%0 !ues%s? b$ In2.taA. aM%e5%Lm 3o1:Be/. !ues%s 9ai%$+PL %9en%0 >As for !ues% 9e are 9ai%in! for %9en%0? c$ AM%e5%Lm 3o1:Be/. YNeZ 9ai%$+PL %9en%0 >Ue?re 9ai%in! for %9en%0? a$ Am 5ier#u% n16a. o /a0te have$+ los% onl0 a boo>I los% onl0 one boo-? b$ C:0A. am 5ier#u% n16a. 1na$ boo-s have$+ los% onl0 one$ADG: >As for boo-s I los% onl0 one?

(+12/

(+14/

(+1,/

'ase# on %hese fac%s 9e coul# conclu#e %ha% %hese s%ruc%ures are base# on YNeZ an# no% on movemen%$ So %his 9oul#n?% be an ins%ance of #isloca%ion bu% ra%her of a base-!enera%e# %o5ic N(um/P an# a [Ne] i#en%ifie# via %he usual mechanisms$ Oo9ever %he cons%ruc%ion also has some 5ro5er%ies charac%eris%ic of movemen%$ The s%ruc%ure is limi%e# %o ob6ec%s an# 5os%verbal sub6ec%s in a##i%ion %o sho9in! %he s%an#ar# islan# cons%rain%s3
(+1./ a$ B:.eA. cWn%L 3oa0 t0e. bo0s sin! onl0 %hree >As for bo0s onl0 %hree are sin!in!? b$ KK B:.eA. 3oa0 t0e. cWn%L bo0s onl0 %hree sin! c$ XM1Bee am in%ra% En Be/e.

+12

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories museums have$+ en%ere# in %en #$ XA0t./ole M%iu 5e cineva care a %rimis t0e. ar%icles -no9$+SG DG: somebo#0 9ho has sen% %hree >(As for/ ar%icles I -no9 somebo#0 9ho has sen% %hree?

The un!ramma%icali%0 of (+1./b-c can be e;5laine# b0 %he im5ossibili%0 of e;%rac%in! from a 5reverbal sub6ec% or a PP$ :oreover %he %o5ic mus% be lin-e# %o a YNeZ i% canno% be associa%e# %o an over% noun3
(+1</ XFete am vLAu% 5e :aria Mi Cris%ina !irls have$+ seen DG: :aria an# Cris%ina In%en#e# meanin!3 >As for !irls I sa9 :aria an# Cris%ina?

So 9e conclu#e %ha% %hese cases sho9 a 5ar%icular %05e of chain af%er all$ This cons%ruc%ion loo-s li-e a cli%ic-#oublin! s%ruc%ure 9here %he #oublin! 5ronominal is a 5ro-N ins%ea# of a 5ro-DP (a 5ersonal 5ronoun/$ Ue 9ill no% #eci#e here 9he%her %he #e5en#enc0 involve# in %hese cons%ruc%ions is %o be re5resen%e# via s0n%ac%ic movemen% or 9i%hou% movemen% (for ins%ance via an A!ree mechanism/$
I% is in%eres%in! %o no%ice %ha% %he same 5henomenon namel0 %he in#e5en#ence of %he #isloca%e# elemen%s 9i%h %he %race of %he lef%-#isloca%e# NP behavin! as YNeZ is foun# in o%her lan!ua!es 9hich have NP lef%-#isloca%ion such as Oun!arian an# German

If ar!umen%al bare nouns are anal0Ae# as con%ainin! a null D (see cha5%er 1/ %hen %he %o5icaliAa%ion 5a%%ern in (+1B/ ma0 involve %he same %05e of #isloca%ion3
(+1B/ a$ Prosoa5e avem$ %o9els have$+PL b$ Vin EncL mai es%e 9ine s%ill more is >There is s%ill 9ine?

As 9e have sho9n in ,$2 %his cons%ruc%ion also a55ears 9i%h @uan%i%0 nouns3
(+1C/ a$ Doc%ori am vLAu% o 61lA.6e$ #oc%ors have$+ seen a lo% >I sa9 a lo% of #oc%ors$? b$ Am vLAu% o 61lA.6e YNeZ have$+ seen a lo% >I sa9 a lo%? c$ KK Doc%ori am vorbi% cu o 61lA.6e #oc%ors have$+ s5o-en 9i%h a lo%

If NP lef% #isloca%ion #oesn?% #e5en# on %he s0n%ac%ic 5ro5er%ies of %he #e%erminer o%her %han %he allo9ance of YNeZ 9e have %o e;5lain 9h0 i% is limi%e# %o onl0 some #e%erminers$ The ans9er ma0 be foun# in seman%ics3 im5l0in! %o5icaliAa%ion of %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he DP (realiAe# as a N(um/P/ i% is allo9e# onl0 9hen no #efini%e se% is available for %o5icaliAa%ion$ Tha% is 9h0 #e%erminers 9hich are al9a0s 5ar%i%ive (in %he sense %ha% %he0 im5l0 a !iven se%/ such as %he #is%ribu%ive universal are no% allo9e#3 (+2=/ (XCan#i#aRi/ am
e;amina% (5e/ fiecare can#i#a%es have$+ e;amine# (DG:/ each

+14

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

(iii/ The 5ossibili%0 of havin! a55ro;ima%ion mo#ifiers charac%eriAes as 9e have seen in sec%ion 4 @uan%i%a%ives as 9ell as universal an# ne!a%ive @uan%ifiers ( toi >all? fiecare >ever0 each? oricare% orice >(free-choice/ an0? niciun >no?/ (see e;am5les (<./ re5ea%e# belo9/$
(+2+/ a$ a5roa5e %rei ani almos% %hree 0ears b$ a5roa5e %oRi 5or%ocalii almos% all oran!e-%rees-%he c$ a5roa5e orice Ai almos% an0 #a0 #$ a5roa5e nicio 5lLcere almos% no 5leasure

These similari%ies be%9een @uan%i%a%ives an# some in#efini%e an# @uan%ifica%ional #e%erminers le# some researches %o 5u% %hem in %he same class (a ca%e!or0 9hich 9as labele# 8P/$ Ue consi#er %ha% %he0 shoul# no% be %rea%e# on a 5ar because of %he im5or%an% #is%ribu%ional #ifference 5resen%e# in %he 5revious sec%ion (* ,/3 onl0 @uan%i%a%ives can a55ear in con%e;%s o%her %han noun 5ro6ec%ions$ The %heor0 of func%ional 5ro6ec%ions re@uires %hus %o a%%ribu%e %hem a s5ecial s%a%us$ In a##i%ion onl0 %he0 ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 o%her #e%erminers (see * 1/$ Gn %he o%her han# 9or#s such as fiecare >each ever0? alt)ul* >ano%her (one/? nite >some? are res%ric%e# %o nominal 5ro6ec%ions behavin! normall0 from %he 5oin% of vie9 of %he %heor0 of func%ional 5ro6ec%ions$ :os% if no% all of %he similari%ies 5resen%e# here (%he combina%ion 9i%h a55ro;ima%ion mo#ifiers %he sensi%ivi%0 %o number an# 5erha5s even %he lef%-#isloca%ion 5ro5er%0/ have a seman%ic e;5lana%ion$

(. T8e alte0nat.2e an3 t8e .3ent.t9 3ete06.ne0


(.1. T8e alte0nat.2e Amon! %he NF7s 9hich ma0 follo9 #e%erminers (%05e III in * 1/ %he al%erna%ive ( alt/ cons%i%u%es a s5ecial case$ Firs% i% is an e;ce5%ion in %his class3 all %he o%her i%ems in i% P e;ce5% for %he #emons%ra%ives (an# 5erha5s %he i#en%i%0 #e%erminer if i% reall0 belon!s here vi#e infra/ P are @uan%i%a%ives as 9e have seen$ Secon#l0 i%s 5osi%ion 9i%h re!ar# %o @uan%i%a%ives is variable #e5en#in! on %he %05e of %he @uan%i%a%ive3 i% follo9s scalar @uan%i%a%ives bu% 5rece#es all o%her @uan%i%a%ives3
(+21/ a$ (mul%e/ al%e (Kmul%e/ En%Wm5lLri man0 o%her man0 even%s b$ (aces%e/ (X%rei/cW%eva/ al%e (%rei/cW%eva/ En%Wm5lLri %hese %hree/a-fe9 o%her %hree/a-fe9 even%s

Thir# unli-e in lan!ua!es such as 7n!lish an# French alt ma0 func%ion as a D a55earin! 9i%hou% ano%her #e%erminer$ In %his case i% func%ions as an in#efini%e #e%erminer3
(+22/ al%L 5oves%e X(an/o%her s%or0 X(une/ au%re his%oire Romanian 7n!lish French

Oo9ever i% ma0 also be 5rece#e# b0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle$ The meanin! #ifferences be%9een

+1,

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

altHNP an# unJaltHNP are har# %o !ras5$ In %he 5lural alt canno% be 5rece#e# b0 in#efini%e #e%erminers (X nite ali oameni >some o%her 5eo5le? Xunor alte (ile >some$G'L o%her #a0s?/$ As a D i% sho9s %he case inflec%ion %05ical for Ds$ I%s >au!men%e#? inflec%ion (i$e$ %he forms use# in %he con%e;% HYNeZ/ as 9ell as %ha% of %he in#efini%e un >a one? an# i%s com5oun#s sho9 %he 5eculiari%0 of havin! forms of %he #efini%e #eclension in %he #irec% case (see * 2 for #iscussion/$ Ano%her common 5ro5er%0 of un an# alt is %ha% %he0 ma0 use %he feminine sin!ular au!men%e# form 9i%h a neu%er in%er5re%a%ion ( una >one %hin!? alta >ano%her %hin!?/$ This use is !enerall0 res%ric%e# %o cases of 5arallelism an# %o i#ioms3
(+24/ a$ Una es%e sL M%ii sL foloseM%i 5ro!rame fLcu%e #e alRii alta es%e sL one$FSG is SD'N -no9$1SG SD'N use$1SG 5ro!rams ma#e b0 o%hers o%her$FSG is SD'N M%ii sL scrii %u unul$ -no9$1SG SD'N 9ri%e$1SG 0ou one$ADG: >To -no9 ho9 %o use 5ro!rams ma#e b0 o%hers is one %hin! %o be able %o 9ri%e one 0ourself %ha%?s a #ifferen% %hin!$? b$ Vorbeau #e 1na #e alta s5ea-$I:PF$2PL of one$FSG of o%her$FSG >The0 9ere %al-in! abou% all sor%s of %hin!s$? c$ As%a e 1na la mWnL$ A5oi/`n 5lus$$$ %his is one$FSG a% han#$ Then/in a##i%ion >T%ha%?s one %hin!$ :oreover ^?

This 5henomenon is also encoun%ere# 9i%h #emons%ra%ives (see B$1/$ Alt ma0 func%ion as a 5re#ica%e in 9hich case %he au!men%e# forms mus% be use#3
(+2,/ Casa as%a e alta /Xal%L$ house-%he %his is o%her$ADG:/ o%her >This house is ano%her one$?

This ma0 in#ica%e %ha% alt alone canno% be use# as a 5re#ica%e bu% mus% be follo9e# b0 an N (bein! a func%ional nominal elemen%/ an# %he en%ire cons%ruc%ion altHNP ma0 %hen func%ion as a 5re#ica%e$ Oo9ever i% is also 5ossible %o consi#er %ha% alt has !eneraliAe# %he au!men%e# inflec%ion 9hen i% is an a#6ec%ive P 9e 9oul# %hen consi#er %hese form %o be >s%ron! forms? of sor%s$ In#ee# 9hen i% is follo9e# b0 a com5lemen% of #ifference alt ma0 also a55ear in 5os%nominal 5osi%ion li-e an a#6ec%ive an# %hen i% has %he au!men%e# forms ((+2./a/I no%e %ha% an a55osi%ive s%ruc%ure is unli-el0 since an over% N is im5ossible af%er alt ((+2./b/ an# %he meanin! is res%ric%ive3
(+2./ a$ Vom 5romova cunoaM%erea limbilor s%rLine altele #ecW% en!leAa$ 9ill$+PL 5romo%e -no9le#!e-%he lan!ua!es-%he$G7N forei!n o%her$ADG: %han 7n!lish-%he >Uill 5romo%e %he -no9le#!e of forei!n lan!ua!es o%her %han 7n!lish$? b$ XVom 5romova cunoaM%erea limbilor s%rLine alte limbi #ecW% 9ill$+PL 5romo%e -no9le#!e-%he lan!ua!es-%he$G7N forei!n o%her lan!ua!es %han en!leAa 7n!lish-%he

Ui%h %he #efini%e #e%erminers %he al%erna%ive sho9s com5oun# forms3 cel >%he? H alt s cellalt st )acest* >%his? H alt s stlalt% la >%ha%? H alt s llalt% lalalt% llalt (e;ce5% cellalt all %hese forms are sub-s%an#ar#/$ In#efini%e 5ro-DPs (%05e (ii/ in * 1/ ma0 be 5refi;e# b0 alt3 altcineva% altceva

+1.

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

>somebo#0/some%hin! else?$ Ue s5ea- here of com5oun#in! because %his alt- is uninflec%e# ((+2<// an# #oes no% a55ear in i%s e;5ec%e# 5osi%ion %ha% is af%er D ((+2B//3
(+2</ #irec%3 al%cineva alt-somebo#0 obli@ue3 al%(Xui/cuiva alt(G'L/-somebo#0$ G'L a$ al%cineva alt-somebo#0 b$ oricare/niciun al% om an0 /no o%her man c$ oricare/niciun al%ul an0 /no o%her$ADG:

(+2B/

Oo9ever !iven %he fac% %ha% alt ma0 occu50 %he D 5osi%ion 9e ma0 anal0Ae %hese forms as fuse# forms DHN 9here %he !ramma%ical N bearin! %he fea%ure H/- anima%e is realiAe# as -cineva or -ceva$ In#ee# %he forms altcineva an# altceva ma0 a55ear af%er in#efini%e 5ronouns (%ransla%able in 7n!lish as >else?/3
(+2C/ a$ nimic al%ceva no%hin! alt-some%hin! >no%hin! else? b$ orice al%ceva 9ha%ever alt-some%hin! >an0%hin! else? c$ ce al%ceva 9ha% alt-some%hin! >9ha% else? #$ nimeni al%cineva nobo#0 alt-somebo#0 >nobo#0 else?

Since 5ronouns never %a-e an over% noun 9e ma0 anal0Ae %hese cons%ruc%ions as con%ainin! %9o DPs$ Al%erna%ivel0 9e ma0 sa0 %ha% in %his case 5ronouns are sim5l0 Ds an# %heir N 5ar% is realiAe# in %he forms -ceva (for inanima%e N/ an# -cineva (for Hhuman N/ fuse# 9i%h %he al%erna%ive$ Anima%e in#efini%e 5ro-DPs ma0 also be follo9e# b0 alt% 9hich receives %hen %he au!men%e# inflec%ion3
(+4=/ nimeni al%ul nobo#0 o%her$ADG:

Uhen i% is no% use# as a D bu% ra%her a#6ec%ivall0 meanin! >#ifferen%? alt ma0 be mo#ifie# b0 (in%ensifier an#/ a55ro;ima%ion 5hrases such as cu totul >9holl0? an# aproape >almos%?3
(+4+/ a$ Aceas%a es%e o /1 tot1l alt: ches%iune %his is a 9holl0 o%her ma%%er >This is a 9holl0# #ifferen% ma%%er$? b$ Ce s-a schimba% e a50oa5e alt1ld 9ha% R7FL-has chan!e# is almos% o%her$ADG: >Oo9 much he has chan!e# he is almos% a #ifferen% 5ersond?

As in o%her lan!ua!es %he al%erna%ive is use# %o form %he reci5rocal 5ronoun in a cons%ruc%ion +1<

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

9here i% is associa%e# 9i%h %he in#efini%e unul >one?3


(+41/ S%ri!L 1n.. la alA.. shou%-2PL ones$ADG: %o o%hers$ADG: >The0 are shou%in! %o one ano%her?

Ue ma0 no%ice here %ha% %his cons%ruc%ion is base# on %he so-calle# >in%ernal rea#in!? of %he al%erna%ive 9hich 9ill be 5resen%e# belo9 in %he 5ara!ra5h >Com5lemen%s of e@uali%0 an# #ifference? (see #iscussion above (+,1//$ (.2. T8e .3ent.t9 3ete06.ne0 The nominal func%ional elemen% e;5ressin! i#en%i%0 is acelai >%he same?$ For some s5ea-ers %his i%em canno% be 5rece#e# b0 #e%erminers so %ha% i% is a D 9hile for o%hers i% ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle un (see (+42/ %a-en from %he In%erne%/ an# (more mar!inall0/ b0 shor% #emons%ra%ives P %hus i% a55ears %o be of %05e III in * 1$
(+42/ u Can#i#aRii nu 5o% susRine o a/eeaC. #isci5linL la 5robe #iferi%e can#i#a%es-%he no% can sus%ain a same #isci5line a% %es%s #ifferen% >Can#i#a%es canno% choose %he same #isci5line for #ifferen% %es%s$?

Dnli-e %he i#en%i%0 a#6ec%ives of 7n!lish an# French acelai never %a-es a #efini%e ar%icle bu% func%ions i%self as a D3
(+44/ Am a6uns En a/elaC. loc have$+ arrive# in same 5lace >I/Ue arrive# in %he same 5lace?

The associa%ion of acelai 9i%h a D-fea%ure is e;5ec%e# !iven i%s meanin!3 i% e;5resses i#en%i%0 9i%h a 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# #iscourse referen%$ Li-e alt i% ma0 also a55ear as a 5re#ica%e3
(+4,/ FeRele #e la bar sun% mereu a/eleaC.$ faces-%he from 5ub are al9a0s same >The faces from %he 5ub are al9a0s %he same?

Gf%en in %he 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion %he 5hrase unul i acelai >one an# %he same? is use# %o 5re#ica%e i#en%i%0 abou% a !rou5 (a con6unc%ion of DPs or even a 5lural DP/$
(+4./ a$ Au%orul aces%ei cLrRi Mi e#i%orul sun% 1n1l C. a/elaC. au%hor-%he %his$G7N boo- an# e#i%or-%he are one$ADG: an# same >The au%hor of %his boo- an# %he 5ublishin! e#i%or are one an# %he same? b$ Filmele #e care vorbim sun% 1n1l C. a/eleaC. movies-%he abou% 9hich s5ea-$+PL are one$ADG: an# same >The movies 9e are %al-in! abou% are one an# %he same?

This com5le; e;5ression ma0 a55ear more rarel0 in ar!umen%al 5osi%ions 9i%h an over% noun func%ionin! as a #e%erminer3
(+4</ Una C. a/eeaC. 5ersoanL a re!iAa% Mi a finanRa% aces% film one$ADG: an# same 5erson has #irec%e# an# has finance# %his movie >The same 5erson #irec%e# an# finance# %his movie$?

+1B

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

Acelai has a 5eculiar mor5holo!03 i% is a com5oun# of acela %he lon! form of %he #is%al #emons%ra%ive an# an invariable 5ar%icle -i$ The inflec%ion a55ears on %he #emons%ra%ive elemen% before -i (aceeai FSG aceleai FPL aceluiai :SG$G'LI8D7 e%c$/ (.3. Co65le6ents of eI1al.t9 an3 3.ffe0en/e Al%erna%ives an# %he i#en%i%0 #e%erminer in%ro#uce an a##i%ional ar!umen% %he ar!umen% of %he com5onen% of %heir meanin! >#ifferen% from ;? or >i#en%ical %o ;?$ In Romanian as in man0 o%her lan!ua!es inclu#in! 7n!lish %his ar!umen% if i% is realiAe# %a-es %he form of a com5ara%ive 5hrase in%ro#uce# for al%erna%ives b0 dect >%han? %he mar-er of ine@uali%0 an# for %he i#en%i%0 #e%erminer b0 ca or ca i >as? %he mar-er of e@uali%0$ This is ano%her fac% %ha% #is%in!uishes al%erna%ives an# %he i#en%i%0 #e%erminer from %heir a#6ec%ival (near/ s0non0ms diferit >#ifferen%? an# identic >i#en%ical? besi#es %heir 5ro5er%ies charac%eris%ic for #e%erminers$
(+4B/ a$ ii alt/.ne2a 3e/Kt el ar 5u%ea face aceas%L %reabL$ an# alt-somebo#0 %han him 9oul# can #o %his 6ob >Somebo#0 o%her %han him coul# also #o %his 6ob$? b$ 7 a/elaC. f.l6 /a cel 5e care l-am vLAu% is same movie as %he DG: 9hich CL$ACC-have$+PL seen >I%?s %he same movie as %he one 9e sa9$?

Thus 9e ma0 no%ice %ha% lan!ua!e ma0 use %he same means %o e;5ress e@uali%0 an# #ifference of #e!ree an# i#en%i%0 an# #ifference be%9een en%i%ies$ In bo%h cases %he ar!umen% P %he en%i%0 or %he #e!ree P ma0 be e;5resse# b0 rela%iviAa%ion (an o5era%or-movemen% or 9hmovemen% cons%ruc%ion/ an# %his rela%iviAe# clause ma0 con%ain eli#e# ma%erial base# on a 5arallelism 9i%h %he ma%ri; clause$ Some%imes #eli%ion is obli!a%or0 (here in %he c an# # e;am5les/3
(+4C/ a$ Am vLAu% acelaMi film ca cel 5e care l-am vLAu% sWmbL%L have$+PL seen same movie as (%he DG: 9hich CL$ACC-have$+PL seen/ Sa%ur#a0 >Ue sa9 %he same movie as on Sa%ur#a0? b$ Ai a#us al%e 5ahare #ecW% cele 5e care Ri-am s5us eu sL have$1SG brou!h% o%her !lasses %han (%he DG: 9hich/ 0ou$CL$DAT-have$+ %ol# I (SD'N le a#uci CL$ACC brin!/ >qou brou!h% o%her !lasses %han I %ol# 0ou? c$ 7 la fel #e scum5 ca G5i es%e %i #e scum5 En cen%ru is as-much of e;5ensive as ( is of e;5ensive/ in cen%er >I%?s as e;5ensive as in %he cen%er? #$ Paharele as%ea sun% mai mari #eYcW%Z i Emi 5lac mie 5ahare %i #e !lasses-%he %hese are more bi! of-Yho9-muchZ i me$CL$DAT li-e me$DAT (!lasses %i of mari bi!/ >These !lasses are bi!!er %han I li-e?

A s5ecial 5ro5er%0 of ca is %ha% i% forces elli5sis of %he verb (com5are (+4C/c %o (+4C/a/$ Ui%h an over% verb onl0 ct >ho9-much? (9hich 9i%h %he 5re5osi%ion de !ives %he form dect >%han?/ an# cum >as ho9? can be use#$

The realiAa%ion of %his ar!umen% is bloc-e# 9i%h #efini%e al%erna%ives (cellalt an# %he subs%an#ar# forms stlalt% llalt e%c$/3 %his is because in %his case %he ar!umen% is alrea#0 +1C

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

realiAe# via %he ana5horic com5onen% of %he #efini%e al%erna%ive3 >#ifferen% from i%/%hem?3
(+,=/ XceilalRi #ecW% cei 5e care Ei cunoscuseMi %he-o%hers %han %he$:PL DG: 9hich CL$ACC -no9$PLPF$1SG

Follo9in! a common 5a%%ern of s0mme%rical 5re#ica%es acelai a#mi%s %he follo9in! %9o cons%ruc%ions in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion3 i% ma0 be 5re#ica%e# abou% a !rou5 or i% ma0 be 5re#ica%e# abou% one of %he ar!umen%s an# %a-e a secon# ar!umen% in%ro#uce# b0 cu >9i%h?3
(+,+/ a$ PoAele as%ea Mi cele 5e care mi le-ai arL%a% rWn#ul 5ho%os-%he %hese an# %he DG: 9hich me$CL$DAT CL$ACC-have$1SG sho9n %urn-%he %recu% sun% a/eleaC. 5as% are same >These 5ic%ures an# %he one 0ou sho9e# me las% %ime are %he same$? b$ PoAele aces%ea sun% a/eleaC. cu cele 5e care mi le-ai 5ho%os-%he %hese are same 9i%h %he DG: 9hich me$CL$DAT %hem$CL$ACC-have$1SG arL%a% rWn#ul %recu%$ sho9n %urn-%he 5as% >These 5ho%os are %he same as %hose 9hich 0ou sho9e# me las% %ime$?

Uhen %he sen%ence e;5resses a 5lurali%0 of even%s/si%ua%ions i#en%i%0 an# al%erna%ive #e%erminers ma0 be use# 9i%hou% 5resu55osin! an a##i%ional ar!umen%3 %he0 ma0 e;5ress a rela%ion no% be%9een %he referen% of %he DP an# ano%her referen% bu% be%9een %he values %he DP has for each even%3 for e;am5le le%?s sa0 %ha% %he even%s are e + e1 ^ en an# %he DP has a variable rea#in! associa%in! a #ifferen% 5ar%ici5an% %o each even%3 ; + ;1 ^ ;n$ Then %he i#en%i%0 or #ifference rela%ions ma0 hol# be%9een %hese 5ar%ici5an%s3 ; +[;1[^[;n or for an0 ;i ;6 ;i w ;6$ This is %he so-calle# >in%ernal rea#in!? of 9or#s for i#en%i%0 an# #ifference$ For %he #ifference rela%ion %his rea#in! is also foun# 9i%h %he a#6ec%ive diferit >#ifferen%?$
(+,1/ a$ Lucia Mi Sonia au a/elaC. 5rofesor Dis%ribu%ive Lucia an# Sonia have same %eacher >Lucia an# Sonia have %he same %eacher? b$ Profesorul 5re#L En fiecare an alt curs$ %eacher-%he %eaches in ever0 0ear o%her lec%ure >The %eacher !ives #ifferen% lec%ures ever0 0ear? c$ Dumi%ru 5oar%L En%o%#eauna a/eeaC. cLmaML$ A#verbial @uan%ifica%ion Dumi%ru 9ears al9a0s same shir% >Dumi%ru al9a0s 9ears %he same shir%? #$ A/elaC. om a 5ic%a% %ablourile Mi a 5roiec%a% mobilele Con6unc%ion of even%s same 5erson has 5ain%e# canvas-%he an# has #esi!ne# furni%ure-%he >The same 5erson 5ain%e# %he canvas an# #esi!ne# %he furni%ure$?

Li-e com5ara%ive com5lemen%s of #e!ree 9or#s %he com5ara%ive com5lemen%s of i#en%i%0 an# #ifference al9a0s follo9 %he noun (see (+4B/-(+4C//$
A !eneral rule can be formula%e# for all %hese cases for Romanian an# o%her rela%e# hea#-ini%ial lan!ua!es 3 9hen a func%ional i%em 5lace# as such %o %he lef% of %he le;ical hea# or a lef%-han# a#6unc% %a-es an a##i%ional 5o%en%iall0 heav0 com5lemen% %his com5lemen% mus% un#er!o ri!h% e;%ra5osi%ion or #irec%l0 a%%ach %o %he ri!h% of %he func%ional 5ro6ec%ion so %ha% i% a55ears on %he ri!h% of %he le;ical 5ro6ec%ion$

). Def.n.te 3ete06.ne0s

+2=

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

).1. T8e 3ef.n.te a0t./le The #efini%e ar%icle has %he 5eculiari%0 of a55earin! ei%her as an in#e5en#en% 9or# or as a suffi;$ The suffi;al form a55ears 9hen %he D 5osi%ion is follo9e# ei%her b0 a le;ical noun or b0 an a#6ec%ival 5hrase an# is a%%ache# as an inflec%ion %o %he noun or %o %he a#6ec%ive res5ec%ivel0$ The noun mus% be s%ric%l0 DP-ini%ial 9hile %he a#6ec%ive ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 #e!ree e;5ressions an# o%her mo#ifiers e;ce5% for %he #e!ree hea# mai3
(+,2/ a$ co5il1l frumos chil#-%he beau%iful b$ frumos1l co5il beau%iful-%he chil# c$ a%W% #e frumoasa fa%L such of beau%iful-%he !irl

:or5holo!icall0 %he ar%icle sho9s a hi!h #e!ree of fusion 9i%h i%s hos% loo-in! more li-e an inflec%ion %han li-e a cli%ic$ This is reflec%e# in %he follo9in! 5henomena (9hich ma0 be seen in %he %able belo9/3 (a/ %he form of %he ar%icle some%imes #e5en#s on %he inflec%ional %05e of %he hos%3 %he masculine sin!ular N$A$ is -l for consonan%al s%ems bu% -le for -e s%ems (see (+,4/a-c/ an# i% ma0 be ei%her -a or -l for - s%ems #e5en#in! on %he 9or# (see (+,4/#/I %he masculine sin!ular obli@ue is -lui for all masculines e;ce5% - s%ems 9hich have %he form -ei (re5lacin! %he s%em vo9el -/ (c5$ (+,4/a-c %o (+,4/#/I (b/ %he s%em is mo#ifie# 9hen %he ar%icle is a##e#3 - falls before -a (see (+,4/#-e/ an -u- is a##e# in %he consonan%al s%ems (see (+,4/a/I in %he s5o-en lan!ua!e %he masculine sin!ular N$A$ - l 5rece#e# b0 %his -u- as 9ell as b0 an uns%resse# -u- 9hich is 5ar% of %he noun?s s%em is normall0 no% 5ronounce# so %ha% - u ra%her %han -l func%ions as %he #efini%eness mar-er (see (+,4/a/I ho9ever - l is 5reserve# af%er -I %he masculine - s%ems chan!e %his vo9el in%o -e- before %he obli@ue sin!ular ar%icle -i (see (+,4/#/$ (+,4/
DIR7CT (NG:$ACC/ SG$ DIR7CT PL$ G'LI8D7 SG$ G'LI8D7 PL$

(a/ masc$ in cons$ an# in accen%e# vo9els (b/ -u-masc$ (c/ -e-masc$ (#/ --masc$ (e/ --fem$ (f/ -e-fem

moM-u-(l/ me%ro-u-(l/ mais%ru-(l/ cWine-le 5a5(L/-a bu% %a%L-l fa%(L/-a car%e-a

moMi-. maiM%ri-. cWini-. 5a5i-. %aRi-. fe%e-le cLrRi-le

moM-u-l1. me%ro-u-l1. mais%ru-l1. cWine-l1. 5a5(L/-e-. %a%-e-. / %a%L-l1. fe%e-. cLrRi-.

moMi-lo0 maiM%ri-lo0 cWini-lo0 5a5i-lo0 %aRi-lo0 fe%e-lo0 cLrRi-lo0

To %his 9e ma0 a## fac%s %ha% are no% reflec%e# in 9ri%in!3 9or#-final - i is 5ronounce# as a semivo9el bu% becomes full0 vocalic before -l- 9hile %he combina%ion -i-i- no%es in fac% a sin!le vo9el -i-$ Ue conclu#e %ha% 9e ma0 s5ea- of a s5ecial inflec%ion %he >#efini%e inflec%ion?$ An in#e5en#en% form cel 9hich is DP-ini%ial is inser%e# 9hen %he D 5osi%ion is follo9e# b0 car#inals em5%0 nouns an# %he com5ara%ive #e!ree hea# mai3
(+,,/ a$ cei #oi co5ii %he %9o chil#ren b$ cei mai frumoMi co5ii

+2+

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories %he more beau%iful chil#ren >%he mos% beau%iful chil#ren? c$ cei YNeZ frumoMi %he$:PL beau%iful$:PL >%he beau%iful ones? #$ s%u#iile #e Cho5in Mi cele YNeZ #e LisA% s%u#ies-%he of Cho5in an# %he$FPL of LisA% >%he s%u#ies of Cho5in an# of LisA%? e$ cei YNeZ care vor %he$:PL 9hich 9an%$2PL

T9o %05es of anal0sis have been 5ro5ose# for %he suffi;a%ion of %he #efini%e ar%icle3 a mor5holo!ical lo9erin! rule similar %o %he 7n!lish I-%o-V lo9erin! an# raisin! of %he noun or %he AP %o D or S5ecDP res5ec%ivel0$ Ue 9ill 5resen% bo%h anal0ses 9i%hou% #eci#in! be%9een %hem here$ The lo9erin! rule 9hich can accoun% for %he #is%ribu%ion of %he #efini%e fea%ure ma0 be formula%e# as follo9s3 (+,./ -L 9hich is !enera%e# un#er D lo9ers %o %he hea# of i%s com5lemen% if %his hea# con%ains or is a#6acen% %o an over% (full/-mor5hemeI o%her9ise %he s%ron! form cel is inser%e# in D$ The suffi;a%ion of %he #efini%e ar%icle is bloc-e# 9i%h car#inals because %he0 #on?% have a (full/-mor5heme as 9e have seen (see ,$1/$ De!ree 9or#s #on?% bloc- %he suffi;a%ion because %he0 form a sin!le cons%i%uen% 9i%h %he a#6ec%ive$ 5ai is s5ecial because in i%s case D %a-es as a com5lemen% %he De!P an# no% %he NP formin! %he su5erla%ive$ Insi#e %he De!Pcom5lemen% De! is %he hea# of %he com5lemen% of D an# since i% #oes no% have %he re@uire# -mor5heme i% bloc-s %he lo9erin! of YH#efZ$ As for 5renominal a#6ec%ives if %he0 are anal0Ae# as s5ecifiers of minor func%ional 5ro6ec%ions (see cha5%er < * 2$+/ %heir hea# F 9ill offer an a55ro5ria%e 5lace for lo9erin! !iven %ha% a#6ec%ives 9hich imme#ia%el0 5rece#e %his hea# en# in an over% full -mor5heme$ (+,</ a$ D YNP YN(P/ co5ilZ YAP frumosZZ s co5il-1l frumos

b$ D YFP YAP/De!P a%W% #e frumoasLZ YF_ F YN/NP fa%LZZZ s a%W% #e frumoas-a fa%L c$ D YNumP Y#oiZ YNP co5iiZZ s X#oi-. co5ii (#efec%ive -mor5heme/ s /e. #oi co5ii #$ D YDe!PYDe!maiZYAP frumoMiZZZsXmai-. frumoMi (no -mor5heme/ s /e. mai frumoMi e$ D YNP Y NP eZ YAP mariZZZ s X-. mari (no mor5heme a% all/ s /e. mari The fac% %ha% in su5erla%ives %he #e%erminer forms a cons%i%uen% 9i%h %he #e!ree 5hrase is sho9n b0 %he !eneral #is%ribu%ion of su5erla%ives3 %he ar%icle a55ears before %he #e!ree hea# mai in all 5osi%ions 5re#ica%ive as 9ell as 5os%nominal (for %he 5os%nominal 5osi%ion Romanian behaves li-e French an# unli-e I%alian or 7n!lish/I %he ar%icle canno% be se5ara%e# from %he #e!ree hea# mai b0 an0 9or# (9hile in French a car#inal ma0 in%ervene/3
(+,B/ a$ casele cele mai Enal%e houses-%he %he more hi!h >%he hi!hes% houses?

+21

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories b$ cei (X#oi/ mai EnalRi (#oi/ munRi %he %9o more hi!h %9o moun%ains >The %9o hi!hes% moun%ains?

For 5renominal su5erla%ives li-e in (+,B/b since cel forms a cons%i%uen% 9i%h %he su5erla%ive i% canno% be inser%e# un#er D so 9e assume %ha% %he en%ire su5erla%ive 5hrase is inser%e# in S5ecDP 9hich suffices %o mar- %he DP as #efini%e3
(+,C/ [DP[DPcei mai frumoMi] [D_[DH#ef][NPco5ii]]] %he more beau%iful chil#ren

The inser%ion in S5ecDP is #emons%ra%e# b0 e;am5les as (+,B/b (re5ea%e# belo9/3 no @uali%a%ive a#6ec%ive can 5rece#e a car#inal (cf$ (+.=// e;ce5% for %he su5erla%ive3
(+,B/ (+.=/ b$ cei (X#oi/ mai EnalRi (#oi/ munRi %he$:P %9o more hi!h %9o moun%ains(:/ >The %9o hi!hes% moun%ains? XEnalRii #oi munRi hi!h-%he$:PL %9o moun%ains(:/

Car#inals ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 or#inal a#6ec%ives such as prim >firs%? ultim >las%? 9hich 9e inclu#e# amon! func%ional elemen%s an# e;ce5%ionall0 b0 in%ensional a#6ec%ives 9hich %a-e sco5e above %hem3 (i/ Fos%ele %rei le!i sun% acum una former-%he %hree la9s are no9 one >Uha% use# %o be %hree la9s no9 are 6us% one?

The suffi;a%ion rule canno% ma-e reference %o %he follo&in morp!o-p!onolo ical &ord ins%ea# of %he hea# of D?s com5lemen% because a#6ec%ives suffi;e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle ma0 be 5rece#e# b0 o%her 9or#s (#e!ree mo#ifiers/ an# even a55ear in a com5le; cons%ruc%ion De!ree 9or# H de H A as sho9n in (+,</b$ (See cha5%er < for %his cons%ruc%ion$/ The o%her 9a0 %o anal0Ae %he #is%ribu%ion of %he #efini%eness mar-er is %o #erive i% from movemen% of ei%her N or AP %o D or S5ecDP res5ec%ivel0$ :os% anal0ses 9hich embrace# %his h05o%hesis e;5laine# %he #ifference be%9een %he 5osi%ion of %he #efini%e noun (al9a0s %he firs%/ an# %ha% of %he #efini%e a#6ec%ive (5ossibl0 5rece#e# b0 #e!ree 9or#s/ b0 assumin! %ha% N moves as a hea# 9hile AP moves as a 5hrase$ In or#er %o e;5lain 9h0 if an a#6ec%ive is 5renominal i% is i% ra%her %han %he noun 9hich moves %his anal0sis mus% assume %ha% 5renominal a#6ec%ives are s%ruc%urall0 closer %o D %han %he N unli-e 5os%nominal a#6ec%ives$ This lea#s %o %he same 5ro5osal as in %he lo9erin! anal0sis above namel0 %ha% 5renominal a#6ec%ives are s5ecifiers of func%ional 5ro6ec%ions hi!her %han %he NP$ No%e %ha% %he rela%ive or#er of nouns an# a#6ec%ives is no% chan!e# b0 %he ar%icle?s suffi;a%ion$ The follo9in! e;am5les sho9 %ha% 5re- an# 5os%-nominal a#6ec%ives -ee5 %heir rea#in!s in 5hrases 9i%h %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle3
(+.+/ a$ o casL mare a house bi! b$ casa mare house-%he bi! c$ o mare casL a bi! house #$ marea casL bi!-%he house Neu%ral res%ric%ive rea#in! of %he A ?? Affec%ive non-res%ric%ive rea#in! of %he A ??

+22

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

An ar!umen% in favor of an anal0sis b0 movemen% is %he behavior of 5os%-nominal #emons%ra%ives 9hich 9e 9ill 5resen% in %he follo9in! sub-sec%ion (see (+.2/ belo9/$ ).2. De6onst0at.2es Demons%ra%ives #is%in!uish %9o la0ers of 5ro;imi%03 %he 5ro;imal acest 5ronominal an# 5os%nominal acesta collo@uial sta an# %he #is%al acel% 5ronominal an# 5os%nominal acela collo@uial la$ The0 have %he 5eculiari%0 of a55earin! bo%h 5renominall0 in %he D 5osi%ion an# imme#ia%el0 follo9in! %he #efini%e noun in %his la%%er case havin! %he >au!men%e#? form$ Collo@uial s5eech mainl0 uses %he au!men%e# forms in %he shor% varian%s sta% la$ Their corres5on#in! 5renominal varian%s st an# l are re!ional or archaic$
(+.1/ a$ aces% bLrba% %his man b$ bLrba%ul aces%a /Ls%a man %his$ADG:/%his c$ Aces%a /Ls%a nu-mi 5lace %his$ADG: /%his no%-me$CL$DAT li-es >I #on?% li-e %his one?

Pos%nominal #emons%ra%ives mus% imme#ia%el0 follo9 %he #efini%e noun in%ervenin! be%9een %he noun an# com5lemen%s an# mo#ifiers 9hich are ver0 lo9 in %he s%ruc%ure such as classif0in! or rela%ional a#6ec%ives (see cha5%er < *1/ an# i#iom chun-s3
(+.2/ a$ s%u#iile aces%ea filoAofice (Xaces%ea/ s%u#ies-%he %hese$ADG: 5hiloso5hical %hese$ADG: >%hese 5hiloso5h0 s%u#ies? b$ faRa aceas%a #e masL (Xaceas%a/ face-%he %his$ADG: of %able %his$ADG: >%his %able-clo%h? c$ #is%ribuirea aceas%a a 5remiilor (Xaceas%a/ #e cL%re #irec%or #is%ribu%ion(F/-%he %his$ADG: al0FSG 5rices-%he$G7N %his$ADG: b0 hea#mas%er >%his #is%ribu%ion of %he 5rices b0 %he hea#mas%er?

Rela%ional or classif0in! a#6ec%ives an# i#iom chun-s are al9a0s imme#ia%el0 a%%ache# %o %he noun in Romanian as 9ell as cross-lin!uis%icall0$ Com5lemen%s as in (+.2/c are !enerall0 anal0Ae# as bein! in %he le;ical 5ro6ec%ion of %he noun$ So (+.2/ clearl0 sho9s #is5lacemen% effec%s resul%in! from movemen% of N %o D$ Since 5os%nominal #emons%ra%ives have au!men%e# forms i% has been su!!es%e# %ha% %he0 are in fac% a#6unc% DPs$ This is sus%aine# b0 %he fac% %ha% onl0 %he0 ma0 a55ear 9i%h 5ersonal 5ronouns 9hich as 9e have seen are 5ro-DPs3
(+.4/ a$ XaceM%i voi %hese 0ou(PL/ b$ voi LM%ia 0ou %hese$ADG:

'u% %his anal0sis canno% e;5lain 9h0 %he #emons%ra%ive has %o follo9 imme#ia%el0 %he #efini%e noun se5ara%in! i% from com5lemen%s an# lo9-level mo#ifiers$ If no movemen% is involve# %he #emons%ra%ive 9oul# have %o be a#6oine# a% %he N level in e;am5les (+.2/I fur%hermore +24

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

a#6unc%s #on?% sho9 fi;e# 5osi%ions$ Ano%her 9a0 of e;5lainin! %he 5os%nominal 5osi%ion 9i%hou% movemen% is %o sa0 %ha% 5os%-nominal #emons%ra%ives are D-cli%ics lo9erin! %o!e%her 9i%h D$ 'u% i% is #ifficul% %o %rea% #i- an# %ri-s0llabic 9or#s as cli%ics$ I% is %rue %ha% in normal s5eech %he0 are no% s%resse# an# sho9 %he shor%er forms sta% la$ 'u% %he0 ma0 be con%ras%ivel0 s%resse#3
(+.,/ a$ Am s5us masa ASTA$ have$+ sai# %able-%he %his >I sai# TOIS %able? b$ Am 5us faRa ASTA #e masL have$+ 5u% face-%he %his of %able >I 5u% TOIS %able-clo%h?

Gn %he o%her han# %he anal0sis b0 movemen% mus% e;5lain 9h0 %he #emons%ra%ive sho9s au!men%e# forms in 5os%nominal 5osi%ion (see (+.1/-(+.2// 9h0 i% #oes no% bloc- raisin! %o D as car#inals #o ((+..// an# 9h0 #emons%ra%ives canno% a55ear af%er an a#6ec%ive suffi;e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle (see (+.<//3
(+../ a$ co5ilul aces%a chil#-%he %his$ADG: b$ Xco5iii #oi chil#ren-%he %9o XfrumoMii aceM%ia co5ii beau%iful-%he %hese$ADG: chil#ren

(+.</

I% has been 5ro5ose# %ha% %he 5os%nominal #emons%ra%ive #oes no% bloc- N-movemen% because i% is !enera%e# in a s5ecifier 5osi%ion an# N-movemen% is hea#-movemen%$ Gn %he o%her han# a#6ec%ives bein! s5ecifiers raise %o D b0 5hrasal movemen% an# %his movemen% is bloc-e# b0 %he #emons%ra%ive s5ecifier in (+.</$ 'u% 9e have seen %ha% in fac% car#inals are s5ecifiers %oo since %he0 ma0 be 5hrasal (see * ,/$ So %his e;5lana%ion #oes no% accoun% for (+../b$ If a #emons%ra%ive is 5resen% %he raisin! of %he #efini%e noun 5as% %he car#inals becomes in fac% 5ossible3
(+.B/ a$ co5iii aceM%ia #oi chil#ren-%he %hese$ADG: %9o >%hese %9o chil#ren? b$ feRele alea #ouL #e masL faces-%he %hose$ADG: %9o of %able >%hose %9o %able-clo%hes?

This in#ica%es %ha% i% is no% %he car#inal per se 9hich bloc-s movemen% bu% ra%her %he #efini%e D selec%in! car#inals is cel an# no% -L$ In %his h05o%hesis cel an# -L are #ifferen% le;ical uni%s an# no% merel0 #ifferen% 5honolo!ical realiAa%ions of %he same i%em$
I% has been 5ro5ose# %ha% cel is a #efini%e D 9i%h s5ecific selec%ional 5ro5er%ies3 i% 9oul# selec% for a 5hrase mar-e# H8uan%ifica%ional$ No%e ho9ever %ha% no% all @uan%i%a%ive e;5ressions %a-e cel (%he a#6ec%ival @uan%i%a%ives mult% muli >much man0? puin% puini >fe9? destul% destui >enou!h? #o no% %a-e cel/$ So 9e ma0 conclu#e %ha% cel onl0 selec%s for 8uan%1P De!P 9i%h De![mai an# N(um/P 9i%h an em5%0 N$

As for %he au!men%e# form of 5os%nominal #emons%ra%ives one 5ossibili%0 is %o sa0 %ha% %hese forms re5resen% s%ron! forms use# in %he s5ecifier 5osi%ionI -a coul# re5resen% a 5ro-N co+2,

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

in#e;e# 9i%h %he hea# noun or a s5ecial #ei;is mar-er$ I% has been in#ee# no%ice# %ha% a% leas% in li%erar0 Romanian 5renominal #emons%ra%ives %en# %o be use# 9i%h curren% #iscourse %o5ics 9hile 5os%nominal #emons%ra%ives are 5referre# for rhema%ic an# cons%ras%ive uses$ Presumabl0 a s%ron!er #ei;is is nee#e# in %his case an# %his is mar-e# b0 -a$ No%e %ha% al%hou!h %he ori!in of %his mar- is no% cer%ain his%orical lin!uis%s %en# %o believe %ha% i% re5resen%s a former #eic%ic a#verb %he La%in !ac (also foun# 9i%h a 5re5ose# #eic%ic 5ar%icle in I%alian qua >here? for ins%ance/$ In mo#ern-#a0 s5o-en Romanian %his in%er5re%a%ive #ifference be%9een 5renominal an# 5os%nominal #emons%ra%ives is almos% com5le%el0 los% bein! su5erse#e# b0 a #ifference in re!is%er3 5renominal forms are li%erar0 an# formal in %he collo@uial re!is%er %he 5os%nominal forms are !eneraliAe#$ A more si!nifican% fac% abou% 5os%-nominal #emons%ra%ives is %ha% %he0 sho9 %ha% %he D-level mus% be over%l0 realiAe# in Romanian$ For seman%ics a 5os%nominal #emons%ra%ive 9oul# have been sufficien% %o si!nal #efini%eness$ Thus %he #efini%e ar%icle on %he noun res5on#s %o a formal s0n%ac%ic re@uiremen% namel0 %o over%l0 mar- %he fea%ures of D (9hich of course in 5hrases 9i%h #emons%ra%ive is #efini%e/$ In%ui%ivel0 s5ea-in! %he #efini%e or in#efini%e charac%er of %he DP mus% be e;5resse# no la%er %han on %he firs% (imme#ia%e/ cons%i%uen% of %he DP (%he hea# or %he s5ecifier of %he ma;imal nominal 5ro6ec%ion/$ The same 5henomenon a55ears 9i%h 5ro5er names es5eciall0 an%hro5on0ms$ Dse# alone in %heir s%an#ar# referen%ial rea#in! %he0 #on?% nee# an0 #e%erminer$ Oo9ever if %he0 are 5rece#e# b0 an a#6ec%ive even if %his a#6ec%ive is non-res%ric%ive (a normal si%ua%ion for 5renominal a#6ec%ives/ an# %he noun -ee5s i%s referen%ial rea#in! %he #efini%e ar%icle mus% be 5resen% (i% is suffi;e# on %he a#6ec%ive/ (see cha5%er +1/$
(+.C/ a$ 7nescu %ocmai #L#ea un concer% 7nescu 6us% !ive$I:PF a concer% >7nescu 9as 6us% !ivin! a concer%? b$ Ves%i%X(ul/ 7nescu %ocmai #L#ea un concer% famous-%he 7nescu 6us% !ive$I:PF a concer% >The famous 7nescu 9as 6us% !ivin! a concer%?

Ano%her 5eculiar 5ro5er%0 of #emons%ra%ives is %ha% in %he absence of a realiAe# N %he0 have au!men%e# forms even 9hen %he0 are follo9e# b0 car#inals ((+<=/b/$ G%her NF7s have %he au!men%e# form onl0 if %he0 are imme#ia%el0 follo9e# b0 [Ne] (see (+<=/c-e/$ Since %he over% N al9a0s follo9s %he car#inal ((+<=/a/ 9e 9oul# have e;5ec%e# %ha% %he au!men%e# inflec%ion shoul# no% a55ear on #emons%ra%ives 9hen %he0 are follo9e# b0 car#inals$
(+<=/ a$ aceM%i 5a%ru oameni all four 5eo5le b$ aceM%iKK(a/ 5a%ru %hese(ADG:/ four c$ alRi 5a%ru oameni o%her four 5eo5le #$ alRi(Xi/ 5a%ru o%her(ADG:/ four

The feminine sin!ular forms of 5ronominal #emons%ra%ives ma0 be use# as neu%er forms referrin! %o fac%s si%ua%ions 5ro5osi%ions or u%%erances (see (+<+/a/ or %o unca%e!oriAe# 5erce5%ual ob6ec%s (see (+<+/b/$ For ana5horical reference %o a 5ro5osi%ional ob6ec% %he 5ro;imal #emons%ra%ive is more fre@uen% because %he #iscourse an%ece#en% in %his sor% of ana5horic rela%ion is usuall0 ver0 close (in %he imme#ia%el0 5rece#in! sen%ence/$ The feminine forms in %his case #o no% reflec% a feminine !en#er fea%ure as sho9n b0 %he fac% %he0 %ri!!er

+2.

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

masculine sin!ular a!reemen% (see (+<+/a/3


(+<+/ a$ As%a e im5osibil %his$FSG$ADG: is im5ossible$:SG >This is im5ossible? b$ Ce e aiaK 9ha% is %ha%$FSG$ADG: >Uha%?s %ha%K?

The masculine sin!ular form of %he a#6ec%ive mos% li-el0 re5resen%s %he #efaul% !en#er form in %he sin!ular (a mor5holo!ical #efaul% use# 9hen %he a#6ec%ive #oes no% receive !en#er via a!reemen%/ as sho9n b0 %he fac% %ha% i% also a55ears 9hen %he sub6ec% is a clausal 5ro6ec%ion i$e$ an e;5ression 9i%hou% a !en#er fea%ure3
(+<1/ (A %e a#resa as%fel unui su5erior/ e nerecoman#abil$ %o R7FL a##ress$INF so a$DAT su5erior is una#visable >To %al- li-e %ha% %o a su5erior is una#visable$?

Neu%er #emons%ra%ives are also #is%in!uishe# from %heir feminine homon0ms b0 %he fac% %ha% %he0 #o no% %a-e %he ob6ec% mar-er pe (see (+<2// an# are no% cli%ic-#ouble# 9hen fron%e# (see (+<4//$ The0 are %he onl0 #efini%e 5hrases 9hich are no% cli%ic-#ouble# 9hen fron%e#3
(+<2/ a$ Ia-o 5e- as%a [Ne] (9i%h [Ne] [ roc!ie >#ress?% banan >banana?% plrie >ha%? %a-e-CL$2FSG DG:-%his$FSG$ADG: e%c$ P a feminine noun/ >Ta-e %his oned? b$ Ia as%ad (9i%h no im5lie# nominal (no N-elli5sis// %a-e %his$FSG$ADG: >Ta-e %hisd? a$ GcaAia as%a o aM%e5%amd o55or%uni%0(F/-%he %his$FSG$ADG: CL$2FSG 9ai%$I:PF$+SG >Tha%?s %he o55or%uni%0 I 9as 9ai%in! ford? b$ As%a aM%e5%amd %his$FSG$ADG: 9ai%$I:PF$+SG >Tha%?s 9ha% I 9as 9ai%in! ford?

(+<4/

The absence of cli%ic-#oublin! 9i%h neu%er #emons%ra%ives ma0 be e;5laine# b0 %he fac% %ha% %he0 lac- !en#er if 9e assume %ha% accusa%ive 5ronominal cli%ics are al9a0s mar-e# for !en#er (%he0 have no #efaul% !en#er form/$ Ue conclu#e %ha% %he neu%er forms of %he #emons%ra%ives #on?% have an0 !en#er fea%ure$ The0 #o no% in%ro#uce a Y NeZ (%he0 never involve %he con%e;%ual recover0 of a nominal con%en%/ so %he0 are 5ro-DPs$ The feminine form is sim5l0 a mor5holo!ical 5eculiari%0 (an ins%ance of homon0m0/$ ).3. Def.n.te 580ases .n S5e/DP (i/ Ue have seen %ha% bo%h anal0ses of ar%icle suffi;a%ion P %he raisin! anal0sis an# %he lo9erin! anal0sis P nee# %o sa0 %ha% in some cases %he D-level mar-e# H#ef is realiAe# b0 a #efini%e 5hrase in i%s s5ecifier 5osi%ion3 su5erla%ives for %he PF-anal0sis an# su5erla%ives an# #efini%e a#6ec%ives for %he s0n%ac%ic anal0sis are cases of %his sor%$ (ii/ Ano%her ins%ance of a #efini%e 5hrase in S5ecDP is %ha% of 5renominal or#inals$ Gr#inals are forme# b0 a##in! %he ar%icle al (see 2$2$2 above/ %o %he car#inal suffi;e# b0 - lea (masculine/ or -a (feminine/$ Li-e %he o%her 5hrases in%ro#uce# b0 al (!eni%ive an# +2<

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

5ossessives see cha5%er ./% or#inals ma0 cons%i%u%e com5le%e #efini%e DPs b0 %hemselves bein! able %o a55ear in DP-con%e;%s ((+<,/a/$ Uhen a#nominal %he0 ma0 a55ear ei%her in %he firs% 5osi%ion of %he DP %hus mar-in! %he en%ire 5hrase as #efini%e ((+<,/b/ or af%er a #efini%e noun ((+<,/c/ or af%er a #e%erminer ei%her 5re-nominall0 ((+<,/#/ or 5os%-nominall0 ((+<,/e/3
(+<,/ a$ Al #oilea %ocmai a a6uns al0:SG %9o-lea 6us% has arrive# >The secon# one has 6us% arrive#? b$ al #oilea an al0:SG %9o-lea 0ear >%he secon# 0ear? c$ anul al #oilea 0ear-%he al0:SG %9o-lea >%he secon# 0ear? #$ aces% al #oilea an %his al0:SG %9o-lea 0ear >%his secon# 0ear? e$ o clasL a #oua a class al0FSG %9o-a >a secon# !ra#e?

The %9o 5osi%ions 9i%h re!ar# %o %he noun are correla%e# 9i%h a #ifference in meanin!$ In 5os%nominal 5osi%ion or#inals ma0 conve0 %he meanin! of classif0in! a#6ec%ives3 %ha% is %he0 ma0 e;5ress mo#ifica%ion of %he N-func%ion formin! a com5le; 5re#ica%e 9i%h %he noun an# no% or#er as an in#e5en#en% 5ro5er%0 of %he referen% of %he DP P for ins%ance (+<./e onl0 means >a secon# !ra#e?$ See also %he #ifference be%9een %he meanin!s of %he or#inal in %he %9o occurrences belo93
(+<./ a$ A #oua sona%L care va fi cWn%a%L es%e sona%a a #oua #e Grie!$ al0FSG %9o-a sona%a 9hich 9ill be sun! is sona%a-%he al0FSG %9o-a b0 Grie!$ >The secon# sona%a 9hich 9ill be 5erforme# is Grie!?s secon# sona%a? b$ A #oua salL 5e s%Wn!a es%e clasa a #oua$ al0FSG %9o-a room on lef% is class-%he al0FSG %9o-a >The secon# room on %he lef% is %he secon# !ra#e/form$?

In (+<./b (li-e in (+<,/e/ %he 5os%nominal or#inal refers %o %he secon# !ra#e of %he 5rimar0 c0cle 9hich is 5ar% of %he meanin! of %he nominal 5re#ica%e a55lie# %o %ha% !rou5 9hile %he 5renominal one sho9s s5a%ial or#er as a 5ro5er%0 of a room$ Pos%nominal or#inals almos% al9a0s follo9 a noun suffi;e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle$ Therefore %he 5os%nominal 5osi%ion of or#inals has been e;5laine# as a resul% of N-%o-D li-e for #emons%ra%ives$ No%ice ho9ever %ha% for some s5ecial meanin!s a 5os%nominal or#inal ma0 also a55ear in an in#efini%e DP as in (+<,/e 9here no movemen% %o D can be assume#$ :oreover 9e have seen %ha% %here are some sub%le meanin! #ifferences be%9een %he %9o 5osi%ions 9hich su!!es% %ha% 5os%nominal or#inals ma0 a% leas% some%imes occu50 %he 5osi%ion of rela%ional a#6ec%ives (see cha5%er < ** 1-2 on rela%ional a#6ec%ives/ an NP-in%ernal 5osi%ion$ In (+<,/# 9e see %ha% 5renominal or#inals ma0 be !enera%e# belo9 D$ For %he ini%ial 5osi%ion 9e ma0 assume ei%her movemen% from %his 5osi%ion %o S5ecDP or #irec% !enera%ion in S5ecDP$ In ei%her case i% is %he H#ef fea%ure of al %ha% allo9s inser%ion in%o S5ecDP an# %he mar-in! of %he en%ire DP as #efini%e 9i%hou% an over% D$ The or#inal ma0 also a55ear in ano%her cons%ruc%ion in 9hich al is 5rece#e# b0 %he 5re5osi%ion de an# b0 %he s%ron! #efini%e ar%icle cel3 cel de-al doilea >%he secon#?$ In %his case

+2B

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

cel is %he #efini%e #e%erminer of %he en%ire DP as can be seen b0 %he fac% %ha% unli-e al i% canno% be 5rece#e# b0 o%her #e%erminers3
(+<</ a$ un/ aces% al #oilea an a / %his al0:SG %9o-lea 0ear a/%his secon# 0ear? b$ (Xun/Xaces%/ cel #e-al #oilea an a / %his %he de-al0:SG %9o-lea 0ear

This s%ruc%ure is also mar!inal in 5os%nominal 5osi%ion an# i% #oesn?% allo9 %he classifica%or0 a#6ec%ive rea#in! 9hich 9e have seen above for >sim5le? or#inals$ Since a#6ec%ives ma0 a55ear 5os%nominall0 5rece#e# b0 cel (see cha5%er < *2$2/ %hese mar!inal cases #on?% con%ra#ic% %he anal0sis of cel as %he re!ular #efini%e ar%icle3
(+<B/ K venirea cea #e-a #oua comin!-%he %he de-al0FSG %9o-a

The s%a%us of de is no% clear in %hese s%ruc%ures$ I% #oesn?% seem %o be a mere a#6ec%iviAer since i% #oesn?% a55ear in cases such as (+<,/e (+<./$ Oo9ever i% serves or ra%her use# %o serve as an a#6ec%iviAer in cases such as3 vr de-al doilea >secon# cousin? 9hich are i#ioma%ic in %he con%em5orar0 lan!ua!e$ This s%ruc%ure is use# %o su55l0 %he obli@ue case 9hen %he or#inal is 5renominal an# %he DP is sim5l0 #efini%e (no #emons%ra%ive or o%her #e%erminer is 5resen%/3 al #oes no% have forms for obli@ue case so i% canno% a55ear in %he firs% 5osi%ion of %he DP 9here case is mar-e#3
(+<C/ a$ Xalui #oilea al$G'L secon# b$ celui #e-al #oilea %he$:SG$G'L de-al0:SG %9o-lea >of/%o %he secon#?

A s5ecial 5ro5er%0 of or#inals is %ha% %he0 #on?% have 5lural forms$ This is no% a 5ro5er%0 of al since al 9i%h %he !eni%ives has 5lural3
(+B=/ a$ Xai #oiia al$:PL %9o$:PL-a b$ ai fe%ei al$:PL !irl-%he$G7N

For >firs%? an# >las%? s5ecial forms are use#3 %he a#6ec%ives prim an# ultim$ The0 usuall0 bear %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle ((+B+/a-b/ bu% ma0 also be 5rece#e# b0 o%her #e%erminers ((+B+/c#/$ Oo9ever N-elli5sis is onl0 allo9e# 9hen %he0 bear %he #efini%e ar%icle ((+B+/e-f/3

+2C

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories (+B+/ a$ 5rima En%Wlnire firs%-%he mee%in! b$ ul%ima En%rebare las%-%he @ues%ion c$ o 5rimL 5roblemL a firs% 5roblem #$ aceas%L ul%imL En%rebare %his las% @ues%ion e$ SL #iscu%Lm 5roblemele$ Prima 5roblemL / o 5rimL 5roblemL es%e^ SD'N #iscuss$+PL 5roblems-%he firs%-%he 5roblem / a firs% 5roblem is >Le%?s #iscuss %he 5roblems$ The/a firs% 5roblem is^? f$ SL #iscu%Lm 5roblemele$ Prima / Xo 5rimL es%e^ SD'N #iscuss$+PL 5roblems-%he firs%-%he / a firs% is >Le%?s #iscuss %he 5roblems$ The/a firs% is^?

Dnli-e %he o%her or#inals (%he car#inal-base# or#inals/ %hese 9or#s have 5lural an# canno% a55ear 5os%nominall0 9i%h %he or#inal meanin! P ultim ma0 a55ear 5os%nominall0 9i%h a rela%e# @uali%0 meanin!3 >su5reme? 9hile 5os%-nominal prim means >5rime? (%he ma%hema%ical %erm/$ Uhen %he0 %a-e a 5lural %his ma0 also con%ain a car#inal ((+B1/b/$
(+B1/ a$ 5rimii co5aci firs%-%he %rees b$ ul%imele (#ouL/ veM%i las%-%he %9o ne9s c$ Xco5acii 5rimi %rees-%he firs% #$ XveM%ile ul%ime ne9s-%he las%

For >firs%? in %he classifica%or0 rea#in! %he 5os%nominal in#eclinable a#6ec%ive nti ma0 be use# ((+B2/a-b/$ This a#6ec%ive use# %o a55ear also 5renominall0 inflec%e# an# bearin! %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle an# allo9in! N-elli5sis$ In con%em5orar0 s%an#ar# lan!ua!e %his cons%ruc%ion is obsole%e ((+B2/c/3
(+B2/ a$ clasa En%Wi class-%he firs% >%he firs% !ra#e (in school/? b$ anul En%Wi 0ear-%he firs% >%he firs% 0ear (of %he facul%0/? c$ En%Wiul an firs%-%he 0ear

Gr#inals also have an in%erro!a%ive form buil% on %he @uan%i%a%ive in%erro!a%ive ct 9i%h %he or#inal suffi;es -elea (masculine/ -a (feminine/ an# in%ro#uce# li-e re!ular or#inals b0 %he ar%icle al3 al ctelea% a cta >9ha% (meanin!3 occu50in! 9hich 5osi%ion in an or#ere# #omain/?$ '0 5refi;in! %his form 9i%h %he free-choice ori- %he free-choice or#inal is forme#3 al orictelea% a oricta >no ma%%er 9hich (in an or#er/?$ (iii/ The las% ins%ance of a #efini%e 5hrase occu50in! S5ecDP is %ha% of 5renominal !eni%ives in%ro#uce# b0 al$ Geni%ives have a s%ruc%ure similar %o or#inals bu% %he0 #iffer b0 a55earin! onl0 e;ce5%ionall0 in S5ecDP (onl0 al crui >9hose? in s%an#ar# s5eech/$ For #e%ails see cha5%er .$

+4=

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories (+B4/ a$ a cLrui casL al$FSG 9hose house(F/ b$ casa frumoasL a cLruia house(F/-%he beau%iful al$FSG 9hose

To sum u5 %he follo9in! 5hrases 9hich ma0 cons%i%u%e #efini%e DPs b0 %hemselves ma0 also occu50 S5ecDP mar-in! %he DP as #efini%e3 Su5erla%ives3 (cea mai mare/ casL %he more bi! house >%he bi!!es% house? Gr#inals3 (a #oua/ casL al$FSG %9o$a house(F/
>%he secon# house?

Geni%ives3 (a cLrui/ casL al$FSG 9hose house(F/ >9hose house?

*. P0e+3ete06.ne0s
The universal @uan%ifiers toi >all? amndoi >bo%h? tot >%he 9hole? a55ear li-e in o%her lan!ua!es before a #efini%e DP more 5recisel0 before a DP mar-e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle (ei%her suffi;al P (+B,/a # P or s%ron! P (+B,/e/ %he #emons%ra%ive ((+B,/b/ %he #efini%e (com5oun#/ al%erna%ives ((+B,/c/3
(+B,/ a$ %oRi elevii all 5u5ils-%he b$ amWn#oi aceM%i au%ori bo%h %hese au%hors c$ %oa%e celelal%e 5robleme all %he-o%her 5roblems #$ %oa%L casa 9hole house-%he e$ %oRi cei Ma5%e 5rofesori all %he seven %eachers

The0 canno% combine 9i%h %he i#en%i%0 #e%erminer3


(+B./ X:-am En%Wlni% cu %oa%e aceleaMi 5ersoane R7FL-have$+ me% 9i%h all same 5ersons >I me% all %he same 5ersons?

The sin!ular tot normall0 @uan%ifies on %he 5ar%s of %he referen% (as in (+B,/#/$ In some fi;e# e;5ressions P e$!$ tot omul >all man-%he? P i% ma0 also @uan%if0 over %he in#ivi#uals #eno%e# b0 %he NP havin! a universal #is%ribu%ive !eneric meanin! P >ever0 an0?$ This meanin! is also ob%aine# 9hen i% 5rece#es 5renominal or#inals3
(+B</ Tot al 3o.lea om va muri$ all al0:SG %9o$lea man 9ill #ie >7ver0 secon# 5erson 9ill #ie$?

+4+

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

The in%er5re%a%ion b0 @uan%ifica%ion on %he 5ar%s rea55ears 9hen %he or#inal is 5os%nominal3
(+BB/ %o% anul al #oilea all 0ear-%he al0:SG %9o$lea >%he 9hole secon# 0ear?

Ui%h 5renominal su5erla%ives 5re-D universals are some9ha% mar!inal %he 5os%nominal 5lacemen% of su5erla%ives bein! 5referre# in %his case3
(+B</ a$ K%oRi cei mai bL%rWni 5oli%icieni all %he more ol# 5oli%icians b$ K%oRi cei mai cunoscuRi au%ori all %he more -no9n au%hors c$ %oRi 5oli%icienii cei mai bL%rWni all 5oli%icians-%he %he more ol# >all %he el#es% 5oli%icians? #$ %oRi au%orii cei mai cunoscuRi all au%hors-%he %he more -no9n >all %he mos% famous au%hors?

Pre-Ds allo9 noun elli5sis P 9hich in %his case 9oul# 5resumabl0 involve a 9hole null DP3
(+BB/ a$ :-am vLAu% cu %oRi cole!ii R7FL-have$+SG seen 9i%h all$:PL collea!ues(:/-%he >I me% all m0 collea!ues? b$ :-am vLAu% cu %oRi [Ne] R7FL-have$+SG seen 9i%h all$:PL >I me% (%hem/ all?

Ue anal0se (+BB/b as con%ainin! a 5ro-N insi#e a #efini%e DP 9i%h a null D license# b0 %he universal$ No%ice %ha% an over% ar%icle is im5ossible no% onl0 in Romanian 9here %he ar%icle is suffi;al bu% also in lan!ua!es 9i%h 5rocli%ic ar%icle (e$!$ French I%alian3 avec tous )-les**$ The 5robable e;5lana%ion is %ha% %he #efini%e ar%icle is universall0 a 5honolo!ical cli%ic 9hich mus% fin# a hos% insi#e i%s com5lemen%$ In %he case of N-elli5sis 5re-Ds ma0 also be follo9e# b0 car#inals$ The0 #on?% bear %hen %he au!men%e# inflec%ion ((+BC/b/ 9hich sho9s %ha% [Ne] is af%er %he car#inal in %his cons%ruc%ion (so %he car#inal occu5ies i%s normal a#nominal 5osi%ion an# is no% ri!h%a#6oine#/3
(+BC/ a$ ToRi %rei au veni% #eo#a%L all$:PL %hree have come a%-once b$ %u%uror(Xa/ %rei all$G'L(ADG:/ %hree

7;ce5%ionall0 5hrases ma#e of a universal an# a car#inal ma0 a55ear in 5re-D 5osi%ion before a #efini%e noun$ This is !enerall0 foun# 9i%h sim5le ana5horic DPs$ Ui%h more com5le; DPs %he s%ruc%ure becomes mar!inal a sin!le 5re-D universal bein! 5referre#3
(+C=/ a$ %oRi %rei co5iii all$:PL %hree chil#ren(:/-%he b$ KK %oRi 5a%ru 5rofesorii noM%ri #e lin!vis%icL all$:PL four %eachers(:/-%he our of lin!uis%ics c$ %oRi cei 5a%ru 5rofesori ai noM%ri #e lin!vis%icL

+41

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories all$:PL %he :PL four %eachers(:/-%he al$:PL our of lin!uis%ics

This 5osi%ion of %he car#inal is con%in!en% on %he 5resence of %he universal P o%her9ise car#inals canno% a55ear before a #efini%e noun (see (+C+//$ This in#ica%es %ha% %he car#inal forms a cons%i%uen% 9i%h %he universal$ This means %ha% a% leas% in %his case 5re-D universals are 5hrasal F7s occu50in! a s5ecifier 5osi%ion$
(+C+/ X%rei co5iii %hree chil#ren-%he

Ui%h 5ersonal 5ronouns 5re-Ds onl0 occur in 5os%5osi%ion3


(+C1/ a$ noi /ei %oRi 9e /%he0 all$:PL b$ X%oRi noi/ei all$:PL 9e/%he0

The 5os%5ose# forms ma0 be anal0Ae# as ri!h%-a#6oine# %o %he 5ro-DP$ In %his case %he0 have %he au!men%e# form in %he 5lural obli@ue (%he onl0 case 9here %he0 have a #is%inc% au!men%e# form/ 9hich can be in%er5re%e# as sim5l0 re5resen%in! a >s%ron!? form3
(+C2/ nouL %u%urora /X%u%uror /X%oRi us$DAT all$G'L$ADG:/ all$G'L / all

Since universals combine 9i%h 5ersonal 5ronouns 9e e;5ec% %o fin# %hem 9i%h pro an# 9e fin# in#ee# a universal 9i%hou% an over% noun in %he sub6ec% 5osi%ion 9i%h a verb inflec%e# for %he firs% or secon# 5erson3
(+C4/ ToRi ne 6ucam cu min!ea all$:PL R7FL 5la0$I:PF$+PL 9i%h ball-%he >Ue all use# %o 5la0 9i%h %he ball$?

Oo9ever %he anal0sis of such e;em5les is no% com5le%el0 clear because of %he e;is%ence of %he 5henomenon of @uan%ifier floa%in!$ As in o%her lan!ua!es 5re-D universals ma0 >floa%? %ha% is a55ear se5ara%e# from %he DP %he0 @uan%if0 over in s5ecial 5osi%ions 9hich al9a0s follo9 i% an# are c-comman#e# b0 i% (cf$ (+C,/#/$ Since %his 5henomenon concerns no% onl0 5re-Ds bu% also %he D fiecare an# all %hese elemen%s @uan%if0 over a DP in %he 5hrase i% is -no9n un#er %he name of >@uan%ifier floa%in!?$
(+C,/ a$ Sol#aRii muriserL toA. sol#iers(:/-%he #ie$PLPF$2PL all$:PL >The sol#iers ha# all #ie#$? b$ Co5iii se Rineau toA. #e mWnL chil#ren(:/-%he R7FL hol#$I:PF$2PL all$:PL of han# >The chil#ren 9ere all hol#in! han#s$? c$ 7levii au fos% (toA./ ascul%aRi (toA./ #e cL%re 5rofesor 5u5ils(:/-%he have been (all$:PL/ lis%ene# (all$:PL/ b0 %eacher >The 5u5ils have all been e;amine# b0 %he %eacher? #$ XPLrerea elevilor a fos% a t1t10o0EaF @toA. ascul%a%L$ o5inion(F/-%he 5u5ils(:/-%he$G7N has been al0FSG all$G7N(ADG://all$:PL lis%ene# In%en#e# meanin!3 >%he o5inion of all %he 5u5ils 9as hear#?

+42

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

Since %he 5osi%ion %o 9hich @uan%ifiers floa% concern %he s0n%a; of %he sen%ence 9e 9ill %rea% %he 5henomenon of @uan%ifier floa%in! in %he secon# volume of %his Grammar$ As far as %he DP-s%ruc%ure is concerne# 9e ma0 no%e %ha% in Romanian as in o%her lan!ua!es %here are some in#ica%ions %ha% %he floa%e# @uan%ifier is no% al9a0s a 5re-D @uan%ifier s%ran#e# b0 fur%her movemen% from i%s DP3 %here are cases of DPs (more 5recisel0 coor#ina%e# sin!ular DPs an# collec%ives/ 9hich ma0 be associa%e# 9i%h floa%e# @uan%ifiers bu% #o no% allo9 a 5reD @uan%ifier$
(+C./ a$ :aria Ion Mi Ioana sun% toA. bolnavi :aria Ion an# Ioana are all$:PL ill b$ XToA. :aria Ion Mi Ioana sun% bolnavi all$:PL :aria Ion an# Ioana are ill c$ Fra%ele meu Mi fra%ele %Lu sun% a6Kn3o. niM%e i#ioRi bro%her-%he m0 an# bro%her-%he 0our are bo%h$ :PL s?m i#io%s >:0 bro%her an# 0our bro%her are bo%h i#io%s$? #$ XA6Kn3o. fra%ele meu Mi fra%ele %Lu sun% niM%e i#ioRi bo%h :PL bro%her-%he m0 an# bro%her-%he 0our are s?m i#io%s a$ Gru5ul #e la masa a Masea sun% toA. beRi$ !rou5-%he from %able-%he si;%h are all$:PL #run>The !rou5 from %able number si; are all #run-? b$ XToA. !ru5ul #e la masa a Masea sun% beRi all$:PL !rou5-%he from %able-%he si;%h are #run-

(+C</

The universal has a s5ecial 5ro-DP form (9hich #oesn?% con%ain a con%e;%uall0 i#en%ifiable 5ro-N/ in %he masculine sin!ular in%er5re%e# as a neu%er 5ronoun3 totul >%he 9hole ever0%hin!?$ This form has onl0 %he #irec% case an# sho9s %he #efini%e #eclension3
(+CB/ Tot1l e 5ier#u% all-%he is los% ever0%hin! is los%

Pre-D universals ma0 be use# 5re#ica%ivel03


(+CC/ Sun%em toA. are$+PL all$:PL >Ue are all here/5resen%?

1,. T8e s9ste6 of /o65o1n3 3ete06.ne0s= 50o+DPs an3 50o+lo/at.2e+ a32e0b.als


Ue 9ill %rea% here %he issue of com5oun# #e%erminers %o %he e;%en% %o 9hich %heir s%ruc%ure is relevan% for s0n%a;$ As man0 o%her lan!ua!es Romanian has series of #e%erminers 5ro-DPs an# loca%ive a#verbs #erive# in a %rans5aren% 9a0 from %he in%erro!a%ive-rela%ive s%em$ Their mor5hemes corres5on# %o fea%ures relevan% for s0n%a; as 9ell as seman%ics$ Accor#in! %o some mor5holo!ical %heories %he0 9oul# en%er %he s0n%ac%ic #eriva%ion as se5ara%e# i%ems an# %he com5le; forms 9oul# be %he resul% of hea#-mer!in! in s0n%a;$ In %hese 9or#s 9e ma0 #is%in!uish an o5era%or 5ar% an# a 5ar% rou!hl0 corres5on#in! %o %he #escri5%ive con%en%$ The ca%e!orial 5ro5er%ies are !iven b0 %he con%en% 5ar% %hus %he o5era%or mor5hemes are no% reall0 Ds bu% ra%her ca%e!oricall0 un#ers5ecifie#$ (i/ Con%en%-mor5hemes3 +44

The S0n%a; of De%erminers an# o%her Func%ional Ca%e!ories

ce3 un#ers5ecifie#I as 9e have seen in sec%ion 2 i% ma0 ac% as a #e%erminer bu% in %he absence of %he noun %he concurrence of %he o%her forms more s5ecifie# leaves i% %he meanin!s -anima%e an# -ana5horic YNeZ crea%in! %he a55earance of a neu%er 5ro-DPI also #ue %o i%s un#ers5ecifici%0 i% ma0 func%ion as a @uan%i%0 9or# bu% in fe9er con%e;%s %han ct% 9hich is e;5lici%el0 mar-e# for @uan%i%03 in %he bare form (use# for in%erro!a%ive-rela%ive v$ infra/ as a #e!ree hea# (ce mare >ho9 bi!?I see cha5%er < * 4/ o%her9ise res%ric%e# %o %he e;clama%ive use (ce doarme >ho9 much he slee5sd?/I in %he e;is%en%ial form as a @uan%i%a%ive (for @uan%i%a%ive ceva see * ,/$ cine3 >; a 5erson?$ Al9a0s of ca%e!or0 N i% !ives rise %o 5ro-DPs$ care3 H5ar%i%ive (>; A?/3 i% a55ears in #e%erminers ct3 @uan%i%0 9i%h %he lar!e #is%ribu%ion of @uan%i%0 5hrases 9hich as 9e have seen in sec%ion . is no% res%ric%e# %o nominal 5ro6ec%ionsI unde3 >; a 5lace?3 a#verbial (loca%ive PP/ #is%ribu%ion cnd3 >; a %ime?3 (%em5oral/ a#verbial #is%ribu%ion cum3 >; a manner?3 manner a#verbial #is%ribu%ion (ii/ G5era%or-mor5hemes3 Q3 in%erro!a%ive-rela%ive ori- (sel#om/ orii-3 free-choice -va3 e;is%en%ial (iii/ A %hir# con%en% mor5heme 9hich ma0 be a##e# %o %he combina%ion of %he con%en% mor5heme an# %he e;is%en%ial o5era%or is %he al%erna%ive alt- (see also * </$ Ue illus%ra%e %he 5ossible combina%ions in %he follo9in! %able3
(1==/ uns5ecifie# anima%e 5ar%i%ive @uan%i%0 5lace %ime manner in%erro!a%ive-rela%ive ce cine care cW% un#e cWn# cum e;is%en%ial ceva cineva careva cW%va un#eva cWn#va cumva free-choice orice oriMice oricine oricare oricW% oriun#e oricWn# oricum al%erna%ive al%ceva al%cineva al%un#eva al%cWn#va al%cumva

+4,

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

$. T8e Se6ant./s of Dete06.ne0s


DGNSA F$ FARSAS 1. Int0o31/t.on 2. Def.n.te Dete06.ne0s
1$+$ Defini%e vs$ in#efini%e DPs 1$1$ The #efini%e #e%erminer -ul 1$2$ The #emons%ra%ive #e%erminer 1$4$ Conclusion

3. In3ef.n.te Dete06.ne0s
2$+$ Dnmar-e# in#efini%e #e%erminers 2$1$ :ar-e# in#efini%e #e%erminers 2$2$ Conclusion

$. Con/l1s.on

+4.

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

1. Int0o31/t.on
This cha5%er is concerne# 9i%h %he ma6or %hemes of #e%erminer seman%ics vie9e# %hrou!h %he lens of Romanian #a%a$ The main challen!e in %his area is %o be able %o ca5%ure %he similari%ies an# #is%inc%ions across a 9i#e ran!e of #e%erminers$ The finer-!raine# #ifferen%ia%ion nee#e# !oes be0on# 9ha% %05e-%heor0 can #eal 9i%h (even if fle;ible/ an# %herefore 9e 9ill ma-e use of insi!h%s from #0namic seman%ics as embo#ie# in D(iscourse/ R(e5resen%a%ion/ T(heor0/ s-e%che# in Cha5%er + sec%ion .$1$4$ De%erminers #iffer alon! several 5ar%l0 in#e5en#en% #imensions$ A ma6or #ivision concerns @uan%ifica%ional force se5ara%in! #e%erminers 9i%h universal force ( fiecare/ from %hose 9i%h e;is%en%ial force (un% -ul% nite% civa% vreun/$ A cross - cu%%in! #is%inc%ion se5ara%es several subs5ecies of #e%erminers !rou5e# un#er labels such as >free choice? or >ne!a%ive in#efini%es? or >#emons%ra%ives?$ Demons%ra%ives an# ne!a%ive in#efini%es are varie%ies of e;is%en%ials %he former 9i%hin %he #efini%e !rou5 %o be #iscusse# in Sec%ion 1$2 an# %he la%%er 9i%hin %he in#efini%e ca%e!or0 %o be #iscusse# in Sec%ion 2$1$2$ The >free choice? #e%erminers in Romanian (#iscusse# in Sec%ion 2$1$4/ on %he o%her han# inclu#e %he universalflavore# orice/oricare as 9ell as a% leas% some uses of %he e;is%en%ial vreun$ Ta-in! @uan%ifica%ional force as %he basic #is%inc%ion an# leavin! %he ca%e!or0 of FC #e%erminers ou% of %he 5ic%ure 9e s%ar% from %he 5reliminar0 classifica%ion in Fi!ure +3

universal fiecare >ever0? tot >all?

e;is%en%ial #efini%e in#efini%e #em acest >%his? unmar-e# mar-e# un >a? #e5en#en% ne!a%ive s5ecific cte un niciun >no? un anume >a cer%ain?

unmar-e# -)u*l >%he?

Fi!ure +3 De%erminer %05olo!0 In Fi!ure + 9e e;em5lifie# each ar%icle %05e 9i%h i%s masculine sin!ular form bu% %he #iscussion 9ill cover 5lural #e%erminers as 9ell$ The basic common seman%ic func%ion of #e%erminers is %o in%ro#uce a #iscourse referen% (or variable/ an# %o im5ose fur%her res%ric%ions on %he 9a0 %ha% variable is %o be !iven values$
The onl0 cases 9here #e%erminers #on?% have %his func%ion is in 5re#ica%ivel0 use# DPs e;em5lifie# in (i/3 (i/ :arcu e un 5rofesor e;celen%$ >:arcu is an e;cellen% 5rofessor$?

Ui%h res5ec% %o %he #ivision be%9een universal an# e;is%en%ial #e%erminers no%e %ha% %he DP in (+/a3
(+/ a$ Fiecare s%u#en% a 5leca%$ ever0 s%u#en% has lef% >7ver0 s%u#en% lef%$? b$ Y;3 STDD7NT(V/Z L7AV7(V/

+4<

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

has a universal flavor con%ribu%e# b0 %he un#erline# D in %he sense %ha% in or#er for (+/a %o ma-e a %rue claim %he 5ro5er%ies of each s%u#en% (9i%hin mos% li-el0 a con%e;%uall0 res%ric%e# se%/ are relevan%$ The %ransla%ion of (+/a in firs% or#er 5re#ica%e lo!ic 9i%h res%ric%e# @uan%ifiers is !iven in (+/b 9here %he #e%erminer fiecare is %ransla%e# as %he universal @uan%ifier an# 9here %he 5re#ica%es are small - ca5i%al versions of %he na%ural lan!ua!e e;5ressions %he0 %ransla%e$ Trea%in! fiecare as ca5%ures i%s #is%ribu%ive flavor3 %he in%er5re%a%ion of sen%ences con%ainin! %his #e%erminer involves evalua%in! %he 5re#ica%e rela%ive %o each elemen% of %he se% #eno%e# b0 %he sis%er of %he #e%erminer in#ivi#uall0 ra%her %han %a-en as a !rou5$ (Ue refer %o %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he sis%er of %he D as %he >#escri5%ive con%en%? of %he DP$/ Thus (1/ is in%er5re%e# as involvin! a series of lif%in! u5 %he 5iano even%s each even% involvin! a sin!le !irl$
(1/ Fiecare fa%L a ri#ica% 5ianul$ ever0 !irl has lif%e# 5iano-%he >7ver0 !irl lif%e# %he 5iano$?

The #e%erminer tot e;em5lifie# in (2/ is universal bu% no% #is%ribu%ive$


(2/ Toa%e fe%ele au ri#ica% 5ianul$ all !irls-%he have lif%e# 5iano-%he >All %he !irls lif%e# %he 5iano$?

For (2/ %o be %rue i% is enou!h for all %he !irls %o have 5ar%ici5a%e# in a 5iano-lif%in! even%$ The sen%ence is neu%ral 9i%h res5ec% %o 9he%her %here is one such even% 5er !irl or 9he%her one or several !rou5s of !irls 9ere involve#$ No%e %ha% %his #e%erminer %a-es a #efini%e !rou5 #eno%in! DP as ar!umen%$ Thus %he DP sis%er of tot is normall0 5lural as above bu% i% can also be sin!ular if !rou5 #eno%in!3
(4/ To% 5o5orul a 5ro%es%a%$ all 5eo5le-%he has 5ro%es%e# >The 9hole 5eo5le 5ro%es%e#$?

The o%her Ds in Fi!ure 1 are e;is%en%ial in %he sense %ha% 9ha% ma%%ers as far as %ru%h con#i%ions are concerne# is %he e;is%ence of an a55ro5ria%e en%i%0$ In (,/a for ins%ance 9here an unmar-e# in#efini%e is use# all %ha% is nee#e# in or#er for %he sen%ence %o be %rue is %he e;is%ence of an en%i%0 9i%h %he ri!h% 5ro5er%ies (in %his case an en%i%0 %ha% is a s%u#en% an# %ha% lef% earl0/$ The 5lural in (,/b is also e;is%en%ial in %he sense %ha% %he %ru%h of (,/b re@uires %he e;is%ence of a sum inclu#in! more %han one s%u#en% of 9hich i% can be claime# (collec%ivel0 or #is%ribu%ivel0/ %ha% %he0 lef% earl0$
The #is%ribu%ive rea#in! of a sen%ence li-e (,/b involves a universal-li-e in%er5re%a%ion in %ha% %he %ru%h of %he 5re#ica%e has %o be chec-e# rela%ive %o each member of %he !rou5 #eno%e# b0 %he sub6ec%$ Since %his %05e of #is%ribu%ivi%0 is 5ossible 9i%h an0 >e;is%en%ial? #e%erminer %ha% #eno%es a !rou5 9e 9ill assume %ha% %he >universal? seman%ics is no% %ie# %o %he seman%ics of %he #e%erminer in %hese cases bu% ra%her %o %he 9a0 a 5re#ica%e ma0 combine 9i%h a sum or !rou5 #eno%in! ar!umen%$

The %ransla%ion of (,/a in firs% or#er 5re#ica%e lo!ic is !iven in (,/c 9here %he #e%erminer con%ribu%es %he e;is%en%ial @uan%ifier an# %he variable i% bin#s$
(,/ a$ Dn s%u#en% a 5leca% #evreme$ a s%u#en% has lef% earl0 >A s%u#en% lef% earl0$?

+4B

The Seman%ics of De%erminers b$ CWRiva s%u#enRi/s%u#enRii au 5leca% #evreme$ several s%u#en%s/s%u#en%s-%he have lef% earl0 >Some s%u#en%s/%he s%u#en%s lef% earl0$? c$ Y;3 STDD7NT(;/Z L7AV7-7ARLq(;/

For 5lural e;is%en%ial #e%erminers all one nee#s is a s5ecial variable %ha% in#ica%es %ha% i%s value has %o be chosen amon! sums forme# from a%omic en%i%ies$ In or#er for %his 5ro5osal %o be im5lemen%e# one has %o assume %ha% %he #eno%a%ion #omain of Ycoun%Z i$e$ non-mass nouns consis%s of bo%h a%omic en%i%ies an# sums %hereof$ This means %ha% elemen%s in %he #eno%a%ion of %he noun are in#ivi#ua%e# in %erms of a%oms an# sums of a%oms$ Plural Ds in%ro#uce a variable 9hose value mus% be chosen amon! %he sums in %he #eno%a%ion #omain of %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he DP$ The res% of %he #e%erminers in Fi!ure + are essen%iall0 e;is%en%ials 9i%h e;%ra re@uiremen%s$ The #ifficul%0 is %o i#en%if0 %hese re@uiremen%s in such a 9a0 as %o correc%l0 charac%eriAe bo%h %he #is%ribu%ion an# %he in%er5re%a%ion of DPs hea#e# b0 %hese #e%erminers a %as- %ha% forms %he main concern of %his cha5%er$ A 5o%en%ial 5roblem for %he !eneraliAa%ion 6us% !iven is %he ne!a%ive in#efini%e niciun e;em5lifie# in (./3
(./ a$ Niciun s%u#en% nu a 5leca% #evreme$ N7G-a s%u#en% no% has lef% earl0 >No s%u#en% has lef% earl0$? b$ Nu e;is%L niciun cWine cu #ouL coAi$ no% e;is%s N7G-a #o! 9i%h %9o %ails >There are no #o!s 9i%h %9o %ails$? c$ (Y;3 STDD7NT(;/Z L7AV7-7ARLq(;//

3iciun >N7G-a? coul# in 5rinci5le be %rea%e# as a universal because in or#er for (./a %o be %rue i% mus% be %he case %ha% ever0 s%u#en% has %he 5ro5er%0 of no% havin! lef%$ No%e ho9ever %ha% %he claim (./a ma-es can also be 5ara5hrase# b0 a s%a%emen% %ha% con%ains an e;is%en%ial >9i%hin %he sco5e? of ne!a%ion3 i% is no% %he case %ha% %here is a s%u#en% 9ho lef% earl0 as %ransla%e# in (./c$ Dn#er %his anal0sis %he in#efini%e is an e;is%en%ial an# %he universal flavor is #ue %o i%s in%erac%ion 9i%h ne!a%ion$ Since in Romanian %his com5le; #e%erminer is ma#e u5 of a ne!a%ive mor5heme nici an# %he unmar-e# in#efini%e ar%icle un (in fac% i% 9as 9ri%%en in %9o 9or#s P nici un P accor#in! %o %he or%ho!ra5hic norm before 1==,/ %rea%in! niciun as an e;is%en%ial 9i%h %he e;%ra re@uiremen% of occurrin! 9i%hin %he sco5e of ne!a%ion is more a55ro5ria%e %han %rea%in! i% as a universal %ha% re@uires ne!a%ion in i%s sco5e$ No%e also %ha% i% is a55ro5ria%e %o use niciun in case one #enies %he e;is%ence of a 5ar%icular %05e of en%i%0 as in (./b a use %ha% is more easil0 un#ers%oo# un#er an e;is%en%ial %rea%men% of niciun %han un#er a universal one$ (Ue re%urn %o ne!a%ive e;is%en%ials in Sec%ion 2$1$2 belo9$/ Ue conclu#e %ha% %he #e%erminer fiecare is a #is%ribu%ive universal 9hile tot is a universal 9i%h no o%her con#i%ions im5ose# on i%$ The o%her #e%erminers in Fi!ure + are e;is%en%ial #ifferen%ia%e# b0 fur%her re@uiremen%s %he0 im5ose$ The res% of %his cha5%er focuses on %he #e%erminers foun# on %he ri!h% branch of Fi!ure + because %his is %he lar!es% an# mos% #iverse class$ Sec%ion 1 #iscusses #e%erminers 9i%hin %he #efini%e !rou5 9hile Sec%ion 2 #iscusses %he lar!e class of non-#efini%e (or in#efini%e/ #e%erminers$

+4C

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

2. Def.n.te Dete06.ne0s
2.1. Def.n.te 2s. .n3ef.n.te DPs The firs% #is%inc%ion on %he ri!h% branch in Fi!ure + be%9een #efini%e an# in#efini%e #e%erminers is 9i#el0 assume# in bo%h %he lin!uis%ic an# %he 5hiloso5hical li%era%ure$ Never%heless %he seman%ic 5ro5er%0 res5onsible for %he #ivision has 5roven @ui%e #ifficul% %o 5in #o9n$ 'efore #iscussin! i% %he follo9in! 5reliminar0 issues are a##resse#3 (i/ Is %he #is%inc%ion 5resu55osi%ional or no%K (ii/ Is %he #is%inc%ion s0mme%ric or no%K (iii/ For 9hich i%ems is %he #is%inc%ion relevan%K The firs% @ues%ion involves %he issue of 9he%her informa%ion concernin! (in/#efini%eness enco#e# in %hese #e%erminers belon!s %o %he asser%e# or %he 5resu55ose# 5ar% of %he sen%ence in 9hich %hese Ds occur$ In 9ha% follo9s 9e %a-e %he !enerall0 acce5%e# 5resu55osi%ional vie9 The secon# @ues%ion concerns %he issue of 9he%her %he #efini%e/in#efini%e con%ras% involves %9o 5ro5er%ies one for each si#e of %he #ivi#e (a s0mme%ric vie9/ or 9he%her 9e are #ealin! 9i%h a sin!le 5ro5er%0 9hich is share# b0 %he i%ems on one si#e an# absen% in %he i%ems on %he o%her si#e (an as0mme%ric vie9/$ The s0mme%ric vie9 9oul# have i% %ha% #efini%e #e%erminers are mar-e# for %he 5resence of some 5ro5er%0 %ha% ren#ers %hem #efini%e 9hile in#efini%e #e%erminers are mar-e# for %he 5resence of some 5ro5er%0 %ha% ren#ers %hem in#efini%e$ The as0mme%ric vie9 9oul# have i% %ha% %he members of one class are mar-e# for %he 5resence of some 5ro5er%0 / 9hile %he members of %he o%her are sim5l0 no% mar-e# for %ha% 5ro5er%0 an# in%er5re%e# as lac-in! i% because of a 5ra!ma%icall0 !roun#e# bloc-in! 5rocess$ Thin-in! of (in/#efini%eness as a fea%ure %his issue amoun%s %o %he @ues%ion of 9he%her %he fea%ure is e@ui5ollen% (a fea%ure 9i%h %9o e@ual values/ or 5riva%ive (a one-value# fea%ure/$ If 5riva%ive %he @ues%ion is 9hich si#e of %he #ivi#e is mar-e# b0 %he 5resence of a 5ro5er%0 an# 9hich si#e is unmar-e#$ In 9ha% follo9s 9e assume %ha% #efini%eness is 5riva%ive an# %ha% #efini%e Ds are mar-e# for #efini%eness 9hile in#efini%e Ds are unmar-e# for %his fea%ure$ The as0mme%ric vie9 is %he more 5arsimonious an# since %here is no evi#ence %o %he con%rar0 9e assume i% in 9ha% follo9s$ The %hir# @ues%ion concerns %he issue of ho9 #efini%eness #is%inc%ions 9i%hin %he D realm connec% 9i%h #efini%eness con%ras%s be0on# #e%erminers a% %he level of DPs$ An in%ui%ive !rou5in! of DP %05es 9i%h res5ec% %o #efini%eness is !iven in Fi!ure 13

#efini%e /roper 3ames% def0 pronouns% D/s &it! def0 determiners

in#efini%e D/s &it! indef0 determiners% indef0 pronouns Lare sin ulars and plurals

Fi!ure 13 Defini%e vs$ in#efini%e DPs This !rou5in! is 6us%ifie# in as much as %here are lin!uis%ic 5henomena %ha% %rea% %he DPs on one si#e #ifferen%l0 from %hose on %he o%her si#e$ An e;am5le of such a 5henomenon is Differen%ial Gb6ec% :ar-in! (DG:/ 9hereb0 a lan!ua!e mar-s a subclass of #irec% ob6ec%s in s5ecial 9a0s$ Ue see DG: a% 9or- in Romanian 9hich mar-s a s5ecial subclass of #irec% ob6ec%s b0 %9o in%erconnec%e# mor5ho-s0n%ac%ic means namel0 cli%ic #oublin! an# mar-in! 9i%h %he 5re5osi%ion pe0 Uor- on %he cross-lin!uis%ic 5ro5er%ies of DG: has sho9n %ha% i% is sensi%ive %o #efini%eness an# %ha% in %his res5ec% DPs form %he hierarch0 in (</ 9here Def$ DP inclu#es DPs hea#e# b0 a #efini%e or a #emons%ra%ive ar%icle$

+,=

The Seman%ics of De%erminers (</ Pro5er Name f Def$ Pronoun f Def$ DP f Par%i%ive DP f In#ef$ DP

The DP %05es on %he lef% are more li-el0 %o be DG: %ri!!ers %han %he DP %05es on %he ri!h% 9i%h in#ivi#ual lan!ua!es fi;in! cu%off 5oin%s a% various 5ar%icular run!s on %he scale$ The e;is%ence of lan!ua!es %ha% have %he cu% off 5oin% af%er %he %hir# run! in (</ 6us%ifies %he #ivision in Fi!ure 1$ The relevan% 5oin% for our 5ur5oses is %ha% %he correc% accoun% of %he #is%inc%ion be%9een #efini%e an# in#efini%e ar%icles #ra9n in Fi!ure + shoul# even%uall0 connec% %o %he more !eneral #is%inc%ion #ra9n in Fi!ure 1 bu% %his is an issue %ha% !oes be0on# %he limi%s of %he 5resen% cha5%er$ 2.2. T8e 3ef.n.te 3ete06.ne0 ul Turnin! no9 bac- %o %he D classifica%ion in Fi!ure + 9e consi#er firs% %he con%ras% be%9een %he or#inar0 #efini%e #e%erminer -ul >%he? an# %he or#inar0 in#efini%e #e%erminer un >a? focusin! on %he former$ The %9o mos% 5rominen% ans9ers 5ro5ose# %o %he @ues%ion of 9ha% #is%in!uishes %hem cen%er aroun# %9o no%ions uniqueness an# familiarity0 Accor#in! %o %he uni@ueness vie9 %he #efini%e ar%icle 5resu55oses %ha% %he DP i% hea#s refers uni@uel0 rela%ive %o %he con%e;% in 9hich i% is u%%ere#$ Dn#er %he assum5%ion %ha% %his informa%ion is enco#e# in a seman%ic fea%ure Y D7FZ associa%e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle %he accoun% amoun%s %o re@uirin! %ha% %he sis%er cons%i%uen% of a #efini%e D #eno%e a se% 5resu55ose# %o be sin!le%on in %he relevan% con%e;%$ Uhen i% comes %o e;%en#in! %he uni@ueness vie9 of %he #efini%e ar%icle %o #efini%e 5lurals such as studenii >s%u#en%s-%he? >t8e s%u#en%s. no%e firs% %ha% %he #efini%e 5lural ar%icle has in a##i%ion %o %he fea%ure YD7FZ a fea%ure YPLZ %ha% re@uires %he referen% i$e$ %he value of %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 D %o be chosen from amon! sums of a%omic en%i%ies$ In or#er %o !eneraliAe over sin!ular an# 5lural #efini%e ar%icles Y D7FZ is %a-en %o im5ose a ma;imali%0 ra%her %han a uni@ueness re@uiremen%3 %he referen% of %he #efini%e DP is 5resu55ose# %o be %he ma;imal en%i%0 9i%hin %he #eno%a%ion of %he sis%er of %he D rela%ive %o %he con%e;%$ If %he DP is 5lural i%s #eno%a%ion 9ill be %he lar!es% sum of relevan% en%i%ies in %he con%e;%I if %he DP is sin!ular %he onl0 9a0 an en%i%0 can be bo%h ma;imal an# a%omic in a con%e;% is for i% %o be uni@ue$ Dn#er %his vie9 %hen %he uni@ueness re@uiremen% on sin!ular #efini%e Ds is a 5ar%icular case of a more !eneral ma;imali%0 re@uiremen%$ The %erm >uni@ueness? is commonl0 use# %o cover bo%h no%ions$ Dni@ueness accoun%s of #efini%e #e%erminers #is%in!uish be%9een %hree %05es of uni@ueness3 (i/ seman%icall0 uni@ue DPs e;em5lifie# in (B/a 9hich have uni@ue reference in vir%ue of %he meanin! of %heir sis%er cons%i%uen%I (ii/ DPs 9hich have uni@ue reference in vir%ue of !eneral -no9le#!e of %he 9orl# e;em5lifie# in (B/b an# (iii/ con%e;%uall0 uni@ue DPs 9hich have uni@ue reference in vir%ue of %he 5ar%icular circums%ances of u%%erance as in (B/c 9hose felici%ous use assumes a con%e;% in 9hich %here is a sin!le blue boo-3
(B/ a$ fa%a cea mai Enal%L #in clasL !irl-%he %he more %all from class >%he %alles% !irl in %he class? b$ soarele le!ea %erRului e;clus asociaRia 5ensionarilor #in RomWnia sun-%he la9-%he mi##le-%he$G7N e;clu#e# associa%ion-%he re%ire#-%he$G7N from Romania >%he sun %he la9 of %he e;clu#e# mi##le %he Romanian re%ire# 5ersons? associa%ion? c$ car%ea albas%rL boo--%he blue >%he blue boo-?

An al%erna%ive accoun% of #efini%e DPs hol#s %ha% %he crucial #ifference be%9een #efini%e an#

+,+

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

in#efini%e DPs concerns %he s%a%us of %heir referen% in %he #iscourse$ Dn#er %his vie9 -no9n as %he familiari%0 vie9 of #efini%eness %he YD7FZ fea%ure enco#es %he 5resu55osi%ion %ha% %he referen% of %he DP is con%e;%uall0 familiar i$e$ i% is alrea#0 5resen% in %he con%e;% a% %he %ime %he #efini%e is use# 9hile %he 6ob of in#efini%e DPs is %o in%ro#uce a novel referen%$ The #is%inc%ion is e;em5lifie# in (C/3
(C/ Iancu s-a En%Wlni% cu 1n 5oli%ician Mi un Aiaris%$ Poli%ician1l nu Mi-a Iancu R7FL-has me% 9i%h a 5oli%ician an# a 6ournalis% 5oli%ician-%he no% R7FL-has #ivul!a% numele reveale# name-%he >Iancu me% a 5oli%ician an# a 6ournalis%$ The 5oli%ician #i#n?% reveal his name$?

Dn#er %he as0mme%ric accoun% of %he #efini%e/in#efini%e #is%inc%ion #efini%e ar%icles are mar-e# for %he familiari%0 re@uiremen% 9i%h %he Y D7FZ fea%ure 9hile in#efini%e ar%icles remain unmar-e# an# are in%er5re%e# as novel sim5l0 because of %he lac- of #efini%eness mar-in!$
A 5ossible an# a%%rac%ive anal0sis %ha% has no% been a%%em5%e# ho9ever is a mi;e# accoun% accor#in! %o 9hich %he #efini%e ar%icle is mar-e# for uni@ueness/ma;imali%0 9hile %he in#efini%e ar%icle is mar-e# for novel%0$

In%ui%ive %hou!h i% is %he familiari%0 accoun% runs in%o several 5roblems$ Firs% consi#er e;am5les involvin! 5ossessive #efini%e DPs as in (+=/
(+=/ Din%r-o #a%L a a5Lru% un s%u#en% cu sor a lui$ of-a %ime has a55eare# a s%u#en% 9i%h sis%er-%he his >Su##enl0 a s%u#en% 9i%h his sis%er a55eare#$?

9here nei%her %he s%u#en% nor his sis%er can be %rea%e# as involvin! familiar reference an# 0e% %he la%%er is #efini%e$ This 5roblem can be avoi#e# b0 havin! recourse %o a 5rocess -no9n as presupposition accommodation$ The cen%ral i#ea is %ha% in cer%ain cases %he use of 5resu55osi%ion carr0in! i%ems is felici%ous even in con%e;%s %ha% #o no% sa%isf0 %he 5resu55osi%ion because %he informa%ion nee#e# %o sa%isf0 %he 5resu55osi%ion can be accommo#a%e# i$e$ %he hearer can be assume# %o enrich %he in5u% con%e;% b0 a##in! 5recisel0 %he informa%ion %ha% is nee#e# in or#er %o sa%isf0 %he 5resu55osi%ion$ Thus even %hou!h %he in5u% con%e;% in (+=/ con%ains no referen% for %he s%u#en% or his sis%er b0 %he %ime %he 5ossessive DP is use# %here is a referen% for %he s%u#en% an# %he hearer can accommo#a%e %he 5resu55osi%ion of %he DP b0 enrichin! %he con%e;% 9i%h %he informa%ion %ha% %he s%u#en% has a sis%er informa%ion 9hich sa%isfies %he 5resu55osi%ion of %he #efini%e 5ossessive DP$ (The 5roblem raise# b0 #efini%e 5ossessives for %he uni@ueness vie9 9ill be #iscusse# shor%l0$/ In or#er %o allo9 %he no%ion of 5resu55osi%ion an# %hus familiari%0 of #efini%e DPs %o have some force in %he 5resence of 5resu55osi%ion accommo#a%ion %he la%%er has %o be res%ric%e#$ G%her9ise one 9oul# 9ron!l0 5re#ic% %ha% #efini%e DPs an# o%her e;5ressions involvin! 5resu55osi%ions 9oul# be fine in an0 con%e;% since accommo#a%ion 9oul# be able %o rescue all con%e;%s in 9hich %he 5resu55osi%ion is no% me%$ This is obviousl0 no% so$ 7;am5le (++/ for ins%ance can onl0 be use# in con%e;%s 9here a s%u#en% has been 5reviousl0 %al-e# abou% 9hich means %ha% accommo#a%in! a #iscourse referen% for a s%u#en% is no% freel0 available$
(++/ Din%r-o #a%L a a5Lru% s%u#en%ul$ of-a %ime has a55eare# s%u#en%-%he >Su##enl0 %he s%u#en% a55eare#$?

+,1

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

A successful s%ra%e!0 of cons%rainin! 5resu55osi%ion accommo#a%ion involves limi%in! i% %o >bri#!in!? or >associa%ive? cases i$e$ cases 9here %he accommo#a%e# ma%erial is connec%e# %o alrea#0 familiar informa%ion an# is base# on 9orl# -no9le#!e %ha% ma-es %he 5resence of %he a##e# informa%ion non-sur5risin!$ In our case %he in%ro#uc%ion of a s%u#en% in (+=/ allo9s %he accommo#a%ion of his sis%er$ Ano%her classical >bri#!in!? case is !iven in (+1/
(+1/ Ieri ne-am #us la res%auran%$ Chelnerul ne-a %ra%a% cu o 0es%er#a0 R7FL-have$+PL 9en% %o res%auran% 9ai%er-%he us$ACC-has %rea%e# 9i%h a 5oli%eRe e;a!era%L$ 5oli%eness e;a!!era%e# >qes%er#a0 9e 9en% %o a res%auran%$ The 9ai%er %rea%e# us 9i%h e;a!!era%e# 5oli%eness$?

9here #efini%e reference %o %he 9ai%er is 5ossible base# on !eneral -no9le#!e involvin! 5eo5le !oin! %o a res%auran% an# bein! a%%en#e# %o in #efaul% cases b0 a uni@ue 9ai%er$ 7;am5le (++/ on %he o%her han# is no% a55ro5ria%e in con%e;%s in 9hich %he referen% of studentul >%he s%u#en%? is no% familiar because %he con#i%ions re@uire# b0 bri#!in! accommo#a%ion are no% me%$ Dnfor%una%el0 for %he familiari%0 %heor0 ho9ever %here are cases 9here #efini%e DPs are use# 9i%h novel reference even in %he absence of con%e;%ual informa%ion %ha% 9oul# allo9 bri#!in! accommo#a%ion$ Seman%icall0 uni@ue DPs as 9ell as DPs %ha% have uni@ue reference !iven !eneral 9orl# -no9le#!e (e;em5lifie# in (B/a-b/ can be use# even in con%e;%s %ha% canno% be %rea%e# as assumin! %he e;is%ence of %he referen%s of %hese DPs nor can %he0 be seen as bein! accommo#a%e# usin! bri#!in!$ Ue e;em5lif0 in (+2/3
(+2/ :anole a #ansa% cu fa%a cea mai Enal%L #in clasL$ :anole has #ance# 9i%h !irl-%he %he more %all in class >:anole #ance# 9i%h %he %alles% !irl in %he class$?

This sen%ence can be use# >ou% of %he blue? 9i%hou% 5revious men%ion of %he %alles% !irl in %he class an# in %he absence of an0 o%her informa%ion %ha% 9oul# allo9 a bri#!in! accommo#a%ion of such a !irl b0 associa%ion 9i%h ano%her referen%$ Ano%her class of s0s%ema%icall0 novel #efini%e DP %ha% resis%s a familiari%0 %rea%men% even if enriche# 9i%h bri#!in! accommo#a%ion is ma#e u5 b0 heavil0 res%ric%e# DPs e;em5lifie# in (+4/3
(+4/ I5o%eAa cL :aria a 5leca% nu i- a %recu% 5rin ca5 h05o%hesis-%he %ha% :aria has lef% no% CL$2SG$DAT-has 5asse# %hrou!h hea# nimLnui$ nobo#0$DAT >The h05o%hesis %ha% :aria ha# lef% #i#n?% cross an0bo#0?s min#$?

Dsin! an in#efini%e form ins%ea# of a #efini%e here 9oul# no% be a55ro5ria%e even %hou!h %he h05o%hesis in @ues%ion ma0 9ell be bran# ne9 in #iscourse3
(+,/ KO i5o%eAL cL :aria a 5leca% nu i- a %recu% 5rin ca5 nimLnui$ a h05o%hesis %ha% :aria has lef% no% his$DAT-has 5asse# %hrou!h hea# nobo#0$ DAT >KA h05o%hesis %ha% :aria ha# lef% #i#n?% cross an0bo#0?s min#$?

No%e %ha% %he uni@ueness a55roach %o #efini%e DPs coul# accoun% for %he use of %he #efini%e form here since %he #eno%a%ion of %he #escri5%ive con%en% is a seman%icall0 uni@ue h05o%hesis$ Finall0 a fur%her 5roblem for %he familiari%0 %heor0 of #efini%eness is 5ose# b0 %he fac% +,2

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

%ha% in con%ras%ive environmen%s e;em5lifie# in (+./ %he #efini%e DP conve0s uni@ueness ra%her %han familiari%0$ (Ca5i%als in#ica%e con%ras%ive s%ress$/
(+./ as%a nu a fos% DN mo%iv ci :GTIVDL 5en%ru care am 5leca% #e la Pi%%sbur!h$ %his no% has been a reason bu% reason-%he for 9hich have$+ lef% from Pi%%sbur!h >This 9asn?% a reason bu% %he reason I lef% Pi%%sbur!h?$

This e;am5le is in%er5re%e# as conve0in! %he informa%ion %ha% %he referen% of sta >%his. is %he uni@ue reason %he s5ea-er lef% Pi%%sbur!h$ Given %he use of %he #efini%e ar%icle in novel DPs %ha% refer uni@uel0 9e conclu#e %ha% uni@ueness is a necessar0 com5onen% of %he accoun% of %he use an# in%er5re%a%ion of #efini%e ar%icles$ No%e ho9ever %ha% in or#er for uni@ueness %heories %o 9or- one shoul# rel0 heavil0 on %he con%e;% for su55l0in! a salien% uni@ue referen% %ha% fi%s %he #escri5%ive con%en% of man0 #efini%e DPs in or#inar0 #iscourse$ The crucial role of con%e;%ual salience for a uni@ueness a55roach %o #efini%eness is sho9n b0 cases 9here #efini%e DPs are felici%ous even in con%e;%s 9here uni@ueness is no% sa%isfie# as lon! as %here is a uni@ue salient referen% %ha% fi%s %he #escri5%ion$ Thus in a #iscussion abou% a crisis hi%%in! %he universi%ies of %he coun%r0 %he 5resi#en% of Ues%ern Dniversi%0 in Timisoara can u%%er (+</
(+</ Dniversi%a%ea va lua %oa%e mLsurile necesare 5en%ru a evi%a conce#ieri$ universi%0-%he 9ill %a-e all measures-%he necessar0 for %o avoi# la0offs >The universi%0 9ill %a-e all necessar0 measures %o avoi# la0offs$?

9here %he #efini%e sub6ec% refers %o %he uni@ue salien% universi%0 in con%e;% namel0 Ues%ern Dniversi%0$ In an a%%em5% %o combine %he a#van%a!es of bo%h %he familiari%0 an# %he uni@ueness a55roaches various versions of #0namic uni@ueness %heories of %he #efini%e ar%icle have been 5ro5ose# in %he li%era%ure$ A common %hrea# %ha% uni%es %hem is %he vie9 %ha% %he con%e;% rela%ive %o 9hich %he #efini%e DP is in%er5re%e# is 5resu55ose# %o 5rovi#e a uni@ue salien% referen% for %he DP in @ues%ion$ The #0namic uni@ueness cons%rain% can be sa%isfie# seman%icall0 or on %he basis of !eneral 9orl# -no9le#!e combine# if necessar0 9i%h salience an# con%e;%ual consi#era%ions an# rescue# 9i%h %he hel5 of a res%ric%e# vie9 of accommo#a%ion$ Accommo#a%ion allo9s %he in%ro#uc%ion of #iscourse referen%s in %he con%e;% in or#er %o sa%isf0 %he o%her9ise unsa%isfie# 5resu55osi%ion of lin!uis%ic e;5ressions bu% onl0 9hen %he referen% in @ues%ion is a55ro5ria%el0 connec%e# %o an alrea#0 5resen% #iscourse referen%$ D0namic uni@ueness has been recas% in %erms of a !eneral no%ion of determined reference %ha% re@uires %he choice of value for variables in%ro#uce# b0 #efini%e e;5ressions %o be fi;e# %o a sin!le ma;imal en%i%0 rela%ive %o %he in5u% con%e;%$ :ore %echnicall0 s5ea-in! all ou%5u% assi!nmen% func%ions %ha% sa%isf0 %he e;5ression rela%ive %o %he in5u% con%e;% of %he #efini%e DP have %o !ive %he same value %o %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 a #efini%e DP$ Trea%in! #efini%e ar%icles as si!nalin! #e%ermine# reference in %his 9a0 has %he a#van%a!e of allo9in! a unifie# vie9 of #efini%eness across DP %05es men%ione# in Fi!ure 1$ Pro5er names an# #efini%e 5ronouns as 9ell as DP 9hose D is #efini%e sa%isf0 #0namic uni@ueness albei% in #ifferen% 9a0s$ In %he case of DPs 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle uni@ueness is sa%isfie# rela%ive %o %he in5u% con%e;% an# %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he DPI in %he case of 5ro5er names #0namic uni@ueness is sa%isfie# !iven %he ver0 na%ure of %he DP 9hich re@uires a s5ecial connec%ion be%9een %he name an# i%s referen% 9hile in %he case of #efini%e 5ronouns #0namic uni@ueness mus% be sa%isfie# rela%ive %o %he 5revious lin!uis%ic con%e;% an# %he seman%ic im5or% of %he mor5holo!ical fea%ures of %he 5ronoun$
The con#i%ions of use of #efini%e 5ronouns are -no9n %o be more res%ric%e# %han %hose of #efini%e DPs$

+,4

The Seman%ics of De%erminers


No%e %ha% %he >bri#!in!? case illus%ra%e# in (+1/ for ins%ance #oes no% allo9 %he use of a #efini%e 5ronoun ins%ea# of %he #efini%e DP c!elnerul >%he 9ai%er?$ No%e also %ha% #efini%e DPs can be use# if %he e;is%ence of %heir referen% is inferre# from %he con%e;% bu% #efini%e 5ronouns canno% as in (i/ #ue %o 'arbara Par%ee$ (i/ I #ro55e# %en marbles on %he floor an# %rie# %o 5ic- %hem u5 bu% onl0 foun# nine$ gThe %en%h /XI% h mus% have rolle# un#er %he sofa$

Finall0 no%e %ha% since #e%ermine# reference re@uires uni@ueness rela%ive %o %he imme#ia%e in5u% con%e;% for %he #efini%e DP i% allo9s for cases 9here %he referen% of a #efini%e DP varies in con%e;% (an# %herefore is no% uni@ue/ as lon! as %he uni@ueness cons%rain% is sa%isfie# rela%ive %o %he en%i%0 %he #efini%e DP is #e5en#en% on$ Thus un#er %he assum5%ion %ha% each 5ar%ici5an% in an e;5erimen% 9as !iven an a55le an# a %oma%o one can refer %o t!e apple as in (+B/
(+B/ Fiecare 5ar%ici5an% a mWnca% En%Wi mLr 1l$ ever0 5ar%ici5an% has ea%en firs% a55le-%he > 7ach 5ar%ici5an% a%e %he a55le firs%$?

!iven %ha% for each 5ar%ici5an% %here is a con%e;%uall0 uni@ue a55le$ The variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he #efini%e D here is evalua%e# relevan% %o each 5ar%ici5an% in %urn an# a% %he %ime of evalua%ion %he value for i% is #e%ermine# %o be %he uni@ue a55le %ha% each 5ar%ici5an% in %he e;5erimen% 9as !iven$ SummariAin! %he #iscussion so far %hen %he #efini%e ar%icle can be seen as re@uirin! %he referen% of %he DP %o be #e%ermine# i$e$ uni@ue 9i%h res5ec% %o %he con%e;% rela%ive %o 9hich %he DP is in%er5re%e#$ This re@uiremen% can be sa%isfie# in a varie%0 of 9a0s 9i%h con%e;% an# salience of%en 5la0in! a crucial role$ In case con%e;% is crucial in sa%isf0in! #e%ermine# reference %he DP sa%isfies %he familiari%0 re@uiremen% as 9ell$ De%ermine# reverence has %o be seen as %he fun#amen%al re@uiremen% ho9ever !iven %ha% %he #efini%e ar%icle is use# 9i%h DPs 9i%h seman%icall0 uni@ue bu% unfamiliar reference$ In more concre%e %erms %hen -ul >%he? an# %he o%her elemen%s in i%s mor5holo!ical 5ara#i!m have %he fea%ure YD7FZ 9hich si!nals %he %05e of #0namic uni@ue reference charac%eriAe# above accor#in! %o 9hich %he in5u% con%e;% mus% 5rovi#e a uni@ue can#i#a%e as value (or referen%/ for %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he D 9here con%e;%ual salience can be use# %o narro9 #o9n %he 5ossible value 5ool$ As men%ione# alrea#0 un#er %he as0mme%ric vie9 of (in/#efini%eness a#o5%e# here in#efini%es are unmar-e# for %he YD7FZ fea%ure an# assume# %o have non-#e%ermine# reference b0 com5e%i%ion 9i%h %he #efini%e form as men%ione# above$ :ore concre%el0 sim5le #efini%e an# in#efini%e ar%icles form %he scale e-ul >%he?% un >a?f 9here %he #efini%e form is more informa%ive %han %he in#efini%e (because of i%s e;%ra 5resu55osi%ion/$ The use of %he less informa%ive in#efini%e form 5ra!ma%icall0 im5lica%es %ha% %he use of %he more informa%ive #efini%e 9as no% 9arran%e# an# %hus %he in#efini%e even %hou!h no% e;5lici%l0 mar-e# for non#e%ermine# reference 9ill be in%er5re%e# as such$ Dn#er %his vie9 %he #efini%e ar%icle (%he mar-e# i%em/ bloc-s %he in#efini%e ar%icle (%he unmar-e# i%em/ from bein! use# in si%ua%ions %ha% 9arran% %he use of %he more informa%ive mar-e# i%em$
This %05e of bloc-in! effec% has been invo-e# in #iscussions of a lar!e varie%0 of !ramma%ical 5henomena since %he 9or- of %he Ancien% Sans-ri% !rammarian Panini an# has been rein%ro#uce# in %he lin!uis%ic li%era%ure in %he 9or- of L$ Oorn$

Ue %urn no9 %o some s%ubborn 5roblems for an0 -in# of uni@ueness anal0sis of #efini%e +,,

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

#escri5%ions 5roblems %ha% arise in bo%h Romanian an# 7n!lish$ The0 fall in%o several ca%e!ories$ Firs% consi#er %he #efini%e DPs e;em5lifie# in (+C/3
(+C/ a$ :aria a lua% au%obuA1l :aria has %a-en bus-%he >:aria %oo- %he bus$? b$ :aria a ci%i% Aiar1l$ :aria has rea# ne9s5a5er-%he >:aria rea# %he ne9s5a5er$?

The 5roblem here is %ha% nei%her buses nor ne9s5a5ers are assume# %o be ei%her uni@ue or familiar in !eneral or in %he con%e;% rela%ive %o 9hich %hese e;am5les are in%er5re%e#$ These DPs %urn ou% ho9ever %o be onl0 a55aren% coun%ere;am5les since one can %rea% %hem as referrin! %o uni@ue %05es$ In (+C/a autobu(ul >%he bus? is in%er5re%e# as referrin! %o a uni@ue means of %rans5or%a%ion 9hile (iarul >%he ne9s5a5er? in (+C/b is in%er5re%e# as referrin! %o a uni@ue means of !e%%in! %he ne9s$ This %05e of #efini%es has been in%ro#uce# in %he li%era%ure b0 G$ Carlson un#er %he name of >9ea- #efini%es?$ Ue #iscuss belo9 %9o fur%her 5roblema%ic cases$ Firs% recall %he e;am5le in (+=/ 9here a #efini%e DP sora lui is use# even %hou!h %here is no assum5%ion %ha% s%u#en%s in !eneral or %he 5ar%icular s%u#en% 6us% in%ro#uce# have a sin!le sis%er$ This case can be solve# b0 usin! %he %05e of bri#!in! accommo#a%ion nee#e# for (+1/$ The in%ro#uc%ion of a #iscourse referen% for a student allo9s %he bri#!in! accommo#a%ion of a con%e;%uall0 uni@ue referen% for his sis%er 9hich ensures %ha% %he DP sora lui >his sis%er? 9ill have #e%ermine# reference$ A more #ifficul% case is %ha% of #efini%e DPs %ha% re@uire accommo#a%ion bu% 9here %here is a con%e;%ual en%ailmen% of non-uniqueness$ Such DPs are of%en %hou!h no% al9a0s e;5lici%l0 mar-e# as >5ossesse#? in a 5ossessive rela%ion as belo93
(1=/ a$ :aria a vLAu% o 5a%L 5e co5er% a cLrRii/ 5ere%ele casei$ :aria has seen a s5o% on cover-%he boo--%he$ G7N/9all-%he house-%he$G7N >:aria sa9 a s5o% on %he cover of %he boo-/%he 9all of %he house$? b$ :aria sa #us la 5limbare 5e mal 1l rWului$ :aria R7FL$ has !one a% 9alon ban--%he river-%he$ G7N >:aria 9en% 9al-in! on %he ban- of t8e river$?

The 5roblem is of course %ha% boo-s have %9o covers houses have four 9alls an# rivers have %9o ban-s$ No%e %ha% %he fac% %ha% %he 5ossessor is #efini%e here is no% %he crucial fac%or since %he #efini%e 5ossesse# DP can occur 9i%h an in#efini%e 5ossessor as 9ell as sho9n in (1+/3
(1+/ :aria a vLAu% o 5a%L 5e co5er%a 1ne. cLrRi$ :aria has seen a s5o% on cover-%he a$G7N boo-$G7N >:aria sa9 a s5o% on %he cover of a boo-$?

:oreover bein! over%l0 mar-e# as %he 5ossesse# i%em in a 5ossessor rela%ion is no% crucial ei%her since 9e have #efini%es in e;am5les li-e (11/3
(11/ a$ Paul a #eschis !eam1l$ Paul has o5ene# 9in#o9-%he >Paul o5ene# %he 9in#o9$? b$ :aria a vLAu% o 5a%L 5e 5ere%e$ :aria has seen a s5o% on 9all >:aria sa9 a s5o% on %he 9all$?

+,.

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

There is no #efini%e ar%icle on %he noun perete >9all? here because of a !eneral rule %ha% forbi#s #efini%e ar%icles on unmo#ifie# nominals %ha% are ob6ec%s of 5re5osi%ions$ The onl0 e;ce5%ion is nominals %ha% are ob6ec%s of %he 5re5osi%ion cu >9i%h?$

Gbviousl0 %he 9in#o9 Paul o5ene# an# %he 9all 9i%h %he s5o% on i% 9ere %hose of %he room Paul/:aria 9ere in a% %he %ime bu% %his is no% o5enl0 mar-e# in (11/$ An# 0e% a #efini%e form is use# even %hou!h i% is no% assume# before or af%er %he u%%erance of %hese e;am5les %ha% %he room in @ues%ion ha# onl0 one 9in#o9 or onl0 one 9all$ An e;am5le similar %o %hese in %ha% a #efini%e is use# in %he 5resence of a con%e;%ual non-uni@ueness en%ailmen% on %he accommo#a%e# referen% is (12/ 9here reference %o an inalienable bo#0 5ar% is involve#3
(12/ Pe Daniela o #oare #e!e%1l$ Daniela her$ACC hur%s fin!er-%he >Daniela?s fin!er hur%s$?
DG:

Romanian uses a sim5le #efini%e here 9hile o%her lan!ua!es such as 7n!lish for ins%ance use 5ossesse# #efini%e DPs in such e;am5les$ Ne;% no%e %ha% al%hou!h 9e have a #efini%e form in %he 5resence of non-uni@ue reference i% ma%%ers %ha% %he number of 5o%en%ial referen%s is con%e;%uall0 limi%e#$ This is sho9n b0 %he con%ras% be%9een %he e;am5les in (1=/ an# %hose in (14/3
(14/ a$ :aria a vLAu% o 5a%L 5e 5a!ina cLrRii /!eam1l blocului$ :aria has seen a s5o% on 5a!e-%he boo--%he$ G7N 9in#o9-%he buil#in!-%he$G7N >:aria sa9 a s5o% on %he leaf of %he boo-/%he 9in#o9 of %he buil#in!$? b$ :aria a vLAu% un flu%ure 5e frunAa co5acului$ :aria has seen a bu%%erfl0 on leaf-%he %ree-%he$ G7N >:aria sa9 a bu%%erfl0 on %he leaf of %he %ree$?

In %he absence of s5ecial con%e;% (14/ unli-e (1=/ is in%er5re%e# as involvin! a boo- 9i%h a sin!le 5a!e an a5ar%men% buil#in! 9i%h a sin!le 9in#o9 an# a %ree 9i%h a sin!le leaf$ The 5roblem in (14/ is %ha% %he number of 5o%en%ial referen%s for %he #efini%e is con%e;%uall0 unlimi%e#$ A final relevan% observa%ion is %ha% %here is a sense in 9hich al%hou!h %he referen% of %he #efini%e DPs in @ues%ion is no% uni@ue in (1=/ - (12/ 9hich 5ar%icular referen% is chosen from %he con%e;%uall0 limi%e# number of choices available in con%e;% is a ma%%er of in#ifference$ In all %he !oo# e;am5les above one referen% from a limi%e# se% of choices 5rovi#e# b0 %he con%e;% is involve# an# i% is a ma%%er of in#ifference 9hich i%em is in fac% chosen$ Recall %ha% #e%ermine# reference as 9e formula%e# i% re@uires %he in5u% con%e;% %o 5rovi#e a uni@ue referen% for %he #efini%e DP$ In %he cases 9here non-uni@ueness is en%aile# an# #efini%e reference is s%ill 5ossible %he con%e;% 5rovi#es several 5ossible values bu% %he 5ossible choices involve# are %rea%e# as no% bein! cruciall0 #ifferen%$ In or#er %o %rea% %he 5roblema%ic cases in (1=/ - (12/ 9e have %o loosen %he no%ion of >#e%ermine# reference? %o cases 9here %he con%e;% 5rovi#e a res%ric%e# se% of values an# %he #ifference be%9een %hem is imma%erial$ The !eneral u5sho% of %he #iscussion is %ha% #e%ermine# reference (a55ro5ria%el0 loosene#/ is %he crucial fac%or involve# in %he charac%eriAa%ion of %he sim5le Romanian #efini%e ar%icle -ul$ Ue no9 %urn %o #emons%ra%ive #e%erminers 9hich 9e ar!ue are #efini%e in %he sense 6us% #iscusse# bu% im5ose a fur%her re@uiremen% on %heir referen%$

+,<

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

2.3. De6onst0at.2e 3ete06.ne0s Ue #iscuss here %he in%er5re%ive 5ro5er%ies of #emons%ra%ive Ds such as aceast carte$cartea aceasta >%his boo-? e;em5lifie# in (1,/3
(1,/ Y5oin%in! %o a boo-Z :aria a ci%i% aceas%L car%e /car%e a a/easta/asta$ :aria has rea# %his boo-/ boo--%he %his /%his >:aria rea# %his boo-$?

The name of %his class of #e%erminers an# %heir %05ical use e;em5lifie# in (1,/ su!!es%s a #eic%ic anal0sis 9hereb0 %he #emons%ra%ive ar%icle si!nals %ha% %he referen% of i%s DP is %o be i#en%ifie# base# on imme#ia%e con%e;%ual informa%ion %05icall0 5rovi#e# b0 a !es%ure$ Dn#er %his vie9 %he referen% of #emons%ra%ive DPs is %he uni@ue en%i%0 in %he 5h0sical con%e;% of #iscourse i#en%ifie# b0 %he e;5lici% or im5lici% 5oin%in! !es%ure$ No%e %ha% #emons%ra%ive DPs un#er %his anal0sis are a s5ecial mar-e# %05e of #efini%e DPs3 %he0 mee% %he con%e;%ual uni@ueness re@uiremen% albei% %he0 #o so in a s5ecial 9a0 since %heir referen% mus% be 5resen% in %he 5h0sical #iscourse an# mus% be 5oin%e# a%$ This is a 9elcome resul% !iven %he 5ossibili%0 of #emons%ra%ives %o co-occur 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle in e;am5les such as cartea aceasta >%his boo-?$ No%e also %ha% or#inar0 #efini%e DPs #o no% have such #eic%ic uses$ Deic%ic uses of #emons%ra%ives are 5ar%icularl0 a55ro5ria%e in con%e;%s 9here %heir #escri5%ive con%en% alone 9oul# no% be enou!h %o i#en%if0 %he referen% because i% #eno%es a non-sin!le%on se%$ A %05ical use of (1,/ is a con%e;% 9here %he s5ea-er 5oin%s %o one of several boo-s$ In %his con%e;% %he corres5on#in! #efini%e DP cartea >%he boo-? is no% a55ro5ria%e as %he #iscussion in %he 5revious sec%ion has ma#e clear$ Ui%hin %he class of #emons%ra%ive #e%erminers %here is a #is%inc%ion be%9een %he 5ara#i!m of acesta (an# i%s collo@uial form sta/ an# %ha% of acela (an# i%s collo@uial version la/3 %he former is use# %o si!nal 5ro;imi%0 an# %he la%%er #is%ance$ The 5ro;imal acesta is %he unmar-e# member of %he 5air in %he sense %ha% i% is use# 9hen #is%ance is imma%erial$ Ue %herefore assume %he e;is%ence of a #is%al fea%ure YDISTZ mar-in! %hese #emons%ra%ives an# leave %he 5ro;imal !rou5 unmar-e#$ The seman%ic charac%eriAa%ion !iven above has %o be com5lica%e# ho9ever since besi#es %he #eic%ic use e;em5lifie# above #emons%ra%ive DPs are foun# in e;am5les 9here %he referen% of %he #emons%ra%ive is 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# b0 an in#efini%e in a 9a0 %ha% ren#ers %hem close %o re!ular #efini%e DPs as e;em5lifie# in (1./ an# (1</3
(1./ (1</ :aria a vorbi% cu un cole!$ A/el /ole4 a vorbi% cu Paul$ :aria has s5o-en 9i%h a collea!ue %ha% collea!ue has s5o-en 9i%h Paul >:aria s5o-e 9i%h a collea!ue$ Tha% collea!ue s5o-e 9i%h Paul$? DacL un ins5ec%or !LseM%e !eamuri s5ar%e a/ele 4ea610. %rebuie re5ara%e$ if an ins5ec%or fin#s 9in#o9s bro-en %hose 9in#o9s mus% fi;e# >If an ins5ec%or fin#s bro-en 9in#o9s %hose 9in#o9s mus% be fi;e#$?

The referen% of %he #emons%ra%ive in (1./-(1</ is no% 5h0sicall0 5resen% in con%e;% an# no 5oin%in! !es%ure can be use# %o i#en%if0 i%$ This is an ana5horic ra%her %han a #eic%ic use of %he #emons%ra%ive because i%s use is license# b0 a 5reviousl0 use# lin!uis%ic e;5ression (in %his case un cole an# eamuri sparte/$ The use of %he #emons%ra%ive in (1</ is of 5ar%icular in%eres% since no% onl0 is i% ana5horic ra%her %han #eic%ic bu% i% is also foun# un#er %he seman%ic sco5e of %he con#i%ional o5era%or$ In such ana5horic uses (i$e$ 9hen %he #emons%ra%ive 5ic-s u5 i%s reference from a DP %ha% has occurre# in 5revious #iscourse/ %he reference of %he #emons%ra%ive follo9s %he charac%eris%ics of %he reference of i%s an%ece#en% DP$ In (1</ %he #emons%ra%ive %a-es sco5e +,B

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

un#er %he con#i%ional because i%s an%ece#en% ( eamuri sparte >bro-en 9in#o9s?/ is also in%er5re%e# un#er %he sco5e of %he con#i%ional$ In (1./ an# (1</ %he con%ras% be%9een or#inar0 #efini%es an# #emons%ra%ives is minimal3 a #efini%e DP such as cole ul >%he collea!ue? / eamurile >%he 9in#o9s? coul# subs%i%u%e for %he #emons%ra%ive in %hese e;am5les$ The con%ras% be%9een or#inar0 #efini%e DPs an# #emons%ra%ives resurfaces ho9ever in %he case of uni@uel0 referrin! DPs 9hose uni@ueness inference is su55or%e# b0 !eneral 9orl# -no9le#!e or b0 %he seman%ic con%en% of %he #escri5%ive con%en% as e;em5lifie# in (1B/3
(1B/ soarele / maces% soare sun-%he/ %his sun >%he sun/m%his sun? s%u#en%ul cel mai bun / maces% s%u#en% cel mai bun s%u#en%-%he %he more !oo# %his s%u#en% %he more !oo# >%he bes% s%u#en%/m%his bes% s%u#en%?

In or#er %o accoun% for %he fac%s #iscusse# above 9e firs% no%e %ha% common %o %he #efini%e an# %he #emons%ra%ive #e%erminer is %ha% %he0 si!nal #e%ermine# reference$ The crucial #ifference concerns %he 9a0 in 9hich %his cons%rain% is achieve# in %he case of #emons%ra%ives$ Demons%ra%ive #e%erminers enco#e a s5ecial re@uiremen% rela%ive %o or#inar0 #efini%e #e%erminers$ The e;%ra cons%rain% %he0 im5ose is %ha% %heir referen% be foun# in a non-#efaul% salien% subcon%e;% of %he in5u% con%e;%$ This res%ric%ion can be formaliAe# b0 assumin! %ha% %he #escri5%ive con%en% of DPs con%ains a si%ua%ion variable 9hich in or#inar0 cases is boun# b0 %he in5u% con%e;%$ The si%ua%ion variable of %he #escri5%ive con%en% of a #emons%ra%ive DP has %o be boun# b0 a salien% subcon%e;%$ Ue assume %ha% %his re@uiremen% is enco#e# in %he fea%ure YD7:Z 5resen% on #emons%ra%ive #e%erminers$ No%e no9 %ha% %he 5oin%in! !es%ure associa%e# 9i%h #eic%ic #emons%ra%ives ma-es a subcon%e;% of %he 5h0sical con%e;% salien%$ Demons%ra%ives use# ana5horicall0 ma-e salien% %ha% subcon%e;% of %heir lin!uis%ic con%e;% in 9hich %he uni@ue referen% is foun#$ Since #emons%ra%ive ar%icles si!nal a sub%05e of #e%ermine# reference %he0 are 5re#ic%e# %o be seman%icall0 com5a%ible 9i%h %he occurrence of a #efini%e ar%icle$ The0 are also correc%l0 5re#ic%e# no% %o be felici%ous 9i%h DPs 9hose #e%ermine# reference con#i%ion is me% because of !eneral 9orl# -no9le#!e or %he meanin! of %heir #escri5%ive con%en% as in (1B/ because in such cases %he uni@ueness cons%rain% on %he reference of %hese DPs is me% in %he lar!es% con%e;% an# %hus %here is no nee# %o re#uce %he con%e;% %o a salien% sub5ar% in or#er %o mee% i%$ 2.$. Con/l1s.on So far 9e have concen%ra%e# on %he #efini%e si#e of %he #efini%e/in#efini%e #ivi#e in Fi!ure 1 ar!uin! %ha% #efini%e #e%erminers are mar-e# rela%ive %o %heir in#efini%e coun%er5ar%s 9i%h %he fea%ure YD7FZ %ha% si!nals #e%ermine# reference$ The class of #efini%e #e%erminers fur%her sub#ivi#es as in Fi!ure 2$
#efini%es YD7FZ

unmar-e# YD7FZ -ul

#emons%ra%ive YD7F D7:Z #is%al YD7F D7: DISTZ acel

unmar-e#YD7F D7:Z acest

Fi!ure 23 Defini%e #e%erminer %05olo!0 The %rea%men% of #efini%e #e%erminers 5resen%e# here allo9s us %o ca5%ure 9ha% is common %o

+,C

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

%he 9hole class namel0 #e%ermine# reference un#ers%oo# as #0namic uni@ueness/ma;imali%0 sub6ec% %o a res%ric%e# vie9 of accommo#a%ion$ I% also allo9s us %o e;5lain 9ha% #is%in!uishes %he various members of %he class$ Thus #emons%ra%ive #e%erminers are fur%her res%ric%e# %o choosin! %heir referen% from a salien% subcon%e;% an# 9i%hin %his !rou5 %he #is%al #e%erminers are fur%her mar-e# for si!nalin! #is%ance of %he referen% rela%ive %o %he s5ea-er$ The com5a%ibili%0 of #efini%e ar%icles an# #emons%ra%ives is e;5laine# as 9ell since #emons%ra%ives are a s5ecial -in# of #efini%es$ The a55roach also allo9s one %o #ra9 connec%ions be%9een DPs 9i%h #efini%e #e%erminers an# 5ro5er names an# #efini%e 5ronouns$

3. In3ef.n.te 3ete06.ne0s
In %his sec%ion 9e %urn %o %he in#efini%e branch of %he %ree in Fi!ure + aimin! %o un#ers%an# 9ha% 5ro5er%ies charac%eriAe %he class as a 9hole an# 9ha% #is%in!uishes %he various sub%05es from one ano%her$ Recall %ha% in#efini%e #e%erminers are assume# %o be unmar-e# for #e%ermine# reference$ DPs hea#e# b0 %hem are in%er5re%e# as havin! con%e;%uall0 non-uni@ue reference because if #e%ermine# reference 9ere involve# a #efini%e form 9oul# be use#$ In DRT %erms in#efini%e #e%erminers in%ro#uce a #iscourse referen% 9hose value is no% uni@uel0 #e%ermine# rela%ive %o %he in5u% con%e;%I i$e$ i%s value varies across %he se% of assi!nmen%s %ha% sa%isf0 %he ou%5u% con%e;%$ Novel referen%s %o be chosen from a non-sin!le%on #omain are %he 5ro%o%05ical case for in#efini%e ar%icle use$ This sec%ion 9ill firs% #iscuss %he charac%eris%ics of %he unmar-e# in#efini%e #e%erminer un an# i%s 5lural coun%er5ar%s civa an# nite$ I% %hen %urns %o %he %as- of charac%eriAin! %he relevan% seman%ic fea%ures %ha% #is%in!uish %he o%her in#efini%e #e%erminers from %he unmar-e# case an# from one ano%her$ 3.1. Un6a0>e3 .n3ef.n.te 3ete06.ne0s Ui%hin %he class of in#efini%e #e%erminers un an# i%s 5lural coun%er5ar%s civa an# nite are unmar-e# for all %he o%her referen%ial fea%ures #is%in!uishin! sub%05es of in#efini%es$ The #is%inc%ion be%9een %he sin!ular un an# %he 5lural nite$civa in (1C/ is %ha% %he la%%er is mar-e# for bein! 5lural i$e$ re@uirin! i%s referen% %o be a sum 9hile un is sin!ular$
(1C/ a$ :arcu a vLAu% un film$ :arcu has seen a movie >:arcu sa9 a movie$? b$ :arcu a vLAu% niM%e / cW%eva filme$ :arcu has seen some several movies >:arcu sa9 some/several movies$?

In or#er for (1C/b %o be %rue :arcu shoul# have seen more %han one movie 9hile (1C/a sim5l0 re@uires him %o have seen a% leas% one$ Follo9in! a 5olic0 of usin! onl0 necessar0 fea%ures civa an# nite are %a-en %o be mar-e# 9i%h %he fea%ure YPLZ 9hile un s%a0s unmar-e# for number$ The fea%ure YPLZ re@uires %he referen% in%ro#uce# b0 %he #e%erminer %o be a sum in case %he hea# noun is a coun% noun$ The referen% of %he in#efini%e ar%icle is in%er5re%e# as havin! a%omic ra%her %han sum reference in vir%ue of %he mechanism of 5ra!ma%ic bloc-in! men%ione# above3 if %he s5ea-er 9ishe# %o si!nal sum reference she 9oul# have use# %he 5lural form$ Uhile bo%h nite an# civa si!nal sum reference 9i%h Ycoun%Z nouns %he0 #iffer even 9i%hin %his realm in %ha% civa can be 5ar%i%ive 9hile nite canno%$ As 9e 9ill #iscuss in more #e%ail in Sec%ion 2$1$+ 5ar%i%ives re@uire %he value of %heir #iscourse referen% %o be chosen from a con%e;%uall0 available se%$ Par%i%ive reference can be im5lici% or e;5lici%l0 mar-e# 9i%h a 5re5osi%ional 5hrase hea#e# b0 %he 5re5osi%ion din)tre* >of? 9hose DP #eno%es %he se% from +.=

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

9hich %he referen% of %he 5ar%i%ive is %o be chosen$ As sho9n in (2=/ civa allo9s such reference 9hile nite #oes no%$
(2=/ a$ :anole a vLAu% un !ru5 mare #e oameni 5e s%ra#L$ CWRiva /XniM%e #in%re ei 5ur%au :anole has seen a !rou5 lar!e of 5eo5le on s%ree% several some of %hem carr0$ I:PF s%ea!uri$ fla!s >:anole sa9 a lar!e !rou5 of 5eo5le on %he s%ree%$ Several/some of %hem 9ere carr0in! fla!s$? b$ :anole a vLAu% un !ru5 mare #e oameni 5e s%ra#L$ CWRiva /XniM%e oameni 5ur%au :anole has seen a !rou5 lar!e of 5eo5le on s%ree% several some 5eo5le carr0$ I:PF s%ea!uri$ fla!s >:anole sa9 a lar!e !rou5 of 5eo5le on %he s%ree%$ Several/Some 5eo5le 9ere carr0in! fla!s$?

The version 9i%h nite in (2=/b is fine onl0 un#er a non-5ar%i%ive in%er5re%a%ion in 9hich case %he 5eo5le carr0in! fla!s are no% su55ose# %o be amon! %hose in %he !rou5 5reviousl0 men%ione#$ A fur%her #ifference be%9een %hese %9o #e%erminers is %ha% nite can occur 9i%h mass nouns #eno%in! an in#efini%e @uan%i%0 9hile civa canno%3
(2+/ Am nevoie #e nite /Xciva la5%e$ have nee# of some several mil>I nee# some/Xseveral mil-$?

The crucial #is%inc%ion be%9een mass an# coun% nouns is %ha% %he #omain of mass nouns is no% in#ivi#ua%e# in%o a%oms an# sums bu% ra%her is lef% homo!eneous$ Gne can #is%in!uish sub5ar%s of homo!eneous @uan%i%ies 9i%hin %heir #eno%a%ion 9i%hou% ho9ever !e%%in! %o a%oms an# sums as in %he case of coun% nouns$ Ue 9ill assume %ha% coun% nouns involve in#ivi#ua%e# reference 9hile mass nouns involve non-in#ivi#ua%e# reference$ Ue can %hen #is%in!uish be%9een civa >several? an# nite >some? b0 %a-in! %he former %o be mar-e# for in#ivi#ua%e# reference 9i%h %he fea%ure YINDZ in a##i%ion %o bein! YPLZ 9hile %he la%%er is no% %hus mar-e#$ The fea%ure YPLZ re@uires reference %o a non-minimal @uan%i%0 9he%her in#ivi#ua%e# or no%$ Uhen i% occurs on a coun% noun %his re@uiremen% amoun%s %o sum referenceI 9hen i% occurs on a mass noun %he re@uiremen% amoun%s %o reference %o some @uan%i%0 of %he #eno%a%ion of %he mass noun no ma%%er ho9 small$ The fea%ure Y INDZ on %he o%her han# canno% co-occur 9i%h coun% nouns an# %hus civa canno% co-occur 9i%h mass nouns$ Finall0 9e assume %ha% 5ar%i%ivi%0 involves in#ivi#ua%ion 9hich e;5lains 9h0 nite canno% be 5ar%i%ive$ Uhen i% comes %o @uan%i%0 reference fur%her cons%rain%s ma0 be im5ose# 9i%h res5ec% %o %he siAe of %he @uan%i%0 involve#$ The #e%erminers muli$puini >man0/fe9? are use# %o e;5lici%l0 mar- %he siAe of %he @uan%i%0 as lar!e/small rela%ive %o some con%e;%uall0 es%ablishe# s%an#ar#$
(21/ (22/ :ioara a 5rimi% mul%e/5uRine ca#ouri #e Aiua ei$ :ioara has receive# man0 fe9 !if%s of bir%h#a0-%he her >:ioara receive# man0/fe9 !if%s for her bir%h#a0$? GrL#iniRele #in oraM au #is%ribui% mul%e/5uRine ca#ouri anul Ls%a$ -in#er!ar%ens-%he from ci%0 have #is%ribu%e# man0 fe9 !if%s 0ear-%he %his >The -in#er!ar%ens in %he ci%0 #is%ribu%e# man0/fe9 !if%s %his 0ear$?

+.+

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

The role of %he con%e;%ual s%an#ar# is evi#en% here since 9ha% coun%s as man0 !if%s for :ioara?s bir%h#a0 9oul# coun% as fe9 !if%s rela%ive %o 9ha% -in#er!ar%ens in a ci%0 mi!h% be e;5ec%e# %o #is%ribu%e$ The no%ion of @uan%i%0 involve# here is insensi%ive %o %he in#ivi#ua%e#/non-in#ivi#ua%e# #is%inc%ion$ These #e%erminers are com5a%ible no% onl0 9i%h sum reference e;em5lifie# above bu% also 9i%h mass nouns as seen belo93
(24/ Am nevoie #e mul%/ 5uRin la5%e$ have$+SG nee# of much li%%le mil>I nee# much/li%%le mil-$?

Ne;% no%e %ha% Romanian has a fur%her >un#e%ermine#? @uan%i%0 #e%erminer ceva >some? mos% of%en use# 9i%h non-in#ivi#ua%e# reference as in (2,/3
(2,/ :anole are nevoie #e ceva la5%e$ :anole has nee# of some mil>:anole nee#s some mil-$?

Oere %he @uan%i%0 is lef% uns5ecifie# an# %he #omain is unin#ivi#ua%e#$ This #e%erminer is no% res%ric%e# %o unin#ivi#ua%e# #omains ho9ever as sho9n in (2./3
(2./ :anole cau%L ceva oameni 5en%ru un 5roiec% #e cons%rucRie$ :anole loo-s some 5eo5le for a 5ro6ec% of cons%ruc%ion >:anole is loo-in! for some 5eo5le for a cons%ruc%ion 5ro6ec%$?

Crucial for %he #e%erminer use of ceva is %ha% %he @uan%i%0 be un#e%ermine#$ In %he e;am5le above i%s use si!nals %ha% :anole is in#ifferen% %o %he @uan%i%0 of 5eo5le he fin#s an# b0 e;%ension %o 9ho %he0 are$ Finall0 as 9e see in %he e;am5les above %he mor5holo!ical 5lural nominal fea%ure (realiAe# on %he hea# noun as 9ell as on a!reein! Ds an# a#6ec%ives/ realiAes %he combina%ion of %he seman%ic fea%ures YPLZ an# YINDZ since onl0 DPs %ha% refer %o sums carr0 i%$ Thus Ycoun%Z nouns such as copil >chil#? or carte >boo-? have mor5holo!icall0 5lural forms as in nite$ceva copii >some chil#ren? civa copii >several chil#ren? bu% YmassZ nouns canno% be inflec%e# for number3 nite lapte >some mil-? has no 5lural form$ In 9ha% follo9s 9e %urn bac- %o %he sin!ular in#efini%e ar%icle un 9hich is %he leas% mar-e# #e%erminer in %he lan!ua!e im5osin! no s5ecial seman%ic re@uiremen%s on %he #iscourse referen% i% in%ro#uces$ This seman%ic free#om is res5onsible for %he uni@ue in%er5re%ive versa%ili%0 en6o0e# b0 DPs hea#e# b0 i% rela%ive %o universal DPs #efini%e DPs or DPs hea#e# b0 %he mo%le0 !rou5 of mar-e# in#efini%e ar%icles 9hich 9e #iscuss in Sec%ion 2$1$ 3.1.1. S/o5al f0ee3o6 As men%ione# above in %he lin!uis%ic an# 5hiloso5hical li%era%ure unmar-e# in#efini%e have been %ra#i%ionall0 %rea%e# as e;is%en%ial @uan%ifiers 9hile >universal? #e%erminers have been %rea%e# as universal @uan%ifiers as e;em5lifie# in (2</ 9here %he @uan%ifier an# i%s res%ric%or are enclose# in s@uare brac-e%s$
(2</ a$ :aria a ci%i% un ar%icol$ >:aria has rea# a 5a5er? b$ :aria a ci%i% fiecare ar%icol$ >:aria has rea# ever0 5a5er? Y;3 ARTICL7(;/Z R7AD(m ;/ Y;3 ARTICL7(;/Z R7AD(m ;/

+.1

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

In#efini%e DPs have a%%rac%e# s5ecial a%%en%ion because %he0 con%ras% 9i%h universal DPs in several une;5ec%e# 9a0s$ In %his subsec%ion 9e #iscuss one of %he mos% s%u#ie# such con%ras% namel0 %ha% concernin! %he seman%ic sco5e of in#efini%es rela%ive %o universals ne!a%ion an# o%her seman%ic sco5e bearin! elemen%s in a sen%ence$ A lin!uis%ic e;5ression is sai# %o be in %he seman%ic sco5e of a lin!uis%ic e;5ression if an# onl0 if %he in%er5re%a%ion of is affec%e# b0 %he in%er5re%a%ion of $ To illus%ra%e consi#er %he sen%ence in (2B/3
(2B/ Fiecare s%u#en% a ci%i% un roman #e Tols%oi$ 7ver0 s%u#en% has rea# a novel of Tols%o0 >7ver0 s%u#en% rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0$?

In %his sen%ence %he in#efini%e un roman de :olstoi ma0 be in%er5re%e# 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of %he universal fiecare student in 9hich case %he novels ma0 co-var0 9i%h s%u#en%s$ The in#efini%e is %hen sai# %o have narro9 sco5e rela%ive %o %he universal$ Dn#er %his narro9 sco5e rea#in! of %he in#efini%e (2B/ is 6u#!e# as %rue in a si%ua%ion in 9hich %he se% of s%u#en%s is ma#e u5 of :arcu Ro#ica an# :arcela an# :arcu rea# Anna Aarenina an# Ro#ica an# :arcela rea# Mar and /eace$ The sen%ence ma0 also be in%er5re%e# 9i%h %he in#efini%e havin! 9i#e sco5e rela%ive %o %he universal in 9hich case i%s in%er5re%a%ion mus% be in#e5en#en% of %he universal$ Dn#er %his 9i#e sco5e rea#in! of %he in#efini%e %here mus% be a Tols%o0 novel such %ha% ever0 s%u#en% rea# %ha% novel$ In %he si%ua%ion !iven above %he sen%ence is false un#er %he 9i#e sco5e in%er5re%a%ion of %he in#efini%e$ A si%ua%ion in 9hich i% is %rue 9oul# be one 9here one novel sa0 Mar and /eace sho9s u5 on %he lis% of boo-s rea# b0 each relevan% s%u#en%$ Cruciall0 here %he choice of value for %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he in#efini%e mus% be cons%an% rela%ive %o %he choices of value for %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he universal$ A common 9a0 %o re5resen% %he sco5al ambi!ui%0 in (2B/ is %o re#uce i% %o a s0n%ac%ic ambi!ui%0 b0 assumin! %ha% 9henever a @uan%ifier is 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of ano%her i% is also 9i%hin i%s s0n%ac%ic sco5e$ The %9o rea#in!s of (2B/ %hen are re5resen%e# in firs% or#er 5re#ica%e lo!ic as in (2C/3
(2C/ a$ Y;3 STDD7NT(;/Z (Y03 TGLSTGq-NGV7L(0/Z R7AD(; 0// b$ Y03 TGLSTGq-NGV7L(0/Z (Y;3 STDD7NT(;/Z R7AD(; 0//

In (2C/a %he e;is%en%ial @uan%ifier occurs 9i%hin %he nuclear sco5e formula of %he universal$ This re5resen%s %he case 9here %he e;is%en%ial is 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of %he universal$ The %ru%h con#i%ions of %his formula man#a%e %ha% for each value of ' chosen from %he se% of s%u#en%s %here shoul# be a value for y chosen from %he se% of Tols%o0 novels such %ha% %he s%u#en% rea# %he novel$ Values for y are allo9e# %o var0 rela%ive %o values for ' i$e$ y ma0 covar0 9i%h '$ In (2C/b %he universal occurs 9i%hin %he nuclear sco5e formula of %he e;is%en%ial$ This re5resen%s %he case 9here %he e;is%en%ial is seman%icall0 ou%si#e %he sco5e of %he universal$ The 9i#e sco5e rea#in! of %he e;is%en%ial rela%ive %o %he universal (re5resen%e# in (2C/a/ is calle# inverse sco5e because %he seman%ic sco5e rela%ions are %he o55osi%e of 9ha% one 9oul# !e% base# on %he 9or# or#er in %he sen%ence$ The %ru%h con#i%ions of %his formula re@uire fin#in! a value for y amon! %he se% of Tols%o0 novels such %ha% each value for ' chosen amon! %he s%u#en%s is such %ha% %ha% s%u#en% rea# %ha% novel$ In %his case %he choice of value for y is in#e5en#en% or fi;e# rela%ive %o %he choice of value for ' an# y is sai# no% %o be allo9e# %o co-var0 9i%h '$ In earl0 %rea%men%s of %he s0n%a;/seman%ics in%erface i% 9as assume# %ha% %he sco5al

+.2

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

ambi!ui%0 e;hibi%e# b0 sen%ences li-e (2B/ is resolve# in %he s0n%a; of %hese e;5ressions 9here %he DPs move (cover%l0 since %his movemen% is no% visible in %he surface s%rin!/ %o s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ions %ha% #e%ermine %heir seman%ic sco5e$ The 9i#e sco5e rea#in! of %he in#efini%e rela%ive %o %he universal 9as %he resul% of %he in#efini%e movin! in s0n%a; %o a hi!her 5osi%ion %han %he universal$ In %his accoun% %he narro9 sco5e rea#in! is %he resul% of a s0n%ac%ic confi!ura%ion in 9hich %he in#efini%e moves %o a lo9er 5osi%ion rela%ive %o %he universal$ This vie9 9as challen!e# b0 %he realiAa%ion %ha% an in#efini%e DP can %a-e inverse sco5e over a universal DP 9i%hou% re!ar# %o %he com5le;i%ies of %he s0n%ac%ic s%ruc%ure %ha% se5ara%es %hem$ Thus consi#er %he case in (4=/3
(4=/ Fiecare 5rofesor a vorbi% cu fiecare s%u#en% care a ci%i% 1n 0o6an 3e Tolsto.$ ever0 5rofessor has s5o-en 9i%h ever0 s%u#en% 9hich has rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0 >7ver0 5rofessor %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0$?

Oere %he in#efini%e un roman de :olstoi >a novel b0 Tols%o0? is embe##e# in a rela%ive clause mo#if0in! %he universal fiecare student >ever0 s%u#en%?$ This universal DP is in %he same clause 9i%h ano%her namel0 fiecare profesor >ever0 5rofessor?$ The sen%ence is %hree-9a0 ambi!uous 9i%h res5ec% %o sco5e as #e%aile# in (4+/3
(4+/ a$ 3arro&est scope for %he in#efini%e3 ever0 5rofessor is sai# %o have %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# some novel of Tols%o0?s$ As lon! as %here 9as a novel of Tols%o0?s %ha% %he s%u#en% rea# %he 5rofessor %al-e# %o her$ b$ >ntermediate scope for %he in#efini%e3 ever0 5rofessor chose a Tols%o0 novel an# %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# %ha% novel$ For ins%ance Professor Ionescu %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# Mar and /eace Professor Po5escu %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# Anna Aarenina an# Professor Diaconescu %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# Nad+i 5urad0 c$ Midest scope for %he in#efini%e3 %here is a novel b0 Tols%o0 (sa0 Mar and /eace/ an# ever0 5rofessor %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# %ha% novel$

The %hree firs% or#er lo!ic formulas %ha% corres5on# %o %hese %hree rea#in!s are !iven in (41/3
(41/ Y;3 PRGF(V/Z (Y03 STDD7NT(0/ ) YA3 NGV7L-'q-T(A/Z R7AD(0 A/Z TALS7D-TG(; 0// b$ >ntermediate scope3 Y;3 PRGF(V/Z (YA3 NGV7L-'q-T(A/Z (Y03 STDD7NT(0/ ) R7AD(0 A/Z TALS7D-TG(; 0// c$ Midest scope3 YA3 NGV7L-'q-T(A/Z (Y;3 PRGF(V/Z (Y03 STDD7NT(0/ ) R7AD(0 A/Z TALS7D-TG(; 0// a$ 3arro&est scope3

In (41/a %he secon# universal is in %he nuclear sco5e of %he firs% an# %he e;is%en%ial is in %he res%ric%or of %he secon# universal$ As a resul% %he e;is%en%ial is 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of bo%h universals$ Oere %hen %he choice of novel b0 Tols%o0 (i$e %he value of (/ is free %o co-var0 9i%h bo%h s%u#en%s an# 5rofessors$ The crucial #ifference be%9een (41/a an# (41/b is %ha% in (41/b %he secon# universal is in %he nuclear sco5e of %he e;is%en%ial$ No9 novels can co-var0 9i%h 5rofessors bu% rela%ive %o a 5ar%icular 5rofessor %he relevan% novel #oes no% co-var0 9i%h %he s%u#en%s$ In or#er %o verif0 %his formula once 0ou choose a value for ' (%he 5rofessor/ 0ou also have %o choose a value for ( (%he novel/ an# %hen for each 5rofessor verif0 9he%her he/she %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# %he novel 0ou have chosen for %ha% 5rofessor$ Oere %hen ( co-varies 9i%h ' bu% rela%ive %o a !iven value for ' i% #oes no% co-var0 9i%h y$ Finall0 in (41/c %he e;is%en%ial is ou%si#e %he sco5e of bo%h universals$ The %9o universals are 9i%hin %he nuclear sco5e of %he e;is%en%ial (9i%h %he secon# universal bein! in %he nuclear sco5e of %he firs%/$ In or#er for %his formula %o be %rue one has %o choose a value for ( (%he novel/ an#

+.4

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

verif0 9he%her ever0 5rofessor %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# %ha% novel$ The value of ( no9 is fi;e# rela%ive %o bo%h ' an# y$ The free#om of in%er5re%a%ion e;hibi%e# b0 %he e;is%en%ial in e;am5les li-e (4=/ raises %9o %9in 5roblems$ Firs% un#er %he assum5%ion %ha% s0n%ac%ic sco5e #ic%a%es seman%ic sco5e in or#er %o !e% %he in%erme#ia%e an# 9i#e sco5e in%er5re%a%ions of %he e;is%en%ial 9e have %o assume %ha% %he e;is%en%ial DP moves ou%si#e %he rela%ive clause %o a 5osi%ion in %he s0n%ac%ic %ree %ha% is hi!her %han bo%h universals$ This is 5roblema%ic because i%ems 9i%hin a rela%ive clause are no% normall0 allo9e# %o move ou%si#e %ha% clause b0 over% s0n%ac%ic movemen% i$e$ rela%ive clauses are sai# %o be >islan#s? rela%ive %o movemen%$$ The >islan#? s%a%us of rela%ive clauses is e;em5lifie# in (42/3
(42/ a$XCare roman a vorbi% fiecare 5rofesor cu fiecare s%u#en% care l-a ci%i%K 9hich novel has %al-e# ever0 5rofessor 9i%h ever0 s%u#en% 9ho CL$ACC-has rea#K? b$XDe cine a ci%i% :arcela o car%e care 5omeneaK of 9ho has rea# :arcela a boo- %ha% men%ione#

The firs% 5roblem %hen is %ha% %he seman%ic sco5e of %he e;is%en%ial is insensi%ive %o 9ell-no9n limi%s on over% s0n%ac%ic movemen%$ A movemen%-base# a55roach 9oul# have %o assume %ha% %he cover% s0n%ac%ic movemen% %ha% #e%ermines seman%ic sco5e is #ifferen% from over% movemen% in crucial res5ec%s$ The secon# 5roblem is %ha% %he inverse sco5e 5o%en%ial of universals #iffers shar5l0 from %ha% of e;is%en%ials in %ha% i% is severel0 limi%e#$ Thus %he inverse sco5e of universals is limi%e# %o i%ems 9i%hin %heir o9n clause$ To sho9 %his 9e sho9 firs% %ha% universals ma0 have inverse sco5e over a clause-ma%e e;is%en%ial$ Thus (44/a is ambi!uous be%9een a #irec% sco5e in%er5re%a%ion (9i%h %he i%aliciAe# e;is%en%ial ou%si#e %he sco5e of %he universal/ an# an inverse sco5e in%er5re%a%ion in 9hich %he sco5e rela%ion is reverse#$
(44/ a$ Un 6e6b01 al 5a0t.31l1. nost01 a viAi%a% f.e/a0e 0e4.1ne a A:0..$ a member G7N 5ar%0-%he$G7N our has visi%e# ever0 re!ion G7N coun%r0-%he$G7N >A member of our 5ar%0 visi%e# ever0 re!ion of %he coun%r0$? b$ Y;3 PARTq-:7:'7R(;/Z (Y03 R7GIGN(0/Z (VISIT(; 0// c$ Y03 R7GIGN(0/Z (Y;3 PARTq-:7:'7R(;/Z (VISIT(; 0//

Dn#er %he #irec% sco5e in%er5re%a%ion (44/ !iven in (44/b %he sen%ence claims %ha% one can fin# one member of our 5ar%0 9ho visi%e# each re!ion of our coun%r0$ Dn#er %his in%er5re%a%ion %here is no co-varia%ion 5ossible be%9een re!ions an# 5ar%0 members$ Dn#er %he inverse sco5e in%er5re%a%ion !iven in (44/c %he sen%ence claims %ha% for ever0 re!ion of %he coun%r0 %here is a 5ar%0 member %ha% visi%e# i%$ Oere %hen %here is 5ossible co-varia%ion be%9een re!ions an# 5ar%0 members$ '0 con%ras% (4,/a is no lon!er ambi!uous 9i%h res5ec% %o %he rela%ive sco5e of %he %9o @uan%ifiers$
(4,/ a$ Un 6e6b01 al 5a0t.31l1. nost01 a #eclara% cL :arin a viAi%a% f.e/a0e a member G7N 5ar%0-%he$G7N our has #eclare# %ha% :arin has visi%e# ever0 0e4.1ne a A:0..$ re!ion G7N coun%r0-%he$G7N >A member of our 5ar%0 #eclare# %ha% :arin visi%e# ever0 re!ion of %he coun%r0$? b$ Y;3 PARTq-:7:'7R(;/Z (D7CLAR7D(; (Y03 R7GIGN(0/Z (VISIT(; 0// c$ Y03 R7GIGN(0/Z (Y;3 PARTq-:7:'7R(;/Z D7CLAR7D (V (VISIT(; 0//

This sen%ence can onl0 be in%er5re%e# as sa0in! %ha% %here is a member of our 5ar%0 such %ha%

+.,

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

he/she claime# %ha% :arin visi%e# ever0 re!ion of %he coun%r0$ This in%er5re%a%ion is !iven in (4,/b 9here i% is assume# %ha% 9hole formulas can be ar!umen%s of 5re#ica%es such as D7CLAR7$ Since %he e;is%en%ial is ou%si#e %he sco5e of %he universal here %here is no covaria%ion 5ossible be%9een ' an# y$ The missin! in%er5re%a%ion is %he one !iven in (4,/c 9here %he universal has been move# %o a 5osi%ion hi!her %han %he e;is%en%ial$ This rea#in! 9oul# allo9 co-varia%ion be%9een 5ar%0 members an# re!ions$ 'u% %he sen%ence in (4,/a canno% be in%er5re%e# as #escribin! a si%ua%ion 9here Ionescu #eclare# %ha% :arin visi%e# 'ana% Po5escu #eclare# %ha% :arin visi%e# Trans0lvania an# so on$ The onl0 5ossible in%er5re%a%ion of (4,/a is one %ha% involves a sin!le 5ar%0 member ma-in! a sin!le claim abou% :arin visi%in! ever0 re!ion of %he coun%r0$ The fac% %ha% %he in#efini%e here canno% co-var0 9i%h %he universal means %ha% %he universal mus% be 9i%hin i%s sco5e i$e$ %he universal canno% have inverse sco5e over %he i%aliciAe# e;is%en%ial$ The fac% %ha% (4,/a #oes no% allo9 an inverse sco5e in%er5re%a%ion for %he universal rela%ive %o %he in#efini%e sho9s %ha% %he inverse sco5e of %he universal is limi%e# %o i%s o9n clause$ The con%ras% be%9een in#efini%es an# universals 9i%h res5ec% %o inverse sco5e 5o%en%ial is ma#e evi#en% in (4./ 9here %he rela%ive 5osi%ion of %he %9o relevan% @uan%ifiers has been reverse# an# as a resul% sco5e ambi!ui%0 is a!ain 5ossible3
(4./ F.e/a0e 6e6b01 al 5a0t.31l1. nost01 a #eclara% cL :arin a viAi%a% o 0e4.1ne ever0 member G7N 5ar%0-%he$G7N our has #eclare# %ha% :arin has visi%e# a re!ion a A:0..$ G7N coun%r0-%he$G7N >7ver0 member of our 5ar%0 #eclare# %ha% :arin visi%e# a re!ion of %he coun%r0$?

The in#efini%e in (4./ can be in%er5re%e# as havin! #irec% sco5e in 9hich case %here is covaria%ion 5ossible be%9een members of our 5ar%0 an# re!ions of %he coun%r0$ Cruciall0 for 5resen% 5ur5oses i% can also be in%er5re%e# 9i%h %he in#efini%e havin! inverse sco5e over %he universal in 9hich case %here mus% be one re!ion of %he coun%r0 (sa0 'ana%/ such %ha% ever0 member of our 5ar%0 claime# %ha% :arin visi%e# i%$ In (4,/ %hen 9e see %ha% %he inverse sco5e 5o%en%ial of universals is limi%e# %o %heir clauseI in (44/ an# (4./ 9e see %ha% %he inverse sco5e of e;is%en%ials is free$ The %9o #ilemmas 9e have are3 (i/ ho9 %o accoun% for %he free#om of inverse sco5e e;hibi%e# b0 e;is%en%ial DPsK (ii/ ho9 %o accoun% for %he con%ras% be%9een %he free e;is%en%ials an# %he ver0 limi%e# universalsK An earl0 a%%em5% %o solve bo%h 5roblems a% once 9as %o claim %ha% in#efini%e ar%icles are in fac% ambi!uous be%9een an e;is%en%ial in%er5re%a%ion (alon! %he lines assume# here/ an# a referen%ial (or s5ecific/ in%er5re%a%ion$ This vie9 ca5i%aliAes on %he observa%ion %ha% in#e5en#en%l0 of sco5e issues an in#efini%e in a sim5le e;am5le such as (4</ allo9s %9o in%er5re%a%ions3
(4</ Dn s%u#en% #in cursul meu a %riMa% la e;amen$ a s%u#en% of class-%he m0 has chea%e# a% e;am >A s%u#en% in m0 class chea%e# on %he e;am$?

Dn#er %he e;is%en%ial in%er5re%a%ion %he sen%ence sim5l0 claims %he e;is%ence of a chea%er$ Dn#er %he referen%ial in%er5re%a%ion %he s5ea-er has a 5ar%icular s%u#en% in min# abou% 9hom she claims %ha% he chea%e#$ Dn#er %he la%%er in%er5re%a%ion %he in#efini%e is %rea%e# as havin! i%s reference fi;e# ver0 much li-e a #emons%ra%ive e;ce5% rela%ive %o %he s5ea-er?s inner vie9 of %he 9orl#$ The crucial 5ro5er%0 of such s5ecific in#efini%es %he accoun% !oes is %ha% %he0 involve fi;in! %he value of %he variable %he0 in%ro#uce %o a 5ar%icular en%i%0 in %he s5ea-er?s min# an# %his value mus% %hen s%a0 fi;e# in %he same 9a0 in 9hich %he value of 5ro5er names or #eic%ic #emons%ra%ives is fi;e# rela%ive %o o%her elemen%s in %he sen%ence or #iscourse$ This +..

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

%05e of s5ecifici%0 for in#efini%es is -no9n un#er %he name of e5is%emic s5ecifici%0 an# refers %o %he si%ua%ion 9here %he s5ea-er has a 5ar%icular value in min# for %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he in#efini%e$ Uhen referen%ial %hen in#efini%es are %ransla%e# in 5re#ica%e lo!ic as %erms (ra%her %han @uan%ifica%ional e;5ressions/ 9hose value is fi;e# #irec%l0 b0 %he con%e;%$ Gnce %his ambi!ui%0 vie9 of or#inar0 in#efini%e ar%icles is acce5%e# bo%h #ilemmas a55ear %o be solve#$ Dn#er %he e;is%en%ial in%er5re%a%ion 9e can %a-e in#efini%es an# universals %o behave in %he same manner an# %a-e %hem %o have %heir inverse sco5e limi%e# %o %heir s0n%ac%ic clause boun#aries$ The a55aren% e;ce5%ional sco5al behavior of in#efini%es is an illusion crea%e# b0 %he availabili%0 of %he referen%ial in%er5re%a%ion$ The accoun% 5re#ic%s %ha% 9henever in#efini%es a55ear %o have inverse sco5e be0on# %heir clause boun#ar0 (as in (4./ for ins%ance/ 9e are #ealin! 9i%h a referen%ial in#efini%e ra%her %han a @uan%ifica%ional one$ Referen%ial in#efini%es 6us% li-e 5ro5er names or #eic%ic e;5ressions are no% @uan%ifica%ional an# have %heir reference fi;e# b0 con%e;%$ The0 sim5l0 a55ear %o have 9i#es% sco5e because varia%ion in value is rule# ou% b0 %he 9a0 %he0 are in%er5re%e#$ Dniversals on %he o%her han# canno% have %his referen%ial in%er5re%a%ion 9hich e;5lains 9h0 %he0 con%ras% 9i%h in#efini%es$ There are several 5roblems 9i%h %his o%her9ise a%%rac%ive solu%ion$ Firs% i% assumes an ambi!ui%0 e;hibi%e# b0 or#inar0 in#efini%e ar%icles %ha% is s0s%ema%ic in %he sense %ha% i% is cross-lin!uis%icall0 cons%an%$ Ue have %o 5osi% ambi!uous in#efini%e ar%icles in a lar!e number of lan!ua!es since %he sco5e fac%s #iscusse# above are %o be foun# in all lan!ua!es %ha% have ar%icle s0s%ems similar %o Romanian an# 7n!lish$ :oreover %his ambi!ui%0 has %o be e;%en#e# %o car#inal numerals (un#er %heir !rou5 in%er5re%a%ion/ since %he inverse sco5e 5o%en%ial of DPs hea#e# b0 such numerals 5arallels %ha% of or#inar0 in#efini%es as sho9n in (4B/3
(4B/ F.e/a0e 6e6b01 al 40151l1. nost01 a #eclara% cL t0e. 0e4.1n. ale ever0 member G7N !rou5-%he$G7N our has #eclare# %ha% %hree re!ions G7N A:0.. au #a% falimen%$ coun%r0-%he$G7N have !iven ban-ru5% >7ver0 member of our !rou5 #eclare# %ha% %hree re!ions of %he coun%r0 are ban-ru5%$?

The #is%ribu%ive in%er5re%a%ion of %he numeral-hea#e# DP accor#in! %o 9hich %he %hree re!ions are no%
%rea%e# sim5l0 as a !rou5 bu% ra%her as a !rou5 9hose members are sub6ec% %o universal @uan%ifica%ion %he inverse sco5e rea#in! is no lon!er available$ Dn#er %his >#is%ribu%ive? rea#in! trei re iuni ale rii is in%er5re%e# as >for each of %hree re!ions of %he coun%r0?$

Secon# %he ambi!ui%0 s%a%us of %he %9o rea#in!s of %he in#efini%e in (4</ has been calle# in%o @ues%ion$ Uhile ever0bo#0 a!rees %ha% %he %9o sha#es of meanin! e;is% i% is b0 no means clear %ha% %he e5is%emicall0 s5ecific in%er5re%a%ion shoul# be %rea%e# as seman%icall0 #ifferen% from %he e;is%en%ial in%er5re%a%ion$ Those 9ho ar!ue %ha% %he #ifference is no% seman%ic bu% ra%her 5ra!ma%ic in na%ure res% %heir ar!umen% on %he fac% %ha% someone 9ho u%%ers (4</ 9ill have been 6u#!e# %o have sai# some%hin! %rue in si%ua%ions 9here %here is a chea%er even if %he chea%er %urns ou% %o be #ifferen% from %he 5erson %he s5ea-er of (4</ ha# in min#$ In %his case 9e 6u#!e %he s5ea-er?s !roun#s for claimin! (4</ %o have been 9ron! bu% %he claim i%self is 6u#!e# as correc%$ This 5oin%s %o a 5ra!ma%ic %rea%men% of %he e5is%emicall0 s5ecific/nons5ecific #is%inc%ion in 9hich case %he in#efini%e has %o be assume# %o be seman%icall0 an e;is%en%ial un#er bo%h rea#in!s$ The mos% 5o9erful ar!umen% a!ains% %he referen%ial/@uan%ifica%ional ambi!ui%0 solu%ion %o %he sco5al #ilemmas 5ose# b0 in#efini%es comes from %he observa%ion %ha% acce5%in! %his ambi!ui%0 anal0sis #oes no% in fac% solve %he %9o 5roblems 9e se% ou% %o solve namel0 %he free#om of sco5e of in#efini%es an# %he con%ras% be%9een in#efini%es an# universals 9i%h res5ec% %o inverse sco5e 5o%en%ial$ The 5roblem resi#es in %he e;is%ence of %he in%erme#ia%e rea#in! of (4=/ !iven in (4+/b$ No%e %ha% un#er %his in%erme#ia%e rea#in! %he

+.<

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

in#efini%e has sco5e ou%si#e a clause (in (4=/ %he clause is in fac% a s0n%ac%ic islan#/ an# 0e% cruciall0 i% canno% be in%er5re%e# as referen%ial because in %his rea#in! %here is co-varia%ion be%9een %he in#efini%e an# %he firs% universal$ The in#efini%e in %his in%erme#ia%e rea#in! canno% be referen%ial because referen%ial in#efini%es 6us% li-e 5ro5er names an# #eic%ic #emons%ra%ives have %heir value fi;e# b0 %he con%e;% an# %hus canno% be sub6ec% %o an0 sor% of co-varia%ion$ The anal0sis %ha% a%%em5%s %o e;5lain %he s5ecial sco5al 5ro5er%ies of in#efini%es b0 5osi%in! a referen%ial/@uan%ifica%ion ambi!ui%0 5re#ic%s %ha% an0 %ime in#efini%es e;hibi% sco5al behavior %ha% #ifferen%ia%es %hem from universals %he0 are %o be %rea%e# as referen%ial$ The e;is%ence of in%erme#ia%e rea#in!s of %he %05e e;em5lifie# in (4=/ un#er %he rea#in! in (4+/b 5rovi#es a coun%ere;am5le %o %his 5re#ic%ion since %he in#efini%e has s5ecial 9i#e sco5e an# 0e% canno% be in%er5re%e# as referen%ial$ There have been more recen% 5ro5osals in %he s5iri% of %he referen%ial/@uan%ifica%ional ambi!ui%0 accoun% %ha% use #ifferen% %echnical %ools an# 9hich a%%em5% %o circumven% %he 5roblems 6us% #iscusse#$ Gne such %ool is %ha% of choice func%ions func%ions %ha% %a-e a se% as ar!umen% an# re%urn an elemen% of %ha% se% as value$ Gnce such func%ions are allo9e# as 5ossible #eno%a%ions for e;5ressions in na%ural lan!ua!e in#efini%es can be %rea%e# as ambi!uous be%9een a choice func%ional rea#in! an# an e;is%en%ial rea#in!$ Dn#er %he la%%er %he0 are 5re#ic%e# %o sco5e 6us% li-e universals$ Their 5ro5er%ies un#er %he choice func%ional rea#in! #e5en# on fur%her assum5%ions one ma-es abou% %hese func%ions an# abou% ho9 %he0 are boun#$ Gne 5ossibili%0 %ha% has been e;5lore# is %o assume %ha% choice func%ional variables are boun# b0 e;is%en%ial @uan%ifiers inser%e# freel0 a% an0 level of %he s0n%ac%ic %ree$ The sco5al free#om of in#efini%es %hen is e;5laine# b0 %he free 9a0 in 9hich choice func%ions are boun#$ The #ra9bac- of %his vie9 is %ha% i%s ans9er %o %he ori!inal @ues%ion is no% ver0 enli!h%enin!$ Recall %ha% 9e are in%eres%e# in fin#in! ou% 9h0 %he sco5e of in#efini%es is #ifferen% from %ha% of universals$ The ans9er !iven b0 %his >free? choice func%ional %rea%men% of in#efini%es is %ha% in#efini%es can be in%er5re%e# as choice func%ions an# %he sco5al 5ro5er%ies of choice func%ions are #ifferen% from %he sco5al 5ro5er%ies of all o%her e;5ressions$ Uha% remains %o be e;5laine# is ver0 close %o %he ini%ial @ues%ion namel0 9h0 %he sco5al 5ro5er%ies of choice func%ions is #ifferen% from %he sco5al 5ro5er%ies of o%her variables$ An e;%ra %ool has been in%ro#uce# bu% %he e;5lana%or0 !ain is no% im5ressive$ An al%erna%ive a55roach is %o assume %ha% choice func%ions are con%e;%uall0 su55lie# so %ha% each con%e;% comes 9i%h a uni@ue choice func%ion$ Choice func%ional in#efini%es #o no% involve an0 e;is%en%ial @uan%ifica%ionI ra%her %heir value is fi;e# b0 %his con%e;%uall0 !iven choice func%ion$ This accoun% is closes% %o %he ini%ial referen%ial accoun% #iscusse# above an# i% shares 9i%h i% %he 5roblem of #ealin! 9i%h in%erme#ia%e sco5e rea#in!s since a sin!le choice func%ion !ives a sin!le value for a 5ar%icular in#efini%e in a 5ar%icular con%e;% #isallo9in! an0 sor% of value varia%ion$ Gne can !e% aroun# %his 5roblem b0 assumin! %ha% choice func%ional in#efini%es ma0 have im5lici% variables associa%e# 9i%h %hem 9hich cause %he ar!umen% of %he uni@ue choice func%ion %o var0 an# %hereb0 allo9in! varia%ion of %he value of %he choice func%ion as 9ell$ Choice func%ions %hen are func%ions from in#ivi#uals an# se%s %o elemen%s of %he relevan% se% an# if %he in#ivi#ual ar!umen% varies so #oes %he value of %he choice func%ion$ In or#er %o ma-e %his accoun% convincin! %hese e;%ra variables have %o be in#e5en#en%l0 mo%iva%e# a %as- %ha% has no% 0e% been achieve#$
A##i%ional 5roblems arise for %his vie9 if one consi#ers %he in%er5re%a%ion of in#efini%es 9i%hin %he sco5e of ne!a%ion$

Ue no9 %urn %o a #ifferen% solu%ion 9hich #e5ar%s from 5revious a55roaches in %ha% i% no lon!er assumes %ha% s0n%ac%ic confi!ura%ion #ic%a%es seman%ic sco5e$ Gnce %his assum5%ion is !iven u5 i% is 5ossible %o accoun% for %he 9hole ran!e of #a%a 9i%hou% in%ro#ucin! an0 s5ecial

+.B

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

%echnical machiner0 for in#efini%es$ Dn#er %his vie9 %he seman%ic sco5e of in#efini%es is %rea%e# as a seman%ic ma%%er involvin! %he 9a0 %he variable in%ro#uce# is %o be assi!ne# values rela%ive %o o%her 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# variables$ Such 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# variables 5rovi#e a##i%ional 5arame%ers of evalua%ion$ Uhen an e;is%en%iall0 boun# variable is evalua%e# one can choose %o have i%s values fi'ed i$e$ %hese values 9ill %hen be in#e5en#en% of 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# variables or one can allo9 %he value of %he e;is%en%iall0 boun# variable %o co-vary rela%ive %o some or all %hose 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# variables 9hose values have %o var0 over %heir #omain because of %he @uan%ifier %ha% bin#s %hem$ If %he former choice is %a-en %he e;is%en%ial (an# %he in#efini%e %ha% in%ro#uces i%/ 9ill have 9i#es% sco5e$ If %he la%%er choice is %a-en %he e;is%en%ial 9ill be in %he seman%ic sco5e of 9ha%ever variable(s/ i% is allo9e# %o co-var0 9i%h$ Couchin! such an accoun% in %he lan!ua!e of in#e5en#ence-frien#l0 lo!ic allo9s one %o 5rovi#e i% 9i%h a soli# lo!ical basis$ To e;em5lif0 9e %urn bac- %o %he e;am5le in (4=/ re5ea%e# in (4C/3
(4C/ Fiecare 5rofesor a vorbi% cu fiecare s%u#en% care a ci%i% 1n 0o6an 3e Tolsto.$ ever0 5rofessor has s5o-en 9i%h ever0 s%u#en% 9hich has rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0 >7ver0 5rofessor %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0$?

Dn#er %he >in#e5en#ence frien#l0? accoun% s-e%che# above %he %hree 5ossible in%er5re%a%ions of %his sen%ence are base# on %hree 5ossible 9a0s of in%er5re%in! a formula %ha% has %he s0n%a; of (41/a re5ea%e# as (,=/a3
(,=/ a$ (Y;3 PRGF(V/Z (Y03 STDD7NT(0/ ) YA3 NGV7L-'q-T(A/Z R7AD(0 A/Z TALS7D-TG(; 0// b$ (Y;3 PRGF(V/Z (Y03 STDD7NT(0/ ) Yg;hA3 NGV7L-'q-T(A/Z R7AD(0 A/Z TALS7D-TG(; 0// c$ (Y;3 PRGF(V/Z (Y03 STDD7NT(0/ ) Yg; 0hA3 NGV7L-'q-T(A/Z R7AD(0 A/Z TALS7D-TG(; 0//

The variables available as 5arame%ers for ( are ' an# y$ 'o%h ' an# y are boun# b0 universal @uan%ifiers 9hich force %hem %o ran!e over %he elemen%s of %heir #escri5%ive con%en% i$e$ ' is !iven as values each elemen% of %he se% of 5rofessors in %urn an# y is also !iven as values each elemen% of a 5ar%icular se% of s%u#en%s in %urn$ No9 one can !e% %he 9i#es% sco5e in%er5re%a%ion for %he in#efini%e if one chooses no% %o allo9 ( %o var0 rela%ive %o ei%her of %he %9o 5ossibili%ies allo9e# b0 i%s con%e;%$ In %his case %hen %he value of ( has %o s%a0 fi;e# rela%ive %o %he var0in! values of ' an# y$ Al%erna%ivel0 one can allo9 ( %o var0 rela%ive %o ' bu% no% y 9hich resul%s in %he in%erme#ia%e rea#in!$ Finall0 one can also allo9 varia%ion rela%ive %o bo%h ' an# y resul%in! in %he narro9es% sco5e rea#in!$ For 5ers5icui%0?s sa-e 9e can su5erscri5% %he @uan%ifier 9i%h %hose variables %ha% %he variable i% bin#s is allo9e# %o co-var0 9i%h$ The formula in (,=/a %hen re5resen%s %he 9i#es% sco5e rea#in! 9here ( is in#e5en#en% of bo%h ' an# yI (,=/b is %he re5resen%a%ion of %he in%erme#ia%e rea#in! 9here ( co-varies 9i%h ' bu% no% 9i%h yI (,=/c re5resen%s %he narro9es% sco5e rea#in! 9here ( co-varies 9i%h bo%h ' an# y$ The a#van%a!es of %his accoun% over i%s com5e%i%ors are %ha% i% assumes no ambi!ui%0 in in#efini%es an# i% #oes no% rel0 on s5ecial %ools in%ro#uce# 6us% for #ealin! 9i%h %he in%er5re%a%ion of %hese e;5ressions$ In a##i%ion i% accoun%s for %he e;is%ence of in%erme#ia%e rea#in!s 9i%hou% havin! %o ma-e e;%ra s%i5ula%ions$ Nus% li-e %he choice func%ional accoun%s %his solu%ion loca%es %he #ifference be%9een in#efini%es an# universals in %he un#is5u%e# #ifference be%9een %he in%er5re%a%ion of variables boun# b0 an e;is%en%ial @uan%ifier an# %hose boun# b0 a universal @uan%ifier$ The %05e of #e5en#ence e;is%en%ials are susce5%ible %o is no% available for universals because universals involve a #ifferen% evalua%ion 5roce#ure one %ha% re@uires %he variable %he0 bin# %o be !iven as value each elemen% of %he se% #eno%e# b0 %he #escri5%ive con%en%$ The common %heme %ha% emer!es from %he 9or- on @uan%ifier sco5e is %ha% or#inar0

+.C

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

in#efini%es involve an in%er5re%a%ion mechanism %ha% is #ifferen% from (an# sim5ler %han/ %he in%er5re%a%ion of universals$ For in#efini%es all 9e nee# is fin#in! a value for %he relevan% variable such %ha% i% mee%s %he various con#i%ions im5ose# on i%$ For universals on %he o%her han# one has %o !ive %he relevan% variable a se@uence of values one for each elemen% in %he se% #eno%e# b0 %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he DP an# %hen one has %o evalua%e %he formula in %he nuclear sco5e rela%ive %o each such value in %urn$ In %he case of in#efini%es %he value one chooses can be fi;e# rela%ive %o all o%her 5arame%ers or i% ma0 be allo9e# %o co-var0 9i%h 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# variables 9hose o9n values var0$ The essence of seman%ic sco5e un#er %his accoun% is 5recisel0 %he @ues%ion of 9he%her variables in%ro#uce# b0 in#efini%es have fi;e# or variable values$ Finall0 a @ues%ion %ha% arises is 9he%her %he sco5in! 5ro5er%ies 6us% #iscusse# are s5ecific %o in#efini%es or 9he%her #efini%es e;hibi% %hem as 9ell$ The >in#e5en#ence frien#l0? a55roach lea#s us %o e;5ec% %ha% e;is%en%ial #e%erminers 9ill sco5e freel0 unless %he0 involve some s5ecial re@uiremen% %ha% is incom5a%ible 9i%h cer%ain sco5e confi!ura%ions$ Ue %urn no9 %o unmar-e# #efini%es an# sho9 %ha% %heir sco5al 5ro5er%ies are %he same as %hose of or#inar0 in#efini%es$ 7;am5les 9here #efini%es have 9i#es% sco5e in#e5en#en%l0 of ho9 #ee5l0 embe##e# %he0 are s0n%ac%icall0 are @ui%e eas0 %o fin#$ Thus ou% of con%e;% %he #efini%e in (,+/ is in%er5re%e# as havin! 9i#es% sco5e rela%ive %o %he universal3
(,+/ Fiecare 5rofesor a vorbi% cu fiecare s%u#en% care a ci%i% 0o6an1l 3e Tolsto.$ ever0 5rofessor has s5o-en 9i%h ever0 s%u#en% 9hich has rea# novel-%he b0 Tols%o0 >7ver0 5rofessor %al-e# %o ever0 s%u#en% 9ho rea# %he novel b0 Tols%o0$?

This is no% sur5risin! !iven 9ha% 9as sai# in Sec%ion + since %he value of %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he #efini%e has %o be uni@uel0 #e%ermine# rela%ive %o %he con%e;% of i%s in%er5re%a%ion an# %he easies% 9a0 %o achieve %his re@uiremen% is %o assume %ha% %he con%e;% 5rovi#es a uni@ue en%i%0 %ha% fi%s %he #escri5%ion 5rovi#e# b0 %he DP$ Uha% 9e e;5ec% no9 is %ha% once %he con%e;% is such %ha% %he uni@ue reference is me% rela%ive %o each value of %he variable boun# b0 %he universal co-varia%ion an# %herefore narro9 sco5e is 5ossible for #efini%es in a manner 5arallel %o %ha% of in#efini%es$ (See our #iscussion of (+</ above$/ Fur%her e;am5les of co-var0in! #efini%es are !iven in (,1/ 9here %he use of %he #efini%e form is 6us%ifie# via accommo#a%ion$
(,1/ a$ YFiecare co5ilZi vorbeM%e cu tat:l l1..$ ever0 chil# s5ea-s 9i%h fa%her-%he his >7ver0 chil# is %al-in! %o his fa%her$? b$ Nu cunosc /a5.tala n./.1n1. stat af0./an. no% -no9$+SG ca5i%al-%he no$G7N s%a%e African >I #on?% -no9 %he ca5i%al of an0 African s%a%e? c$ Vreau sL vL# /a3o1l 5e /a0e 6. l+a a31s 9an%$+SG SD'N see$+SG 5resen%-%he DG: 9hich me$DAT CL$ACC -has brou!h% f.e/a0e st13ent$ each s%u#en% >I 9an% %o see %he 5resen% %ha% each s%u#en% brou!h% me$?

Ue conclu#e %ha% %he issues concernin! sco5e #iscusse# here base# on in#efini%es are relevan% %o e;is%en%ial DPs in !eneral 9he%her #efini%e or in#efini%e$ Ue have #iscusse# %hem un#er %he rubric of in#efini%es because of %he 5rominence 5la0e# b0 in#efini%e DPs in %his #iscussion in %he li%era%ure$ Ue 9ill see in Sec%ion 2$1 %ha% %he sco5al 5ro5er%ies of s5ecial in#efini%es ma0 be limi%e# b0 s5ecial re@uiremen%s %ha% %he0 are sub6ec% %o$

+<=

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

3.1.2. S5e/.f./ an3 non+s5e/.f./ .n3ef.n.tes DPs an3 Da9s of 6a0>.n4 t8e6 The issue of s5ecifici%0 has alrea#0 been men%ione# 9i%h res5ec% %o (4</ re5ea%e# here as (,2/3
(,2/ Dn s%u#en% #in cursul meu a %riMa% la e;amen$ a s%u#en% of class-%he m0 has chea%e# a% e;am >A s%u#en% in m0 class chea%e# on %he e;am$?

Dn#er %he e5is%emicall0 s5ecific rea#in! of %he in#efini%e %he s5ea-er is assume# %o -no9 %he i#en%i%0 of %he s%u#en% 9hile un#er %he e5is%emicall0 non-s5ecific rea#in! she is no%$ Dn#er %he former rea#in! %hen %he s5ea-er has a 5ar%icular en%i%0 in min# as value for %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he in#efini%e 9hile un#er %he la%%er all she -no9s is %ha% such a s%u#en% e;is%s$ This #ifference can 5la0 a role in mor5ho-s0n%a;$ For Romanian i% has been ar!ue# %ha% #ifferen%ial ob6ec% mar-in! 9i%h %he 5re5osi%ion pe is sensi%ive %o %his #is%inc%ion$ Thus %he pe mar-e# in#efini%e in (,4/a is more na%urall0 in%er5re%e# as e5is%emicall0 s5ecific %han i%s nonpe mar-e# coun%er5ar% in (,4/b$
(,4/ a$ :anole l-a %rimis 5e un s%u#en% sL vorbeascL cu #ecanul$ :anole CL$ACC-has sen% DG: a s%u#en% SD'N %al-$2 9i%h #ean-%he b$ :anole a %rimis un s%u#en% sL vorbeascL cu #ecanul$ :anole has sen% a s%u#en% SD'N %al-$2 9i%h #ean-%he >:anole sen% a s%u#en% %o s5ea- 9i%h %he #ean$?

75is%emic s5ecifici%0 involves %he rela%ionshi5 be%9een %he in#efini%e an# %he s5ea-er?s mo#el of reali%0$ For e5is%emicall0 s5ecific rea#in!s %here is a 5ar%icular value %ha% %he s5ea-er associa%es 9i%h %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he in#efini%e a value %ha% s%a0s cons%an% across all %he al%erna%ives %ha% %he s5ea-er consi#ers 5ossible 9a0s in 9hich %he 9orl# can %urn ou% %o be$ In %he case of e5is%emicall0 non-s5ecific rea#in!s no such connec%ion e;is%s$ From %he 5oin% of vie9 of %he #iscourse ho9ever %he in#efini%e sim5l0 in%ro#uces an e;is%en%iall0 boun# variable in bo%h cases an# %herefore %he claim %he s5ea-er ma-es b0 usin! (,2/ in a #iscourse is %he same un#er bo%h rea#in!s$ The sen%ence is 6u#!e# as %rue if a chea%er e;is%s in#e5en#en%l0 of 9ho he/she %urns ou% %o be$ If a lan!ua!e has a 9a0 of mar-in! e5is%emic s5ecifici%0 as in (,4/a %he s5ea-er ma-es an e;is%en%ial claim (%rue or false #e5en#in! on 9he%her some verif0in! value for %he relevan% variable is foun#/ an# fur%her in#ica%es %ha% she has a 5ar%icular verif0in! value in min#$ The sen%ence 9i%h a mar-e# e5is%emicall0 s5ecific in#efini%e is %rue if %here is a chea%er an# if %he s5ea-er has a 5ar%icular in#ivi#ual in min# as %he verif0in! value for %he e;is%en%iall0 boun# variable$
The 5erson %ha% has %o have a 5ar%icular verif0in! value in min# for an in#efini%e %o be e5is%emicall0 s5ecific nee# no% necessaril0 be %he s5ea-er$ In case #o;as%ic or e5is%emic 5re#ica%es are use# %he relevan% in#ivi#ual can be %he sub6ec% of %hese 5re#ica%es as e;em5lifie# belo93 (i/ :anole cre#e cL San#a l-a %rimis 5e un su#en% sL vorbeascL cu #ecanul$ :anole %hin-s %ha% San#a CL$ACC-has sen% DG: a s%u#en% SD'N %al-$2 9i%h #ean-%he >:anole %hin-s %ha% San#a sen% a s%u#en% %o s5ea- %o %he #ean$? Oere %he e5is%emicall0 s5ecific rea#in! of %he in#efini%e un student >a s%u#en%? can be su55or%e# b0 :anole (ra%her %han %he s5ea-er/ havin! a 5ar%icular in#ivi#ual in min# as a verif0in! value for %he relevan% variable$

A rela%e# %hou!h #is%inc% vie9 of s5ecifici%0 involves %he sco5e of %he in#efini%e rela%ive %o o%her sco5e bearin! e;5ressions$ Sco5all0 s5ecific in#efini%es are %hose %ha% are seman%icall0 ou%si#e %he sco5e of relevan% o5era%ors or @uan%ifiers 9hile sco5all0 non-s5ecific in#efini%es +<+

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

are seman%icall0 9i%hin %he sco5e of o%her lin!uis%ic e;5ressions$ For sco5all0 non-s5ecific in#efini%es %he finer #e%ails of %heir in%er5re%a%ion #e5en#s on 9ha% elemen% %he0 are seman%icall0 in %he sco5e of$ In %he narro9 an# in%erme#ia%e rea#in! of %he in#efini%e in (4C/ 9e ha# e;am5les of in#efini%es 9i%hin %he sco5e of a universal @uan%ifier 9hich in seman%ic %erms mean% %ha% %he values !iven %o %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he in#efini%e are allo9e# %o co-var0 9i%h %he values !iven %o %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he universal$ In (,,/ 9e have an e;am5le of an in#efini%e %ha% can be in%er5re%e# as sco5all0 s5ecific or non-s5ecific rela%ive %o %he verb a vrea >9an%?3
(,,/ :ioara vrea sL vorbeascL cu un s%u#en%$ :ioara 9an%s SD'N %al-$2 9i%h a s%u#en% >:ioara 9an%s %o s5ea- %o a s%u#en%$?

Dn#er %he sco5all0 s5ecific rea#in! (,,/ claims %ha% %here is a s%u#en% such %ha% :ioara 9an%s %o s5ea- %o him 9hile un#er %he sco5all0 non-s5ecific rea#in! (,,/ claims %ha% :ioara 9an%s i% %o be %he cases %ha% %here is some s%u#en% (or o%her/ %ha% she s5ea-s %o$ Assumin! as before %ha% 9e are 9or-in! 9i%h a hi!her or#er lo!ic 9here formulas can be ar!umen%s of 5re#ica%es %he %9o rea#in!s are e;5resse# as in (4B/3
(,./ a$ Y;3 STDD7NT(V/Z UANT(m (SP7AS(m ;// b$ UANT(m (Y;3 STDD7NT(V/Z SP7AS(m ;// (sco5all0 s5ecific/ (sco5all0 non-s5ecific/

The s5ecial seman%ic 5ro5er%ies of %he verb a vrea >9an%? ma-e i% %he case %ha% sco5al nons5ecifici%0 in %his case overla5s 9i%h e5is%emic non-s5ecifici%0$ If all :ioara cares abou% is %ha% she s5ea-s 9i%h some s%u#en% or o%her i% canno% be %he case %ha% %he s5ea-er (or :ioara/ has a 5ar%icular s%u#en% in min# as value for '$ No%e ho9ever %ha% sco5al non-s5ecifici%0 in %he case of narro9 sco5e rela%ive %o universal @uan%ifiers #oes no% amoun% %o e5is%emic nons5ecifici%0 as (,</ sho9s 9here %he s5ea-er !oes on %o i#en%if0 %he relevan% values of %he sco5all0 non-s5ecific in#efini%e3
(,</ Fiecare s%u#en% a ci%i% un roman #e Tols%oi$ :ioara a ci%i% O(boi i pace :anole ever0 s%u#en% has rea# a novel b0 Tols%oi :ioara has rea# Uar an# 5eace :anole a ci%i% Anna Aarenina si Pe%ru a ci%i% O(boi i pace$ has rea# Anna Sarenina an# Pe%ru has rea# Uar an# 5eace >7ver0 s%u#en% rea# a novel b0 Tols%o0$ :ioara rea# Mar and /eace :anole rea# Anna Aarenina an# Pe%ru rea# Mar and /eace0?

No%e also %ha% %he sco5all0 s5ecific rea#in! of (,,/ #oes no% en%ail an e5is%emicall0 s5ecific in%er5re%a%ion of %he in#efini%e$ I% ma0 be %he case %ha% %he s5ea-er -no9s %ha% %here is a 5ar%icular s%u#en% :ioara 9an%s %o %al- %o bu% she has no i#ea 9ho %ha% 5erson is$ Sco5al non-s5ecifici%0 9i%h res5ec% %o verbs li-e a vrea >9an%? a dori >9ish? trebuie >mus%? correla%es 9i%h %9o mor5ho-s0n%ac%ic mar-ers$ Firs% un#er %he sco5all0 non-s5ecific rea#in! %he DP can be mo#ifie# b0 a sub6unc%ive rela%ive clause 9hile un#er %he sco5all0 s5ecific rea#in! i% canno%$ Thus (,B/ onl0 has %he sco5all0 non-s5ecific in%er5re%a%ion3
(,B/ :ioara vrea sL an!a6eAe o secre%arL care sL M%ie en!leAa$ :ioara 9an%s SD'N hire$2 a secre%ar0 9ho SD'N -no9s 7n!lish-%he >:ioara 9an%s %o hire a secre%ar0 9ho -no9s 7n!lish$?

Secon# pe mar-in! is is 5referre# 9i%h sco5all0 s5ecific DPs an# %hus %he in#efini%e in (,C/ is 5referabl0 in%er5re%e# as sco5all0 s5ecific3

+<1

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

(,C/

:ioara vrea sL an!a6eAe 5e un s%u#en% #in #e5ar%amen%ul nos%ru$ :ioara 9an%s SD'N hire$2 DG: a s%u#en% from #e5ar%men%-%he our >:ioara 9an%s %o hire a s%u#en% from our #e5ar%men%$?

So far 9e have seen %ha% e5is%emic an# sco5al (non/-s5ecifici%0 are in#e5en#en% 5ro5er%ies %ha% can ho9ever in%erac%$ There is a %hir# %05e of s5ecifici%0 %ha% has been #iscusse# in %he li%era%ure namel0 5ar%i%ive s5ecifici%0 e;em5lifie# in (.=/3
(.=/ Trei fe%e au in%ra% 5e uML$ O fat: era EmbrLca%L En alb iar celelal%e #ouL En %hree !irls have en%ere# on #oor a !irl 9as #resse# in 9hi%e an# %he-o%hers %9o in ne!ru$ blac>Three !irls came %hrou!h %he #oor$ A !irl 9as #resse# in 9hi%e an# %he o%her %9o in blac-$?

Oere %he in#efini%e o fat >a !irl? is mos% na%urall0 in%er5re%e# as >one of %he %hree !irls 9ho came in? 9hich ma-es i% seman%icall0 5ar%i%ive in %he sense alrea#0 men%ione# above3 %he referen% of %he DP mus% be chosen from a se% 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# in %he #iscourse in a manner analo!ous %o over% 5ar%i%ives such as una din fetele care au intrat pe us >one of %he !irls 9ho came %hrou!h %he #oor?/$ (Ue come bac- %o 5ar%i%ive in#efini%es in Sec%ion 2$1$+$/ No%e %ha% 5ar%i%ive s5ecifici%0 is #ifferen% from bo%h sco5al an# e5is%emic s5ecifici%0$ Thus e;am5le (.+/ can be in%er5re%e# as sco5all0 non-s5ecific an# 0e% 5ar%i%ive$ (The over% 5ar%i%ive in#efini%e is use# in or#er %o ma-e %he 5oin% as forcefull0 as 5ossible$/3
(.+/ :anole vrea sL vorbeascL cu una #in surorile lui Pe%ru in#iferen% care$ :anole 9an%s SD'N %al-$2 9i%h one of sis%ers-%he G'L Pe%ru re!ar#less 9hich >:anole 9an%s %o %al- %o one of Pe%ru?s sis%ers i% #oesn?% ma%%er 9hich$?

The con%inua%ion indiferent care >#oesn?% ma%%er 9hich? forces a narro9 sco5e rea#in! of %he 5ar%i%ive in#efini%e rela%ive %o %he verb a vrea >9an%?$ The fac% %ha% 5ar%i%ive s5ecifici%0 #oes no% en%ail e5is%emic s5ecifici%0 can be sho9n b0 %he e;is%ence of %he narro9 sco5e rea#in! of %he in#efini%e in (.+/ as 9ell as b0 %he fac% %ha% %he 5ar%i%ive rea#in! of %he in#efini%e in (.=/ #oes no% en%ail an e5is%emicall0 s5ecific rea#in!3 (.=/ can be con%inue# 9i%h 3u tiu care din ele era mbrcat n alb >I #on?% -no9 9hich one of %hem 9as #resse# in 9hi%e?$ To conclu#e %he %hree %05es of s5ecifici%0 #iscusse# above are #is%inc% 5henomena$ There is ho9ever an overarchin! 5ro5er%0 %ha% is relevan% %o all namel0 %he no%ion of stability of reference0 DPs %ha% are s5ecific in one sense or ano%her have reference %ha% is more s%able %han %hose %ha% are non-s5ecific$ Thus e5is%emicall0 s5ecific DPs are s%able rela%ive %o e5is%emicall0 non-s5ecific ones in %he sense %ha% %he i#en%i%0 of %he value of %he variable is fi;e# in %he min# of %he s5ea-er for e5is%emicall0 s5ecific DPs bu% no% for e5is%emicall0 nons5ecific ones$ In %he case of sco5al (non/-s5ecifici%0 %he reference of non-s5ecific DPs is allo9e# %o co-var0 9i%h %he value of %he variable boun# b0 %he o5era%or %he DP is in %he sco5e of 9hile in %he case of sco5al s5ecifici%0 %he reference of %he DP mus% s%a0 fi;e# rela%ive %o %he variable i% ou%sco5es$ Fur%her #is%inc%ions be%9een various %05es of sco5all0 non-s5ecific DPs can be #ra9n 9i%h res5ec% %o %he %05e of elemen% %he0 are in %he seman%ic sco5e of$ Thus bein! in %he seman%ic sco5e of a universal @uan%ifier over in#ivi#uals as in (,</ involves covaria%ion 9i%h an in#ivi#ual variable 9hile bein! in %he seman%ic sco5e of an a%%i%u#e 5re#ica%e li-e a vrea >9an%? as in (,B/ has much more #rama%ic conse@uences$ In %his case because of %he seman%ics of %he main verb %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he DP co-varies 9i%h 9orl#s %ha% %he sub6ec% ran-s hi!h$ There is no en%ailmen% of e;is%ence of a verif0in! value in %he 9orl# in

+<2

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

9hich %he 9hole sen%ence is %rue an# %here is no 9a0 of uni@uel0 s5ecif0in! %his value for each relevan% 9orl#$ In %he case of 5ar%i%ive in#efini%es %he #omain from 9hich %he variable is allo9e# %o be !iven values is narro9e# #o9n %o a #iscourse familiar se% an# %herefore %he 5ossibili%0 of value varia%ion is in%rinsicall0 limi%e# %o elemen%s of %his se%$ The 5arame%er of referen%ial s%abili%0 can be ma#e sense of in %he a55roach a#o5%e# here 9here %he 9a0 a variable is !iven values 9i%hin i%s lin!uis%ic environmen% or %he lar!er con%e;% is a crucial in%er5re%ive consi#era%ion$ Ue 9ill re%urn %o %he relevance of s%abili%0 of reference in *4$ 3.1.3. #ene0./ .n3ef.n.tes The final 5ro5er%0 of or#inar0 in#efini%es %o be #iscusse# here is %heir abili%0 %o ac@uire a !eneric-li-e in%er5re%a%ion in 5ar%icular lin!uis%ic con%e;%s$ An in#efini%e in %he an%ece#en% of a con#i%ional for ins%ance if in%er5re%e# as havin! narro9 sco5e rela%ive %o %he con#i%ional o5era%or a55ears %o ac@uire universal force3
(.1/ DacL o 5ersoanL e En A%ena (ea/ nu 5oa%e fi la Rho#os$ if a 5erson is in A%hens (she/ no% can be a% Rho#es >If a 5erson is in A%hens she canno% be in Rho#es$?

The in#efini%e is sai# %o have narro9 sco5e rela%ive %o %he con#i%ional un#er %he @ui%e na%ural in%er5re%a%ion in 9hich (.1/ is un#ers%oo# as claimin! %ha% for all 5eo5le if %he0 are in A%hens %he0 canno% be in Rho#es$ Oere %hen %he 5erson co-varies 9i%h %he cases consi#ere# an# in fac% %here are as man0 cases consi#ere# as %here are 5ersons since (.1/ ma-es a !eneral claim %ha% is su55ose# %o be %rue of all 5ersons$ The con#i%ional con%ribu%es a universal @uan%ifier %ha% a55ears %o bin# %he in#efini%e$ A rela%e# %05e of e;am5le is %ha% of >!eneric !eneraliAa%ions? e;em5lifie# in (.2/3
(.2/ Dn cWine nu miaunL$ a #o! no% meo9s >A #o! #oes no% meo9$?

Dn#er i%s mos% na%ural in%er5re%a%ion %his sen%ence is un#ers%oo# as s%a%in! a !eneral fac% abou% #o!s ra%her %han a fac% abou% a 5ar%icular #o!$ These %9o e;am5les %urn ou% %o e;em5lif0 a sin!le !eneral 5henomenon un#er %he assum5%ion %ha% in (.2/ %he in#efini%e is 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of a silen% !eneric o5era%or G7N 9hich @uan%ifies over #efaul% or !eneric si%ua%ions involvin! a #o!$ An earl0 accoun% of %hese fac%s ma#e %he ra#ical assum5%ion %ha% %he in#efini%e ar%icle #oes no% con%ribu%e an e;is%en%ial @uan%ifier bu% sim5l0 a free variable$ The e;is%en%ial in%er5re%a%ion %ha% 9e have encoun%ere# so far is %hen seen as arisin! b0 #efaul%$ In %he cases a% han# ho9ever %he universal @uan%ifier in%ro#uce# b0 %he con#i%ional as 9ell as %he G7N o5era%or in (.2/ bin# %he free variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he in#efini%e an# %hereb0 5reclu#e i%s #efaul% e;is%en%ial bin#in!$ The %ransla%ion of (.1/ an# (.2/ un#er %his assum5%ion is !iven in (.4/ an# (.,/3
(.4/ (.,/ Y;3 P7RSGN(;/ ) IN-ATO7NS(;/Z (IN-ROGD7S(;//
G7N

Y;3 DGG(;/Z ( :7GU(;//

In %hese formulas %he res%ric%or has been enclose# in s@uare brac-e%s an# %he nuclear sco5e in re!ular ones$ Uha% is s5ecial here is %ha% %he %9o @uan%ifiers an# G7N #o no% selec% a s5ecial variable for bin#in!$ The0 are assume# ins%ea# %o >unselec%ivel0? bin# an0 free variable in %heir res%ric%or or nuclear sco5e$ In our case %he onl0 such free variable is ; %he variable +<4

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

in%ro#uce# b0 %he in#efini%e$ The universal an# !eneric force of %he in#efini%es in (.1/ an# (.2/ %hen is conferre# %o %hem b0 @uan%ifiers e;%ernal %o %he DP i%self$ Oere 9e a#o5% a less ra#ical a55roach one 9here in#efini%es are assume# %o con%ribu%e an e;is%en%ial @uan%ifier in %hese e;am5les 6us% li-e else9here$ Uha% is s5ecial in %he e;am5les a% han# is %ha% %he universal @uan%ifier associa%e# 9i%h con#i%ionals an# %he im5lici% !eneric @uan%ifier in (.2/ bin# a si%ua%ion variable rela%ive %o 9hich %he in#efini%e is in%er5re%e#$ The 5ara5hrase of (.1/ un#er %his anal0sis is >f a situation s is suc! t!at t!ere is a person in s t!at is in At!ens% s is not a situation suc! t!at t!at person is in O!odes $ The 5ara5hrase of (.2/ is >n eneric situations s suc! t!at t!ere is a do in s% t!e s is suc! t!at t!at do does not meo&0 The formulas are !iven in (../ an# (.</ 9here s ran!es over si%ua%ions$
(../ (.</ s3 Y;3 P7RSGN-IN-s(;/ ) IN-ATO7NS-IN-s(;/Z (IN-ROGD7S-IN-s(;//
G7N

s Y;3 DGG-IN-s(;/Z ( :7GU-IN-s(;//

Oere %he e;is%en%ial occurs in %he nuclear sco5e of %he @uan%ifier %ha% bin#s %he si%ua%ion variable$
The formula in (../ raises %he 5roblem of >#on-e0 5ronoun? bin#in! i$e$ %he abili%0 of an e;is%en%ial in %he res%ric%or of a formula %o bin# a variable in %he nuclear sco5e of %ha% formula$ (In our case bin#s ; bo%h in %he res%ric%or an# %he nuclear sco5e$/ These cases are 9ell--no9n from e;am5les such as (i/3 (i/ 7ver0 farmer 9ho o9ns a #on-e0 bea%s i%$ If a farmer o9n a #on-e0 he bea%s i%$ There are various 9a0s of solvin! %his 5roblem %ha% are no% #irec%l0 relevan% %o 5resen% 5ur5oses an# %herefore 9ill no% be #iscusse# here$

7ach of %he solu%ions s-e%che# above involves a %echnical innova%ion since %he firs% assumes %ha% @uan%ifiers bin# unselec%ivel0 9hile %he secon# relies on %he in%ro#uc%ion of a variable ran!in! over a ne9 %05e of en%i%0 namel0 si%ua%ions$ 'o%h accoun% for %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he in#efini%e in %hese con%e;%s an# in bo%h %he in#efini%e is %rea%e# as havin! seman%icall0 narro9 sco5e rela%ive %o a universal or a !eneric @uan%ifier$ Ue a#o5% %he la%%er solu%ion because %he use of si%ua%ion variables fin#s am5le in#e5en#en% 6us%ifica%ion$ In (.2/ %he 5ro5er%0 of a 9hole -in# (%he -in# >#o!?/ is !iven b0 ma-in! reference %o arbi%rar0 in#ivi#uals %ha% realiAe i%$ Ano%her 9a0 of %al-in! abou% -in#s is %o #o so #irec%l0 b0 usin! a noun 5hrase %ha% refers %o %he 9hole -in#$ In Romanian %his is #one 9i%h a #efini%e DP in %he sin!ular or 5lural as sho9n in (.B/$
(.B/ a$ DrMii sun% rLs5Wn#iRi En 5L#urile #in aceas%L re!iune$ bears-%he are 9i#es5rea# in fores%s-%he from %his re!ion >'ears are 9i#es5rea# in %he fores%s of %his re!ion$? b$ Drsul e rLs5Wn#i% En 5L#urile #in aceas%L re!iune$ bear-%he is 9i#es5rea# in fores%s-%he from %his re!ion >The bear is 9i#es5rea# in %he fores%s of %his re!ion$? c$ DrMii sun% in%eli!enRi$ bears-%he are in%elli!en% >'ears are in%elli!en%$? #$ Drsul e mai in%eli!en% #ecW% vul5ea$ bear-%he is more in%elli!en% %han fo;-%he >The bear is more in%elli!en% %han %he fo;$?

In (.B/a-b %he a#6ec%ive rspndit >9i#es5rea#? is sai# %o be -in#-level because i% can be +<,

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

5re#ica%e# onl0 of -in#-level en%i%ies en%i%ies %ha% have in#ivi#uals as realiAa%ions$ In (.B/c-# %he a#6ec%ive is sai# %o be in#ivi#ual-level because i% charac%eriAes 9hole in#ivi#uals (ra%her %han a55l0in! %o s5a%io-%em5oral manifes%a%ions of in#ivi#uals %05ical of s%a!e-level 5re#ica%es such as obosit >%ire#?/$ In or#er %o ma-e formal sense of %hese observa%ions one has %o assume a more com5le; on%olo!0 %han 9e have #one so far$ Till no9 9e assume# %ha% in#ivi#ual variables 9hen %he0 are ar!umen%s of coun% nouns ran!e over in#ivi#uals or sums %hereof$ Ue no9 have %o enrich %his on%olo!0 allo9in! variables %o ran!e over #inds as 9ell as individuals$ A -in# is a s5ecial en%i%0 9hose realiAa%ions (or ins%an%ia%ions/ are in#ivi#uals$ Thus %he -in# >#o!? is an en%i%0 %ha% can be observe# in %he 9orl# via i%s in#ivi#ual realiAa%ion in#ivi#ual #o!s$ In#ivi#ual en%i%ies in %heir %urn are observe# in %he 9orl# via %heir s5a%io-%em5oral realiAa%ions calle# sta es %heir 5resence in 5ar%icular si%ua%ions anchore# in a 5ar%icular %ime a% a 5ar%icular 5lace$ Lan!ua!es #iffer 9i%h res5ec% %o 9he%her %he0 use #efini%e 5lural or in#efini%e (or bare/ 5lurals in e;am5les li-e (.B/$ Romanian is li-e o%her Romance lan!ua!es in usin! #efini%es here 9hile 7n!lish an# o%her Germanic lan!ua!es use in#efini%e forms as %he !losses sho9$ The use of %he #efini%e form is 6us%ifie# b0 %he fac% %ha% %he DP here refers %o %he uni@ue -in#level %ha% com5rises %he in#ivi#uals of %he relevan% -in# an# such reference is associa%e# 9i%h #efini%e DPs as ar!ue# above$ 3.2. Ma0>e3 .n3ef.n.te 3ete06.ne0s I% is no9 %ime %o %urn %o %he mo%le0 !rou5 of mar-e# in#efini%e #e%erminers$ These #e%erminers are li-e or#inar0 in#efini%es in %ha% %he0 lac- %he fea%ure Y D7FZ an# %hus #o no% re@uire #e%ermine# reference$ The0 are unli-e or#inar0 in#efini%es ho9ever in %ha% %he0 are mar-e# for o%her s5ecial fea%ures %ha% #is%in!uish %hem from %heir unmar-e# sis%er as 9ell as from one ano%her$ 3.2.1. Pa0t.t.2e DPs an3 5a0t.t.2e 3ete06.ne0s As has been men%ione# alrea#0 5ar%i%ivi%0 is charac%eriAe# seman%icall0 as reference %o one en%i%0 chosen from amon! a non-sin!le%on !rou5 of familiar en%i%ies a !rou5 9e call %he domain of %he 5ar%i%ive DP$ This !rou5 is necessaril0 non-sin!le%on in %ha% i% has %o have more %han one member$ Ue briefl0 e;amine here ho9 5ar%i%ivi%0 is e;5resse# in Romanian$ Firs% as alrea#0 men%ione# in Romanian li-e in man0 o%her lan!ua!es 5ar%i%ivi%0 can remain mor5ho-s0n%ac%icall0 unmar-e# as in %he bol#-face# in#efini%e in (.C/ 9hose referen% is un#ers%oo# as chosen from %he !rou5 of %hree !irls %ha% has 6us% been in%ro#uce#$
(.C/ Ion are %rei fe%e$ O fat: e la TimiMoara celelal%e #ouL sun% la Clu6$ Ion has %hree !irls a !irl is a% TimiMoara %he-o%hers %9o are a% Clu6 >Ion has %hree !irls$ A !irl is in TimiMoara %he o%her %9o are in Clu6$?

Seman%icall0 5ar%i%ive DPs are in#efini%e in %ha% %heir reference is un#e%ermine#3 an0 of %he elemen%s of %heir non-sin!le%on #omain is a 5o%en%ial referen%$ Par%i%ive DPs are ho9ever s5ecial in %ha% %heir reference is more res%ric%e# in 5rinci5le %han %ha% of %heir non-5ar%i%ive or#inar0 in#efini%e coun%er5ar%s because in %he case of %he 5ar%i%ives %he se% of 5ossible referen%s is circumscribe# %o elemen%s of %he con%e;%uall0 5resen% #omain$ Thus in (.C/ %he referen% of %he seman%icall0 5ar%i%ive DP o fat is an0 of %he 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# %hree !irls %ha% Ion has an# %herefore %he reference is un#e%ermine#$ I% is ho9ever res%ric%e# %o be one of %hese aforemen%ione# %hree !irls$ In (<=/ 9e e;em5lif0 %he mos% formall0 e;5lici% 5ar%i%ive %05e in Romanian3
(<=/ a$ Una 3.nEt0eF /:0t.le 3e 5e 6as: e O(boi i pace$

+<.

The Seman%ics of De%erminers a$FSG$ADG: of boo-s-%he on %able is Uar an# Peace >Gne of %he boo-s on %he %able is Mar and /eace$? b$ Un.. 3.nt0e st13enA.. l1. Ion sun% nemulRumi%i$ a$:PL$ADG: of s%u#en%s-%he G'L Ion are unha550 >Some of Ion?s s%u#en%s are unha550$?

This e;5lici% 5ar%i%ive form is ma#e u5 of %he >s%ron!? in#efini%e ar%icle unul$una 9hich in %he sin!ular is i#en%ical %o %he numeral one follo9e# b0 a PP 5hrase hea#e# b0 %he P din)tre* 9hose referen% is %he #omain of %he 5ar%i%ive an# 9hich mus% be #efini%e$ Uha% 9e call here %he s%ron! form of %he in#efini%e ar%icle is ma#e u5 mor5holo!icall0 from %he masculine sin!ular (i$e$ unmar-e#/ form of %he in#efini%e ar%icle un follo9e# b0 an >au!men%? 9hich in %he #irec% case is i#en%ical %o %he #efini%e ar%icle cli%ic an# in %he obli@ue case is - a (see cha5%er 2 sec%ion 2/$ Ue 9ill assume here %ha% %he nominal hea# of %he 5ar%i%ive is obli!a%oril0 em5%0 an# is ana5horicall0 rela%e# %o %he nominal hea# of %he DP in %he #omain 5hrase$ The #omain 5hrase can be lef% une;5resse# in a 5ar%i%ive DP in 9hich case i% is recoverable from %he imme#ia%el0 5rece#in! #iscourse as in (<+/3
(<+/ a$ Au in%ra% %rei fe%e$ Una era EmbrLca%L ele!an% celelal%e #ouL nu$ have$2PL en%ere# %hree !irls a$FSG$ADG: 9as #resse# ele!an%l0 %he-o%hers %9o no% >Three !irls came in$ Gne 9as #resse# ele!an%l0 %he o%her %9o 9eren?%$? b$ L-am vLAu% ieri 5e :anole cu 1na la res%auran%$ CL$ACC-have$+ seen 0es%er#a0 DG: :anole 9i%h a$FSG$ADG: a% res%auran% >I sa9 :anole 0es%er#a0 9i%h some 9oman a% a res%auran%$?

The un#e%ermine# referen% of una mus% be chosen from amon! %he %hree !irls 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce#$
The s%ron! in#efini%e ar%icle 9i%h an em5%0 hea# ma0 also be use# in a non-5ar%i%ive sense %o refer %o an elemen% of %he se% humans male if %he form is masculine an# female if %he form is feminine as e;em5lifie# in (i/3 (i/ L-am vLAu% ieri 5e :anole cu 1na la res%auran%$ CL$ACCxhave$+ seen 0es%er#a0 DG: :anole 9i%h a-%he$FSG a% res%auran% >I sa9 :anole 0es%er#a0 9i%h some 9oman a% a res%auran%$?

The 5lural form of %he s%ron! in#efini%e #e%erminer unii$unele ma0 occur 9i%h an over% nominal hea# an# no #omain 5hrase in %he #irec% case as in (<1/$ Ue call %his form >sim5le 5ar%i%ive? because %he #omain is no% e;5resse# b0 a PP bu% ra%her b0 a sim5le nominal$
(<1/ a$ Un.. 5a/.enA. au aler!ie la aces% me#icamen%$ a$:PL$ADG: 5a%ien%s have aller!0 a% %his me#icine >Some 5a%ien%s are aller!ic %o %his me#icine$? b$ `n salL erau a#unaRi s%u#enRi 5rofesori Mi a#minis%ra%ori$ Un.. st13enA. in room 9ere !a%here# s%u#en%s 5rofessors an# a#minis%ra%ors a$ :PL$ADG: s%u#en%s 5ur%au 5ancar#e alRii s%ea!uri$ carrie# si!ns o%her$:PL$ADG: fla!s >In %he hall %here 9ere !a%here# s%u#en%s 5rofessors an# a#minis%ra%ors$ Some s%u#en%s 9ere carr0in! si!ns o%hers fla!s$

Sim5le 5ar%i%ives are seman%icall0 5ar%i%ives in %ha% %he DP is un#ers%oo# as referrin! %o a s%ric% subse% of %he referen% of i%s nominal hea#$ In %he absence of con%e;%ual su55or% as in (<1/a %he nominal hea# refers %o %he ma;imal se% in i%s #eno%a%ion an# %he sen%ence is un#ers%oo# as a charac%eriAin! s%a%emen% abou% %ha% se%$ Thus (<1/a is a !eneral s%a%emen% abou% 5a%ien%s

+<<

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

s%a%in! %ha% a s%ric% subse% of %hem are aller!ic %o %he me#icine$ '0 con%ras% if an or#inar0 5lural in#efini%e is use# ins%ea# as in (<2/
(<2/ NiM%e 5acienRi au aler!ie la aces% me#icamen%$ some 5a%ien%s have aller!0 a% %his me#icine >Some 5a%ien%s are aller!ic %o %his me#icine$?

%he s%a%emen% is abou% a non-#e%ermine# !rou5 of 5a%ien%s$ Subs%i%u%in! %he full 5ar%i%ive DP unii dintre pacieni %o unii pacieni in (<1/a re@uires %he #omain pacieni %o be #efini%e i$e$ %he con%e;% mus% su55l0 a se% of 5a%ien%s an# %he full 5ar%i%ive DP refers %o a s%ric% subse% %hereof$ In (<1/b on %he o%her han# %he #omain is con%e;%uall0 res%ric%e# %o %he se% of s%u#en%s 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# an# %herefore in %his case %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he sim5le 5ar%i%ive unii studeni >some s%u#en%s? is i#en%ical %o %ha% of %he full 5ar%i%ive unii dintre studeni0 To ca5%ure %he sub%le bu% im5or%an% #ifference be%9een 5ar%i%ive DPs an# or#inar0 in#efini%es one shoul# ca5i%aliAe on %he role of %he #omain 5hrase in 5ar%i%ives vs$ or#inar0 (in/#efini%es$ In or#inar0 in#efini%es %he #omain 5hrase is %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he DP$ This 5hrase is in%er5re%e# as a 5re#ica%e on %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he in#efini%e$ In 5ar%i%ives DPs on %he o%her han# %he relevan% con#i%ion involves %he e;5lici% >elemen% of? rela%ion be%9een %9o in#e5en#en%l0 in%ro#uce# variables one variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he 5ar%i%ive in#efini%e an# boun# b0 an e;is%en%ial an# one in%ro#uce# b0 %he DP in %he #omain 5hrase$ Thus %he re5resen%a%ion of %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he e;5lici% 5ar%i%ive DP unul dintre studenii lui >on involves ' 1 y 9here ' is %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he 5ar%i%ive unul y is %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he #omain nominal an# 1 s%an#s for %he >s%ric%l0 5ar% of? rela%ion be%9een an en%i%0 an# a se% or !rou5 %ha% %he en%i%0 is a sub5ar% of 9i%h %he a##e# con#i%ion %ha% bo%h en%i%ies have %o be in#ivi#ua%e#$ Ue assume %ha% %he #e%erminer in over%l0 5ar%i%ive DPs such as unul dintre studenti >one of %he s%u#en%s? is mar-e# 9i%h a fea%ure Y PARTZ %ha% im5oses %he re@uiremen% %ha% %he value of %he variable i% in%ro#uces be chosen from %he con%e;%uall0 su55lie# se% or !rou5 #eno%e# b0 %he DP ob6ec% of %he 5re5osi%ion din)tre* >of?$ As seen in Sec%ion 2$+ above %he 5lural in#efini%e civa >several? is com5a%ible 9i%h 5ar%i%ive uses bu% %he non-in#ivi#ua%e# nite is no%$ Romanian has a !rou5 of >#is6oin% reference? s5ecial in#efini%e DPs 9hose #e%erminer is a form 9i%hin %he 5ara#i!m of (un/ alt or cellalt$ The former in%ro#uces a variable 9hose value mus% be #is6oin% from %he reference of a 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# variable 9hile %he la%%er in%ro#uces a variable 9hose reference is bo%h #is6oin% rela%ive %o an an%ece#en% an# ma;imal rela%ive %o %heir common #omain$ These #is6oin% reference DPs ma0 have a 5ar%i%ive use as e;em5lifie# in (<4/3
(<4/ Ion are %rei fe%e$ G fa%L e la TimiMoara (o/ al%L fa%L e la Clu6/celelal%e fe%e sun% la Clu6$ Ion has %hree !irls a !irl is a% TimiMoara a o%her !irl is a% Clu6/%he-o%hers !irls are a% Clu6 >Ion has %hree !irls$ A !irl is in TimiMoara ano%her !irl is in Clu6/%he o%her !irls are in Clu6$?

The referen% of )o* alt fat >ano%her !irl? mus% be #is6oin% from %ha% of %he an%ece#en% o fatI %he referen% of celelalte fete >%he o%her !irls? is #is6oin% rela%ive %o %he firs% in#efini%e bu% ma;imal rela%ive %o %heir common #omain namel0 Ion?s %hree !irls$
'ecause Ion is sai# %o have %hree !irls in (<4/ %he ma;imal #is6oin% DP mus% be 5lural %o cover %he %9o !irls remainin! af%er %he !irl in TimiMoara is sub%rac%e#$ Oa# Ion ha# %9o !irls onl0 %he ma;imal #is6oin% DP 9oul# have been sin!ular (cealalt fat e la ,lu+ >%he o%her !irl is in Clu6?$/

These forms can also be use# 9i%h null nominal hea#s as e;em5lifie# in (<,/3

+<B

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

(<,/

Ion are %rei fe%e$ Dna e la TimiMoara al%a la Clu6/ celelal%e la Clu6$ Ion has %hree !irls a$FSG$ADG: is a% TimiMoara o%her$FSG$ADG: a% Clu6/ %he-o%hers a% Clu6 >Ion has %hree !irls$ Gne is in TimiMoara ano%her in Clu6/%he o%hers in Clu6$?

Common %o %he #e%erminers #iscusse# in %his subsec%ion is %ha% %he0 in%ro#uce a #iscourse referen% 9hose value is re@uire# %o be a sub5ar% of %he value of ano%her #iscourse referen% (%heir #omain/$ 3.2.2. De5en3ent .n3ef.n.tes? t8e /o+2a09.n4 3ete06.ne0 cte un In Romanian %he unmar-e# in#efini%e #e%erminer can be 5rece#e# b0 %he mor5heme cte 9hose effec% is %o %urn %he DP in%o a >#e5en#en% in#efini%e?$ The 5resence of %his mor5heme re@uires %he #iscourse referen% in%ro#uce# b0 %he DP %o co-var0 9i%h ano%her var0in! #iscourse referen%$ This means %ha% %here mus% be ano%her e;5ression in %he environmen% of %he #e5en#en% in#efini%e %ha% 5rovi#es a variable 9i%h var0in! values an# %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 cte un mus% have values %ha% co-var0 9i%h i% resul%in! in a s5ecial %05e of >i%era%ive? or evalua%ive 5lural reference$ The co-var0in! #e5en#en% DP %herefore mus% have narro9 sco5e rela%ive %o %he e;5ression %ha% in%ro#uces %he #iscourse referen% 9i%h 9hich i% co-varies$ To e;em5lif0 consi#er %he e;am5le in (<./ 9here %he cte in#efini%e mus% be in%er5re%e# no% onl0 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of %he universal bu% mus% in fac% co-var0 9i%h i%$
(<./ Fiecare co5il a ci%i% /Kte o car%e$ ever0 chil# has rea# DISTR a boo>7ver0 chil# rea# a boo-$?

In (<</a 9e see %ha% #e5en#en% in#efini%es ma0 co-var0 9i%h an im5lici% universal %ha% #is%ribu%es over %he elemen%s of a sum DP an# in (<</b 9e see %ha% i% ma0 co-var0 9i%h an a#verb of @uan%ifica%ion %ha% forces a 5lurac%ional in%er5re%a%ion of %he sen%ence in i%s sco5e$ 7;am5le (<</b is in%er5re%e# as involvin! several even%s 9i%h #is%inc% s%u#en%s as-in! @ues%ions$
(<</ a$ Cri%icii au scris #es5re /Kte o 5iesL$ cri%ics-%he have 9ri%%en abou% DISTR a 5la0 >The cri%ics 9ro%e abou% a 5la0 each$? b$ Din cWn# En cWn# /Kte un s%u#en% 5unea /Kte o En%rebare$ from 9hen in 9hen DISTR a s%u#en% as-$I:PF DISTR a @ues%ion >From %ime %o %ime a s%u#en% as-e# a @ues%ion$?

A DP mar-e# b0 cte is 5lural in %he sense %ha% in (<</a %here mus% be several 5la0s involve#I such DPs are sin!ular in %he sense %ha% %he sen%ence claims %here %o be one 5la0 5er cri%icI in (<</b %here mus% be several s%u#en%s involve# bu% one 5er occasion$ Ue call %his s5ecial %05e of 5lurali%0 >evalua%ion 5lural?$ In 9ha% follo9s 9e call >licensin! variable? %he variable %ha% %he #e5en#en% DP co-varies 9i%h$ No%e %ha% %he licensin! variable ma0 be in#ivi#ual #eno%in! as in (<./ an# (<</a or si%ua%ion #eno%in! as in (<</b bu% i% ma0 no% be mo#al i$e$ 9orl##eno%in! as sho9n in (<B/3
(<B/ XTrebuie sL ci%eM%i /Kte o car%e$ mus% SD'N rea#$1SG DISTR a boo>qou mus% rea# a boo-$?

The %05e of in%er5re%a%ional cons%rain% involve# in %he case of #e5en#en% in#efini%es can be

+<C

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

easil0 e;5resse# 9i%hin %he a55roach %o %he sco5e of or#inar0 in#efini%es #iscusse# a% %he en# of 2$+$+ above$ Recall %ha% %he essence of %ha% a55roach is %ha% in#efini%es have access %o 5reviousl0 in%ro#uce# var0in! variables an# %he0 are free %o choose 9he%her %o be in%er5re%e# as co-var0in! 9i%h %hem or no%$ Ue re5resen% co-varia%ion as su5erscri5%in! of %he e;is%en%ial variable 9i%h %he variable i% co-varies 9i%h$ Ue no9 can %rea% %he mor5holo!ical mar-in! b0 cte as con%ribu%in! a seman%ic fea%ure YCGZ %ha% re@uires %he e;is%en%iall0 boun# variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he in#efini%e %o be su5erscri5%e# 9i%h an in#ivi#ual or si%ua%ion-#eno%in! variable 9i%h 9hich i% has %o co-var0$ The re5resen%a%ion of (<./ %hen is as in (<C/3
(<C/ Y;3 /8.l3(;/Z (Yg;h03 boo>(0/Z 0ea3(; 0//

No%e %ha% %his accoun% correc%l0 5re#ic%s %ha% #e5en#en% in#efini%es 9ill no% be license# b0 ne!a%ion as sho9n in (B=/ because ne!a%ion #oes no% con%ribu%e an a55ro5ria%e variable for %he #e5en#en% in#efini%e %o co-var0 9i%h3
(B=/ X:aria nu a ci%i% cte o car%e #es5re Clu6$ :aria no% has rea# DISTR a boo- abou% Clu6

The e;is%ence of such #e5en#en% in#efini%es is a rela%ivel0 common cross-lin!uis%ic 5henomenon formall0 mar-e# ei%her b0 s5ecial e;%ra mor5holo!0 (as in Russian or Albanian/ on %he in#efini%e or b0 re#u5lica%in! %he in#efini%e #e%erminer (as in Oun!arian or :a0an lan!ua!es/$ These s5ecial in#efini%es un#erscore %he im5or%ance of %he seman%ic no%ion of covaria%ion of values be%9een %9o variables a no%ion %ha% %he a55roach %o in#efini%e sco5e assume# here %a-es as basic$ 3.2.3 T8e ne4at.2e .n3ef.n.te 3ete06.ne0 niciun Ano%her class of s5ecial in#efini%e #e%erminers men%ione# alrea#0 in Sec%ion + involves %he ne!a%ive mor5heme nici 5rece#in! %he in#efini%e ar%icle e;em5lifie# in (B+/3
(B+/ a$ N./.un s%u#en% nu a 5leca%$ N7G-a s%u#en% no% has lef% >No s%u#en% lef%$? b$ Nu a veni% n./.un s%u#en%$ no% has arrive# N7G-a s%u#en% >No s%u#en% arrive#$? c$ Paul nu a invi%a% n./.un s%u#en%$ Paul no% has invi%e# N7G-a s%u#en% >Paul hasn?% invi%e# an0 s%u#en%$?

The re@uiremen% im5ose# b0 %he 5resence of nici is %ha% %he in#efini%e DP mus% occur 9i%hin %he imme#ia%e sco5e of an a55ro5ria%e ne!a%ive elemen% (sen%en%ial ne!a%ion or %he ne!a%ive a#verb fr >9i%hou%?/$ Conse@uen%l0 nici mar-e# in#efini%es mus% be in%er5re%e# un#er %he seman%ic sco5e of ne!a%ion i$e$ %he0 are in%er5re%e# as e;is%en%ials 9i%hin %he sco5e of ne!a%ion$ Ue %herefore a## %o our se% of fea%ures %ha% ma0 occur on in#efini%es %he fea%ure YN7GZ con%ribu%e# b0 %he mor5heme nici si!nalin! %ha% %he in#efini%e has %o be in%er5re%e# 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of ne!a%ion$ No%e %ha% %he 9a0 an e;is%en%ial is in%er5re%e# 9hen i% occurs 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of ne!a%ion is mar-e#l0 #ifferen% from i%s in%er5re%a%ion else9here$ The verifica%ion 5roce#ure for a formula of %he !eneral form (Y;3P(;/Z8(;// involves verif0in! for ever0 i%em %ha% sa%isfies %he res%ric%or (i$e$ ever0 en%i%0 %ha% is P/ %ha% i% #oes no% sa%isf0 %he nuclear sco5e (i$e$ %ha% i% is no% 8/$ This is si!nifican%l0 #ifferen% from 9ha% ha55ens 9i%h e;is%en%ials ou%si#e %he sco5e of ne!a%ion 9here one sim5l0 has %o fin# +B=

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

some en%i%0 %ha% verifies %he res%ric%or an# %he nuclear sco5e$ I% is no% sur5risin! %herefore %ha% %here are lan!ua!es li-e Romanian 9hich over%l0 mar- in#efini%es %ha% are 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of ne!a%ion$ The fea%ure YN7GZ %hen si!nals %ha% %he in#efini%e is 9i%hin %he sco5e of sen%en%ial ne!a%ion an# %herefore nici can be seen as a mor5holo!ical realiAa%ion of sen%en%ial ne!a%ion$ Romanian is a ne!a%ive concor# lan!ua!e in %ha% sen%en%ial ne!a%ion is realiAe# no% onl0 on %he in#efini%e bu% also on %he verb b0 %he ne!a%ive mor5heme nu$ The rela%ionshi5 be%9een sen%en%ial ne!a%ion an# nici mar-in! is ra%her com5le;$ Firs% sen%en%ial ne!a%ion is obli!a%or0$ If an in#efini%e sub6ec% is %o be in%er5re%e# un#er %he seman%ic sco5e of ne!a%ion i% has %o be mar-e# b0 nici bo%h in 5re- an# in 5os%-verbal 5osi%ion an# %herefore %he unmar-e# in#efini%es in (B1/ 9ill be in%er5re%e# ou%si#e %he sco5e of ne!a%ion3
(B1/ a$ Dn s%u#en% nu a 5leca%$ a s%u#en% no% has lef% >A s%u#en% #i#n?% leave$? b$ Nu a veni% un s%u#en%$ no% has arrive# a s%u#en% >A s%u#en% has no% arrive#$

In non-sub6ec% 5osi%ion ho9ever nici mar-in! is no% obli!a%or0 an# %herefore (B2/ is ambi!uous3 %he in#efini%e ma0 be in%er5re%e# ei%her 9i%hin or ou%si#e %he sco5e of ne!a%ion i$e$ %he claim (B2/ ma-es can ei%her be %ha% %here 9as no mis%a-e %ha% Paul foun# or %ha% %here 9as a mis%a-e %ha% he #i#n?% fin#3
(B2/ Paul nu a !Lsi% o !reMealL En lucrarea mea oricW% s- a s%rL#ui%$ Paul no% has foun# a mis%a-e in 5a5er-%he mine ho9ever R7FL has %rie# >Paul #i#n?% fin# a mis%a-e in m0 5a5er no ma%%er ho9 har# he %rie#$?

Ne!a%ive in#efini%es ma0 also occur in a#verbial clauses in%ro#uce# b0 fr >9i%hou%? as e;em5lifie# in (B4/3
(B4/ Paul a 5leca% fLrL sL (Xnu/ s5unL niciun cuvWn%$ Paul has lef% 9i%hou% SD'N no% sa0 N7G-a 9or# >Paul lef% 9i%hou% sa0in! an0%hin!$?

In such clauses sen%en%ial ne!a%ion is no% 5ossible bu% ne!a%ion is seman%icall0 5resen%3 5ar% of %he claim (B4/ ma-es is %ha% Paul #i# no% sa0 an0 9or# a% %he relevan% %ime$ The connec%ion be%9een fr >9i%hou%? clauses an# nici mar-e# in#efini%es is more com5le;$ Thus 9hile sub6ec%s in ne!a%ive clauses mus% be mar-e# b0 nici in fr >9i%hou%? clauses %he0 #o no% have %o3
(B,/ Ana a 5leca% fLrL sL o observe (nici/un 5rofesor$ Ana has lef% 9i%hou% SD'N her$ACC no%ice N7G a 5rofessor >Ana lef% 9i%hou% a 5rofessor no%icin!$?

Oere un profesor >a 5rofessor? can be in%er5re%e# as bein! ei%her 9i%hin %he sco5e of ne!a%ion (in 9hich case (B,/ claims %ha% no 5rofessor no%ice# Ana?s leavin!/ or ou%si#e i%s sco5e (in 9hich case %he claim is %ha% %here is a 5rofessor 9ho #i#n?% no%ice her leavin!/$ The former rea#in! can be enforce# b0 %he use of nici$ As 9e 9ill see in %he ne;% subsec%ion %he s5ecial in#efini%e vreun can be use# %o mar- %he occurrence of an in#efini%e 9i%hin %he sco5e of %he im5lici% seman%ic ne!a%ion in fr >9i%hou%? clauses$

+B+

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

In sum nici mar-e# DPs involve a YN7GZ fea%ure 9hose seman%ic role is sim5le3 i% si!nals %ha% %he in#efini%e mus% be in%er5re%e# 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of ne!a%ion$ :or5hos0n%ac%ic com5le;i%ies arise 9hen one loo-s a% %he #e%ails of 9hen %his fea%ure ma0 or mus% be 5resen%$ The in%er5re%ive conse@uences of havin! an e;is%en%ial 9i%hin %he sco5e of ne!a%ion ma-e %he e;is%ence of a fea%ure such as YN7GZ unsur5risin!$ 3.2.$. F0ee /8o./e? vreun an3 ori- determiners In %his sec%ion 9e #iscuss %9o s5ecial #e%erminers3 (i/ %he ori-#e%erminers e;em5lifie# in (B./a-b an# %he com5le; in#efini%e vreun e;em5lifie# in (B./c$ The 5ar%i%ive form of vreun is e;em5lifie# in (B./#$
(B./ a$ PoRi lua o0./e mLr$ can$1SG %a-e ori-9ha% a55le >qou ma0 %a-e an0 a55le$? b$ PoRi lua o0./a0e mLr #in farfuria as%a$ can$1SG %a-e ori-9hich a55le from 5la%e-%he %his >qou ma0 %a-e an0 a55le from %his 5la%e$? c$ Ai 20eo car%e #es5re Clu6K Oave vre-a boo- abou% Clu6 >Do 0ou have an0 boo- abou% Clu6K? #$ DacL El veAi 5e 20e1n1l #in s%u#enRii lui Ion %riMWn# if him$ACC see$1SG DG: vre-a$ADG: of s%u#en%s-%he G'L Ion chea%in! s5une- mi$ %ell$I:PV$1SG-me$DAT >If 0ou see an0 of Ion?s s%u#en%s chea%in! %ell me$?

The #e%erminers 9i%hin %he ori series are ma#e u5 of %he ori mor5heme (rela%e# %o #is6unc%ion/ an# ei%her an in#efini%e in%erro!a%ive 5ronoun inflec%e# for H/- 5erson ( oricine$orice/ or %he 5ar%i%ive (or #-lin-e#/ in%erro!a%ive 5ronoun care >9hich? use# 9hen %he #omain of en%i%ies from 9hich values are %o be selec%e# is con%e;%uall0 available$ Ereun-in#efini%es are ma#e u5 of %he boun# mor5heme vre- follo9e# b0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle %ha% a!rees 9i%h %he hea# noun in !en#er an# number$ The 5ar%i%ive form of vreun involves %he au!men% 6us% as in %he case of 5ar%i%ive in#efini%es$ In %his sec%ion 9e firs% see %ha% ori- an# vreun in#efini%es #o %he 9or- of so calle# >free choice? any in 7n!lish$ Ue 9ill %hen #iscuss some rela%e# uses of vreun in#efini%es %ha% fall ou%si#e %he free choice #omain$
The Romanian e@uivalen% of %he >6us% an0? use of any is 0e% ano%her mor5heme oarecare 5lace# af%er %he hea# noun3 (i/ 7l nu e 1n st13ent oa0e/a0e$ 7 fiul #ecanului$ he no% is a s%u#en% oare-9hich is son-%he #ean-%he$G7N >Oe is no% 6us% an0 s%u#en%$ Oe is %he #ean?s son$?

In man0 lan!ua!es inclu#in! Romanian %here are mar-e# #e%erminers calle# >free choice? (FC/ because %he0 si!nal %ha% %here are several al%erna%ive values for %he variable %he0 in%ro#uce 9hich coun% as bein! in some sense e@ual$ The mos% s%u#ie# such #e%erminer is 7n!lish any e;em5lifie# in (B</3
(B</ a$ qou ma0 %a-e an9 a55le$ b$ Do 0ou have an9 boo-s abou% Clu6K

The >free choice? label is use# because in (B</a %he use of any si!nals %ha% %he a##ressee is +B1

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

free %o choose %he a55le she %a-es i$e$ %ha% all %he relevan% a55les are e@ual 9i%h res5ec% %o %he 5ermission bein! !iven$ Similarl0 in (B</b %he use of any si!nals %ha% #ifferences amon! various boo-s abou% Clu6 are no% relevan% for %he s5ea-er?s 5ur5oses$ Oer @ues%ion concerns %he e;is%ence of some boo- abou% Clu6 i% #oes no% ma%%er 9hich$ The %9o uses of any e;em5lifie# in (B</ are covere# b0 #ifferen% #e%erminers in Romanian as seen in (B./$ Ue firs% #iscuss %heir common 5ro5er%ies an# %hen %urn %o #ifferen%ia%in! %hem$ Ue follo9 %he line in %he li%era%ure %ha% %rea%s FC #e%erminers as s5ecial in#efini%es i$e$ as in#efini%es %ha% im5ose s5ecial con#i%ions on %heir evalua%ion$ The s5ecial na%ure of FC #e%erminers is a55aren% in %ha% %heir #is%ribu%ion is cons%raine# b0 %9o !eneraliAa%ions$ Firs% %he0 ma0 no% occur in e5iso#ic sen%ences as e;em5lifie# in (BB/3
(BB/ XIeri Ioana a vorbi% cu orice s%u#en%$ 0es%er#a0 Ioana has s5o-en 9i%h ori-9ha% s%u#en%

DPs hea#e# b0 %hese Ds %hen mus% be 9i%hin %he sco5e of an o5era%or such as a mo#al as in (B</a-b %he in%erro!a%ive o5era%or as in (B</c a con#i%ional or ne!a%ion e;em5lifie# in (BC/3
(BC/ a$ DacL 5leacL 20e1n@o0./e s%u#en% mL voi su5Lra$ if leaves vre-a ori-9ha% s%u#en% R7FL 9ill$+SG u5se% >If an0 s%u#en% leaves I 9ill be an!r0$? b$ :anole a 5leca% fLrL sL 5unL 20eo En%rebare$ :anole has lef% 9i%hou% SD'N as-s vre-a @ues%ion >:anole lef% 9i%hou% as-in! an0 @ues%ion$?

There are %9o fur%her observa%ions %o be ma#e 9i%h res5ec% %o %he #is%ribu%ion of %hese FC i%ems$ Firs% %he ban on e5iso#ic sen%ences illus%ra%e# b0 (BB/ is lif%e# in case %he DP is a55ro5ria%el0 mo#ifie# a 5henomenon -no9n as sub%ri!!in! illus%ra%e# in (C=/3
(C=/ Ieri Ioana a vorbi% cu orice s%u#en% care s-a 5reAen%a% En biroul ei$ 0es%er#a0 Ioana has s5o-en 9i%h ori-9ha% s%u#en% 9ho R7FL-has 5resen%e# in office-%he her >qes%er#a0 Iona s5o-e 9i%h an0 s%u#en% 9ho sho9e# u5 in her office$?

Secon# %hou!h mo#als license %hese DPs universal mo#als #o no% as illus%ra%e# in (C+/3
(C+/ XTrebuie sL !uM%i o0./e mLr$ mus% SD'N %as%e$1SG ori-9ha% a55le

A!ain a55ro5ria%e mo#ifica%ion rescues %hese e;am5les as seen in (C1/3


(C1/ Trebuie sL !uM%i o0./e mLr 5e care Ri-l va oferi :aria mus% SD'N %as%e$1SG ori-9ha% a55le DG: 9hich 0ou$DAT-CL$ACC 9ill offer :aria >qou mus% %as%e an0 a55le %ha% :aria 9ill offer 0ou$?

In 9ha% follo9s 9e #iscuss %he follo9in! %hree rela%e# @ues%ions3 (i/ ho9 %o charac%eriAe %he in%er5re%a%ion of %hese s5ecial #e%erminers in such a 9a0 as %o ca5%ure 9ha% is uni@ue %o %hem as 9ell as 9ha% %he0 share 9i%h o%her #e%erminers (ii/ ho9 %o accoun% for %he !eneraliAa%ions %ha% !overn %heir #is%ribu%ion an# (iii/ ho9 %o #ifferen%ia%e be%9een ori-#e%erminers an# vreun0 Common %o %he FC i%ems in %he ori- an# vreun !rou5s in%ui%ivel0 is %ha% %heir value is %o be freel0 chosen from amon! %he i%ems %ha% fall 9i%hin %he #eno%a%ion of %heir #escri5%ive con%en%$ Ue ca5%ure %his b0 assumin! %ha% %heir in%er5re%a%ion involves a ma;imal se% P of +B2

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

mu%uall0 e;clusive un#ifferen%ia%e# al%erna%ives$ The no%ion of al%erna%ives use# here is %he same as %he D0namic Seman%ic no%ion of possibilities3 i% is a se% of assi!nmen% func%ion an# si%ua%ion 5airs f% s such %ha% f)'%s* (%he value %ha% f assi!ns %o ' in s/ sa%isfies %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he DP 9here ' is %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he FC #e%erminer$ (Ue %rea% here 9orl#s as ma;imal si%ua%ions$/ The al%erna%ives involve# are ma;imal in %ha% %he0 cover each en%i%0 in %he (5o%en%iall0 con%e;%uall0 res%ric%e#/ #omain of %he DP$ Thus for each relevan% a55le a %here 9ill be an al%erna%ive ef% sf in P% %he #eno%a%ion of orice mr in (C1/ 9here %he value of f)'%s* is a0 For sim5lici%0?s sa-e 9e 9ill %a-e P %o be a se% of in#ivi#ual-si%ua%ion 5airs 9here %he in#ivi#ual is %he value %ha% %he assi!nmen% func%ion assi!ns %o %he variable in s$ The mu%ual e;clusivi%0 re@uiremen% ensures %ha% each al%erna%ive in P is #ifferen% from all %he o%hers$ In or#er %o e;5ress %his re@uiremen% 9e use referen%ial in#ices on in#ivi#uals an# si%ua%ions an# assume %ha% non-i#en%i%0 of in#e; en%ails #is%inc%ness of value$ The se% of al%erna%ives P in %he #eno%a%ion of a FC DP is %he ma;imal se% of 5airs of en%i%ies an# si%ua%ions evi s6 f 9here %he en%i%0 sa%isfies %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he DP an# in a##i%ion %he mu%ual e;clusivi%0 re@uiremen% !iven in (C2/ enforces s%ric% co-varia%ion be%9een en%i%0 an# si%ua%ion for each 5air in %he se%$
(C2/ 5utual e'clusivity3 A se% of al%erna%ives F is mu%uall0 e;clusive iff for an0 %9o 5airs evi s6 f an# evi? s6? f in P i? w i an# 6? w 6$

7ach al%erna%ive in %he se% involves a #ifferen% in#ivi#ual an# a #ifferen% minimal si%ua%ion$ The al%erna%ives involve# are un#ifferen%ia%e# in %he sense %ha% each is a 5ossible verif0in! al%erna%ive for %he e;5ression in 9hich %he FC DP occurs$ In %he case of (B./a %hen orice mr >an0 a55le? #eno%es a se% of ma;imal al%erna%ives ma#e u5 of a minimal si%ua%ion an# an a55le in i% one such al%erna%ive 5er relevan% a55le$ The 9hole sen%ence sa0s %ha% for each such al%erna%ive %here is a lar!er si%ua%ion %ha% con%ains i% in 9hich 0ou %a-e %ha% a55le an# no o%her an# 9hich is 9i%hin %he realm of 5ermissible si%ua%ions$ In %he case of (B./c vreo carte despre ,lu+ >an0 boo- abou% Clu6? #eno%es a ma;imal se% of mu%uall0 e;clusive al%erna%ives involvin! #ifferen% minimal si%ua%ions an# #ifferen% boo-s abou% Clu6 in %hem one such al%erna%ive for each 5ossible boo-$ The @ues%ion o5era%or in%ro#uces a se% of 5ossible 5osi%ive an# ne!a%ive ans9ers an# %he use of %he free choice vreun ensures %ha% each si%ua%ion such %ha% %here is a boo- abou% Clu6 in i% %ha% %he a##ressee has falls 9i%hin %he 5osi%ive si#e$ In (BC/a %he vreun in#efini%e in%ro#uces s%u#en%-si%ua%ion 5airs one such 5air for each 5ossible s%u#en%$ The con#i%ional %hen sa0s %ha% each lar!er 5ossible si%ua%ion in 9hich %here is a s%u#en% %ha% leaves is such %ha% %he s5ea-er !e%s an!r0 in %ha% si%ua%ion$ In (BC/b %he FC vreun in#efini%e is com5e%in! 9i%h %he YN7GZ in#efini%e because %he seman%ic ne!a%ion in%ro#uce# b0 fr alrea#0 ensures %ha% an e;is%en%ial 9i%hin i%s sco5e 9ill be in%er5re%e# rela%ive %o a ma;imal se% of al%erna%ives each al%erna%ive involvin! one elemen% in %he se% #eno%e# b0 %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he in#efini%e$ FC any in 7n!lish an# i%s e@uivalen%s in Romanian are associa%e# 9i%h a >9i#enin!? effec%3 in%ui%ivel0 one feels %ha% %he #omain of %he DP is 9i#ene# 9hen a FC #e%erminer is use#$ This effec% is #ue %o %he ma;imal (or e;haus%ive/ na%ure of %he al%erna%ives in%ro#uce# b0 %he FC #e%erminer$ Thus %he use of a FC #e%erminer mar-e# for ma;imali%0 ins%ea# of an or#inar0 in#efini%e si!nals %he fac% %ha% each 5ossible value is %o be consi#ere#$ The fac% %ha% %here are 5ar%i%ive FC #e%erminers such as oricare sho9s %ha% %his 9i#enin! effec% canno% be %rea%e# as re@uirin! %he absence of con%e;%ual res%ric%ions$ FC #e%erminers are also associa%e# 9i%h a scalar effec%3 in case %he #omain of %he DP can be seen as bein! or#ere# alon! a li-elihoo# scale or a @uan%i%a%ive scale %he use of %he FC i%em in#ica%es %ha% even %he leas% li-el0 or %he smalles% i%em is %o be inclu#e# as a 5ossible +B4

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

value$ This effec% is #ue a!ain %o %he ma;imali%0 re@uiremen% on %he relevan% al%erna%ives a re@uiremen% %ha% ensures %ha% no 5ossible value is %o be overloo-e#$ Ue see %his scalar effec% a% 9or- in (C4/
(C4/ :L #eran6eaAL orice A!omo%$ me$ACC #is%urbs ori-9ha% noise >An0 noise #is%urbs me$?

9here small noises are less li-el0 %o be #is%urbin!$ The use of %he FC #e%erminer orice ensures %ha% all 5ossible noises (even %he smalles% ones/ 9ill be inclu#e# amon! values for %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he FC #e%erminer$ :ore formall0 no9 9e assume %ha% FC #e%erminers in%ro#uce a variable 'P 9here %he P subscri5% enco#es %he re@uiremen% of brin!in! in %he ma;imal se% of mu%uall0 e;clusive un#ifferen%ia%e# 5ossibili%ies %ha% sa%isf0 %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he DP$ Fur%her #ifferences be%9een %he i%ems in %he ori series an# vreun follo9 from %he 9a0 in 9hich %hese al%erna%ives in%erac% 9i%h %he res% of %he sen%ence$ 'u% before 9e #iscuss %his #ifference no%e %ha% %he #is%ribu%ional res%ric%ions no%e# above follo9 from 9ha% has been sai# so far$ Firs% %he incom5a%ibili%0 be%9een an e5iso#ic sen%ence an# a FC DP follo9s from %he fac% %ha% an e5iso#ic sen%ence #eno%es a s5a%io-%em5orall0 boun#e# si%ua%ion 9hile a FC DP in%ro#uces a ma;imal se% of in#ivi#ual - si%ua%ion 5airs each of 9hich have %o verif0 %he e;5ression in 9hich %he DP occurs$ There is no 9a0 in 9hich a sin!le si%ua%ion such as one involvin! Ioana %al-in! %o some in#ivi#ual in (BB/ can be verifie# b0 a se% of #ifferen% s%u#en%-si%ua%ion 5airs$ The sub%ri!!in! effec% no%e# in (C=/ can be e;5laine# b0 %he fac% %ha% %he con%en% of %he DP i%self (orice student care s-a pre(entat n biroul ei >an0 s%u#en% 9ho sho9e# u5 in her office?/ 5rovi#es %he relevan% connec%ion be%9een a series of #ifferen% s%u#en%s an# a series of #ifferen% si%ua%ions in 9hich each of %hose s%u#en%s sho9e# u5 in Ioana?s office$ The main 5re#ica%ion in %his case no lon!er refers %o a sin!le even% of Ioana s5ea-in! %o a s%u#en% bu% ra%her %o a series of even%s each associa%e# 9i%h Ioana s5ea-in! 9i%h some s%u#en% 9ho sho9e# u5 in her office$ The mo#al #ifferen%ia%ion effec% no%e# in (C+/ follo9s from %he re@uiremen% %ha% %he al%erna%ives involve# be mu%uall0 e;clusive$ This means %ha% si%ua%ions %ha% verif0 %he sen%ence un#er one al%erna%ive #o no% verif0 i% un#er %he o%hers$ Thus in %he case of %he 5ermission mo#al 9hen I allo9 0ou %o %a-e an0 a55le form %his bas-e% I #eem 5ermissible a series of si%ua%ions3 si%ua%ion s; in 9hich 0ou %a-e a55le a; an# no o%her si%ua%ion s< in 9hich 0ou %a-e a55le a< an# no o%her an# so on for ever0 a55le in %his bas-e%$ The mu%ual e;clusivi%0 re@uiremen% ensures %ha% in each 5ermissible si%ua%ion onl0 one a55le is involve#$ No9 mo#al necessi%0 is incom5a%ible 9i%h mu%ual e;clusivi%03 if I 9ere %o or#er 0ou %o %as%e an0 a55le as in (C=/ ever0 si%ua%ion com5a%ible 9i%h m0 or#er 9oul# be one 9here 0ou %a-e a55le a; an# no o%her a55le an# ever0 si%ua%ion com5a%ible 9i%h m0 or#er 9oul# be one 9here 0ou %a-e a55le a< an# no o%her a55le an# so on$ This resul%s in incoherence since 9e are universall0 @uan%if0in! over %he same se% of si%ua%ions an# %herefore each of %hese si%ua%ions mus% be such %ha% 0ou %a-e each a55le in %hem$ A!ain a55ro5ria%e mo#ifica%ion of %he DP is 5re#ic%e# %o rescue %he sen%ence$ In (C1/ for ins%ance %he DP in%ro#uces a ma;imal se% of si%ua%ions each involvin! an a55le %ha% :aria 9ill offer %o %he a##ressee$ Necessi%0 is no9 5re#ica%e# rela%ive %o each such si%ua%ion$ In all #eon%icall0 acce5%able al%erna%ives each such si%ua%ion is 5ar% of a lar!er si%ua%ion 9here %he a##ressee %as%es %ha% a55le (an# no o%her/$ Ue conclu#e %hen %ha% in or#er %o be acce5%able %he lin!uis%ic environmen% of FC DPs mus% involve an o5era%or G %ha% bin#s si%ua%ions (or 9orl#s/ 9i%h 9hich %he al%erna%ives in%ro#uce# b0 %he FC DP are com5a%ible$ In %he absence of sub%ri!!in! %he o5era%or is su55lie# b0 %he sen%ence in 9hich %he DP occurs$

+B,

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

Turnin! no9 %o #ifferen%ia%in! be%9een %he i%ems in %he ori series an# vreun %he in%ui%ive con%ras% is %ha% %he former have universal force 9hile %he la%%er is e;is%en%ial$ There are various 9a0s of ca5%urin! %his #ifference$ Oere 9e assume %ha% ori-DPs have 9i#es% sco5e 9hich ensures %ha% %he e;5ression in %heir sco5e is evalua%e# rela%ive %o all %he al%erna%ives %he0 brin! in$ Ereun FC DPs on %he o%her han# have narro9 sco5e rela%ive %o %he o5era%or %ha% licenses %he FC i%em an# moreover con%ribu%e an e;is%en%ial o5era%or over %he al%erna%ives %he D brin!s in$ The lo!ical form of (C,/a is !iven in (C,/b3
(C,/ a$ Grice s%u#en% 5oa%e 5leca$ ori-9ha% s%u#en% can leave >An0 s%u#en% ma0 leave$? b$ Y;P3 STDD7NT(;P s/Z(Y9?3 se 9? ) 9? D9Z L7AV7?(;P 9?//

The P subscri5% on %he free variable ; mar-s i% as FC an# %hus ensures %ha% %he se% of ma;imal mu%uall0 e;haus%ive al%erna%ives of s%u#en%s in minimal si%ua%ions 9ill be consi#ere#$ The 5ermission mo#al is in%er5re%e# as an e;is%en%ial @uan%ifier over D9 %he se% of #eon%icall0 acce5%able 9orl#s rela%ive %o 9 %he 9orl# of evalua%ion$ The formula as a 9hole %hen is %rue in 9 iff for ever0 (relevan%/ s%u#en% an# minimal si%ua%ion con%ainin! %ha% s%u#en% %here is a 9? in %he se% of #eon%icall0 acce5%able 9orl#s in 9 9here %ha% s%u#en% leaves$ A FC DP ma0 be e;is%en%iall0 boun# if i% occurs 9i%hin %he sco5e of %he o5era%or %ha% licenses i%$ The lo!ical form of (C./a is !iven in (C./b3
(C./ a$ DacL 5leacL vreun s%u#en% va fi rLu if leaves vre-a s%u#en% 9ill be ba# >If a/an0 s%u#en% leaves i% 9ill be ba#$? b$ s3 YY;P3 s%u#en%(;P s?/ ) s? y sZ leave(;P s?/Z (Ys??3 s? y s??Z ba#(s??//

The con#i%ional here is %rea%e# as a universal bin#in! a si%ua%ion variable res%ric%e# b0 %he an%ece#en% an# 9hose nuclear sco5e is %he conse@uen%$ The res%ric%or of %he universal s con%ains %he FC DP vreun student 9hich in%ro#uces %he ma;imal se% of s%u#en%s - si%ua%ion 5airs 9here %he s%u#en% leaves boun# b0 an e;is%en%ial @uan%ifier$ The si%ua%ions s boun# b0 are si%ua%ions %ha% have as 5ar%s a s%u#en% 9ho leaves (one s%u#en% 5er si%ua%ion/ in such a 9a0 as %o e;haus% all %he s%u#en%s$ The nuclear sco5e of (%he conse@uen%/ re@uires each such si%ua%ion %o be e;%en#able %o a bi!!er si%ua%ion s& %ha% is ba#$ In sum 9ha% is common %o FC DPs is %ha% %he0 #eno%e a s5ecial %05e of se%s of al%erna%ives an# %herefore %he0 have %o co-occur 9i%h an o5era%or %ha% e;5an#s %he si%ua%ions %ha% are 5ar% of %hese al%erna%ives$ Uha% #ifferen%ia%es e;is%en%ial from universal FC DPs is %ha% >universal? FC DPs have 9i#e sco5e rela%ive %o %he licensin! o5era%or an# %herefore all %he al%erna%ives %he0 brin! have %o sa%isf0 %he formula %he DP is a 5ar% ofI e;is%en%ial FC DPs on %he o%her han# are boun# b0 an e;is%en%ial @uan%ifier an# have narro9 sco5e rela%ive %o %he licensin! o5era%or$ In 7n!lish one i%em any is use# for bo%h cases 9hile in Romanian %he ori series are use# for %he 9i#e sco5e (universal/ case an# vreun is use# for %he narro9 sco5e e;is%en%ial$ Ue assume %hen %ha% FC i%ems come 9i%h a YFCZ fea%ure %ha% si!nals %he in%ro#uc%ion of %he se% of ma;imal an# mu%uall0 e;clusive in#ivi#ual si%ua%ion 5airs %ha% sa%isf0 %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he DP$ The classifica%ion of FC #e%erminers in Romanian %ha% 9e arrive a% is !iven in Fi!ure 4$ Oere YPARTZ means %ha% %he values of %he variable are %o be chosen from amon! a con%e;%uall0 available se%$
YFCZ 7;is%en%ial Dniversal

+B.

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

YPARTZ Dnmar-e# vreunul vreun

YPARTZ oricare

Dnmar-e# orice

Fi!ure 43 FC #e%erminers in Romanian Ue no9 %urn %o some occurrences of vreun DPs %ha% are e;is%en%ial bu% are no% FC in %he sense #iscusse# above$ Firs% consi#er %he use of vreun in#efini%es in fre@uen%a%ive im5erfec%ives e;em5lifie# belo93
(C</ Din cWn# En cWn# %renul se o5rea En vreo hal%L Mi cW%e un nave%is% from 9hen in 9hen %rain-%he R7FL s%o55e#$I:PF in vre-a s%a%ion an# DISTR a commu%er #eschi#ea un ochi$ o5ene#$I:PF an e0e >From %ime %o %ime %he %rain 9oul# s%o5 in some s%a%ion an# a commu%er 9oul# o5en an e0e$?

The choice of vreun over an or#inar0 in#efini%e here s%resses %he ran#om na%ure of %he 5airin! of occasions of %he %rain s%o55in! an# %he s%a%ion$ The vreun in#efini%e canno% ho9ever be a FC DP because of %he clash be%9een %he o5en-en#e# na%ure of al%erna%ives involve# in FC an# %he res%ric%e# se% of si%ua%ions %ha% are involve# here$ The sen%ence claims %ha% %here 9ere several occasions 9here %he %rain s%o55e# in some s%a%ion or o%her bu% #oes no% claim %ha% an0 s%a%ion is one 9here %he %rain coul# have s%o55e# in$ No%e also %ha% FC any is no% acce5%able in %he 7n!lish version of %his e;am5leI some 3 )or ot!er* is use# ins%ea# 9i%h %he same effec% as %he use of vreun$ Secon# consi#er %he use of vreun in (CB/3
(CB/ `n bal%a #in s5a%ele can%onului ceva 5lescLi scur% vreun 5eM%e sau in 5on#-%he from bac--%he s%a%ion-%he$G7N some%hin! s5lashe# briefl0 vre-a fish or vreo raRL$ vre-a #uc>In %he 5on# behin# %he s%a%ion some%hin! s5lashe# briefl0 some fish or some #uc-$?

The use of vreun here si!nals %he fac% %ha% %he s5ea-er is uncer%ain 9i%h res5ec% %o %he i#en%i%0 of >some%hin!?$ A!ain 9e canno% %a-e %his use of vreun %o be an ins%ance of a FC i%em since %here is no licensin! o5era%or$ 'u% %he use of %he #is6unc%ion !ives us %9o al%erna%ives an# %he associa%ion be%9een %hese al%erna%ives an# various 5ossible values for %he vreun mar-e# DPs is ran#om$ Common %o %he %9o cases 6us% #iscusse# is %he no%ion of ran#om associa%ion be%9een s%o5s an# s%a%ions an# be%9een al%erna%ives brou!h% in b0 %he #is6unc%ion an# 5ar%icular fish or 5ar%icular #uc-s$ Uha% uni%es such >ran#om choice? e;is%en%ials 9i%h FC DPs is %ha% bo%h %05es of DPs re@uire %he e;is%ence of a se% of al%erna%ives %ha% are un#ifferen%ia%e#$ In %he case of FC DPs %he al%erna%ives mus% be verif0in!$ In %he case of ran#om choice e;is%en%ials %he al%erna%ives are un#ifferen%ia%e# in %ha% %heir associa%ion 9i%h %he variable %he0 co-var0 9i%h is ran#om3 %here is no s5ecial connec%ion be%9een %he value of %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 vreun an# 9ha% i% co-varies 9i%h$ Common %o %he ran#om choice uses of vreun an# i%s uses %rea%e# as FC here is %he fac% %ha% %he0 involve co-varia%ion of %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 vreun 9i%h al%erna%ives an# moreover %ha% all uses of vreun involve e5is%emic uncer%ain%0 in %he sense %ha% %here mus% be e5is%emic al%erna%ives com5a%ible 9i%h 9ha% %he s5ea-er (or some o%her relevan% e5is%emic a!en%/ -no9s 9here no verif0in! value for %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 vreun is %o be foun#$ There is a s%ron! overarchin! connec%ion be%9een vreun an# e5is%emic con%e;%s3 vreun is no% allo9e# ei%her 9i%hin #eon%ic or boule%ic o5era%ors as sho9n in (CC/ even in FC

+B<

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

environmen%s$
(CC/ a$ XAi voie sL !uM%i vreun mLr$ have$1SG 5ermission SD'N %as%e$1SG vre-a a55le b$ XVreau sL cum5Lr vreun a5ar%amen% En Clu6$ 9an%$+SG SD'N bu0$+SG vre-a a5ar%men% in Clu6

The e5is%emic na%ure of vreun in#efini%e is no% share# b0 %he >universal? FC ori-i%ems$ The la%%er are no% cons%raine# %o occur 9i%hin e5is%emic al%erna%ivesI %he ma0 occur 9i%hin %he sco5e of 5ermission mo#als as 9e have seen a% %he ou%se% an# %he0 ma0 occur 9i%hin %he sco5e of boule%ic 5re#ica%es as sho9n in (+==/3
(+==/ Vreau sL cum5Lr orice %ablou #e Schiele$ 9an%$+SG SD'N bu0$+SG ori-9ha% 5ain%in! of Schiele >I 9an% %o bu0 an0 5ain%in! b0 Schiele$?

Sen%ence (+==/ claims %ha% %he s5ea-er is rea#0 %o bu0 no ma%%er 9hich 5ain%in! b0 Schiele$ Finall0 no%e %ha% vreun in#efini%es in Romanian are similar %o some )3/ or ot!er* in#efini%es in 7n!lish bu% %he %9o are no% i#en%ical$ The re@uiremen% associa%e# 9i%h some )3/ or ot!er* in#efini%es is %ha% %he0 in%ro#uce an uni#en%ifie# variable i$e$ %he0 re@uire %ha% %he con%e;% %ha% resul%s af%er %he0 are 5rocesse# 5rovi#e several 5ossible verif0in! values$ This is a 9ea-er re@uiremen% %han %he one im5ose# b0 ei%her FC or ran#om choice vreun bu% 9ha% all %hese i%ems have in common is %he fac% %ha% %heir ou%5u% con%e;% involves several verif0in! values$ Ue 9ill assume %hen %ha% all vreun in#efini%es have a fea%ure Y7PISZ re@uirin! %hem %o be com5a%ible 9i%h e5is%emic uncer%ain%0 9hich is com5a%ible 9i%h FC in%er5re%a%ions bu% allo9s %hem %o occur in %he %05e of ran#om choice con%e;%s e;em5lifie# in (CB/ an# (CC/ as 9ell$ 3.2.% I3ent.f.able .n3ef.n.tes? un anume Ue close %he #iscussion of s5ecial in#efini%es 9i%h un anume 3 %05e in#efini%es e;em5lifie# in (+=+/ 9here anume is a mar-er of identifiability of reference$
(+=+/ Dn#eva cWn#va 5oves%ea s5une cL En%r-un anume %im5 En%r-un anume loc some9here some%ime s%or0-%he sa0s %ha% in-a cer%ain %ime in-a cer%ain 5lace 5rinResa Alma Mi-a 5us o #orinRL$ 5rincess-%he Alma R7FL-has 5u% a 9ish >Some9here some%ime %he s%or0 sa0s %ha% in a cer%ain %ime in a cer%ain 5lace 5rincess Alma ma#e a 9ish$?

The a##i%ion of anume 6us% li-e %he a##i%ion of certain in 7n!lish si!nals %ha% even %hou!h %he reference of %he in#efini%e is no% #e%ermine# in %he curren% con%e;% i% is in 5rinci5le i#en%ifiable b0 some non-%rivial uni@ue 5ro5er%0 %ha% se%s i% a5ar% from o%her 5ossible referen%s$ In %his sense anume in#efini%es are %he o55osi%e of FC in#efini%es 9hich si!nal %he non-#ifferen%ia%ion of %heir 5ossible values$ Ue have %o %al- abou% i#en%ifiabili%0 in 5rinci5le ra%her %han i#en%ifiabili%0 b0 %he s5ea-er since %he s5ea-er in (+=+/ is no% necessaril0 re@uire# %o be able %o i#en%if0 %he %ime an# 5lace of 5rincess Alma?s 9ish even %hou!h she chose %o use an anume in#efini%e$ The i#en%ifiabili%0 con#i%ion is %o be un#ers%oo# in %erms of %he re@uiremen% %ha% %here be an accessible con%e;% 9here %he referen% of %he in#efini%e is #e%ermine# i$e$ 9here all assi!nmen%s %ha% verif0 %he con%e;% in @ues%ion assi!n %he relevan% variable %he same value$ A con%e;% C? is assume# %o be accessible %o a con%e;% C if an# onl0 if

+BB

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

C? is reachable from C b0 a##in! informa%ion %o i%$ Anume in#efini%es ma0 occur 9i%hin %he sco5e of o%her o5era%ors as lon! as %he seman%ics of %hose o5era%ors #oes no% 5reclu#e i#en%ifiabili%0$ Thus anume in#efini%es canno% occur 9i%hin %he sco5e of 5re#ica%es such as a vrea >%o 9an%? for ins%ance since no ma%%er ho9 much informa%ion is a##e# %o a con%e;% if an in#efini%e is 9i%hin %he sco5e of a boule%ic o5era%or i% 9ill no% be i#en%ifie#$ In#ee# %he DP in (+=1/ can onl0 be in%er5re%e# as havin! 9i#e sco5e rela%ive %o vrea >9an%?3
(+=1/ :anole vrea sL vorbeascL cu un anume s%u#en%$ :anole 9an%s SD'N s5ea-$2 9i%h a cer%ain s%u#en% >:anole 9an%s %o s5ea- %o a cer%ain s%u#en%$?
The mo#ifier anume >cer%ain? ma0 occur af%er %he hea# N as 9ell as before i% as seen in (i/3 (i/ :anole vrea sL vorbeascL cu un s%u#en% anume$ :anole 9an%s SD'N s5ea-$2 9i%h a s%u#en% cer%ain >:anole 9an%s %o s5ea- 9i%h a cer%ain s%u#en%$?

Gn %he o%her han# 9e have seen %ha% in#efini%es 9i%hin %he sco5e of universal DPs are i#en%ifiable in 5rinci5le$ Ue %hus correc%l0 5re#ic% %ha% %he anume DP in (+=2/ can be in%er5re%e# 9i%hin %he sco5e of %he universal bu% ou%si#e %he sco5e of vrea >9an%?3
(+=2/ Fiecare s%u#en% vrea sL vorbeascL cu un anume 5rofesor$ ever0 s%u#en% 9an%s SD'N s5ea-$2 9i%h a cer%ain 5rofessor >7ver0 s%u#en% 9an%s %o s5ea- %o a cer%ain 5rofessor$?

In (+=2/ un anume profesor >a cer%ain 5rofessor? mus% be in%er5re%e# as ou%si#e %he sco5e of vrea >9an%? bu% %he sen%ence is s%ill sco5all0 ambi!uous 9i%h res5ec% %o 9he%her %he in#efini%e is 9i%hin or ou%si#e %he sco5e of fiecare student >ever0 s%u#en%?$ The former rea#in! #escribes a si%ua%ion 9here for ever0 s%u#en% %here is a 5ar%icular 5rofessor such %ha% %ha% s%u#en% 9an%s %o s5ea- 9i%h %ha% 5rofessor$ Dn#er %his rea#in! %he sen%ence can be follo9e# 9i%h fur%her informa%ion s5ecif0in! 9hich s%u#en% 9an%s %o s5ea- 9i%h 9hich 5rofessor$ To sum u5 9e %rea% anume in %hese e;am5les as con%ribu%in! %he fea%ure Y ID7NTZ 9hose seman%ic con%en% is >i#en%ifiabili%0 of reference?$ The limi%e# sco5e 5ossibili%ies of anume mar-e# in#efini%es is e;5laine# in %erms of %he re@uiremen% %ha% %he referen%ial 5ro5er%ies im5ose# b0 %heir seman%ic sco5e mus% be com5a%ible 9i%h %he seman%ic con%en% of %his fea%ure$ 3.3. Con/l1s.on Ui%hin %he realm of in#efini%e #e%erminers in Romanian 9e have seen above a #is%inc%ion be%9een %he versa%ile unmar-e# in#efini%e #e%erminer un >a? an# a lar!e an# varie# !rou5 of s5ecial #e%erminers mar-e# for s5ecial cons%rain%s %ha% %he0 im5ose on %he 9a0 %he variable %he0 in%ro#uce is %o be evalua%e#$ Sco5al res%ric%ions on DPs hea#e# b0 %hese s5ecial #e%erminers ma0 follo9 from %he 5ar%icular seman%ic na%ure of %hese cons%rain%s$ The mos% res%ric%ive s5ecial #e%erminer is %he ne!a%ive niciun 9hose YN7GZ fea%ure re@uires i% %o be 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of ne!a%ion$ Similarl0 %he Y 7PISTZ fea%ure on vreun DPs re@uires %hem %o be 9i%hin %he sco5e of a 5ar%icular -in# of o5era%ors$ The leas% res%ric%ive in %erms of #is%ribu%ion re@uiremen%s are %he DPs 9hose D is mar-e# 9i%h %he 5ar%i%ive fea%ure Y PARTZ because %he seman%ic con%en% of %his fea%ure is com5a%ible 9i%h %he DP bein! 9i%hin %he sco5e of an0 o5era%or an# %hus 9e e;5ec% such DPs %o have no seman%ic cons%rain%s on %heir #is%ribu%ion be0on# %he re@uiremen% %ha% %he con%e;% 5rovi#e an a55ro5ria%e 5ool of values for %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he #e%erminer$ Ui%hin %hese %9o e;%remes 9e fin# %he o%her s5ecial +BC

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

#e%erminers 9hose re@uiremen%s resul% in cer%ain 5rohibi%e# sco5e confi!ura%ions$ Thus %he re@uiremen% im5ose# b0 %he YID7NTZ fea%ure on un anume >a cer%ain? is incom5a%ible 9i%h bein! 9i%hin %he sco5e of cer%ain mo#al o5era%ors bu% no% o%hers$ The co-varia%ion re@uiremen% im5ose# b0 cte un 5re#ic%s %ha% DPs hea#e# b0 %his com5le; #e%erminer mus% occur 9i%hin a confi!ura%ion %ha% 5rovi#es an a55ro5ria%e variable for %hem %o co-var0 9i%h$ The re@uiremen%s %ha% 9e foun# %o be relevan% for un#ers%an#in! %he seman%ics of %he lar!e class of s5ecial in#efini%e DPs #o no% form a series of binar0 con%ras%s$ Ue sim5l0 have %he unmar-e# in#efini%e on %he one han# an# %he #iverse !rou5 of mar-e# in#efini%es on %he o%her$ In %he conclu#in! sec%ion of %his cha5%er 9e #iscuss some s%ran#s %ha% run %hrou!h %he 9hole class of #e%erminers #iscusse# above$

$. Con/l1s.on
The common 6ob of #e%erminers is %o in%ro#uce a variable 9hose value is re@uire# %o mee% %he various res%ric%ions %ha% are im5ose# b0 %he #e%erminer i%self as 9ell as %hose im5ose# b0 o%her elemen%s in %he DP$ These res%ric%ions concern %he 9a0 %he variable is %o be assi!ne# values$ Loo-in! bac- a% %he rich varie%0 of seman%ic res%ric%ions %he members of %he lar!e class of #e%erminers in Romanian im5ose 9e can #is%in!uish a !eneral %hrea# runnin! across of %hem namel0 %ha% of mar-in! s%abili%0 vs$ ins%abili%0 (or varia%ion/ of reference a no%ion men%ione# a% %he en# of %he #iscussion of (non/s5ecifici%0 in Sec%ion 2$+$1$ S%abili%0 of reference involves -ee5in! %he values of a variable cons%an% across several al%erna%ive assi!nmen%sI non-s%abili%0 (or varia%ion/ of reference involves var0in! %he values across such assi!nmen%s$ Gne can classif0 %he re@uiremen%s various #e%erminers im5ose in%o %9o ca%e!ories s%abili%0 in#ucin! re@uiremen%s an# varia%ion in#ucin! re@uiremen%s$ Revie9in! %he main #is%inc%ions #iscusse# above un#er %his li!h% no%e %ha% 9hen i% comes %o %he #is%inc%ion be%9een e;is%en%ial an# universal force e;is%en%ial @uan%ifiers are s%able rela%ive %o universal ones3 e;is%en%ial @uan%ifica%ion re@uires fin#in! one verif0in! value 9hile universal @uan%ifica%ion re@uires each elemen% of %he #omain %o be a verif0in! value$ Ui%hin e;is%en%ial #e%erminers #efini%eness is a s%abili%0 in#ucin! re@uiremen% in %ha% i% amoun%s %o re@uirin! %he values of %he variable in all ou%5u% con%e;% al%erna%ives %o be s%able$ The various res%ric%ions im5ose# b0 %he man0 s5ecial in#efini%e #e%erminers #iscusse# in %his cha5%er involve ei%her #irec% or in#irec% s%abili%0 or varia%ion re@uiremen%s$ Thus #e5en#en% in#efini%es as 9ell as free choice an# e5is%emic in#efini%es im5ose #irec% varia%ion re@uiremen%s across #ifferen%l0 #efine# al%erna%ives$ The i#en%ifiabli%0 cons%rain% im5ose# b0 anume is a #irec% s%abili%0 re@uiremen% concernin! values assi!ne# %o %he variable in an accessible con%e;%$ Similarl0 %he 5ar%i%ive fea%ure im5oses a con%e;%uall0 es%ablishe# limi% on %he 5ossible varia%ion of values !iven %o %he variable in%ro#uce# b0 %he 5ar%i%ive #e%erminer$ Finall0 %he YN7GZ fea%ure im5oses an in#irec% varia%ion re@uiremen% since an e;is%en%iall0 boun# variable %ha% is 9i%hin %he seman%ic sco5e of ne!a%ion has %o be !iven each value 9i%hin i%s #omain in %urn$ Given %he ubi@ui%ous na%ure of %his 5arame%er 9hen i% comes %o #is%in!uishin! be%9een various #e%erminers 9e 5osi% %ha% s%abili%0 vs$ non-s%abili%0 of reference is one of %he im5or%an% seman%ic #is%inc%ions na%ural lan!ua!e is sensi%ive %o$ The fac% %ha% informa%ion concernin! %his 5arame%er is enco#e# on #e%erminers is no% sur5risin! un#er %he assum5%ion %ha% %he 6ob of %he #e%erminer is %o in%ro#uce %he variable associa%e# 9i%h %he DP$ The 9eal%h of #e%erminers 9e encoun%er in Romanian as 9ell as in o%her lan!ua!es is #ue %o %he fac% %ha% %here are man0 5ossible 5arame%ers alon! 9hich values of a variable can be hel# cons%an% or re@uire# %o var0 as 9ell as %o %he fac% %ha% %here are man0 9a0s in 9hich s%abili%0 or varia%ion re@uiremen%s can be im5ose#$ This cha5%er has 5rovi#e# an overvie9 of %he seman%ics of %he rich s0s%em of

+C=

The Seman%ics of De%erminers

#e%erminers in Romanian a%%em5%in! %o bo%h #ra9 %he main #is%inc%ions an# #iscuss some of %he fine-!raine# seman%ic #ifferen%ia%ions %o be foun# in %his area$

+C+

Pronouns

%. P0ono1ns
SANDA R`P7AND R7INO7I:7R LILIAN7 TAS:GUSSI ) ANDRA VASIL7SCD (**+$+-+$</ IGN GIDRG7A (**+$B$+-+$B$, *4/ ANDRA VASIL7SCD (*+$B$./ RGDICA FAFID (**1-2/ 1. Pe0sonal an3 0efle<.2e 50ono1ns
+$+$ In%ro#uc%ion +$1$ Gramma%ical Fea%ures an# Para#i!m +$2$ S0n%ac%ic #ifferences be%9een s%ron! an# cli%ic forms +$4$ S%ron! Pronouns +$,$ The Gramma%ical Func%ions of Cli%ic Pronouns +$.$ The S%ruc%ure of Cli%ic Clus%ers +$<$ Cli%ic Allomor5hs +$B$ The Seman%ics of Personal Pronouns

2. Pol.teness 50ono1ns
1$+$ In%ro#uc%ion 1$1$ :or5holo!0 1$2$ S0n%ac%ic 5ro5er%ies3 #oublin! cli%ics an# a!reemen% 1$4$ The use of 5oli%eness forms

3. T8e P0ono6.nal .ntens.f.e0 nsui


2$+$ :or5holo!0 2$1$ S0n%ac%ic 5ro5er%ies 2$2$ The in%ensifier use 2$4$ The refle;ive use

$. Re/.50o/al /onst01/t.ons
4$+$ In%ro#uc%ion 4$1$ Reci5rocal mar-in! 4$2$ Locali%0 cons%rain%s an# 5osi%ions of %he an%ece#en% 4$4$ Reci5rocal mar-in! an# s0mme%ric 5re#ica%es 4$,$ The seman%ics of reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions

+C1

Pronouns

,. Int0o31/t.on
This cha5%er #iscusses 5ronouns havin! a Person fea%ure (5ersonal refle;ive 5oli%eness 5ronouns/ 5ronominal in%ensifiers an# reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions$ The la%%er have been inclu#e# here because %he0 share some forms 9i%h refle;ives an# 5a%%ern seman%icall0 9i%h refle;ives bein! !ramma%ical ana5hors$ In#efini%e 5ronouns an# 5ronouns 9hich have a #e%erminer coun%er5ar% are #iscusse# in cha5%er 2 (sec%ions 2 an# +=/$

1. Pe0sonal an3 0efle<.2e 50ono1ns


1.1. Int0o31/t.on Personal 5ronouns form a close# class of elemen%s %ha% sen# %o referen%s via !ramma%ical fea%ures (5erson number !en#er/$ +s% an# 1n# 5erson sin!ular 5ronouns (eu >I? an# tu >0ou?/ func%ion as #eic%ic elemen%s %ha% can be #efine# as res5ec%ivel0 referrin! %o %he s5ea-er an# hearer$ The +s% 5erson 5lural noi >9e? #esi!na%es %he s5ea-er?s !rou5 (9hich ma0 also inclu#e %he hearer P 9ha% is calle# %he inclusive rea#in! P or no% P %he e'clusive rea#in!/ an# 1n# 5erson 5lural voi >0ou? #esi!na%es a !rou5 inclu#in! %he hearer an# e;clu#in! %he s5ea-er$ Thir# 5erson sin!ular an# 5lural 5ronouns (el$ea >he/she? ei$ele >%he0 m$/f$?/ can func%ion ei%her as ana5horic elemen%s (%a-in! reference from ano%her DP in %he %e;% 9hich 9ill be referre# %o as %he antecedent/ or as #eic%ic elemen%s$ Refle;ive 5ronouns are formall0 #is%in!uishe# from 5ersonal 5ronouns onl0 in %he 2 r# 5erson$ 1.2. #0a66at./al Feat10es an3 Pa0a3.46 1.2.1. T8e feat10e /o65os.t.on of 5e0sonal 50ono1ns Person fea%ures are com5le; fea%ures 9hich can be #ecom5ose# in%o \Par%ici5an% \S5ea-er an# \!rou5$ The \Par%ici5an% fea%ure i#en%ifies %he referen% of %he 5ro-form as 5ar%ici5a%in! or no% %o %he #ialo!ue$ Amon! %he 5ronouns mar-e# as YHPar%ici5an%Z 9e ma0 fur%her #is%in!uish be%9een %hose 5ronouns %ha% refer %o %he S5ea-er (or %he !rou5 of %he S5ea-er/ 9hich are mar-e# here as YHS5ea-erZ an# %hose %ha% refer %o %he Oearer (or his !rou5/ e;clu#in! %he s5ea-er mar-e# here as Y-S5ea-erZ$ 7ach of %he %9o classes of 5ronouns %hus se5ara%e# namel0 YHPar%ici5an% HS5ea-erZ an# YHPar%ici5an% -S5ea-erZ can be fur%her #is%in!uishe# b0 %he Number fea%ure 9hich in %his case is in%er5re%e# as YGrou5Z P hence 9e label i% YGrou5Z$ '0 combinin! %hese fea%ures 9e ob%ain Persons + an# 1 sin!ular charac%eriAe# as YHPar%ici5an% HS5ea-er -!rou5Z an# YHPar%ici5an% -S5ea-er -!rou5Z res5ec%ivel0$ The H!rou5 coun%er5ar%s of %hese 5ronouns corres5on# %o Persons + an# 1 5lural$ Number (sin!ular/5lural/ an# !en#er (masculine/feminine see Table +/ o55osi%ions charac%eriAe 2r# 5erson 5ronouns onl0$ The follo9in! #ia!ram summariAes %he fea%ure com5osi%ion of %he Romanian 5ersonal 5ronouns3

+C2

Pronouns

T8e 5e0sonal 50ono1n

YHPar%ici5an%Z

Y-Par%ici5an%Z(Person 2/

YHS5ea-erZ (Person +/

Y-S5ea-erZ (Person 1/

Ysin!ularZ

Y5luralZ

Y-!rou5Z YH!rou5Z Y-!rou5Z YH!rou5Z (s!$/ (5l$/ (s!$/ (5l$/ eu noi tu voi

YmascZ YfemZ el ea

YmascZ YfemZ ei ele

The 2r# 5erson 5ronominal forms have masculine/feminine !en#er fea%ures 9hich corres5on# ei%her %o %he !en#er fea%ures of %heir nominal an%ece#en% or %o %he se; (male/female/ of %heir referen%$ The 2r# 5erson is also %he onl0 5erson %o have s5ecial refle;ive forms$ These forms #o no% sho9 an0 !en#er or number o55osi%ion so 9e anal0Ae %hem as YHana5h H2 r#Z$ For %he o%her 5ersons %he forms of %he 5ersonal 5ronouns ma0 also func%ion as refle;ive (in#ica%in! co-reference insi#e a minimal #omain an# as voice mar-ers for inchoa%ives an# mi##les/$ Ue consi#er %herefore %ha% HPar%ici5an% 5ronouns are unmar-e# for %he ana5h fea%ure$
The class of so-calle# >neu%er? nouns %ri!!er masculine a!reemen% in %he sin!ular an# feminine a!reemen% in %he 5luralI accor#in!l0 5ronouns 9i%h a "neu%er& nominal an%ece#en% are masculine in %he sin!ular an# feminine in %he 5lural3 (i/ a$ Am 5us creionuli 5e masL$ Nu-li !Lsesc acum have$+ 5u% 5encil-%he$:SG on %able$ no% CL$2:SG$ACC fin#$+SG no9 >I 5u% %he 5encil on %he %able$ I canno% fin# i% no9? b$ Am 5us creioanelei 5e masL$ Nu lei !Lsesc acum have$+ 5u% 5encils-%he$FPL on %able$ no% CL$2FPL$ACC fin#$+SG no9 >I 5u% %he 5encils on %he %able$ I canno% fin# %hem no9?

Romanian #oes no% have a s5ecial form for reference %o %he con%en% of a 5ro5osi%ion/a s%a%e of affairs$ Some%imes %he feminine accusa%ive 9ea- 5ronoun o is use# 9i%h %his meanin! (see (++B/-(+1+// bu% %he mos% common forms %ha% fulfill %his func%ion belon! %o %he #emons%ra%ive 5ara#i!m ( asta% aia% see Cha5%er 2/3 (i/ a$ Am s5us -od have$+ sai#-CL$2FSG$ACC >I sai# i%? b$ G s -o fac cu si!uranRL 9ill SD'N-CL$2FSG$ACC #o$+SG 9i%h sure%0 >I?ll surel0 #o i%?

No 5ersonal 5ronoun (cli%ic or s%ron!/ can s%an# for a 5re#ica%e in Romanian (com5are French 9here le can func%ion as an A#6P subs%i%u%e/3

+C4

Pronouns
(ii/ Sun% ferici%L/ XG sun% am ha550/ CL$2FSG$ACC am > I am ha550? / XI am i% (cf$ Fr$ Ne suis heureuse/Ne le suis/

The refle;ive cli%ic a55ears no% onl0 as a 5ronoun 9%ih a refle;ive in%er5re%a%ion bu% also as anon5ronominal mar-er of a verbal form %ha% has various in%er5re%a%ions e$!$ inchoa%ive mi##le 5assive$ These non-5ronominal uses of S7 9ill be e;amine# in %he secon# Volume$

1.2.2. T8e fo06s Romanian 5ersonal 5ronouns have %9o series of forms P s%ron!/non-cli%ic forms an# 9ea-/ cli%ic forms P 9hich #iffer re!ar#in! %heir 5honolo!ic mor5holo!ic s0n%ac%ic an# seman%ic5ra!ma%ic behaviour$ Romanian 5ersonal 5ronouns are 5resen%e# in %he %able belo93
STRON# FORMS N Ac D eu mine mie %u %ine Rie noi noi nouL voi voi vouL el el lui ea ea ei ei ei lor ele ele lor sine sie sieMi G lui ei lor lor CLITIC FORMS A (G/D m(L/ YEZmi %e YEZRi ne ne ni v(L/ v(L/ vi YEZl YEZi o YEZi YEZi le li le le li se YEZMi

+s! 1s! +5l 15l 2s!

:$ F$ 25l :$ F 2 Refle;ive

Table 1. T8e fo06s of 5e0sonal an3 0efle<.2e 50ono1ns The al%erna%ive forms of cli%ics in#ica%e# b0 brac-e%s are allomor5hs 9hich 9ill be #iscusse# in sec%ion <$ For %he use of cer%ain Nomina%ive 5ronouns as Voca%ives see Cha5%er +,$ The forms of 5ersonal 5ronouns of 5ersons + an# 1 lac- Geni%ive forms 9i%h %he e;ce5%ion of cli%ic forms in %he sin!ular (9hich are for %he mos% 5ar% archaic see +$2 belo9/$ These mor5holo!ical !a5s are fille# b0 5ossessive a#6ec%ives$ Gn %he al%erna%ion be%9een 5ossessive a#6ec%ives (for Persons + 1/ an# !eni%ive-mar-e# 5ossessive 5ronouns (for Person 2 s!$ an# 5l$/ see Cha5%er . sec%ion ,$ As can be seen from Table + %he 5ara#i!m of 5ronouns has some ins%ances of s0ncre%ism for bo%h
s%ron! an# cli%ic forms3 (i/ %he !eni%ive forms of 2 r# 5ers$ s!$ an# 5l$ are homon0mous 9i%h %he #a%ive forms of 2r# 5ers$ s!$ an# 5l$ on a 5ar 9i%h %he !eni%ive an# #a%ive forms of nouns I (ii/ %he 2 r# 5lural #a%ive an# !eni%ive have i#en%ical feminine an# masculine forms$ In %he 5ara#i!m of s%ron! 5ronouns 2r# 5erson 5ronouns have i#en%ical s%ron! forms for %he nomina%ive an# %he accusa%ive$ In %he cli%ic 5ara#i!m %here are some ins%ances of homon0m03 )*i is bo%h 2r# 5erson sin!ular #a%ive an# 2r# 5erson 5lural masculine accusa%iveI le is 2r# 5erson 5lural feminine accusa%ive an# also an allomor5h of %he 2r# 5lural #a%iveI ne% v are +s%/1n# 5erson 5lural accusa%ive an# allomor5hs of %he + s%/1n# 5lural 5erson #a%ive$

There are no nomina%ive cli%ics$ Rich a!reemen% suffi;es on %he fini%e verb 5la0 %he role of 9ea-/cli%ic forms for nomina%ive 5ronouns see sec%ion +$,$,$ 1.3. S9nta/t./ 3.ffe0en/es betDeen st0on4 an3 /l.t./ fo06s St0on4 50ono1ns can a55ear in all 5osi%ions 9here DPs can a55ear namel0 as sub6ec%s com5lemen%s of verbs 5re5osi%ions a#6ec%ives a#verbs nouns or in%er6ec%ions3

+C,

Pronouns

(+/ (1/

(2/

(4/

(,/ (./

A veni% Gheor!he/el has come Gheor!he/he >Gheor!he/Oe came? a$ Lam vLAu% 5e Gheor!he/5e el CL$2:SG$ACC have$+ seen DG: Gheor!he/DG: him >I sa9 Gheor!he/him? b$ Iam #a% lui Gheor!he/lui CL$2SG$DAT have$+ !iven DAT Gheor!he/him$DAT >I !ave %o Gheor!he/him? c$ acor#a%e s%u#enRilor/ lor a9ar#e# s%u#en%s-%he$DAT/%hem$DAT >a9ar#e# %o %he s%u#en%s/%o %hem? #$ #e a#us co5iilor/ lor of brin!$SDP -i#s-%he$DAT/%hem$DAT >%o brin! %o %he -i#s/%o %hem? a$ A veni% cu soRia/ cu mine has come 9i%h 9ife-%he /9i%h me >Oe came 9i%h his 9ife/9i%h me? b$ mulRumi%L ei %han-s her$DAT >%han-s %o her? c$ En faRa ei in face-%he her$G7N >in fron% of her? a$ %rLsL%urile s5ecifice limbii romWne/ ei %rai%s-%he s5ecific lan!ua!e-%he$DAT Romanian/2FSG$DAT >%he fea%ures s5ecific %o %he Romanian lan!ua!e/%o i%? b$ asemenea invi%aRilor/ nouL similar !ues%s-%he$DAT/us$DAT >similar %o %he !ues%s/%o us? casa %a%Llui/ lui house-%he fa%her-%he$G7N/his$G7N >%he fa%her?s/his house? 'ravo cWM%i!L%orilor/ lor bravo 9inners-%he$DAT/%hem$DAT >'ravo %o %he 9inners/%o %hemd?

Li-e DPs s%ron! 5ronouns can a55ear as %he onl0 over% ma%erial of an u%%erance for ins%ance in elli5%ical ans9ers %o @ues%ions3 (</
a$ Cine a ci%i% car%eaK - Profesoara/ 7a 9ho has rea# boo--%he %eacher-%he/she$NG: >Uho rea# %he boo-K P The %eacher/She #i#? b$ Cui iai #a% car%ea K P Profesoarei/ 7i 9hom$DAT CL$2SG$DAT have$1SG !iven boo--%he %eacher-%he$FSG$DAT/ her$DAT >To 9hom #i# 0ou !ive %he boo-K To %he %eacher/To her$?

Li-e DPs %he0 can be lef% #isloca%e# 3


(B/ 'Lia%ului/ lui nu vreau sL -i scriu bo0-%he$DAT/him$DAT no% 9an%$+SG SD'N-CL$2SG$ACC 9ri%e$+SG >As for %he bo0/him I #on?% 9an% %o 9ri%e him$?

+C.

Pronouns

Cl.t./ 50ono1ns can a55ear in none of %he s0n%ac%ic environmen%s lis%e# above$ The #is%inc%ive 5ro5er%0 of cli%ics is %ha% %he0 #o no% occu50 a free-s%an#in! s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ion bu% ins%ea# %he0 mus% a%%ach %o ano%her elemen% !enerall0 %he inflec%e# verb (bu% also %o nouns an# a#6ec%ives mar-e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle/$ The resul%in! cons%i%uen% is no% 5hrasal (in o%her 9or#s %he verb an# %he cli%ic #o no% form a VP/ bu% ins%ea# has %he s%a%us of a Oea# (VT elemen%/ 9hich occu5ies a V-5osi%ion$ The fac% %ha% cli%ics are no% free-s%an#in! elemen%s is su55or%e# b0 %he follo9in! observa%ions3 (i/ Cli%ics #o no% have a 9or# accen%$ No%e ho9ever %ha% %he 9or# accen% mus% be #is%in!uishe# from con%ras%ive s%ress 9hich is use# 9i%h %he 5ur5ose of correc%in! a 5revious asser%ion$ The s0llabic allomor5hs of cli%ics can receive a con%ras%ive accen% of correc%ion 9hich is also foun# on uns%resse# s0llables insi#e a 9or# (see (C/b/3
(C/ a$ Am Ais `:I 5lace nu `I 5lace >I sai# > li#e no% NE li#es. b$ Am Ais in%enSIGnal nu in%enjIGnal

>I sai# in%ensional no% in%en%ional? (ii/ Cli%ics have a fi;e# 5osi%ion 9i%h res5ec% %o %he hos% from 9hich %he0 canno% be se5ara%e# e;ce5% in 9ell #efine# circons%ances b0 o%her cli%ics (see sec%ions +$.-+$< for %he or#er insi#e cli%ic clus%ers an# %he #is%inc%ion be%9een s0n%ac%ic an# 5hone%ic hos%s/3
(+=/ mL (X#e6a/ ve#e me$CL$ACC alrea#0 sees >he alrea#0 sees me?

(iii/ The0 canno% be coor#ina%e# or mo#ifie#3


(++/ a$ Xne Mi vL ve#e us$CL$ACC an# 0ou$CL$ACC sees b$ a lua% (X#oar/ -o has %a-en onl0 CL$2FSG$ACC c$ El (X care mia Ais cL vine / aM%e5% him$CL$ACC 9hich me$CL$DAT-has sai# %ha% comes 9ai%$+SG #$ Xnumai `L iubeM%e onl0 him$CL$ACC loves

(iv/ The0 canno% form a com5le%e u%%erance on %heir o9n (in elli5%ical ans9ers/3
(+1/ Pe cine a vLAu%K /P XMl 9hom has seen him$ CL$ACC >Uhom #i# he seeK/ P Oim$?
DG:

S%ron! 5ronouns #iffer from cli%ics insofar as %he0 are free-s%an#in! forms 9hich occu50 a s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ion %ha% is in#e5en#en% from %he 5osi%ion of %he verb hence %he various 5ossibili%ies illus%ra%e# in e;am5les (+/-(B/ a% %he be!innin! of %his sec%ion$ The0 can carr0 a 9or# accen% can be coor#ina%e# an# mo#ifie# can form a com5le%e u%%erance3
(+2/ a$ Ne s5une mie Mi Rie us$CL$DAT %ells me$ DAT an# 0ou$DAT >(S/he is %ellin! me an# 0ou?

+C<

Pronouns b$ Ne s5une #oar nouL us$CL$DAT sa0s onl0 us$DAT >(S/he is %ellin! onl0 us? c$ 7l care nu cre#e he$NG: 9hich no% believes >Oe 9ho #oesn?% believe? #$ Cui Ei scriiK 7i$ 9hom$DAT CL$2SG$DAT 9ri%e$1SG her$DAT >To 9hom are 0ou 9ri%in!K To her$?

In shor% cli%ics never occu50 %he same s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ion as s%ron! forms3 %he0 are V = elemen%s (hea#s/ %ha% a%%ach %o ano%her V= elemen% 9hile s%ron! 5ronouns are free-s%an#in! cons%i%uen%s 9hich have %he #is%ribu%ion of DPs$ In Romanian cli%ics are canonicall0 hos%e# b0 %he inflec%e# verb$ :ar!inall0 (mos%l0 archaicI %he s0mbol >d? no%a%es %he mar-e# charac%er of %his %05e of cli%ic/ %he0 ma0 also a%%ach %o nouns or a#6ec%ives bearin! %he #efini%e ar%icle an# %o !eni%ive-%a-in! 5re5osi%ions$ Uhen hos%e# b0 nouns or 5re5osi%ions %he cli%ic is Geni%ive (see (+4/a an# (+4/b res5ec%ivel0 an# cha5%er ./$ The onl0 case 9here %he cli%ic is s%ill use# in 5resen%-#a0 lan!ua!e is 9i%h %he a#6ec%ive propriu >o9n? (see (+4/c/3
(+4/ a$ Em5o%riva 2.eA../ d Em5o%riva-. a!ains% life-%he$G7N/a!ains%-CL$2FSG$G7N b$ sufle%ul omului /d sufle%u-mi soul-%he man-%he$G7N/ soul-%he-CL$+SG$G7N c$ 5ro5ria-6. mamL o9n-%he-CL$+SG$G7N mo%her

Some in%er6ec%ions allo9 Accusa%ive cli%ics3


(+,/ a$ ia%L-l lo - CL$2SG$ACC >There he is? b$ ui%e-l loo--CL$2SG$ACC >There he is$?

1.$. St0on4 P0ono1ns In %he 5rece#in! sec%ion 9e have sho9n %ha% s%ron! 5ersonal 5ronouns P as o55ose# %o 5ronominal cli%ics P have %he #is%ribu%ion of DPs$ In %his sec%ion 9e 9ill sho9 %ha% %he0 never%heless resemble cli%ics an# #iffer from DPs insofar as %he0 are minimal elemen%s 9hich con%ain onl0 fea%ures such as Person Number an# Gen#er bu% have no in%ernal s%ruc%ureI in o%her 9or#s %he0 con%ain no sub-cons%i%uen%s$ 'ecause s%ron! 5ronouns have no in%ernal s%ruc%ure %he0 canno% be 5rece#e# b0 an0 #e%erminer nor b0 an0 of %he elemen%s %ha% insi#e DPs occu50 %he 5osi%ion be%9een #e%erminers an# nouns3
(+./ a$ aces% co5il@Laces% el %his chil#/ %his he b$ #oi co5ii /X#oi ei %9o chil#ren/ %9o %hem

+CB

Pronouns

These im5ossibili%ies in#ica%e %ha% #e%erminers as 9ell as 5renominal elemen%s are of necessi%0 DP-in%ernal an# as such %he0 are incom5a%ible 9i%h 5ersonal 5ronouns 9hich canno% combine 9i%h an0 DP-in%ernal cons%i%uen%s$ The onl0 elemen%s %ha% can 5rece#e 5ersonal 5ronouns are %hose %ha% 5rece#e #e%erminers e$!$ focal 5ar%icles an# in%ensifiers 3
(+</ focal 5ar%icles (c!iar% doar% i% tot% nici/3 a$ chiar gel / bLia%ul cel mare al vecinului / Ionh even he /bo0-%he %he ol# G7N nei!hbour-%he$G7N/ Ion >even he/even %he nei!hbour?s el#er son/even Ion? b$ #oar gel / aces% bLia% / Ion h onl0 he / %his bo0/ Ion c$ Mi gel @ bie%ul co5il / Ionh also he/ 5oor-%he chil#/ Ion >he %oo/%he 5oor chil#/Ion %oo? in%ensifiers (nsui/3 EnsuMi gel @ bLia%ul cel mare al vecinului /Ion h himself he/ bo0-%he %he ol# G7N nei!hbour-%he$G7N/Ion >he himself/%he nei!hbour?s el#er son himself/Ion himself?

(+B/

Pos%nominal cons%i%uen%s can be ei%her DP-in%ernal or DP-e;%ernal$ The e;am5les belo9 sho9 %ha% %he former are incom5a%ible 9i%h 5ersonal 5ronouns 3
(+C/ a$ bzia%ul meu vs$ Xel meu bo0-%he m0 Xhe m0 >m0 son? vs X >m0 he? b$ bzia%ul vecinului vs$ Xel vecinului bo0-%he nei!hbour-%he$G7N he nei!hbour-%he$G7N >%he nei!hbour?s son? vs X >%he nei!hbour?s he? c$ bzia%ul brune% vs$ Xel brune% bo0-%he bro9n he bro9n >%he bro9n (haire#/ bo0? vs X >%he bro9n (haire#/ he? #$ bzia%ul #e 5e bancz vs$ Xel #e 5e bancz bo0-%he of on bench he of on bench >%he bo0 on %he bench vs Xhe on %he bench?

No%e %ha% %he meanin!s of %hese im5ossible confi!ura%ions can be e;5resse# b0 usin! s5ecial elemen%s %ha% are calle# >(!eni%ival/a#6ec%ival/ ar%icles? in %he Romanian !ramma%ical %ra#i%ion3
(1=/ a$ al meu al$:SG m0 >mine? b$ al vecinului al$:SG nei!hbour-%he$:SG$G7N >%he nei!hbour?s? c$ cel brune% %he$:SG bro9n >%he bro9n one? #$ cel #e 5e bancL %he$:SG of on bench >%he one on %he bench?

+CC

Pronouns

As e;5laine# in #e%ail in Cha5%er 2 sec%ion 2 %hese forms can be anal0Ae# as fuse# DHN hea#s or as Ds follo9e# b0 a null N$ 7i%her 9a0 such elemen%s are no% 5ro-DPs bu% ins%ea# involve an N-cons%i%uen% 9hich e;5lains 9h0 %he0 ma0 combine 9i%h DP-in%ernal ar!umen%s or mo#ifiers$ Sin!ular +s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns an# 2r# 5erson 5ronouns are also incom5a%ible 9i%h a class of mo#ifiers 9hich are allo9e# b0 5ro5er nouns 9i%hou% a #e%erminer3 res%ric%ive rela%ive clauses celHa#6ec%ive/PP alH!eni%ive de-PPs$ In%eres%in!l0 %hese mo#ifiers ma0 a55ear 9i%h 5lural +s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns3
(1+/ a$ voi ai lui Va#im 0ou al$:PL G'L Va#im >0ou Va#im?s su55or%ers/5eo5le? b$ Gheor!he al :ariei Gheor!he al0:SG :aria$G7N >Gheor!he :aria?s husban#/son? c$ Xei ai lui Va#im %he0 al0:PL G'L Va#im #$Xel al :ariei he al$:SG :aria$G7N e$ Xeu al Ioanei I al$:SG Ioana$G7N a$ Gheor!he #e la mare Gheor!he of a% sea >Gheor!he from %he seasi#e? b$ Xel #e la mare >he of a% sea? a$ noi care am fos% acolo 9e 9hich have$+PL been %here >9e 9ho 9ere %here? b$ Gheor!he care lucreaAL En fabricL Gheor!he 9hich 9or-s in fac%or0 >The Gheor!he 9ho 9or-s in %he fac%or0? c$ Xel care a fos% acolo/care lucreaAL En fabricL he 9hich has been %here/9ho 9or-s in fac%or0 #$ Xeu care am fos% acolo I 9ho have been %here a$ noi cei #eM%e5Ri 9e %he$:PL smar% >9e %he smar% ones? b$ X el cel #eM%e5% he %he$:SG smar%
The 1n# 5erson sin!ular 5ronoun ma0 %a-e a de-PP onl0 9hen use# as a voca%ive3 (i/ a$ Tu #e-acolo ieMi la %ablLd 0ou of-%here come-ou%$I:PV$1SG %o blac-boar# >qou over %here !o %o %he blac-boar#? b$ XTe 5refer 5e %ine #e-acolo$ 0ou$CL$ACC 5refer$+SG DG: 0ou$ACC of-%here >I 5refer 0ou over %here$?

(11/

(12/

(14/

The fac% %ha% %hese mo#ifiers can combine 9i%h %he 5lural + s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns an# also 9i%h 5ro5er nouns 9i%hou% a #e%erminer 9hich #o no% allo9 5os%nominal a#6ec%ives (see

1==

Pronouns

cha5%er +1 P Pro5er Names/ su!!es%s %ha% %he0 belon! %o a hi!her la0er of mo#ifica%ion bein! 5erha5s DP-a#6unc%s an# %he reason 9h0 %he0 are incom5a%ible 9i%h cer%ain 5ronouns is 5robabl0 %ha% %he0 e;5ress res%ric%ive mo#ifica%ion$ This h05o%hesis lea#s us %o %he conclusion %ha% sin!ular +s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns canno% allo9 res%ric%ive mo#ifica%ion of an0 sor%$ This follo9s #irec%l0 from %heir meanin! P %he s5ea-er an# %he a##ressee are uni@ue no 5re#ica%e can be use# %o 5ic- a sub-se% or an in#ivi#ual from a lar!er se%$ Com5are 5lural + s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns 9hich #eno%e !rou5s3 here %he res%ric%ive mo#ifier s5ecifies %he com5osi%ion of %he !rou5 con%ainin! %he s5ea-er/a##ressee$ For 2r# 5erson 5ronouns %he e;5lana%ion is less s%rai!h%for9ar#3 no%e %ha% %he forms cel an# al illus%ra%e# in (1=/ ma0 be use# %o conve0 9ha% su55ose#l0 9oul# be %he meanin! of %he im5ossible s%ruc%ure Pronoun H :o#ifier3
(1,/ a$ cel care a fos% acolo lucreaAL En fabricL %he$:SG 9ho has been %here 9or-s in fac%or0 >%he one 9ho 9as %here 9or-s in a fac%or0? b$ (cei/ Lia/ ai lui Va#im %he$:PL/%hose al$:PL G'L Va#im >%he ones/%hose of Va#im?s?

If forms such as al an# cel in#ee# #omina%e a N-cons%i%uen% as s%a%e# above %he0 5resen% a confi!ura%ion %ha% allo9s res%ric%ive mo#ifica%ion$ Com5are 5ersonal 5ronouns 9hich are 5roDP cons%i%uen%s an# as such canno% be use# 9i%h NP-level mo#ifica%ion$ Le%?s assume %ha% res%ric%ive mo#ifica%ion mus% be e;5resse# b0 NP-level mo#ifica%ion 9herever 5ossible$ Since for %he 2r# 5erson NP-level mo#ifica%ion is allo9e# #ue %o %he e;is%ence of forms of %he %05e cel an# al DP-a#6unc%ion %o 5ersonal 5ronouns is e;clu#e#$ DP-a#6unc%s ma0 func%ion as res%ric%ive mo#ifiers onl0 in %hose con%e;%s in 9hich NP-in%ernal mo#ifica%ion is im5ossible3 9i%h 5lural +s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns an# 9i%h 5ro5er nouns 9i%hou% a #e%erminer (see e;am5les 1+-14/$ The onl0 elemen%s 9i%h 9hich all s%ron! 5ronouns are com5a%ible are %rul0 DP-e;%ernal elemen%s (non-res%ric%ive/3 - in%ensifiers (nsui% sin ur% unul/3
(1./ a$ gbLia%ul cel mare al vecinului / Ion / elh EnsuMi bo0-%he %he ol# G7N nei!hbour-%he$G7N / Ion / he himself >%he nei!hbour?s el#er son /Ion /he himself? b$ gIon / elh sin!ur M%ie ce !Wn#eM%e Ion/ he alone -no9s 9ha% %hin-s >Gnl0 Ion/he -no9s 9ha%?s on his min#? c$ gIon / elh unul Ion/ he one$ADG: >As for him@Ion$?
The em5ha%ic 5ar%icle unul !enerall0 combines 9i%h +s% 5erson sin!ular al%hou!h 1n# an# 2r# 5erson sin!ular 5ronouns are no% e;clu#e#3 eu unul$tu unul$el unul >as for me/as for 0ou/as for him?

- non-res%ric%ive rela%ive clauses3


(1</ gbLia%ul cel mare al vecinului / Ion / elh care a fLcu% a%W%a 5en%ru noi bo0-%he %he ol# G7N nei!hbour-%he$G7N / Ion / he 9hich has #one man0 for us >%he nei!hbour?s el#er son/Ion/he 9ho #i# so much for us?

1=+

Pronouns - a55osi%ive DPs (for 5ronouns of Person 4-,/3 (1B/ a$ Noi femeile iubim na%ura 9e 9omen-%he love$+PL na%ure-%he >Ue 9omen love na%ure? b$ Voi femeile iubiRi na%ura 0ou 9omen-%he love$1PL na%ure-%he >qou 9omen love na%ure?

A#6ec%ives follo9in! %he 5ronoun or 5ro5er name in %he e;am5les belo9 are no% mo#ifiers of %he DP bu% 5re#ica%es of a small-clause (9hose sub6ec% 5robabl0 is a PRG co-in#e;e# 9i%h %he 5ronounI see Secon# Volume on Small Clauses/3 (i/ Aici es%e g:aria/eah mireasL here is :aria/she bri#e >This is :aria/she as a bri#e? (ii/ Aici es%e gIon/elh mic here is Ion/ he li%%le$:SG >%his is Ion/he as a li%%le bo0H

Tha% %he e;am5le in (1B/ is buil% 9i%h an a55osi%ive DP is in#ica%e# b0 %he fac% %ha% %he #efini%e ar%icle is obli!a%or0$ Com5are lan!ua!es such as 7n!lish French or I%alian 9hich allo9 a bare noun e$!$ &e lin uists% nous lin uistes% noi >taliani$ No%e %ha% 5ronouns canno% func%ion as a55osi%ions3
(1C/ XFemeile noi iubim na%ura 9omen-%he 9e love$+PL na%ure-%he

Pronouns can also be mo#ifie# b0 5os%5ose# car#inals an# %he universals toi% tot >all %he 9hole? an# amndoi >bo%h?3
(2=/ b$ Au a$ Au 5leca% ei #oi have$2PL lef% %he0 %9o >The %9o of %hem lef%? 5leca% ei %oRi have$2PL lef% %he0 all >The0 all lef%?

Ui%h DPs %his -in# of mo#ifica%ion is e;clu#e# 9i%h car#inals an# e;ce5%ional 9i%h universals (in %he normal or#er %he universal a55ears before %he #e%erminer an# %he car#inal in be%9een %he #e%erminer an# %he noun/3
(2+/ a$ X Au 5leca% oamenii #eM%e5Ri #oi have$2PL lef% men-%he smar% %9o a?$ Au 5leca% cei #oi oameni #eM%e5Ri have lef% %he %9o 5eo5le smar% >The %9o smar% 5eo5le lef%? b$ K Au 5leca% fe%ele mele %oa%e have$2PL lef% #au!h%ers-%he m0 all >:0 #au!h%ers all lef%? b?$ Au 5leca% %oa%e fe%ele mele have$2PL lef% all #au!h%ers-%he m0 >all m0 #au!h%ers lef%?

1=1

Pronouns

1.%. T8e #0a66at./al F1n/t.ons of Cl.t./ P0ono1ns 1.%.1 Co66on #0a66at./al F1n/t.ons of Cl.t./ an3 St0on4 P0ono1ns Al%hou!h %he0 never occu50 %he same 5osi%ion as DPs an# s%ron! 5ronouns (see above/ cli%ics can realiAe %he same !ramma%ical func%ions as DPs an# s%ron! 5ronominal forms3 %he #irec% an# in#irec% ob6ec%s of verbs an# verbal in%er6ec%ions %he #a%ive com5lemen% of a#6ec%ives %he a#nominal !eni%ive an# %he !eni%ive com5lemen% of 5re5osi%ions (see +$2 above on %he res%ric%ions on %he use of !eni%ive cli%ics/3
(21/ (22/ (24/ (2,/ (2./ (2</ Iubesc viaRa/G iubesc love life-%he/CL$2FSG$ACC love >I love life/I love i%? Acor# Encre#ere 412e0n1l1./ M. acor# Encre#ere !ive %rus% !overnmen%-%he$DAT/CL$2:SG$DAT !ive %rus% >I %rus% %he !overnmen%? Ia%L 6a0ea/Ia% -o loo- sea-%he@ loo--CL$2FSG$ACC >Oere is %he sea/>here i% is? co5il #ra! /Co5ilul N6. es%e #ra! chil# #ear /chil#-%he me$ CL$DAT is #ear >#ear chil#?/ >The chil# is #ear %o me? sufle%ul o61l1./ sufle%u -6. soul-%he man-%he$G7N/soul-%he me$CL$G7N >%he man?s soul?/>m0 soul? En 6urul /o5a/1l1./ En 6uru -. aroun# %ree-%he$G7N/aroun# CL$2:SG$G7N >aroun# %he %ree/aroun# i%?

To %his 9e ma0 a## %he func%ion of #a%ive a#6unc%s (benefac%or or 5ossessor/$ No%e ho9ever %ha% in %his case a DP mus% be #ouble# b0 a cli%ic3
(2B/ am s5ar% un vas 1ne. 50.etene/ Iam s5ar% un vas CL$2SGF$DAT have$+ bro-en a #ish a$DAT frien#(F7:// CL$2SG$DAT have$+ bro-en a #ish >I bro-e a #ish %o a frien#? / >I bro-e one of her #ishes? I-

The cli%ic ma0 realiAe %hese func%ions onl0 9hen %he verb noun or a#6ec%ive @ualifies as an a55ro5ria%e hos% an# i% #oes conflic% 9i%h ano%her cli%ic belon!in! %o %he same cli%ic clus%er (see +$.$2/$ The con#i%ions 9hich a verb mus% fulfill in or#er %o be able %o hos% cli%ics 9ill be 5resen%e# in .$1 belo9$ As for nouns an# a#6ec%ives %he con#i%ion is %ha% %he0 bear %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle$ 1.%.2. #0a66at./al f1n/t.ons 0est0./te3 to /l.t./s Cli%ic forms have some s5ecific func%ions 9hich are no% foun# 9i%h DPs or s%ron! 5ronouns$ In some of %hese cases s%ron! 5ronouns canno% a55ear b0 %hemselves an# %he0 canno% be cli%ic-#ouble# ei%her3 (i/ "7%hical Da%ive& (9i%h 5ersons +-1 sin!ular/ sho9in! s5ea-er?s or hearer?s emo%ional involvemen% (no 7n!lish e@uivalen%/3
(2C/ a$ Pe un#e -6. umbli K Gver 9here-me$CL$DAT 9al-$1SG >Uhere are 0ou 9an#erin! abou%K?

1=2

Pronouns b$ ii A. -l luL o#a%L #e !rumaAd an# CL$1SG$DAT him$CL$ACC !rabbe#$2SG su##enl0 b0 nec-d >An# all of a su##en he !rabbe# him b0 his nec-d?

(ii/ Refle;ive mar-ers for inheren% refle;ive verbs inchoa%ives an# refle;ive 5assives an# im5ersonals (onl0 %he 2r# 5ersons have s5ecial refle;ive forms see sec%ion +$1 aboveI for 5ersons +-1 an# 4-, %he 5ronominal forms are also use# as refle;ives/3
(4=/ a$ Ne 6ucLm /XNe 6ucLm 5e noi (inheren% refle;ive/ CL$+PL$ACC 5la0$+PL CL$+PL$ACC 5la0$+PL DG: us >Ue are 5la0in!? b$ Gmul s-a En!rLMa% /XGmul s-a En!rLMa% 5e sine (inchoa%ive S7/ man-%he CL$R7FL$ACC-has fa%%en man-%he CL$R7FL$ ACC-has fa%%en DG: himself >The man !o% fa%? c$ S-au a#us 5riAonierii (5assive S7/ CL$R7FL$ ACC-have brou!h% 5risoners-%he >The 5risoners 9ere brou!h%? #$ Se #oarme bine aici (im5ersonal S7/ CL$R7FL$ACC slee5s 9ell here >Gne can slee5 9ell here?

(iii/
(4+/

In some i#ioma%ic cons%ruc%ions3


a$ a lua%-o la sLnL%oasa has %a-en-CL$2FSG$ACC a% heal%h0-%he$F7: >Oe bea% .t? b$ Mi #L-. Mi lu5%L an# !ive$I:PV$1SG-CL$2SG$DAT an# fi!h%$I:PV$1SG >Oe -e5% fi!h%in!?

1.%.3. T8e Cl.t./ Do1bl.n4 of St0on4 P0ono1ns Accusa%ive an# Da%ive cli%ics ma0 co-occur 9i%h a DP or a s%ron! 5ronoun realiAin! %he same func%ion$ This 5henomenon 9hich is curren%l0 referre# %o as >cli%ic #oublin!? sho9s #ifferen% 5ro5er%ies #e5en#in! on 9he%her %he #ouble# elemen% is a DP con%ainin! a noun (see %he secon# volume for cli%ic #oublin!/ or a s%ron! 5ronoun$ Oere 9e 9ill concen%ra%e on %he #oublin! of s%ron! 5ronouns 9hich is obli!a%or0 5rovi#e# %ha% %he environmen% offers a hos% for %he cli%ic (for confi!ura%ions 9hich #o no% 5rovi#e such a hos% see sec%ion +$.$1$/$
(41/ a$ (Le-/ am #a% ca#ouri 61lto0a@ /o5..lo0 %hem$CL$DAT have$+ !iven 5resen%s man0$ DAT/chil#ren$DAT >I !ave 5resen%s %o man0 5eo5le/%he chil#ren? b$ X(Le-/ am #a% ca#ouri lo0 %hem$CL$DAT have$+ !iven 5resen%s %hem$DAT >I !ave 5resen%s %o %hem? c$ X(Le-/ am #a% ca#ouri l1. C. Mon./:. %hem$CL$DAT have$+ !iven 5resen%s him$DAT an# :onica$DAT >I !ave 5resen%s %o him an# :onica$?

In all %hose con%e;%s in 9hich %he cli%ic is 5ossible a s%ron! 5ronoun can be use# 5rovi#e# %ha% i% is #ouble# b0 %he cli%ic$ No%e %ha% cli%ic-#oublin! occurs onl0 in %he verbal #omain$ Com5are
s%ron! Geni%ive 5ronouns 9hich canno% be #ouble# b0 Geni%ive cli%ics3 (42/ a$ X Em5o%riva-. l1. a!ains% -CL$2:SG$G7N he$G7N

1=4

Pronouns b$ X inima-i lui hear%-%he-CL$2:SG$G7N he$G7N

Some of %he con#i%ions 9hich %ri!!er %he use of a s%ron! form alon!si#e %he cli%ic are formal3 a s%ron! form has %o be use# in or#er %o allo9 mo#ifica%ion con%ras%ive s%ress coor#ina%ion %o5icaliAa%ion all of 9hich canno% be realiAe# b0 %he cli%ic see +$2$+ above$
(44/ a$ `l
CL$2:SG$ACC

vreau 5e 7L 9an%$+SG DG: him

>I 9an% OI:? b$ Pe el El M%iu #e mul% DG: him CL$2:SG$ACC -no9$+SG for lon! >I have -no9n him for a lon! %ime? c$ `l CDNGSC 5e el CL$2:SG$ACC -no9$+SG DG: him >I SNGU him? #$ `i aM%e5% 5e el Mi 5e :aria CL$2:PL$ACC 9ai%$+SG DG: him an# DG: :aria >I 9ai% for him an# :aria? e$ `l cre# numai 5e el CL$2:SG$ACC believe$+SG onl0 DG: him >I believe onl0 him?

(5os%verbal %o5ic/

'esi#es %hese cons%rain%s s%ron! forms ma0 a55ear for 5urel0 seman%ic reasons3 9hen %he 5ronoun is #eic%icall0 use# or 9hen i% has a con%ras%ive meanin! (%he referen% is con%ras%e# 9i%h o%her referen%s/ 9i%hou% carr0in! con%ras%ive s%ress3
(4,/ a$ `n%reabL-l 5e el as-$I:PV$1SG-him$CL$ACC DG: him >As- him over %here? (9i%h a !es%ure/ (#eic%ic/ b$ `n%reabL-l 5e el #acL 5e mine nu mL creAi as-$I:PV$1SG-him$CL$ACC DG: him if DG: me$ACC no% me$CL$ACC believe$1SG >As- him if 0ou #on?% believe me? (con%ras%ive meanin!/

In all %hese cases s%ron! forms normall0 refer %o humans$ 7;ce5%ionall0 9hen a s%ron! form mus% be use# because of mo#ifica%ion or coor#ina%ion i% can refer %o a non-human en%i%03
(4./ Nu sun% %ulburL%oare aces%e analo!ii K Nu vL vine sL lLsaRi %o%ul bal%L no% are %hrillin! %hese analo!ies no% 0ou$ CL$DAT comes SD'N le%$1PL ever0%hin! 5u##le 5en%ru a le s%u#ia 3oa0 5e eleK (7;$ In%erne%/ for %o CL$2FPL$ACC s%u#0$INF onl0 DG: %hem(F/ >Aren?% %hese analo!ies %hrillin!K Don?% 0ou feel li-e #ro55in! ever0%hin! in or#er %o s%u#0 onl0 %hemK?

1.%.$. P0ono6.nal /l.t./s 2s. Infle/t.on Several fac%s su55or% %he h05o%hesis %ha% Romanian cli%ics are inflec%ional elemen%s3 (i/ %he0 are func%ional ca%e!ories %ha% incor5ora%e !ramma%ical fea%ures (5erson number !en#er case/ (see +$+ above/$ This is a necessar0 bu% no% a sufficien% con#i%ion3 see s%ron! 5ronouns 9hich canno% be sai# %o be inflec%ional elemen%s al%hou!h %he0 are mere bun#les of fea%uresI (ii/ %heir 5osi%ion 9i%h res5ec% %o %he verb is fi;e# rule !overne# (see +$, above/I %he0 a55ear in a clus%er of V= elemen%s con%ainin! verbal inflec%ional elemen%s occu50in! a 5osi%ion 9here no DP can a55earI in %his %he0 resemble inflec%ional hea#s (for ins%ance cli%ic 1=,

Pronouns

au;iliaries/I (iii/ cli%ics share %he s0n%ac%ic behaviour of inflec%ional elemen%s3 li-e inflec%ional mor5hemes cli%ics are re5ea%e# on each hos% even in coor#ina%ion3
(4</ a$ Le cum5Lr Mi KK(leF ci%esc cu 5lLcere %hem$CL$ACC bu0$+SG an# %hem$CL$ACC rea#$+SG 9i%h 5leasure >I bu0 %hem an# rea# %hem 9i%h 5leasure? b$ vLAWn#u-i Mi auAin#u -i /XvLAWn#u-i Mi see$G7R-%hem$CL$ACC an# hear$G7R-%hem$CL$ACC/see$G7R-%hem$CL$2:PL$ACC an# auAin# /XvLAWn# Mi auAin#u -i hear$G7R/see$G7R an# hear$G7R-%hem$CL$ACC >seein! %hem an# hearin! %hem/seein! %hem an# hearin!/seein! an# hearin! %hem?$
7;ce5%ions are 5ossible 9hen %9o (or more/ seman%icall0 rela%e# verbs are coor#ina%e# an# %rea%e# as a com5le; ac%ion$ In %his case onl0 %he firs% 5re-verbal cli%ic is obli!a%or0 9hile o%hers can be #ele%e# I #ele%ion is no% 5ossibile 9i%h 5os%-verbal cli%ics (9hich are more %i!h%l0 connec%e# %o %he verb i$e$ no elemen% can be inser%e# be%9een %he verb an# %he cli%ic P see +$,$+/ 3 (i/ Le ci%esc Mi EleF reci%esc %o% %im5ul CL$2FPL$ACC rea#$+SG an# (CL$2FPL$ACC/ re-rea#$+SG all %ime-%he >I?m rea#in! %hem all %he %ime a!ain an# a!ain? (ii/ Xci%in# Mi reci%in#u -le %o% %im5ul Xrea#$G7R an# re-rea#$G7R-CL$2FPL$ACC all %ime-%he

(iv/ The cli%ic #oublin! of #irec%/in#irec% ob6ec%s (see +$,$2-+$,$4 above/ is 5arallel %o verb P sub6ec% a!reemen%$ Never%heless %here are several #ifferences be%9een inflec%ional elemen%s an# cli%ics3 (i/ Generall0 all members of a le;ical ca%e!or0 %a-e %he s5ecific inflec%ional mor5hemes of %he class (almos% all nouns %a-e sin!ular P 5lural mor5hemesI all verbs %a-e %ense P moo# P 5erson P number mor5hemes/ 9hile cli%ics occur un#er s5ecific s0n%ac%ic an# #iscourse circums%ances$ Al%hou!h #irec% an# in#irec% ob6ec% cli%ic #oublin! can be com5are# %o verbsub6ec% a!reemen% verb-sub6ec% a!reemen% is !eneral 9hile ob6ec% #oublin! is le;icall0 seman%icall0 mor5holo!icall0 an# s0n%ac%icall0 res%ric%e#$ (ii/ A !iven inflec%ional mor5heme has a fi;e# 5osi%ion rela%ive %o %he verb i$e$ a 5ar%icular mor5heme is ei%her a suffi; (e$!$ 5erson or %ense inflec%ional mor5hemes on verbs/ or a 5refi; (e$!$ #eriva%ional mor5hemes such as re- des- e%c$/$ This is no% %he case 9i%h cli%ics3 as is clear from Table 1 in %he follo9in! sec%ion %he %9o 5osi%ions labele# Cli%ic Pronoun + an# Cli%ic Pronoun 1 can be occu5ie# b0 %he same cli%ic(s/ #e5en#in! on %he mor5hos0n%ac%ic (an# 5honolo!ical for %he cli%ic o/ 5ro5er%ies of %he o%her elemen%s %ha% a%%ach %o %he verb$ (iii/ Inflec%ional elemen%s canno% be se5ara%e# from %he verb 9hile some cli%ic a#verbials can in%ervene be%9een a 5re-5ose# cli%ic an# i%s verbal hos% (see +$,$+/$ 1.%.%. O2e0t an3 n1ll s1b7e/t 50ono1ns The s0n%ac%ic an# seman%ic con#i%ions %ha% re!ula%e %he use of s%ron! DG an# IG forms are similar %o %hose %ha% !overn %he use of 5ronominal sub6ec%s (9hich in Romanian have onl0 s%ron! non-cli%ic forms/$ Romanian is a 5ro-#ro5 lan!ua!e3 nomina%ive 5ronominal sub6ec%s %ha% are ana5horicall0 or #eic%icall0 re%rievable ma0 be #ro55e#$ This 5ossibili%0 is correla%e# 9i%h %he fac% %ha% %he verbal inflec%ion carries %he 5erson an# number (bu% no% !en#er/ fea%ures of %he sub6ec%3 lucre( (li%$ &or#0;9K "I 9or-&/I lucre(i (li%$ &or#0<9K% "0ou 9or-&/I lucrea( (li%$ &or#0=9K$/L% "he/she/i% 9or-s %he0 9or-&/I lucrm (li%$ &or#0;/L% "9e 9or-&/I lucrai (li%$&or#0</L "0ou 9or-&/$ If 9e anal0Ae sub6ec%-#ro5 as an ins%ance of pro (null sub6ec%/

1=.

Pronouns

license# b0 rich inflec%ion 9e can consi#er %he null sub6ec% as a -in# of 9ea- form a-in %o cli%ics$ Ue can also consi#er %ha% %he rich inflec%ion is %he corres5on#en% of a cli%ic form$ 7i%her 9a0 %he al%erna%ion be%9een null/im5lici% sub6ec%s an# over% 5ronominal sub6ec%s resembles %he al%erna%ion be%9een ob6ec% cli%ics an# s%ron! ob6ec% 5ronouns$ I% shoul# ho9ever be observe# %ha% %he use of over% sub6ec%s is less res%ric%e# %han %he use of s%ron! ob6ec%s a si%ua%ion 9hich is 5robabl0 rela%e# %o %he fac% %ha% %he verbal inflec%ion #oes no% mar- !en#er (see (4C//$ Li-e s%ron! 5ronouns in ob6ec%s 5osi%ions over% sub6ec%s mus% be use# in or#er %o allo9 coor#ina%ion mo#ifica%ion %o5icaliAa%ion con%ras%ive s%ress an# for #ei;is an# con%ras%ive meanin! (9hen %he referen% is con%ras%e# 9i%h o%her en%i%ies 9i%hou% bein! a con%ras%ive focus see e;$ (4B/f-!/3
(4B/ a$ 7l Mi %a%Ll lui vin mWine he an# fa%her-%he his come$2PL %omorro9 >Oe an# his fa%her come %omorro9? b$ Numai/chiar Mi eu vin onl0/ even I come$+SG >Gnl0 I 9ill come/7ven I 9ill come? c$ 7u VIN I come >I CG:7? #$ 7D vin >I come? e$ El o sL vinL he 9ill SD'N comes >Oe over %here 9ill come? (#eic%ic 9i%h a !es%ure/ f$ Are #re5%a%e cre# e1 Oas ri!h% %hin-$+SG I >Oe is ri!h% I %hin-? !$ Ion mi-a s5us cL :aria nu vine mWine$ E1 cre# cL va veni$ Ion me$CL$DAT-has %ol# %ha% :aria no% comes %omorro9 I believe %ha% 9ill$2SG come >Ion %ol# me %ha% :aria 9oul# no% come %omorro9$ I %hin- she 9ill come$?

The over% realiAa%ion of sub6ec% 5ronouns is also mean% %o avoi# !en#er ambi!ui%ies (since inflec%ion #oes no% sho9 !en#er #is%inc%ions/3
(4C/ 'Lia%ul Mi fa%a se Rineau #e mWnL$ Ea En%oarce ca5ul$ bo0-%he an# !irl-%he R7FL hol#$I:PF of han# she %urns hea#-%he >The bo0 an# %he !irl 9ere hol#in! %heir han#s$ S8e %urne# her hea#$?

Gver% sub6ec%s ma0 also be use# 9hen %he en%i%0 %he0 refer %o is no% (0e%/ a #iscourse %heme3
(,=/ Vom vorbi as%LAi #es5re 7nescu$ El a fos% un mare com5oAi%or$ 9ill$+PL s5ea- %o#a0 abou% 7nescu he has been a !rea% com5oser >To#a0 9e 9ill %al- abou% 7nescu$ Oe 9as a !rea% com5oser$?

In %his case Romanian allo9s 5ronominal sub6ec%s %o refer %o non-human referen%s3


(,+/ a$ CWn# eM%i bL%rWn surWAi cWn# %e !Wn#eM%i la viaRL Mi la %o% ce 9hen are$1SG ol# smile$1SG 9hen R7FL %hin-$1SG a% life an# a% ever0%hin! 9ha% ERi oferL ea$ 0ou$CL$DAT offers she >Uhen 0ou are ol# 0ou smile %hin-in! abou% life an# ever0%hin! .t has %o offer 0ou$?

1=<

Pronouns b$ :L ui%am la fo%o!rafia aceea En!Llbeni%L #eMi ea nu Emi mai R7FL loo-$I:PF$+SG a% 5ho%o-%he %ha% 0ello9e# al%hou!h she no% me$ DAT more s5unea nimic acum$ %ell$I:PF$2SG no%hin! no9 >I 9as loo-in! a% %ha% 0ello9 5ho%o al%hou!h .t #i#n?% %ell me an0%hin! an0more$?

'0 bein! use# as a sub6ec% %he en%i%0 9hich is no% a #iscourse %heme ma0 become one (in 9hich case 9e s5ea- of %o5ic shif%in!/ bu% %his is no% necessar0 (see for ins%ace (,+/a/$ Pronominal sub6ec%s ma0 also a55ear in im5era%ives3
(,1/ a$ Vreau sL ci%esc un roman ale!e -mi t1 unul frumos$ 9an%$+SG SD'N rea#$+SG a novel choose$I:PV$1SG-me$CL$DAT 0ou one nice >I 9an% %o rea# a novel 5lease choose a nice one for med? b$ Acum t1 #u-%e Mi %e culcL eu rLmWn$ no9 0ou !o$I:PV$1SG- R7FL an# R7FL slee5$I:PV$1SG I s%a0 >No9 !o an# slee5 I 9ill s%a0$?

Gver% sub6ec% 5ronouns of Persons 2 an# . ma0 #ouble #efini%e sub6ec% DPs sharin! %he !en#er an# number fea%ures of %he sub6ec% DP$ There are %9o %05es of %his sor% of #oublin!3 (i/ verb P #oublin! nomina%ive 5ronoun P DP sub6ec%$ The 5ronoun is uns%resse# an# i% imme#ia%el0 follo9s %he verb$
(,2/ a$ Vine eli %a%ai n- ai !ri6L d comes he fa%her no% have$I:PV$1SG 9orr0d >I?m 9arnin! 0ou #a# 9ill come soond? b$ 'a%e eli Ivani la 5oar%L cW% 5oa%e (^/ #ar au 5rins ei 6 acum #racii6 la -noc-s he Ivan a% !a%e ho9 can$2SG bu% have$2PL cau!h% %he0 no9 #evils-%he a% min%e (Crean!L/ min# >Ivan -noc-s a% %he !a%e as har# as he can bu% %he #evils have learne# %he %ric-$?

This cons%ruc%ion is use# %o conve0 illocu%ionar0 forces such as %hrea% 9arnin! 5romise a#vice concession or %o sho9 %he narra%or?s involvemen% in %he s%or0 or %he sur5rise 9hen confron%e# 9i%h an une;5ec%e# flo9 of even%s$ (ii/Ui%h %he focal 5ar%icle i3 DP sub6ec% P verb P i P #oublin! nomina%ive 5ronoun3
(,4/ a$ S%u#enRiii au Mi eii #re5%urile lord s%u#en%s-%he have$2PL also %he0 ri!h%s-%he %heir >S%u#en%s %oo have %heir o9n ri!h%sd? b$ Co5iii6 se 6oacL Mi ei6 5e un#e 5o%$ chil#ren-%he R7FL 5la0$2PL also %he0 on 9here can$2PL >Chil#ren 5la0 9here %he0 can fin# a 5lace %o$?

1.&. T8e St01/t10e of Cl.t./ Cl1ste0s 1.&.1. L.nea0 o03e0s .ns.3e t8e 2e0bal /l1ste0 Le% us no9 e;amine %he com5le; cons%i%uen% forme# b0 a verb an# one or more cli%ics 9hich 9ill be referre# %o as %he >verbal clus%er? belo9$ Le% us re5ea% %ha% %his cons%i%uen% is no% 5hrasal (in o%her 9or#s %he verb an# %he cli%ic #o no% form a VP/ bu% ins%ea# has %he s%a%us of a Oea# (VT elemen%/ 9hich occu5ies a V-5osi%ion$ 'esi#es 5ronominal cli%ics %he verbal clus%er ma0 also con%ain o%her cli%ics3 (i/ 1=B

Pronouns

a#verbial cli%ics (i tot cam mai prea/I (ii/ moo# an# %ense cli%ics3 am% ai% a% am% ai% au (5as% %ense/ voi% vei% va% vom% vei% vor (fu%ure/ a% ai% ar% am% ai% ar (con#i%ional/ oi% oi% o% om% oi% or (5resum5%ive/% uninflec%e# fi (fi is an invariable 5erfec% au;iliar0 %ha% is !enerall0 follo9e# b0 a 5as% 5ar%ici5le an# en%ers %he 5eri5hras%ic forms of 5erfec% sub6unc%ives 5erfec% con#i%ionals 5erfec% infini%ivals an# 5erfec% 5resum5%ivesI in 5resum5%ives fi can also be follo9e# b0 a !erun# 0iel#in! a con%inuous 5resen% in%er5re%a%ion/I (iii/ %he moo#com5lemen%iAer 5ar%icles s an# a for %he sub6unc%ive an# %he infini%ive res5ec%ivel0I (iv/ %he ne!a%ive a#verbial cli%ic nu (no%e ho9ever %ha% nu unli-e %he o%her elemen%s men%ione# here can also a55ear as a free-s%an#in! elemen% an# bear s%ress e$!$ -Ai nelesQ -Nu "Di# 0ou un#ers%an#K& "Nod&/$ The follo9in! %able #escribes %he rela%ive or#er of cli%ic elemen%s 9i%hin %he verbal clus%er$ The %able illus%ra%es %he combina%ions of %he 2s!$ cli%ics l (masc$/ (re5resen%a%ive for all o%her cli%ics/ an# o (fem$/ (%he 5osi%ion of 9hich is s5ecial in cer%ain au;iliar0 confi!ura%ions/ 9i%h %he verb cnta >sin!? in %he +s% 5erson (e;ce5% for %he im5era%ive/ an# %he cli%ic a#verb mai "a!ain s%ill (an0/ more (an0/ lon!er& (In %he %able %he abbrevia%ions s%an# for3 PR7S- 5resen%I CP P com5oun# 5erfec%I I:PF P im5erfec%I SP P sim5le 5erfec%I PLPF P 5lu5erfec%I FDT P fu%ureI PRF P 5erfec%I SD'N P sub6unc%iveI CGND P con#i%ionalI I:PV P im5era%iveI INF P infini%iveI PART P 5ar%ici5leI SDP P su5ineI G7R P !erun#I PRS P "5resum5%ive&3 a moo# use# for e5is%emic 5ossibili%0/ 3
:GGD :GRPO7: 7 N7GA TIGN CLITIC PRONOUN1 T7NS7/:GG D ADVILIARq ADV

fiPRF

'

CLITIC PRONOUN2

7VA:PL7S

A SLSD'N A SLSD'N -

(N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G / (N7G /
N7G N7G

/l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ 50on. O oP /l.t./ 50on. Oe</e5t fo0 oP /l.t./ 50on. Oe</e5t fo0 oP /l.t./ 50on. Oe</e5t fo0 oP /l.t./ 50on. Oe</e5t fo0 oP /l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ /l.t./ /l.t./ +

(ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ voiFDT voiFDT oiPRS oiPRS aMCGND aMCGND amCP (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV /

fi
-

cWn%PR7S cWn%amI:PF cWn%aiSP cWn%asemPLPF cWn%a cWn%a% cWn%a cWn%a%/-Wn# cWn%a

+ + + + + + Qo Qo Qo Qo Qo + + + + + /l.t./. /l.t./ 50on. /l.t./ 50on.

)nu*-)*l )mai* cnt )nu*- )*l)mai* cntam )nu*- )*l )mai* cntai )nu*-)*l )mai* cntasem )nu -)*l voi )mai* cnta )nu*-)*l voi )mai* fi cntat )nu* l-oi )mai* cnta )n-* oi )mai* cnta-o )nu* l-oi )mai* fi cntat )n-* oi )mai* fi cntat-o )nu* l-a )mai* cnta )n-* a )mai* cnta-o )nu* l-a )mai* fi cntat )n-* a )mai* fi cntat-o )nu* l-am )mai* cntat )n-* am )mai* cntat-o a )nu*-l )mai* fi cntat s )nu*-l )mai* fi cntat a )nu*-l )mai* cnta s )nu*-l )mai* cntai nu-l )mai* cnta nu-l )mai* cntai )mai* cnt-l )mai* cntai-l )nemai*cntndu-l

fi

fi

cWn%a% cWn%a%

fi fi -

cWn%a%INF cWn%a% cWn%aINF cWn% cWn%aI:PV cWn%aRiI:PV cWn%LI:PV cWn%aRiI:PV cWn%Wn#G7R

N7G

(ADV/ (ADV/ (ADV/

1=C

Pronouns

Table 2.T8e st01/t10e of 2e0bal /l1ste0s This Table sho9s %ha% %he or#er of cli%ic elemen%s insi#e %he verbal clus%er is no% ran#om bu% ins%ea# resembles %he or#er of free-s%an#in! func%ional cons%i%uen%s such as Com5(lemen%iAers/ :oo# V$ Re!ar#in! 5ronominal cli%ics Table 1 sho9s %ha% %he0 ma0 a55ear in %9o 5osi%ions labelle# CLITIC PRGNGDN + an# CLITIC PRGNGDN 1$ The firs% of %hese 5osi%ions 9hich is occu5ie# b0 mos% Romanian cli%ics (inclu#in! refle;ive cli%ics/ is %he 2r# slo% of %he verbal clus%er 9hich is se5ara%e# from %he (le;ical/ verb b0 a#verbial cli%ics an# au;iliar0 cli%ics$ CLITIC PRGNGDN1 9hich is %he +s% slo% %o %he ri!h% of %he verb is %he 5osi%ion 9here cli%ics a55ear in more res%ric%e# con%e;%s3 (i/ for all cli%ics %his is %heir 5osi%ion in affirma%ive im5era%ives an# !erun#sI (ii/ for %he feminine accusa%ive sin!ular cli%ic o %his is i%s 5osi%ion in %hose clus%ers %ha% con%ain an au;iliar0 be!innin! 9i%h a vo9el3 am v(ut-o% a vedea-o% -o am v(ut% -o a vedea0 The 5os%verbal 5osi%ion of %he cli%ic o mus% a% leas% 5ar%iall0 be #ue %o some 5hone%ic cons%rain% 9hich 5rohibi%s %he a#6acenc0 of %9o vo9els3 Xo oi% -o a% -o am$ No%e ho9ever %ha% %his 5hone%ic 5rohibi%ion is no% absolu%e since se@uences of %his %05e are allo9e# (viA$ obli!a%or0/ 9henever %he verb follo9in! %he cli%ic is no% an au;iliar03 o am cu mine >YIZ her have 9i%h me? (see belo9 +$<$1$-+$<$2$/$ 'ecause of i%s ver0 s5ecial 5ro5er%ies (an# i%s #e5en#ence on 5hone%ic fac%ors/ %he 5os%verbal 5osi%ion of o has been mar-e# b0 d in %he %able$ If %he verb is 5rece#e# b0 %he fu%ure au;iliar0 voi %he cli%ic o s%a0s 5referen%iall0 before voi (o voi vedea >$$?/ bu% i% ma0 o5%ionall0 follo9 %he main verb (K voi vedea-o >$$?/$
A5ar% from %he re!ular s sub6unc%ive for %he 2r# 5erson s5o-en Romanian allo9s a less fre@uen%l0 use# sub6unc%ive "%he sub6unc%ive 9i%hou% s&$ The func%ion of %his sub6unc%ive form is close %o %he func%ion of %he 7n!lish 2r# 5erson im5era%ive (let !imG% let itG% let t!em/ or %o %he 7n!lish sub6unc%ive (may youG/$ In %his mor5ho-s0n%ac%ic con%e;% %he 5ronominal cli%ic is in %he 5os%verbal 5osi%ion 9hich is clearl0 correla%e# 9i%h %he absence of s$ (i/ a$ ArAL-l focul burn$2SG$SD'N -him$CL fire-%he >Le% fire burn him? b$ FicL-le %ell$2SG$SD'N -%hem$CL$DAT >Le% him %ell %hem?

The in#ica%ive 5as% an# o5%a%ive au;iliaries (am% ai% a% e%c$ an# a% ai% ar e%c$/ an# %he fu%ure au;iliar0 (voi% vei% va e%c$/ can #is5la0 au;iliar0 Pverb inversion in 9hich case %he cli%ic 5ronoun occu5ies %he 5osi%ion be%9een %he verb an# %he au;iliar0 -ee5in! i%s 5osi%ion rela%ive %o %he au;iliar0$ (ii/ a$ l-aM cWn%a > cWn%a-l-aM P >I 9oul# sin! i%?I b$ 2-am #a% > #a%u-2-am P >I have !iven 0ou$?

These s%ruc%ures are archaic$ Rarel0 9i%h a fe9 verbs refle;ive cli%ic P verb inversion is 5ossible 9i%h sim5le %enses also3 mi se pare > pare-)mi-*se ("i% seems (%o me/&/R se (ice > (ice-se ( "%he0 sa0&/$ The inversion em5hasiAes %he #ubi%a%ive meanin! of %he s%ruc%ure$

A5ar% from %he verbal forms in Table 1 %9o more fu%ure forms are available in Romanian calle# 5eri5hras%ic fu%ure forms3 (i/ am (+SG/% ai (1SG/% are (2SG/ H sub6unc%ive (%he 5ara#i!m of %his 5eri5hras%ic fu%ure form is incom5le%e bein! available onl0 for 5ersons + 1 2s!/I (ii/ o (uninflec%e#/ H sub6unc%ive3
(,,/ am sL lucreA/ ai sL lucreAi/ are sL lucreAe have$+ SD'N 9or-$+SG/have$1SG SD'N 9or-$1SG/ has SD'N 9or-$2SG$SD'N >I?ll 9or-/0ou?ll 9or-/he?ll 9or-?

1+=

Pronouns (,./ o sL lucreA /o sL lucreAi /o sL lucreAe / o sL lucrLm/ 9ill SD'N 9or-$+SG/9ill SD'N 9or-$1SG/ 9ill SD'N 9or-$2SG$SD'N/9ill SD'N 9or-$+PL/ o sL lucraRi /o sL lucreAe 9ill SD'N 9or-$1PL/9ill SD'N 9or-$2PL$SD'N >I?ll 9or-/0ou?ll 9or-/he?ll 9or-/9e?ll 9or-/0ou?ll 9or-/%he0?ll 9or-$?

In %hese s%ruc%ures %he au;iliar0 belon!s %o %he same verbal clus%er as %he sub6unc%ive as sho9n b0 several s0n%ac%ic %es%s 9hich in#ica%e a s%ron! in%ernal cohesion (com5arable %o %ha% of 5eri5hras%ic forms buil% 9i%h an infini%ival or a 5as% 5ar%ici5le/ an# %he lac- of au%onom0 of %he sub6unc%ive %ha% en%ers in%o %he s%ruc%ure3 a le;ical sub6ec% canno% in%ervene be%9een %he au;iliar0 an# %he sub6unc%ive (-are 5aria s vin >has :aria SD'N come$2SG$SD'N? Xo 5aria s vin >FDT :aria SD'N come$2SG$SD'N?/I %he inser%ion of a ne!a%ive cli%ic in fron% of %he sub6unc%ive is bloc-e# (X5aria are s nu vin >:aria has SD'N no% come$2SG$SD'N? X5aria o s nu vin >:aria FDT SD'N no% come$2SG$SD'N?/I in %his cons%ruc%ion %he ne!a%ion mus% 5rece#e %he au;iliar0$ The 5osi%ions of 5ronominal an# non-5ronominal cli%ics in 5eri5hras%ic fu%ure s%ruc%ures never%heless sho9 %ha% %he s0n%ac%ic hos% of cli%ics is %he le;ical verb (in %he sub6unc%ive/ ra%her %han %he au;iliar03
(N7G/ (N7G/ am/ai/are sL o sL /l.t./ /l.t./ (ADV/ (ADV/ Vfin Vfin )nu* am s-l )mai* cnt )nu* o s-l )mai* cnt

Table 3. T8e st01/t10e of 2e0bal /l1ste0s D.t8.n 5e0.580ast./ f1t10e fo06s 1.&.2. Const0a.nts on t8e 2e0bal 8ost In %he verbal #omain cli%ics ma0 a%%ach %o (i/ a fini%e verb (ii/ a fini%e au;iliar0 (iii/ a nonfini%e verb in%ro#uce# b0 %he infini%ival 5ar%icle a or (iv/ a verb bearin! %he !erun# inflec%ion -nd$ Verbs 9hich #o no% sa%isf0 %hese con#i%ions e$!$ 5ar%ici5les or su5ines canno% hos% cli%ics$ In all %hese con%e;%s onl0 a s%ron! 5ronominal form can be use#3
(,</ a$ cLrRile #a%e nouL boo-s-%he !iven us$DAT >%he boo-s !iven %o us? a?$ XcLrRile #a%e-ne/ ne#a%e boo--%he !iven-us$CL$DAT/us$CL$DAT-!iven b$ #e %rimis lui %oa%e informaRiile SDP sen%$SDP him$DAT all informa%ions-%he >%o sen# him all %he 5ieces of informa%ion? b?$ X#e %rimis-Ei %oa%e informaRiile /X #e-i %rimis %oa%e SDP sen%$SDP-him$ CL$DAT all informa%ions-%he/ SDP-him$CL$DAT sen% all informaRiile informa%ions-%he

The a%%achmen% of cli%ics %o infini%ivals lac-in! %he 5ar%icle a is sub6ec% %o s0n%ac%ic cons%rain%s$ Ue mus% in#ee# #is%in!uish be%9een infini%ivals %ha% are com5lemen%s of %he mo#al a putea >can ma0? (see (,B/a/ an# infini%ival embe##e# in%erro!a%ives (see (,B/b-c/$ The former #o no% allo9 cli%ics 9hereas %he la%%er allo9 %hem3
(,B/ a$ XPo% El ve#ea$ can$+SG CL$2:SG$ACC see$INF b$ N-am cu cine -l lLsa no%-have$+SG 9i%h 9hom-CL$2:SG$ACC leave$INF "There?s nobo#0 I can leave i% 9i%h& c$ N-am cui i -l

#a

1++

Pronouns no%-have$+SG 9hom$DAT CL$2:SG$DAT- CL$2:SG$ACC !ive$INF

"There?s nobo#0 I can !ive i% %o& The #ifference be%9een 5ar%ici5les su5ines an# infini%ival VP-com5lemen%s embe##e# un#er a putea on %he one han# an# a-infini%ivals !erun#s an# infini%ival in%erro!a%ives on %he o%her han# in#ica%e %ha% cli%iciAa%ion is no% sensi%ive %o %he mor5holo!ical #is%inc%ion be%9een fini%e an# non-fini%e moo#s bu% ra%her %o some s0n%ac%ic #is%inc%ion %ha% is onl0 loosel0 correla%e# 9i%h (non-/fini%eness (see secon# volume/$ There are %9o con%e;%s 9hich allo9 for a cli%ic %o be hos%e# b0 a verb or verbal com5le; %ha% is hi!her %han %he non-fini%e verb or a#6ec%ive of 9hich %he cli%ic is an ar!umen%3 %he verb a putea >can? combinin! 9i%h a bare infini%ive i$e$ no% 5rece#e# b0 %he 5ar%icle a (see (,C/a/ an# co5ular verbs$ In %his la%%er case %he cli%ic ma0 be %he ar!umen% of a 5ar%ici5le (see (,C/b/ or of an a#6ec%ive (see (,C/c-#/$ Due %o %he na%ure of co5ular cons%ruc%ions onl0 #a%ive cli%ics a55ear in %his con%e;% (a#6ec%ives an# 5assive 5ar%ici5les #o no% %a-e accusa%ive com5lemen%s/3
(,C/ 5o% (#e6a/ ve#ea can$+SG alrea#0 see$INF >I can alrea#0 see him? b$ :ia fos% Encre#inRa%L #in !reMealL me$CL$DAT-has been en%rus%e# b0 mis%a-e >She has been en%rus%e# %o me b0 mis%a-e? c$ `i es%e #ra!L /`i es%e su5erioarL CL$2SG$DAT is #ear$FSG/CL$2SG$DAT is su5erior$FSG >She is #ear %o him/her /She is su5erior %o him/her? #$Ia #eveni% in#is5ensabilL CL$2SG$DAT-has become in#is5ensable$FSG >I% became in#is5ensable %o him/her$?
CL$2SG:$ACC

a$ `l

The verb a putea can also be buil% 9i%h %he sub6unc%ive (as all o%her raisin! an# con%rol verbs in Romanian see secon# volume/$ In %his case %he cli%ic a%%aches %o %he sub6unc%ive3 (i/ Nu 5o% sL -l vL# no% can$+SG SD'N-him$CL$ACC see$+SG

Pronominal cli%ics also a%%ach %o au;iliaries o%her %han %he 5assive fi >be? (see %he elemen%s %ha% a55ear in Table 1 un#er Tense/:oo# Au;iliar0/$ 'u% %hese au;iliaries are %hemselves cli%ics belon!in! %o %he same verbal clus%er as %he le;ical verb (from 9hich %he0 can be se5ara%e# onl0 b0 o%her cli%ic elemen%s/$ Coor#ina%e# verbal clus%ers nee# s5ecial men%ion$ In 5rinci5le cli%ics mus% be re5ea%e# before each of %he con6unc%s (see (4</ above/$ Oo9ever for cer%ain 5airs of verbs 9i%h rela%e# meanin!s if %he cli%ic clus%er con%ains an au;iliar0 i% is 5ossible (al%hou!h some9ha% mar!inal/ %o #ro5 %he 9hole clus%er before %he secon# con6unc%3
(.=/ a$Iam vLAu% Mi auAi% CL$2PL$ACC-have$+ seen an# hear# >I sa9 an# hear# %hem? b$ Enain%e #e a-l ci%i Mi EnRele!e before of %o-CL$2:SG$ACC rea#$INF an# un#ers%an#$INF >before rea#in! an# un#ers%an#in! i%?

I% is com5le%el0 im5ossible %o #ro5 onl0 5ar% of %he cli%ic clus%er3


(.+/ a$ L+am ci%i% MiX(-l/ voi EnRele!e

1+1

Pronouns
CL$2:SG$ACC-have$+ rea# an# CL$2:SG$ACC 9ill$+SG un#ers%an# >I rea# i% an# I 9ill un#ers%an# i%? b$ I-am vLAu% Mi X(i-/ am auAi% CL$2PL$ACC-have$+ seen an# CL$2PL$ACC have$+ hear#

1.&.3. P0ono6.nal Cl.t./ Cl1ste0s +$.$2$+$ The Gr#er of Co-occurrin! Da%ive an# Accusa%ive Cli%ics Re!ar#less of %heir 5osi%ion rela%ive %o %he verb (5re- or 5os%-5ose#/ cli%ic 5ronouns form a s0n%ac%ic uni% insi#e 9hich %he or#er of cli%ics is fi;e# an# no inser%ion is allo9e#$ The unmar-e# or#er of cli%ics is Dative pronominal )or refle'ive* clitic J Accusative pronominal )or refle'ive* clitic0
(.1/ a$ M. +l #L me$CL$DAT CL$2:SG$ACC !ives >(S/he is !ivin! i% %o me? b$ I lam a#us CL$2SG$DAT CL$2:SG$ACC have$+ brou!h% >I brou!h% i% %o him? c$ N. le 5reAin%L us$CL$DAT CL$2FPL$ACC in%ro#uces >(S/he is in%ro#ucin! %hem %o us? #$J. la lua% CL$R7FL$DAT CL$2:SG$ACC has$2SG %a-en >(S/he %oo- i% for himself? e$L. se 5are %hem$CL$DAT CL$R7FL$ ACC seem >I% seems %o %hem$?

Clus%ers ma#e u5 of %9o cli%ics mar-e# 9i%h %he same mor5holo!ical case (%9o #a%ives or %9o accusa%ives/ are e;clu#e#$ In %he s5ecial case of #i%ransi%ive verbs onl0 %he YHhumanZ NP can be subs%i%u%e# b0 a cli%ic no% %he Y-humanZ NP3
(.2/ a$ Ion El EnvaRL 5e Pet0e o 5oeAie Ion CL$2:SG$ACC %eaches DG: Pe%re a 5oem >Ion is %eachin! Pe%re a 5oem? b$ Ion Nl EnvaRL o 5oeAie Ion CL$2:SG$ACC %eaches a 5oem >Ion is %eachin! him a 5oem? c$ XIon o EnvaRL 5e Pe%re Ion CL$2FSG$ACC %eaches DG: Pe%re #$ XIon o Nl EnvaRL /XIon l +o EnvaRL Ion CL$2FSG$ACC CL$2:SG$ACC %eaches/Ion CL$2:SG$ACC-CL$2FSG$ACC %eaches

+$.$2$1$ 7%hical Da%ives Co-occurrin! 9i%h G%her Pronominal Cli%ics 7%hical Da%ive cli%ics (see +$,$1 above/ are an e;ce5%ion %o %he rule above3 %he0 can co-occur 9i%h in#irec% ob6ec% #a%ive cli%ics an# are 5lace# in fron% of %he in#irec% ob6ec% #a%iveI %9o e%hical #a%ives (e%hical #a%ive 5erson + an# e%hical #a%ive 5erson 1/ can co-occur 9i%hin %he same cli%ic clus%er in %he follo9in! or#er3 7%hical Da%ive(+s%s!/ f 7%hical Da%ive(1n#s!/ f Da%ive cli%ic (in#irec% ob6ec%/ 3
(.4/ a$ :i -i a#uce Em5Lra%ului merele me$CL$DAT CL$2SG$DAT brin!s em5eror-%he a55les-%he

1+2

Pronouns b$ ji -i a#uce Em5Lra%ului merele 0ou$CL$DAT CL$2SG$DAT brin!s em5eror-%he$DAT a55les-%he c$ :i Ri -i a#uce Em5Lra%ului merele me$CL$DAT 0ou$CL$DAT CL$2SG$DAT brin!s em5eror-%he$DAT a55les-%he >Oe brin!s %he a55les %o %he -in!$?

7%hical #a%ive(s/ can co-occur 9i%h #irec% ob6ec% accusa%ive cli%ics as 9ell in %he follo9in! or#er3 7%hical Da%ive (+s%s!/ f 7%hical Da%ive (1n#s!/ f Accusa%ive cli%ic (#irec% ob6ec%/3
(.,/ a$ :i -l aruncL vrL6i%oarea 5es%e Ma5%e co#rid me$CL$DAT CL$2:SG$ACC %hre9$2SG 9i%ch-%he over seven 9oo#s b$ ji -l aruncL vrL6i%oarea 5es%e Ma5%e co#rid 0ou$CL$DAT CL$2:SG$ACC %hre9$2SG 9i%ch-%he over seven 9oo#s c$ :i Ri -l aruncL vrL6i%oarea 5es%e Ma5%e co#rid me$CL$DAT 0ou$CL$DAT CL$2:SG$ACC %hre9$2SG 9i%ch-%he over seven 9oo#s >The 9i%ch %hre9 i% over seven 9oo#s$?

In cli%ic clus%ers con%ainin! an e%hical #a%ive #irec% ob6ec% accusa%ive cli%ics are in com5lemen%ar0 #is%ribu%ion 9i%h in#irec% ob6ec% #a%ive cli%ics i$e$ a cli%ic clus%er con%ainin! e%hical #a%ive cli%ics in#irec% ob6ec% #a%ive cli%ics an# #irec% ob6ec% accusa%ive cli%ics is no% allo9e#$ +$.$2$2$ Person Cons%rain%s The follo9in! 5erson cons%rain%s occur in Da%ive P Accusa%ive cli%ic clus%ers3 (i/ T9o cli%ics mar-e# for %he same 5erson e;ce5% %he 2 r# or %9o refle;ive cli%ics canno% co-occur in %he same cli%ic clus%er3
(../ a$ X:i 6: ara%L me$CL$DAT me$CL$ACC sho9s b$ Xji 2: ara%L CL$1SG$DAT CL$1PL$ACC sho9s c$ XNi 6: ara%L 9e$CL$DAT me$CL$ACC sho9s #$ XVi te ara%L CL$1PL$DAT CL$1SG$ACC sho9s e$ Xii se ara%L CL$R7FL$DAT CL$R7FL$ACC sho9s

(ii/ Accusa%ive cli%ics for 5ersons +s!$ +5l$ 15l$ canno% co-occur 9i%h referen%ial #a%ive cli%ics3
(.</ a$Xji 6: recoman#L CL$1SG$DAT me$CL$ACC recommen#s b$ Xji ne recoman#L CL$1SG$DAT us$CL$ACC recommen#s c$ X:i 2: recoman#L me$CL$DAT CL$1PL$ACC recommen#s #$ XI 2: recoman#L CL$2SG$DAT CL$1PL$ACC recommen#s

To avoi# such clus%ers #a%ives sho9 u5 as s%ron! 5ronouns 5lace# af%er %he verb3
(.B/ a$ VL recoman#L 6.e

1+4

Pronouns
CL$1PL$ACC recommen#s me$DAT >(S/he recommen#s 0ou %o me? b$:L recoman#L A.e me$CL$ACC recommen#s 0ou(SG/$DAT >(S/he recommen#s me %o 0ou? c$ Ne recoman#L Rie us$CL$ACC recommen#s 0ou(SG/$DAT >(S/he recommen#s us %o 0ou? #$ VL recoman#L l1.@ e. CL$1PL$ACC reccommen#s him$DAT/her$DAT >(S/he recommen#s us %o him/her?

Accusa%ive referen%ial cli%ics for 5ersons 1s!$ an# 2 can co-occur 9i%h referen%ial #a%ive cli%ics 5rovi#e# %ha% %he0 #o no% viola%e rule (i/3
(.C/ a$ :i te 5reAin%L me$CL$DAT CL$1SG$ACC in%ro#uces >(S/he is recommen#in! me %o 0ou? b$ Ni te recoman#L us$CL$DAT CL$1SG$ACC recommen#s >(S/he is recommen#in! 0ou %o us?

The %able belo9 5resen%s all 5ossible Da%ive - Accusa%ive cli%ic clus%ers3
Acc Da% mi i ne$ni v)*$v i i le$li i m t e H H H H H n e v l H H H H H H H o H H H H H H H i H H H H H H H l e H H H H H H H s e H H H H H H -

Table $. Dat.2e R a//1sat.2e /l.t./ /l1ste0s 1.(. Cl.t./ Allo6o058s 1.(.1. T8e Fo06s San#hi 5henomena affec% 5ronominal cli%ics in s5ecific mor5ho-5honolo!ic con%e;%s 5ro#ucin! a lar!e number of cli%ic allomor5hs$ The selec%ion of allomor5hs is #e%ermine# b0 %hree fac%ors3 a/ %he 5hone%ic con%e;% in 9hich %he cli%ic occurs (s5ecificall0 %he final soun# of %he 5rece#in! 9or# an# %he ini%ial soun# of %he ne;% 9or#/I b/ %he 5osi%ion of %he cli%ic rela%ive %o o%her elemen%s of %he verbal clus%er (o%her cli%ics au;iliaries %he le;ical verb/I c/ %he re!is%er (formal/informal collo@uial/$ Cli%ic allomor5hs are 5resen%e# in %he %able bello9 (%he 5hone%ic no%a%ions in %he %able rea# as follo9s3 YiZ [ as0llabic 5os%-consonan%al iI YZ [ semi-vo9el corres5on#in! %o e %ha% forms %9o fre@uen% Romanian #i5h%hon!s YaZ an# YoZI Y}Z [ semi-vo9el corres5on#in! %o iI YZ [ cen%ral mi#-o5en vo9elI [] [ cen%ral close# vo9el/3

1+,

Pronouns

DATIV7 SqLLA'IC Insi#e Gu%si#e Cli%ic Cli%ic Clus%ers Clus%ers +s!$ 1s!$ +5l$ 15l$ 2s!$ : 2s!$ F 25l$ : 25l$ F Refle;iv e mi YmiZ Ri Y%siZ ni YniZ vi YviZ i YiZ i YiZ li YliZ li YliZ Mi YshiZ Emi YmiZ ERi Y%siZ ne YneZ vL Yv{Z Ei Y6Z Ei Y6Z le YleZ le YleZ EMi YshiZ

ASqLLA'IC PrePos%nuclear nuclear

ACCDSATIV7 SqLLA'IC ASqLLA'IC PrePos%nuclear nuclear

mi Ym}Z Ri Y%s}Z ne YnZ v YvZ i Y }Z i Y }Z le YlZ le YlZ Mi Ysh}Z

mi YmiZ Ri Y%siZ i Y }Z i Y }Z Mi YshiZ

mL Ym{Z %e Y%eZ ne YneZ vL Yv{Z El YlZ o YoZ Ei Y}Z le YleZ se YseZ

m YmZ %e Y%Z ne YnZ v YvZ l YlZ i Y}Z le YlZ s YsZ

l YlZ i Y}Z

Table %. P0ono6.nal /l.t./ allo6o058s The %able rea#s as follo9s3 +$ Cli%ic allomor5hs can be s0llabic (i$e$ %he0 form a s0llable all b0 %hemselves/ or as0llabic (%he0 nee# a 5hone%ic hos% in or#er %o form a s0llable/$ Ue 9ill call %he use of an as0llabic form p!onetic cliticisation an# %he 9or# 9hich 5rovi#es %he s0llabic nucleus p!onetic !ost$ 1$ Da%ive s0llabic allomor5hs have %9o #is%inc% 5honolo!ical s%ruc%ures #e5en#in! on %he con%e;% in 9hich %he0 occur i$e$ insi#e or ou%si#e cli%ic clus%ers (%he %erm "cli%ic clus%er& is use# %o refer %o a se@uence of several 5ronominal cli%ics/3 ou%si#e cli%ic clus%ers sin!ular forms an# %he 2r# 5erson refle;ive %a-e an ini%ial e5en%he%ic - %ha% becomes %he vocalic nucleus of %he s0llable$ Insi#e cli%ic clus%ers all s0llabic forms en# in %he vo9el i (9hich re5laces %he vo9els e an# of %he (s0llabic/ +s% an# 1n# 5lural/$ 75en%he%ic - also occurs 9i%h Accusa%ive cli%ics for %he masculine 2r# Person (bo%h numbers/$ 2$ As0llabic allomor5hs form a s0llable 9i%h %he ini%ial/final vo9el of %he 5hone%ic hos%I %he vo9el of %he 5hone%ic hos% is %he nucleus of %he ne9l0 forme# s0llable$ Ta-in! in%o accoun% %he 5osi%ion of %he cli%ic rela%ive %o i%s 5hone%ic hos% as0llabic cli%ic allomor5hs are3 (i/ 5renuclear (%he0 5rece#e %he 5hone%ic hos%/ an# (ii/ 5os%nuclear (%he0 follo9 %he 5hone%ic hos%/$ 4$ Prenuclear allomor5hs are ei%her (i/ consonan%s (e$!$ m-% v-% l-/ formin! a s0llable 9i%h %he ini%ial vo9el of %he hos% or (ii/ bi5honemic se@uences 9i%h a final se!men% formin! a #i5h%hon! 9i%h %he vo9el of %he hos% (e$!$ m}-% n-/$ ,$ Pos%nuclear allomor5hs are ei%her (i/ consonan%s or semi-consonan%al se!men%s (e$!$ -l% -}/ or (ii/ bi5honemic se@uences 9i%h a final as0llabic vocalic se!men% (e$!$ -mi/$ As0llabic allomor5hs are si!nale# b0 a h05hen3
(<=/ a$ M.+ a s5us/M+ a vzAu% /I+ a s5us /L+ a vzAu%/ me$ CL$DAT has %ol#/me$CL$ACC has seen / CL$2SGDAT has %ol#/ CL$2:SG$ACC has seen/ Ne+ a s5us/ Ne+ a vLAu% us$CL$DAT-has %ol#/ us$CL$ACC-has seen >(S/he %ol# me/(s/he sa9 me/ (s/he %ol# him/her/ (s/he sa9 him/(s/he %ol# us/(s/he sa9 us? b$ a-l a#uce /a -. #a / a-C. amin%i %o-CL$2:SG$ACC brin!$INF/%o-CL$2SG$DAT !ive$INF/%o-R7FL$DAT remember$INF >%o brin! i%/%o !ive him/%o remember?

1+.

Pronouns

The h05hen also mar-s 5os%verbal cli%ics no ma%%er if %he0 are as0llabic or no%3
(<+/ a$ Ia -6: %a-e$I:PV$1SG-me$CL$ACC >Ta-e me? b$ Ia -l %a-e$I:PV$1SG-CL$2:SG$ACC >Ta-e i%?

In %his case %he h05hen si!nals %he cohesion be%9een %he verb an# %he cli%ic 9hich can !ive rise %o some chan!es in %he 5honolo!ic sha5e of %he verb (see +$.$4 above/$ 1.(.2. T8e Sele/t.on of Allo6o058s De5en#in! on %he 5osi%ion insi#e %he verbal clus%er %he selec%ion of an as0llabic allomor5h ma0 be obli!a%or0 or o5%ional$ Gbli!a%or0 selec%ion of a 5renuclear as0llabic allomor5h (5hone%ic cli%icisa%ion/ occurs in %he follo9in! si%ua%ions3 (i/ If %he cli%ic 5rece#es an au;iliar0 verb %ha% s%ar%s 9i%h a vo9el (in %his case %he au;iliar0 is %he 5hone%ic hos%/3
(<1/ a$ M.+ a s5us/ M+ a vzAu%/ I+ a s5us / L+ a vzAu%/ me$ CL$DAT has %ol#/ me$CL$ACC has seen/ CL$2SGDAT has %ol#/ CL$2:SG$ACC has seen/ Ne+ a s5us/ Ne+ a vLAu% us$CL$DAT-has %ol#/ us$CL$ACC-has seen >(S/he %ol# me/(S/he sa9 me/(S/he %ol# him/her/ (S/he sa9 him/(S/he %ol# us/(S/he sa9 us? b$ :i la #a%/ Vi lea a#us me$ CL$DAT CL$2:SG$ACC-has !iven/0ou$CL$DAT CL$2FPL$ACC-has brou!h% >(S/he !ave i% %o me/(S/he brou!h% %hem %o 0ou?

(ii/ If %he cli%ic is a #a%ive follo9e# b0 %he accusa%ive cli%ic o3


(<2/ a$ M. +o s5une /I +o s5une/ Ne +o me$CL$DAT-CL$2FSG$ACC %ells/ him$CL$DAT-CL$2FSG$ACC %ells/ us$CL$DAT-CL$2SGF$ACC s5une %ells >(S/he %ells i% %o me/(S/he %ells i% %o him/her /(S/he %ells i% %o us? b$ S5une -6. +o /S5une-. +o /S5une-ne +o %ell-me$CL$DAT-CL$2FSG$ACC/%ell-him$CL$DAT-CL$2FSG$ACC/ %ell-us$CL$DAT- CL$2FSG$ACC >Tell i% %o me/ Tell i% %o him/her/ Tell i% %o us?

Gbli!a%or0 selec%ion of a 5os%nuclear as0llabic allomor5h occurs in %he follo9in! si%ua%ions3 (iii/ The cli%ic follo9s %he le;ical verb an# is no% insi#e a cli%ic clus%erI in %his case %he verb is %he 5hone%ic hos%3
(<4/ Ia-l /Ia-A. Yia%siZ / DL-. Y#{}Z %a-e$I:PV$1SG-CL$2:SG$ACC %a-e$I:PV$1SG- CL$1SG$DAT !ive$I:PV$1SG-CL$2SG$DAT >Ta-e i%d / Ta-e for 0ourselfd / Give himd?

(iv/ The cli%ic is accusa%ive an# follo9s a #a%ive cli%ic$ In %his case if %he cli%ic #oes no% fall un#er rule (i/ (#oes no% 5rece#e an au;iliar0 s%ar%in! in a vo9el cf$ (<1/b/ %he 5hone%ic hos% is %he #a%ive cli%ic 3

1+<

Pronouns (<,/ a$ :i-l #L me$CL$DAT-CL$2:SG$ACC !ives >(S/he !ives i% %o me? b$ DL-mi-l !ive$I:PV$1SG-me$CL$DAT- CL$2:SG$ACC >Give i% %o me?

If %he con#i%ions lis%e# above are no% fulfille# 5hone%ic cli%icisa%ion is o5%ional3 an as0llabic allomor5h ma0 be use# if %he cli%ic 5rece#es or follo9s a vo9el belon!in! %o ano%her 9or# (%his 9or# serves %hen as 5hone%ic hos%/3 (v/ Prenuclear allomor5hs (9i%h %he e;ce5%ion of %he 2r# 5erson masculine sin!ular l/ ma0 be use# 9hen %he cli%ic 5rece#es a le;ical verb s%ar%in! in a vo9el (in 9hich case %he 5hone%ic hos% is %he verb/3
(<./ M. a#uce/I-a#uce CL$2SG$DAT brin!s >(S/he brin!s him/her?

The use of %he as0llabic allomor5h l of 2r# 5erson masculine sin!ular is mar!inal confine# %o subs%an#ar# varie%ies3
(<</ d Lau#e/KK Lar#e /KK L are CL$2:SG$ACC hears/ CL$2:SG$ACC burns/ CL$2:SG$ACC has

>(s/he hears i%?/>(s/he burns i%?/>(s/he has i%? (vi/ Pos%nuclear allomor5hs ma0 a55ear af%er3 non-5ronominal cli%ics (%he ne!a%ion nu %he sub6unc%ive mor5heme s% %he infini%ive mor5heme a/ an# o%her 9or#s 9i%h a vocalic en#in! (nouns a#6ec%ives 5ronouns a#verbs con6unc%ions/ imme#ia%el0 5rece#in! %he cli%ic3
(<B/ a$ Nu Emi 5lace/ Nu-mi 5lace no% me$CL$DAT li-es >I #on?% li-e (i%/? b$ Sz Ei #au / sz-i #au SD'N CL$2SG$DAT !ive$+SG >I shoul# !ive him / %o !ive him? c$ a El ve#ea / a-l ve#ea %o him$CL$ACC see$INF >%o see him? #$ Fa%a Ei #L o car%e / Fa%a-i #L o car%e !irl-%he CL$2SG$DAT !ives a boo>The !irl !ives him/her a boo-? e$ Care ERi 5lace/ Care-Ri 5laceK 9hich CL$1SG$DAT li-es >Uhich one #o 0ou li-eK? f$ AMa EMi s5une/ AMa-Mi s5une so CL$R7FL$2$DAT %ells? >Tha%?s %he 9a0 (s/he calls himself?

The use of %he as0llabic allomor5h is s5ecific %o %he s5o-en lan!ua!e$The as0llabic allomor5h ma0 also a%%ach %o %he en#in! -u of masculine #efini%e sin!ular 9hich is 9ri%%en -ul bu% in 9hich %he consonan% -l is usuall0 no% 5ronounce#3
(<C/ Gmul El iar%L / Gmu?l iar%L

1+B

Pronouns man-%he CL$2:SG$ACC for!ives >%he man for!ives him?

(vii/ Uhen %he con#i%ions for o5%ional cli%iciAa%ion are me% bo%h %o %he lef% an# %o %he ri!h% of %he cli%ic (vo9el a#6acenc0 con#i%ion/ lef% cli%iciAa%ion is 5referre#3
(B=/ Nu Ei a#uce / Nu-i a#uce/ Nu i-a#uce no% CL$2SG$DAT brin!s >(s/he #oesn?% brin! him/her?

(viii/ Cli%ics follo9e# b0 ano%her 5ronominal cli%ic canno% un#er!o o5%ional 5hone%ic cli%icisa%ion3
(B+/ a$ Nu . la #a% /XNu-i l-a #a% no% CL$2SG$DAT CL$2:SG$ACC-has !iven >(S/he #i#n?% !ive %o him? b$ SL 6. se s5unL /XsL-6. se s5unL SD'N me$ CL$DAT CL$R7FL$ACC %ell$2SG$SD'N >I 9an% %o be %ol#?

'esi#es %he selec%ion of as0llabic allomor5hs 9hich is al9a0s #e5en#en% on %he 5hone%ic environmen% %here is as can be seen in Table , an ins%ance of allomor5h0 9hich is onl0 #e5en#en% on %he s0n%ac%ic environmen%3 (i;/ In cli%ic clus%ers 9hen follo9e# b0 cli%ics o%her %han accusa%ive o% s5ecial s0llabic #a%ive allomor5hs en#in! in -i occur3
(B1/ a$ :i se s5une me$CL$DAT CL$R7FL$2$ACC %ells >I am %ol#? b$ Ni %e 5reAin%z us$CL$DAT CL$1SG$ACC in%ro#uce$2PL >The0 in%ro#uce 0ou %o us? c$ I le cere CL$2SG$DAT CL$2FPL$ACC as-s >(S/he is as-in! him/her for %hem? #$ s5unWn#u-mi-se %ell$G7R-me$CL$DAT-CL$R7FL$2$ACC >havin! been %ol#? e$ 5reAen%Wn#u-ni-%e in%ro#uce$G7R-us$CL$DAT- CL$1SG$ACC >in%ro#ucin! 0ou %o us? f$ Cere-i-le as-$I:PV$1SG-CL$2SG$DAT-CL$2FPL$ACC >As- him/her for %hem?

The follo9in! !eneraliAa%ions emer!e from %he aforemen%ione# rules3 (i/ %he selec%ion of a s5ecific allomor5h is obli!a%or0 in enclisis (for 5os%verbal cli%ics/ 9hen %he cli%ic is follo9e# b0 ano%her 5ronominal or au;iliar0 cli%ic or 9hen i% is 5rece#e# b0 ano%her 5ronominal cli%icI (ii/ #a%ive cli%ics have s5ecial forms in cli%ic clus%ers an# %heir sha5e is no% affec%e# b0 %he 5rece#in! 5hone%ic environmen%$ The various allomor5hs in Table , can be #erive# from a sim5ler lis% of un#erl0in! forms if 9e ma-e %he follo9in! assum5%ions3 (i/ cli%ic forms ma0 be un#erl0in!l0 ass0labic or s0llabicI (ii/ e5en%he%ic - is a##e# %o as0llabic forms 9hen %he environmen% #oes no% 5rovi#e 1+C

Pronouns

a 5hone%ic hos%I (iii/ a lin-in! vo9el - i- is a##e# be%9een %9o 5ronominal cli%ics if %he secon# one be!ins 9i%h a consonan%I %his vo9el re5laces %he vo9el of %he un#erl0in! form of %he firs% cli%icI (iv/ s0llabic forms ma0 become as0llabic b0 a5oco5e or #i5h%hon! forma%ion onl0 before ano%her vo9el$ 'ase# on (ii/ i% can be es%ablishe# %ha% sin!ular an# 2 r# refle;ive #a%ive cli%ics are un#erl0in!l0 as0llabic (mi% i% }% i/ as 9ell as %he 2r# masculine accusa%ive (bo%h numbers/ (l an# }/$ No%e %ha% %hese are %he onl0 cli%ics 9hich have 5os%nuclear as0llabic allomor5hs$ The fac% %ha% %he o%her cli%ics #o no% have 5os%nuclear as0llabic allomor5hs is e;5laine# b0 (iv/ 9hich res%ric%s %he forma%ion of an as0llabic allomor5h b0 a5oco5e or #i5h%hon! forma%ion %o %he 5revocalic con%e;%$ Assum5%ion (iii/ e;5lains %he #a%ive allomor5hs in -i-$ The un#erl0in! forms of %he cli%ics accor#in! %o %his anal0sis are 5resen%e# in %he %able belo93 DATIV7 +s!$ 1s!$ +5l$ 15l$ 2s!$ : 2s!$ F 25l$ : 25l$ F ACCDSATIV7

mi m{ i %s %e ne ne v{ v{ } l } o le } le le Table &. Un3e0l9.n4 /l.t./ fo06s

To sum u5 %he fac% %ha% %he ver0 same forms 9hich have allomor5hs be!innin! 9i%h - also have 5os%nuclear as0llabic allomor5hs !ives s%ron! su55or% %o %he i#ea %ha% some cli%ics are un#erl0in!l0 as0llabic an# o%hers are un#erl0in!l0 s0llabic$ 1.(.3. T8e Cl.t./ o H (2r# 5erson sin!ular feminine accusa%ive/ has a s5ecial s%a%us com5are# %o all %he o%her 5ronominal cli%ics3 i% is al9a0s %he vocalic cen%re of %he s0llable i% forms alone or in combina%ion 9i%h o%her 5hone%ic se!men%sI i% has no allomor5hsI i% %ri!!ers 5hone%ic chan!es a% %he en# of %he forms on 9hich i% cli%iciAes$ Phone%ic chan!es obli!a%oril0 occur if o is 5os%-verbal an# %he verb en#s in a vo9el$ This vo9el is ei%her a5oco5a%e# or %urne# in%o a semivo9el3
(B2/ a$ cWn%L H o s cWn%-o >sin! i%? sin!$I:PV$1SG b$ M%er!e H o s M%er!e-o YoZ >bea% i%? 9i5e$I:PV$1SG c$ %receRi H o s %receRi-o Y}oZ >5ass i%? 5ass-I:PV$1PL

If o is 5reverbal i% ma0 %ri!!er %he #ele%ion or %ransforma%ion in%o a semivo9el of a 5rece#in! vo9el of a #ifferen% 9or#3
(B4/ a$ SL o
SD'N CL$2FSG$ACC

iau /S-o iau %a-e$+SG

>I shoul# %a-e i%? b$ Nu o M%iu /N-o M%iu no% CL$2FSG$ACC -no9$+SG

11=

Pronouns >I #on?% -no9 i%? c$ 5e care o vrei/ 5e care-o vrei DG: 9hich CL$2FSG$ACC 9an%$1SG >%he one 0ou 9an%?

1.(.$. 'e0b allo6o058s 'esi#e %he combina%ion 9i%h %he cli%ic o illus%ra%e# in %he 5revious sec%ion (see (C+/ above/ verbal forms ma0 un#er!o o%her chan!es in combina%ion 9i%h 5os%verbal cli%ics$ These chan!es are s5ecific %o cer%ain 5ara#i!ma%ic forms3 (i/ The as0llabic i for %he 5lural im5era%ive becomes as0llabic3
(B,/ a$ #aRi Y#a%siZ !ive$I:PV$1PL >Gived? b$ #aRi -l Y#|%silZ !ive$I:PV$1PL-CL$2:SG$ACC >Give i%d? c$ #aRi -ne Y#|%sineZ !ive$I:PV$1PL-us$CL$DAT >Give usd?

(ii/ The !erun# receives a s0llabic -u- before cli%ics %ha% s%ar% 9i%h a consonan% or 9i%h a semivo9el3
(B./ a$ vLAWn# Yv{An#Z see$G7R b$ vLAWn#u -i Yv{An#u}Z see$G7R-%hem$CL$ACC >seein! %hem? c$ vLAWn#u -mL Yv{An#um{Z see$G7R-me$CL$ACC >seein! me?

(iii/ 2#r# con6u!a%ion im5era%ives en#in! in -i chan!e %his vo9el in%o -e3
(B</ a$Treci d 5ass$I:PV$1SG >Passd? b$ Trece-l d 5ass$I:PV$1SG$-CL$2:SG$ACC

>Pass i%d? 1.). T8e .nte050etat.on of 5e0sonal an3 0efle<.2e 50ono1ns In %his sec%ion 9e #iscuss %he in%er5re%a%ion of 5ersonal an# refle;ive 5ronouns concen%ra%in! on %he %05es of rela%ions be%9een 5ronouns an# %heir an%ece#en%s$ As men%ione# in %he In%ro#uc%ion 5ronouns are ei%her #eic%ic or ana5horic$ Par%ici5an% 5ronouns are #eic%ic sen#in! %o %heir referen%s via %he Person fea%ure (for %he in%er5re%a%ion of %his fea%ure see sec%ions +$+ an# +$1/$ 2 r# 5erson 5ronouns ma0 be ana5horic P %a-in! reference b0 es%ablishin! an ana5horic rela%ion 9i%h ano%her DP in %he %e;% P #eic%ic P %a-in! reference from an en%i%0 5resen% in %he communica%ion si%ua%ion P or evoca%ive P referrin! %o an en%i%0 5resen% in %he common bac-!roun# of %he s5ea-er an# %he hearer$ The evoca%ive use

11+

Pronouns

ma0 be consi#ere# an ins%ance of remo%e #ei;is$ 1.).1. Co+0efe0en/e Pronouns ma0 %a-e reference from an e;5ression 5resen% in %he %e;% calle# t!e antecedent$ Co-reference 9i%h an an%ece#en% (calle# referential anap!ora/ is foun# no% onl0 9i%h 5ersonal 5ronouns bu% 9i%h o%her #efini%e 5hrases (#emons%ra%ives #efini%e DPs 5ronominal a#verbs/$ The rela%ion be%9een 5ersonal 5ronouns an# %heir an%ece#en%s #iffers from %he ana5horic rela%ion foun# 9i%h %he o%her #efini%e DPs in several res5ec%s 9hich concern locali%03 (i/ Personal 5ronouns ma0 be c-comman#e# b0 %heir an%ece#en% o%her DPs canno% #o so3
(BB/ a$ Ioni cre#e cL proi va lua un 5remiu/cL Eli vor numi #irec%or Ion believes %ha% 9ill$2SG 9in a 5riAe %ha% him$CL$AC 9ill$2PL a55oin% mana!er >Ion believes he 9ill 9in a 5riAe/ %he0 9ill a55oin% him mana!er? b$XIoni/X7li cre#e cL Ioni va lua un 5remiu/cL 5e Ioni Eli vor numi #irec%or Ion/he believes %ha% Ion 9ill 9in a 5riAe/ %ha% DG: Ion him$CL$AC 9ill$2PL a55oin% mana!er >Ion believes Ion 9ill 9in a 5riAe/ %he0 9ill a55oin% Ion mana!er? c$ XIoni/X7li cre#e cL aces%ai va lua un 5remiu/cL 5e aces%ai Eli vor Ion/ he believes %ha% %his-one 9ill 9in a 5riAe/ %ha% DG: %his-one him$CL$AC 9ill$2PL numi #irec%or a55oin% mana!er >Ion believes %his one 9ill 9in a 5riAe/ %he0 9ill a55oin% %his one mana!er$?

Uhen %he rela%ion is local P %he co-referrin! forms are in %he same !overnin! #omain or %he0 are co-ar!umen%s P s5ecial forms are use# for %he 2r# 5erson %he so-calle# refle'ive pronouns (see sec%ion +$1 above/$ The s5ecial refle;ive forms are obli!a%or0 for cli%icsI as s%ron! forms besi#es %he s5ecial refle;ive forms 5ersonal (non-refle;ive/ 5ronouns ma0 also be use# of%en reinforce# 9i%h %he 5ronominal in%ensifier nsui% nsi e%c$ (see *2 belo9/3
(BC/ a$ Ioni sei /X Eli iubeM%e 5e sinei /5e eli EnsuMi Ion CL$R7FL$ACC/him$CL$AC loves DG: himself /DG: him$ACC self >Ion loves himself? b$ Ioni sei iubeM%e numai 5e eli Ion CL$R7FL$ACC loves onl0 DG: him$ACC >Ion loves onl0 himself? c$ :ariai EMii / X Eii #e#icL o 5oeAie (chiar eii/ :aria CL$R7FL$DAT/her$CL$DAT #e#ica%e a 5oem (even her$ DAT/ >:aria is #e#ica%in! a 5oem %o herself?

The s5ecial refle;ive forms (inclu#in! %he s%ron! ones/ are also obli!a%or0 9hen %he an%ece#en% is an arbi%rar0 null 5ronoun/arbi%rar0 im5lici% ar!umen% of a nominal3
(C=/ #ra!os%ea #e sine love-%he of himself

(ii/ Personal 5ronouns ma0 5rece#e %he an%ece#en% 5rovi#e# %ha% %he0 are in %he same sen%ence 9i%h i% an# no% c-comman#e# b0 i%3
(C+/ a$ CWn# liam vLAu% :irceai 5ur%a o 5LlLrie lar!L 9hen him$CL$ACC-have$+ seen :ircea 9ear$I:PF a ha% lar!e >Uhen I sa9 him :ircea 9as 9earin! a lar!e ha%? b$ XCWn# lam vLAu% 5e aces%a i :irceai 5ur%a o 5LlLrie lar!L 9hen him$CL$ACC-have$+ seen DG: %his-one :ircea 9ear$I:PF a ha% lar!e

111

Pronouns
If %he %erm >an%ece#en%? is un#ers%oo# as li%erall0 meanin! >5rece#in!? %he co-referrin! DP 9oul# ra%her be calle# >subse@uen%?$ Oo9ever %he curren% use of callin! %he >ana5horic source? >an%ece#en%? is 9ell-foun#e#3 %he 5ronoun can be in%er5re%e# onl0 af%er %he >an%ece#en%? has been in%er5re%e# so 9e ma0 s5ea- of some sor% of an%eriori%0 as far as in%er5re%a%ion is concerne#$

No%e %ha% in such con%e;%s %he 5ronoun mus% have %he 9ea- (viA$ null/ form (9henever a 9eaform is available/I com5are (C1/b 9here a s%ron! form mus% be use# because 9ea- forms canno% a55ear af%er 5re5osi%ions3
(C1/ a$ CWn# proi/Xeli e En secre%aria% #ecanuli s%L %o% %im5ul En 5icioare 9hen he is in secre%aria%e #ean-%he s%a0s all %ime-%he on foo% >Uhen he?s in %he secre%aria%e %he #ean al9a0s s%an#s? b$ CWn# mam En%alni% cu el Ion era bea% 9hen R7FL-have$+SG mee% 9i%h him Ion 9as #run>Uhen I me% him Ion 9as #run-?

1.).2. T8e bo1n3 2a0.able .nte050etat.on The an%ece#en% of %he 5ronoun ma0 be @uan%ifica%ional in 9hich case %he %ransla%es as a variable boun# b0 %ha% @uan%ifier$ This is %ra#i%ionall0 re5resen%e# via co-in#e;in! al%hou!h %he rela%ion is clearl0 #ifferen% from co-reference since in %his case %he 5ronoun is no% referen%ial (i% #oes no% 5ic- ou% a cer%ain en%i%0 in %he 9orl#/3
(C2/ a$ YNiciun co5ilZi nu a veni% cu %a%Ll luii no chil# no% has come 9i%h fa%her-%he his >No chil# came 9i%h his fa%her? ; (chil#(;/ l ; came 9i%h ;?s fa%her/ b$ Am vorbi% #es5re Yfiecare co5ilZi cu 5LrinRii luii have$+ s5o-en abou% ever0 chil# 9i%h 5aren%s-%he his >I/Ue %al-e# abou% ever0 chil# 9i%h his 5aren%s?

G%her DPs ma0 also func%ion as boun# variables 5rovi#e# %ha% %heir an%ece#en% #oes no% ccomman# %hem a% surface s%ruc%ure (9hich is rule# ou% b0 %he cons%rain% #escribe# in (i/ in %he 5revious sub-sec%ion/$ In %he lo!ical re5resen%a%ion %he o5era%or mus% c-comman# %he variable bu% %his re5resen%a%ion ma0 be ob%aine# b0 cover% raisin!3
(C4/ :ihai a vorbi% cu Yfiecare bLia%Zi #es5re 5LrinRii bLia%uluii /aces%uiai :ihai has s5o-en 9i%h ever0 bo0 abou% 5aren%s-%he bo0-%he$ G7N/%his-one$G7N

>:ihai %al-e# %o ever0 bo0 abou% %he bo0?s 5aren%s/%his one?s 5aren%s$? The boun# variable rea#in! is foun# no% onl0 9i%h @uan%ifica%ional an%ece#en%s bu% also 9i%h referen%ial an%ece#en%s$ Consi#er %he follo9in!3
(C,/ Ioni nu mai vorbeM%e cu sora luii Mi nici Vic%or$ Ion no% more s5ea-s 9i%h sis%er-%he his an# nei%her Vic%or >Ion #oesn?% s5ea- 9i%h his sis%er an0 lon!er an# nei%her #oes Vic%or?

This sen%ence has %9o in%er5re%a%ions one in 9hich Vic%or #oesn?% s5ea- an0 lon!er 9i%h Ion?s sis%er (calle# %he strict rea#in!/ an# one in 9hich he #oesn?% s5ea- %o his o9n sis%er (%he sloppy rea#in!/$ The s%ric% rea#in! can be e;5laine# b0 assumin! %ha% a% Lo!ical Form %he elli5sis si%e is fille# b0 co50in! %he missin! ma%erial3 (C./
Ioni nu mai vorbeM%e cu sora luii Mi nici Vic%or nu mai vorbeM%e cu sora lui i

112

Pronouns Ion no% more s5ea-s 9i%h sis%er-%he his an# nei%her Vic%or no% more s5ea-s 9i%h sis%er-%he his >Ion #oesn?% s5ea- 9i%h his sis%er an0 lon!er an# Vic%or %oo #oesn?% s5ea- 9i%h his sis%er an0 lon!er$?

'u% %he slo550 in%er5re%a%ion canno% be rea# off %his re5resen%a%ion because %he in#e; on %he secon# lui is %he same as %he in#e; on >on$ To #erive %he slo550 rea#in! 9e have %o in%er5re% %he elli#e# 5re#ica%e as "no% s5ea- 9i%h one?s (o9n/ sis%er& 9hich is 9ri%%en as in (C</ 9here %he 5ronoun lui is in%er5re%e# as a boun# variable3
(C</ ; ( } (s5ea--9i%h (; ;?s sis%er///

The slo550 rea#in! ma0 no9 be re5resen%e# as in (CB/3


(CB/ Ion ; ( } (s5ea--9i%h (; ;?s sis%er/// an# Vic%or ; (} (s5ea--9i%h (; ;?s sis%er///

The 5ossibili%0 of %hese %9o rea#in!s P s%ric% an# slo550 P also a55ears 9hen %he an%ece#en% is mo#ifie# b0 focal 5ar%icles such as only an# even$ Sen%ences con%ainin! %hese 5ar%icles have as a 5ar% of %heir meanin! (ei%her as an en%ailmen% or as a 5resu55osi%ion/ a 5ro5osi%ion 9hich con%ains a @uan%ifier in %he 5osi%ion of %he DP %o 9hich %he 5ar%icle is a%%ache#$ In %his 5ro5osi%ion a 5ronoun co-in#e;e# 9i%h %he DP ma0 be co-referen%ial %o %his DP (%he s%ric% rea#in!/ or ma0 be anal0Ae# as a variable boun# b0 %he @uan%ifier 9hich re5laces %he DP (%he slo550 rea#in!/3
(CC/ Numai :ariai s5erL cL Liviu oi iubeM%e onl0 :aria ho5es %ha% Liviu her$CL$ACC loves >Gnl0 :aria ho5es %ha% Liviu loves her? (i/ In%er5re%a%ion corres5on#in! %o %he s%ric% rea#in!3 >:aria ho5es %ha% Liviu loves her an# an# all %he o%her 9omen (e;ce5% for :aria/ #on?% ho5e Liviu loves :aria? ^ ) ; (; in a con%e;%uall0 #efine# !rou5/ (}(; ho5es Liviu loves :aria// Re5resen%a%ion of %he sen%ence3 (GNLq :aria/ ; (; ho5es Liviu loves :aria/ (ii/ In%er5re%a%ion corres5on#in! %o %he slo550 rea#in!3 >All %he o%her 9omen (e;ce5% for :aria/ #on?% ho5e Liviu loves %hem?

^ ) ; (; in a con%e;%uall0 #efine# !rou5/ (}(; ho5es Liviu loves ;//


Re5resen%a%ion of %he sen%ence3 (GNLq :aria/ ; (; ho5es Liviu loves ;/ (slo550 rea#in!/

The boun# variable rea#in! is no% limi%e# %o 2 r# 5erson 5ronouns$ Sen%ence (+==/ con%ainin! a 1n# 5erson 5ronoun has a s%ric% rea#in! in 9hich %he o%hers #on?% %hin- %ha% Go# sees %he a##ressee an# a slo550 rea#in! in 9hich %he o%hers #on?% %hin- %ha% Go# sees %hemselves3
(+==/ Numai %u creAi cL DumneAeu %e onl0 0ou believe %ha% Go# 0ou$CL$ACC >Gnl0 0ou believe %ha% Go# is loo-in! a% 0ou? 5riveM%e loo-s

This sho9s %ha% even for 5ar%ici5an% 5ronouns %he Person fea%ure #oes no% necessaril0 con%ribu%e #irec% reference$ Uhen %he an%ece#en% is mo#ifie# b0 a focal 5ar%icle a 5ar%ici5an% 5ronoun e$!$ 1n# 5erson ma0 %ransla%e as a variable %ha% !e%s boun# b0 %he @uan%ifier %ha% re5laces %he an%ece#en% in %he LF re5resen%a%ion$

114

Pronouns

There is evi#ence %ha% %he boun# variable rea#in! for 5ar%ici5an% 5ronouns re@uires an a!reemen% rela%ion be%9een %he an%ece#en% an# %he 5ronoun$ The evi#ence comes from rela%ive sen%ences mo#if0in! %he an%ece#en%$ In sen%ences of %he %05e in (+=+/ %he boun# variable rea#in! is onl0 5ossible if %he verb insi#e %he rela%ive clause a!rees 9i%h %he 5ar%ici5an% 5ronoun an%ece#en% (via sub6ec%-5re#ica%e a!reemen% an# 5ivo%-rela%ive 5ronoun a!reemen%/3
(+=+/ a$ pro+s! Sun% sin!urul care am !ri6L #e co5ilul meu 3 'oun# variable rea#in! 5ossible am onl0-%he 9hich have$+SG care of chil#-%he m0 >I?m %he onl0 one 9ho care(s/ abou% m0/his chil#ren? b$ pro+s! Sun% sin!urul care are !ri6L #e co5ilul meu 3 X'oun# variable rea#in! am onl0-%he 9hich has care of chil#-%he m0 >I?m %he onl0 one 9ho cares abou% m0 chil#ren$?

To conclu#e %he Par%ici5an% fea%ure is no% referen%iall0 in%er5re%e# 9hen an A!ree rela%ion is es%ablishe# be%9een %he co-in#e;e# DPs$ 1.).3. T8e .nte050etat.on of #en3e0 The !en#er fea%ure of 5ronouns ma0 ei%her reflec% 5ro5er%ies of %he referen% (masculine for male human bein!s feminine for female human bein!s/ or of %he noun b0 9hich %he an%ece#en% 9as in%ro#uce# in %he #iscourse or 9hich #eno%es %he ca%e!or0 %o 9hich a salien% referen% no% 5reviousl0 men%ione# can be subsume# (in %he case of #ei;is/$ Le%?s firs% e;amin #ei;is$ Uhen referrin! %o anima%e en%i%ies (humans or animals 9i%h #is%in!uishable se;/ !en#er #irec%l0 reflec%s a 5ro5er%0 of %he referen% (se;/ ((+=1/a/$ 'u% for inanima%es an# animals 9i%h non-#is%in!uishable se; !en#er is no% #irec%l0 in%er5re%able in Romanian$ In %his case %he !en#er of %he 5ronoun is %he !en#er of %he noun 9hich 9oul# have been use# %o refer %o %ha% en%i%0 if a non-5ronominal DP ha# been chosen3
(+=1/

a$ (5oin%in! %o a man/3
:i se 5are cL Nl cunosc me$CL$DAT R7FL seems %ha% him$CL$ACC -no9$+SG >I% seems %o me %ha% I -no9 him?

b$ (5oin%in! %o a 5ear Rom$ par feminine/3


:LnWnc -o d ea%$I:PV$1SG CL$2FSG$ACC >7a% i%? [ :LnWncL 5a0a d ea%$I:PV$1SG 5ear-%he(F/ >7a% %he 5eard?

Romanian nouns have %hree !en#er classes3 masculine feminine an# a %hir# class usuall0 calle# >neu%er? 9hich %ri!!ers masculine a!reemen% in %he sin!ular an# feminine a!reemen% in %he 5lural$ For referen%s 9hich fall un#er a conce5% e;5resse# b0 a neu%er noun %he 5ronouns use# are also masculine in %he sin!ular an# feminine in %he 5lural3
(+=2/ a$ (5oin%in! %o an a55le Rom$ mr >neu%er? P hence masculine in %he sin!ular/ :LnWncL -l d ea%$I:PV$1SG CL$2:SG$ACC b$ (5oin%in! %o some a55les Rom$ mr >neu%er? P hence feminine in %he 5lural/ :LnWncL -le d ea%$I:PV$1SG CL$2FPL$ACC

11,

Pronouns

The absence of s5ecial neu%er 5ronominal forms su55or%s %he i#ea %ha% Romanian has onl0 %9o values of %he ca%e!or0 Gen#er :asculine an# Feminine an# %ha% a %hree-fol# #is%inc%ion is onl0 foun# in nominal classes 9hich shoul# be #is%in!uishe# from Gen#er (see cha5%er +/$ In %he con%e;%s 9here 5ronouns #is%in!uish s%ron! an# 9ea- forms s%ron! forms are in%er5re%e# as anima%e e;ce5% for nomina%ive over% sub6ec%s (see sec%ions +$,$2$-+$,$, above/$ In %he case of #ei;is %he con#i%ion is s%ron!er3 all s%ron! forms inclu#in! sub6ec%s an# ob6ec%s of 5re5osi%ions mus% refer %o humans3 (+=4/ (5oin%in! %o a #es- Romanian birou >neu%er? i$e$ masculine in %he sin!ular/3
a$ m Scriu 5e el 9ri%e$+SG on 2:SG$ACC >I?m 9ri%in! on i%? (>on %ha% #es-?/ b$ (m 7l/ a fos% cum5Lra% anul %recu% 2:SG$NG: has been bou!h% 0ear-%he las% >I% has been bou!h% las% 0ear?

For ana5horic 5ronouns (5ronouns 9i%h an an%ece#en% 5resen% in %he #iscourse/ !en#er behaves li-e9ise$ 'u% %here is a fur%her si%ua%ion %o consi#er besi#es %hose e;amine# before3 some nouns al%hou!h referrin! %o humans have a !ramma%ical !en#er conflic%in! 9i%h %he na%ural !en#er P for ins%ance ordonan >or#erl0? feminine bu% normall0 a55lie# %o males$ In %his case %he 5ronoun ma0 have ei%her %he na%ural !en#er or %he !ramma%ical !en#er of %he an%ece#en% (see (+=.//$ I% has been observe# %ha% across lan!ua!es 9hen %he #is%ance be%9een %he an%ece#en% an# %he 5ronoun increases na%ural !en#er is 5referre#$
(+=,/ (+=./ Am a#us s%iclai$ Am 5us -oi 5e masL$ have$+ brou!h% bo%%le(F/-%he have$+ 5u%-CL$2FSG$ACC on %able >I brou!h% %he bo%%le$ I 5u% i% on %he %able? a$ Gr#onanRai a bLu% cu fraRii eii/ luii or#erl0-%he has #run- 9i%h bro%hers-%he her/his >The or#erl0 #ran- 9i%h his bro%hers? b$ `n%Wi a in%ra% or#onanRai$ Du5L eai /eli au in%ra% ceilalRi firs% has en%ere# or#erl0-%he af%er her/him have$2 PL en%ere# %he-o%hers >Firs% %he or#erl0 en%ere#$ Af%er him %he o%hers en%ere#?

No%e %ha% in %he boun# variable rea#in! !ramma%ical !en#er is 5refere# or even obli!a%or03
(+=</ a$ Nicio or#onanRLi n- a vorbi% cu ru#ele KKlui i/eii no or#erl0 no% -has s5o-en 9i%h rela%ives-%he his/her >No or#erl0 s5o-e 9i%h his rela%ives? b$ Numai or#onanRai a vorbi% cu fra%ele luii KK slo550 rea#in! onl0 or#erl0-%he has s5o-en 9i%h bro%her-%he his >Gnl0 %he or#erl0 %al-e# %o his bro%her?$

This su!!es%s %ha% na%ural !en#er forces a referen%ial rea#in!$ The use of !ramma%ical !en#er in 5ronouns sho9s %ha% %heir in%er5re%a%ion involves no% onl0 in#ices an# reference %o en%i%ies bu% also a rela%ion %o a nominal e;5ression (a nominal conce5%/$ This is a %05e of ana5horic rela%ion #ifferen% from co-reference an# boun# variable rea#in!$ This rela%ion 9hich is also foun# in nominal elli5sis an# 5ro-N (see cha5%er 2 sec%ion 2/ ma0 be calle# nominal anap!ora$ I% is an ins%ance of identity-of-sense anap!ora also encoun%ere# in verbal elli5sis an# non-referen%ial 5ro-forms such as %he 5roa#6ec%ive/5ro-a#verb aa >so?$ Oere are some e;am5les of nominal elli5sis3

11.

Pronouns (+=B/ a$ CauRi o ciocola%LK Di%e sun% acolo #ouL YNeZ YNeZ[ciocolate(F/ loo--for$1SG a chocola%e(F/ loo- are$2PL %here %9o$F >Are 0ou loo-in! for a chocola%eK Loo- %here are %9o over %here? b$ (loo-in! %o some ha%s Romanian plrie P feminine/ Am Mi eu una YNeZ aMa YNeZ [ plrie(F/ have$+ also I one$FSG li-e-%ha% >I %oo have one li-e %ha%?

In (+=B/b 9e see %ha% %he >ana5horic source? of noun elli5sis ma0 be a salien% conce5% in %he e;%ralin!uis%ic con%e;% so nominal 5ro-forms can be use# in a sor% of >#eic%ic? 9a0 (%his %05e of ana5horic source has been calle# b0 some researchers pra matic antecedent/$ Gn %he assum5%ion %ha% 5ronouns 9i%h conven%ional !en#er involve nominal elli5sis %he e;is%ence of 5ra!ma%ic an%ece#en%s in nominal elli5sis e;5lains %he use of !ramma%ical !en#er in #eic%ic 2 r# 5erson 5ronouns (see (+=1/-(+=2/ above/$ Ue ma0 consi#er %ha% ana5horic 5ersonal 5ronouns in %he con%e;% YYDYNPZZ i ^ Proni are in%er5re%e# as YTO7YNPZZi$ The in#e; can be re5resen%e# as an i#en%i%0 5re#ica%e ;$;[v(i/ (9here v(i/ is %he value %he variable assi!nmen% func%ion v assi!ns %o i/ combinin! 9i%h %he NP b0 5re#ica%e in%ersec%ion an# %hen combinin! 9i%h %he io%a o5era%or (con%ribu%e# b0 %he #efini%eness fea%ure of 5ronouns/$ This rule also 9or-s for boun# variable 5ronouns$ Ue have seen %ha% some%imes even #efini%e DPs 9i%h over% nouns func%ion as boun# variables (see (C4// so 9e nee# a rule %o in%er5re% %hem as boun# an09a0$ 1.).$. P0ono1ns of laB.ness There are 5ronouns 9hich are rela%e# %o %heir an%ece#en% onl0 b0 nominal ana5hora P %he0 nei%her co-refer 9i%h %heir an%ece#en% nor are %he0 boun# b0 i%$ So in %heir case 9e sim5l0 have YDYNPZZ$$$Pron s YDYNPZZ^YTO7YNPZZ 9i%hou% an0 in#e;$ These are calle# pronouns of la(iness or payc!ec#-pronouns af%er %he e;am5le b0 9hich %he0 have been in%ro#uce# in %he lin!uis%ic li%era%ure$ The name pronouns of la(iness e;5resses %he i#ea %ha% %hese 5ronouns are onl0 use# in or#er no% %o re5ea% an NP ra%her %han for 5oin%in! %o %he same referen%$ A %05ical e;am5le are 5ronouns 9hose an%ece#en% con%ains a boun# variable$ In Romanian %his variable %05icall0 a55ears as a 5ossessive #a%ive cli%ic ou%si#e %he DP3
(+=C/ Ioni C..a lua% 6aC.na (l1../$ :aria6 (Mi6-/ a lLsa% -o acasL Ion CL$R7FL$DAT-has %a-en car(F/-%he his :aria CL$R7FL$DAT-has le%- CL$2FSG$ACC home >Ion %oo- his car$ :aria lef% i% home?

In (+=C/ o in %he secon# sen%ence refers %o :aria?s car no% %o Ion?s car$ The 5ronoun is in%er5re%e# b0 re%rievin! %he NP of i%s an%ece#en% P main a lui ' >;?s car? P$ In %he firs% sen%ence ' is a variable boun# b0 Ion in %he secon# sen%ence i% is boun# b0 :aria$
The classical e;am5le #ue %o Sar%%unen (+C../ af%er 9hich %hese 5ronouns have been labelle# >5a0chec--5ronouns? is %he follo9in! 3 (i/ The man 9ho !ave 8.s 5a9/8eI1e %o his 9ife 9as 9iser %han %he man 9ho !ave .t %o his mis%ress

Ano%her %05e of 5ronouns of laAiness involves an%ece#en%s 9hich are 5ar% of an i#iom3 al%hou!h %he0 are #efini%e DPs %he0 #o no% refer$ The 5ronoun is in%er5re%e# b0 recoverin! %he NP of %he an%ece#en%3

11<

Pronouns

(++=/ Iar

a sLri% Aan3:0a$ Poa%e o sL -mi sarL pro Mi mie a!ain CL$2SG$DAT -has burs%e# sliver-%he ma0be 9ill SD'N-me$CL$DAT burs%$2 also me$DAT >Ion fle9 off %he han#le a!ain$ Perha5s I?ll #o %oo?$

i-

Ano%her case in 9hich %he 5ronoun #oes no% have %he same reference as %he an%ece#en% is 9hen %he an%ece#en% is non-!eneric an# %he 5ronoun is use# !enericall0 (in %he follo9in! e;am5le a!reemen% on %he verb an# %he 5re#ica%ive a#6ec%ive sho9s %ha% %he pro sub6ec% is 2r# 5erson masculine 5lural %a-in! %he !en#er of %he an%ece#en% an# sho9in! %he 5lural of !enerici%0/3
(+++/ A3 Am vLAu% 1n Ca05e$ '3 VeAi cL pro 5o% fi 5ericuloMi d have$+ seen a sna-e(:/ see$I:PV$1SG %ha% can$2PL be #an!erous$:PL >A3 I sa9 a sna-e$ '3 Ta-e care %he0 ma0 be #an!erous?$

A similar si%ua%ion a55ears in e;am5les of %he %05e in (+1=/ 9here %he 5ersonal 5ronoun is in%er5re%e# referen%iall0 P >%he co9s? in a cer%ain re!ion 9here 9e -no9 %ha% co9s mus% be 5resen% P 9hereas %he an%ece#en% is use# non-referen%iall0 onl0 con%ribu%in! %he noun >co9?3
(++1/ N-am vLAu% nicio 2a/:$ Probabil RLranii le bL!aserL En !ra6#uri no%-have$+ seen no co9 5robabl0 5easan%s-%he CL$FPL$ACC 5u%$PLPF in s%ables >I #i#n?% see an0 co9$ The 5easan%s mus% have 5u% %hem in s%ables?

Nominal ana5hora ma0 also be consi#ere# %o be res5onsible for a %05e of non-referen%ial 5ronouns calle# don#ey 5ronouns$ In %his case 5ronouns a55ear in %he nuclear sco5e of a @uan%ifica%ional o5era%or an# %heir an%ece#en%s are narro9 sco5e in#efini%es %ha% occur in %he res%ric%ive %erm of %he o5era%or$ In %his confi!ura%ion %he 5ronoun is no% C-comman#e# b0 %he an%ece#en% an# %herefore i% canno% be boun# b0 i%3 (++2/ a$ Gricine scrie o car%e
vrea ca lumea s - o ci%eascL$ 9hoever 9ri%es a boo-(F/ 9an%s %ha% 5eo5le SD'N-CL$2FSG$ACC rea#$2 >Uhoever 9ri%es a boo- 9an%s 5eo5le %o rea# i%? b$ DacL /.ne2a !LseM%e un ba4a7 5.e031t pro sL -l a#ucL aici if somebo#0 fin#s a lu!!a!e(N7DT/ los% SD'N-CL$2:SG$ ACC brin!$2 here >If somebo#0 fin#s a los% lu!!a!e he shoul# brin! i% here?

The #e5en#enc0 of %hese 5ronouns on %he @uan%ifica%ional o5era%or ma0 be re5resen%e# usin! a si%ua%ion variable insi#e %he #escri5%ive con%en% of %he 5ronoun3
(++4/ in all si%ua%ions s in 9hich some 5erson fin#s a los% lu!!a!e t8e 1n.I1e 5e0son < .n s shoul# brin! t8e 1n.I1e lost l144a4e < .n s
The 5ossibili%0 %ha% #efini%e #escri5%ions have a variable in%er5re%a%ion co-var0in! 9i%h a si%ua%ion o5era%or even if %he0 #o no% con%ain in %heir #escri5%ive con%en% an e;5lici% variable is 5roven b0 e;am5les such as %he follo9in!3 (i/ 7ver0 %ime I %oo- %he bus %o %he Dniversi%0 t8e /on31/to0 9as a 9oman$

In %his e;am5le %he #efini%e DP "%he con#uc%or& #oes no% refer %o a sin!le in#ivi#ual bu% %o an in#ivi#ual 9hich ma0 #iffer from a si%ua%ion of %a-in! %he bus %o ano%herI %he use of %he #efini%e ar%icle is 6us%ifie# b0 %he fac% %ha% in all of %hese si%ua%ions %here is one an# onl0 one in#ivi#ual 9hich sa%isfies %he #escri5%ion "con#uc%or&$

11B

Pronouns

DPs 9i%h over% nouns %oo can be use# as > don#ey ana5horae? 9hich !ives su55or% %o %he 5ro5osal of e;5lainin! don#ey-5ronouns b0 nominal ana5hora3
(++,/ CWn# se En%Wlnesc o 5.s./: Mi un /K.ne 5.s./a En !eneral fu!e #e /K.ne 9hen R7FL mee%$2PL a ca% an# a #o! ca%-%he in !eneral runs from #o!-%he >Uhen a ca% an# a #o! mee% usuall0 %he ca% flees from %he #o!?

1.).%. #en3e0less 50ono1ns Ue have seen %ha% !en#er in 5ronouns reflec%s %he !en#er of %he nominal an%ece#en% (9here >an%ece#en%? is un#ers%oo# in %he broa# sense inclu#in! >5ra!ma%ic an%ece#en%s?/ e;ce5% for humans an# animals 9i%h #is%in!uishable se; 9here i% can also reflec% a 5ro5er%0 of %he referen% (%he se;/$ There are ho9ever en%i%ies 9hich are nei%her human nor fall un#er a nominal conce5%3 %his is %he case 9i%h 5ro5osi%ional con%en%s or uni#en%ifie# (unca%he!oriAe#/ ob6ec%s$ In or#er %o refer %o en%i%ies of %his %05e neu%er !en#er is use# in %hose lan!ua!es %ha% have i%$ Romanian 9hich has onl0 %9o values for %he Gen#er fea%ure (see above/ uses some forms 9hich are ar!uabl0 !en#erless as 9e have sho9n for %he #emons%ra%ive asta% aia in cha5%er 2 sec%ion <$ Amon! 5ersonal 5ronouns %he null sub6ec% pro (9hich 9e %rea% here as a 9ea- form of %he nomina%ive see above/ ma0 be use# bo%h for a 5ro5osi%ional con%en% an# for an uni#en%ifie# 5erce5%ual ob6ec%3
(++./ (++</ A3 YFice YcL va cWM%i!a ale!erileZiZ6 '3 !roi/6 e im5osibil$ sa0s %ha% 9ill 9in elec%ions-%he is im5ossible >A3 Oe sa0s he 9ill 9in %he elec%ions$ '3 I%?s im5ossible? A3 Ce e aiaK '3 Nu M%iu ce o fi pro #ar pro n-ara%L bine 9ha% is %ha% no% -no9$+SG 9ha% ma0$2 SG be bu% no%-loo-s !oo# >A3 Uha%?s %ha%K '3 I #on?% -no9 9ha% i% is bu% i% #oesn?% loo- !oo#?

Reference %o a 5ro5osi%ional con%en% ma0 also be e;5resse# b0 usin! %he accusa%ive feminine cli%ic3
(++B/ a$ Nici nu-mi vine s-o s5un no%-even no%-me$CL$DAT comes SD'N-CL$2FSG$ACC sa0$+SG >I #on?% even feel li-e sa0in! i%? b$ Di%e am fLcu%-o loo- have$+ #i#-CL$FSG$ACC >Loo- I #i# i%? c$ N-am creAu%-o 5WnL nu mi -a arL%a% fo%o!rafia no%-have$+ believe#-CL$FSG$ACC un%il no% me$CL$DAT-has sho9n 5ho%o-%he >I #i#n?% believe i% un%il (s/he sho9e# me %he 5ho%o?

Al%hou!h 5ossible %he use of a 5ronominal cli%ic resumin! a 5ro5osi%ion is more res%ric%e# in Romanian com5are# %o 9es%ern Romance lan!ua!es$ In man0 cases Romanian uses ins%ea# ei%her ob6ec% #ro5 or %he neu%er #emons%ra%ive3
(++C/ a$ Ne le souhai%e/6e l? es5pre French I CL$2:SG$ACC 9ish/ I CL$2:CL$ACC-ho5e b$ X G #oresc/X G s5er (9i%h o s%an#in! for a 5ro5osi%ion/ Romanian CL$2FSG$ACC 9ish$+SG/CL$2FSG$ACC ho5e$+SG c$ S5er (as%a/ ho5e$+SG %his >I ho5e so? #$ Doresc as%a 9ish$+SG %his

11C

Pronouns >I 9an% %his? a$ Ne l? a#me%s I CL$2:SG$ACC a#mi% b$ (KKG/ a#mi%


CL$2FSG$ACC

(+1=/

French (9i%h o s%an#in! for a 5ro5osi%ion/ Romanian

a#mi%$+SG

If %o5icaliAe# %he neu%er #emons%ra%ive can be #ouble# b0 %he feminine sin!ular cli%ic (in %he s%ruc%ure -no9n as Cli%ic Lef% Disloca%ion see secon# Volume/3
(+1+/ a$ :a conce#ia% asta nu-mi vine so cre# me$CL$ACC-has fire# %his no%-me$CL$DAT comes SD'N-CL$2FSG$ACC believe$+SG >(S/he fire# me I can?% believe i%? b$ Te a6u% asta o fac 5en%ru %ine CL$1SG$ACC hel5$+SG %his CL$2FSG$ACC #o$+SG for 0ou >I 9ill hel5 0ou I?ll #o %ha% for 0ou?

1.).&. S5e/.al E50a46at./F .nte050etat.ons of so6e 50ono6.nal fo06s (An#ra Vasilescu/ +$B$.$+$ Generic uses Con%e;%uall0 1n# 5erson sin!ular 5ronouns inclu#in! null sub6ec%s ma0 %a-e a !eneric rea#in!3
(+11/ !ro nu 5oR. 5reve#ea %o%ul no% can$1SG 5re#ic%$INF ever0%hin! >Gne canno% 5re#ic% ever0%hin!$?

+$B$.$1$ Person #evia%ions Person #evia%ions can a%%ach su55lemen%ar0 #iscourse values %o 5ersonal 5ronouns3 (i/ soli#ari%0 5lural3 &e for !e
(+12/ (A la#0 s5ea-in! 9i%h her in%erlocu%or abou% her 5u550/ (I$ L Cara!iale Lubico/ No. sun%em bLieRi bine crescuRi$ No. nu sun%em mo6ici ca 'ismar-$ 9e are bo0s 9ell e#uca%e# 9e no% are ru#e li-e 'ismar>Ue behave ourselves$ Ue are no% ru#e li-e 'ismar-$?

(ii/ inclusive 5lural as 5osi%ive 5oli%eness s%ra%e!03 &e for you


(+14/ As%LAi o sL fa/e6 cura% En casL %o#a0 9ill SD'N ma-e$+PL clean in house >To#a0 De 9ill clean %he house? (an ins%ruc%ion !iven %o %he housecleaner/

The +s% 5erson 5lural ins%ea# of %he 1 n# sin!ular ma0 also a55ear 9hen a##ressin! %o chil#ren as an em5a%he%ic use (see (iv/ belo9/$ (iii/ s5ea-er-a!en% #issocia%ion (s5eech ac%3 %hrea%enI e;5ressive/ s!e for > you for >3
(+1,/ Te cL5%uMeM%e ea 6:t1Ca M:0.oa0a$ (I$ Crean!L Amintiri/ %hrashes she aun%-%he :Lrioara >S8e 9ill %hrash 0ou aun% :Lrioara? (sa0s aun% :Lrioara/$ (+1./ A5oi lasL -A. b:.ete sa%ul cu %o% farmecul frumuseRilor lui %hen le%$I:PV$1SG$-CL$1SG$DAT bo0$VGC villa!e-%he 9i%h all charm-%he beau%ies-%he$ G7N i%s Mi 5asL #e te #u En loc s%rLin Mi aMe #e5Lr%a% #acL an# 5ass$I:PV$1SG %ha% CL$1SG$ACC !o$I:PV$1SG in 5lace forei!n an# so remo%e if
CL$1SG$ACC

12=

Pronouns te lasL 5Wr#alnica #e inimL$ le%s 9ic-e#-%he of hear% >An# no9 bo0 leave 0our na%ive villa!e 9i%h all %he charm of i%s beau%ies an# s%ar% for so remo%e forei!n 5laces if 0our 9ic-e# hear% le%s 0ou #o i%? (9ri%es %he narra%or a charac%er in %he s%or0/
CL$1SG$ACC

(iv/ em5a%he%ic use (s5ea-er P a!en%/3 > for you


(+1</ Ya mo%her abou% her son3Z E1 sun% bLieRel cumin%e Mi mL s5Ll 5e #inRi En fiecare Ai I am bo0$DI: 9ell-behave# an# me$ ACC$CL 9ash$+SG on %ee%h in ever0 #a0 >I am a !oo# bo0 an# I brush m0 %ee%h ever0 #a0?

Me for you 9hen a#ressin! %o chil#ren3 (+1B/ Ce facem


ne- am mur#Lri%K 9ha% #o$+PL R7FL-have$+PL #ir%ie# >Uha% are 9e #oin! have 9e !o% #ir%0K?

(v/ 5o9er #is%ance 5lural3 &e for > 3


(+1C/ No. /o6.sa01l secRiei ,, #u5L reclamaRia 5LrRilor^ (I$ L$ Cara!iale Hpere/ 9e officer-%he sec%ion-%he$G7N ,, af%er com5lain%-%he si#es-%he$G7N >Se t8e 5ol./e off./e0 of %he ,,%h De5% havin! hear# %he com5lain%s of %he si#es^?

(vi/ mo#es%0 5lural3 &e for >3


(+2=/ Dn#e ai 5leca% moMuleK P :er!em Mi no. la %Wr!$ (Slavici/ 9here have$1SG !one ol#-man$VGC !o$+PL also 9e %o fair >Uhere are 0ou !oin! ol# manK P Ue are !oin! %o %he fair?

(vii/ %he au%hor?s 5lural3 &e for >3


(+2+/ 'o6 #iscu%a mai En%Wi s%ruc%ura (,4/b care selec%eaAL in%er5re%area non-s5ecificL 9ill$+PL #iscuss firs% s%ruc%ure-%he 9hich selec%s in%er5re%a%ion-%he non-s5ecific reAul%Wn# conform i5o%eAei noast0e En urma a5licLrii R8 resul%in! accor#in! h05o%hesis-%he$DAT our in conse@uence-%he a55lica%ion-%he$G7N 8R (Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin 9inta'a limbii romne/ >Ue 9ill firs% #iscuss s%ruc%ure (,4/b 9hich has a non-s5ecific in%er5re%a%ion resul%in! accor#in! %o our h05o%hesis from a55l0in! 8R$?

(viii/ collec%ivism 5lural3 &e for > (in collec%ivis%ic cul%ures ins%ea# of assumin! a 5oin% of vie9 s5ea-ers 5refer a 5lural form %o evo-e a !rou5 e;5erience/3
(+21/ PP Ce 5Lrere aveRi #es5re anunRa%a viAi%L la 'ucureM%i a 9ha% o5inion have$1PL(PGLIT7/ abou% announce#-%he visi% %o 'uchares% G7N 5reMe#in%elui 'ushK 5resi#en%-%he$G7N 'ush PP S1nte6 fericiRi cL #u5L a%WRia ani americanii se ui%L Mi s5re no. are$+PL !la# %ha% af%er man0 0ears Americans-%he R7FL loo- also %o9ar#s us s5re Rara noast0:$ %o9ar#s coun%r0-%he our >Uha% #o 0ou %hin- abou% 5resi#en% 'ush?s announce# visi% %o 'uchares%K/ - Ue are !la# %ha% af%er so man0 0ears %he Americans seem in%eres%e# in us in our coun%r0$?

12+

Pronouns

2. Pol.teness 50ono1ns
2.1. Int0o31/t.on Poli%eness 5ronouns are s5ecialiAe# in mar-in! social #ei;is #e5en#in! on #ifferences in a!e role an# social 5osi%ion an# on %he rela%ionshi5 be%9een %he in%erlocu%ors$ The0 have man0 %05es of forms in#ica%in! various #e!rees of #eference for %he 1n# 5erson (5oli%e a##ressin!/ an# %he 2r# 5erson (5oli%e referrin!/$ There are %9o fac%s 9hich are consi#ere# as s5ecific for %he Romanian 5oli%eness 5ara#i!m3 %he 5resence of %he 2r# 5erson 5ronominal forms 9hich are use# ei%her #eic%icall0 (+22a/ or ana5horicall0 (+22b/ an# %he e;is%ence of %hree #e!rees3 non-5oli%eness (+24a/ in%erme#ia%e 5oli%eness charac%eriAe# b0 sin!ular a!reemen% an# sin!ular #oublin! cli%ics (+24b/ an# formal 5oli%eness charac%eriAe# b0 5lural a!reemen% an# 5lural #oublin! cli%ics (+24c/3
(+22/ a$ SL in%re 316neae.d en%er$SD'N$2 she$PGLIT7 >Le% her en%erd? b$ YDomnul Po5escuZi ne-a invi%a%$ D16neal1.. ne aM%e5%a la uML$ :is%er Po5escu$N us-has invi%e# he$PGLIT7 us 9ai%$I:PF a% #oor >:r$ Po5escu invi%e# us$ Oe 9as 9ai%in! for us a% %he #oor$? a$ Te aM%e5%am 5e t.ne$ 0ou(SG/$CL$ACC 9ai%$I:PF$+SG DG: 0ou(SG/ b$ Te aM%e5%am 5e 316neata$ 0ou(SG/$CL$ACC 9ai%$I:PF$+SG DG: 0ou$PGLIT7(SG/ c$ ': aM%e5%am 5e 316nea2oast0:$ 0ou(PL/$CL$ACC 9ai%$I:PF$+SG DG: 0ou$PGLIT7(PL/ >I 9as 9ai%in! for 0ou$?
SD'N

(+24/

The use of 5oli%eness 5ronouns #e5en#s on social co#es an# %herefore manifes%s a cer%ain ins%abili%03 %he forms as 9ell as %he %he values of %he forms chan!e in %ime$ 2.2. Mo058olo49 The curren% forms of 5oli%eness 5ronouns are com5ose# of %he elemen% dumnea- comin! from %he noun domnia >lor#shi5? (b0 5honolo!ical re#uc%ion in an o5a@ue com5oun#/ an# %he a!reein! 5ossessives (curren%l0 calle# >5ossessive a#6ec%ives? see *, in cha5%er ./ - ta (1n# sin!ular/ -voastr (1n# 5lural/ -sa (2r# sin!ular/ or %he !eni%ive of %he 5ersonal 5ronoun P lui >his?% ei >her?% lor >%heir?$ As can be seen from %he forms lis%e# in (+2,/ %he 5ronominal elemen%s insi#e %hese com5oun#s are inflec%e# for 5erson an# number as 9ell as for !en#er (onl0 in %he 2r# 5erson/ an# case (onl0 in %he 1n# 5erson sin!ular an# in %he 2r# sin!ular dumneasa/$
(+2,/ 1 s!$ in%erme#ia%e 5oli%eness3 NA dumneata GD dumitale 1 s!$/5l$ formal 5oli%eness3 dumneavoastr 2 s!$m$3 dumnealui 2 s!$f$3 dumneaei 2$s!$ (mHf$/ NA dumneasa GD dumisale 2 5l$ dumnealor

No%e %ha% %he a!reein! 5ossessive elemen%s -ta% -voastr% -sa sho9 feminine forms 9hich is e;5laine# b0 %he fac% %ha% %he noun domnia (fdumnea-/ is feminine$ Com5are dumnealui 121

Pronouns

dumneaei an# dumnealor forme# 9i%h non-a!reein! !eni%ive-mar-e# 5ronouns3 in such forms %he fea%ures of %he 5ronoun in#ica%e %he !en#er an#/or number of %he 5erson %ha% is referre# %o$ Ano%her se% of forms less fre@uen%l0 use# consis% of DPs %ha% 5reserve %he 5a%%ern %ha% is a% %he ori!in of %he curren% forms conservin! %he 5hone%ic in%e!ri%0 of %he com5onen%s (%he noun domnie H %he #efini%e ar%icle H 5ossessive/ an# %he mor5holo!ical au%onom0 (infle;ion of %he #efini%e noun an# of %he 5ossessive/ 9hich ensures case mar-in! in %he 9hole 5ara#i!m3
(+2./ 1 s!$ in%erme#ia%e 5oli%eness 1 s!$ formal 5oli%eness 1 5l$ formal 5oli%eness 2 s!$ m$ 2 s!$ f$ 2$s!$ (m$Hf$/ 2 5l$ NA3 domnia ta NA3 domnia voastr NA3 domniile voastre NA3 domnia lui NA3 domnia ei NA3 domnia sa NA3 domniile lor GD3 domniei tale GD3 domniei voastre GD3 domniilor voastre GD3 domniei lui GD domniei ei GD3 domniei sale GD3 domniilor lor

The same 5a%%ern is use# for honorific e;5ressions 9hich are func%ionall0 e@uivalen% %o %he 5oli%eness 5ronoun bu% belon! %o a le;ical class o5en %o innova%ion3 e'celena voastr$sa >0our/his(her/ e;cellence?% ma nificena voastr$sa >0our/his(her/ >0our/his(her/ ma!nificence?% sfinia ta$voastr$sa >0our/his holiness? e%c$ The 5ronoun dnsul 9hich in %he ol# lan!ua!e an# some #ialec%al varie%ies is a 2 r# 5erson 5ronoun unmar-e# for 5oli%eness (i% comes from %he La%in #emons%ra%ive ipse/ is use# as a 2r# 5erson 5oli%eness form in collo@uial s%an#ar# Romanian al%hou!h i% is no% acce5%e# as a 5oli%eness form b0 %he norma%ive$ This 5ronoun is inflec%e# li-e #efini%e nouns3
(+2</ m$s!$ f$s!$ m$5l$ f$5l$ NA3 dnsul NA3 dnsa NA3 dnii NA3 dnsele GD3 dnsului GD dnsei GD3 dnilor GD3 dnselor

2.3. S9nta/t./ 50o5e0t.es? 3o1bl.n4 /l.t./s an3 a40ee6ent Li-e s%ron! 5ersonal 5ronouns 5oli%eness 5ronouns func%ionin! as #irec% or #a%ive-mar-e# in#irec% ob6ec%s mus% be cli%ic-#ouble#$ The cli%ics a!ree 9i%h %he 5ronominal elemen% of %he com5oun# form of 5oli%eness3 %he0 are 1n# 5erson sin!ular cli%ics for dumneata (+2Ba/ 1n# 5erson 5lural cli%ics for dumneavoastr (+2Ca/ 2r# 5erson sin!ular cli%ics for dumnealui$dumneaei$dumneasa% Domnia Lui% Domnia Ei% Domnia 9a% dnsul$dnsa (+4=a b c/ an# 2r# 5erson 5lural cli%ics for dumnealor% Domniile Lor% dnii$dnsele (+4+a/$ The !en#er fea%ure is referen%ial for dumneasa an# Domnia 9a (+4=a b/$ The non-le;icaliAe# forms of %he 1n# 5erson (%he %05e Domnia ta$voastr >0our lor#shi5?/ can also be cli%ic-#ouble# b0 forms of %he 2r# 5erson (+2Bb +2Cb c/ a!reein! 9i%h %he noun domnia$ In %he 2r# 5erson %he cli%ics canno% a!ree 9i%h domnia bu% mus% be referen%ial (see (+4=c//3
(+2B/ a$ Pe #umnea%a %e cLu%am$ DG: 0ou$PGLIT7(SG/ CL$1SG$ACC search$I:PF$+SG b$ Pe Domnia Ta %e / o cLu%am$ DG: lor#shi5-%he 0our(SG/ CL$1SG$ACC / 2FSG$CL$ACC search$I:PF$+SG >I 9as loo-in! for 0ou? a$ Dumneavoas%rL vL vorbesc$ 0ou$PGLIT7(PL/ CL$1PL$DAT s5ea-$+SG >I am s5ea-in! %o 0ou?

(+2C/

122

Pronouns b$ Domniei Voas%re vL / Ei vorbesc$ lor#shi5-%he$DAT 0our(PL/ CL$1PL$DAT/ CL$SG$DAT s5ea-$+SG >I am s5ea-in! %o 0ou (sin!ular/? c$ Domniilor Voas%re vL / le vorbesc lor#shi5s-%he$DAT 0our(PL/ CL$1PL$DAT/ CL$SG$DAT s5ea-$+SG >I am s5ea-in! %o 0ou (5lural/? a$ `l cau% 5e #umnealui / #umneasa / Domnia Lui / Domnia CL$2:SG$ACC search$+SG DG: 2:SG$PGLIT7 / 2SG$PGLIT7 / lor#shi5-%he his / lor#shi5-%he Sa /#Wnsul$ 2SG$PGSS /2:SG$PGLIT7 >I am loo-in! for him? b$ G cau% 5e #umneaei /#umneasa / Domnia 7i / Domnia CL$2FSG$ACC search$+SG DG: 2FSG$PGLIT7 / 2SG$PGLIT7 / lor#shi5-%he her / lor#shi5-%he Sa / #Wnsa 2SG$PGSS /2FSG$PGLIT7 >I am loo-in! for her? c$ XG cau% 5e Domnia Lui$ CL$2FSG$ACC search$+SG DG: lor#shi5-%he his a$ `i cau% 5e #umnealor /Domniile lor / #WnMii$ CL$2:PL$ACC search$+SG DG: 2PL$PGLIT7 / lor#shi5-%he %heir / 2:PL$PGLIT7 >I am loo-in! for %hem (masculine/? b$ Le cau% 5e #umnealor /Domniile lor / #Wnsele$ CL$2FPL$ACC search$+SG DG: 2PL$PGLIT7 / lor#shi5-%he %heir / 2FPL$PGLIT7 >I am loo-in! for %hem (feminine/?

(+4=/

(+4+/

Uhen %he !ramma%ical number an# %he referen%ial one are no% consis%en% (e$!$ formal 5lural of %he 5oli%eness 5ronoun vs$ a##ress %o a uni@ue 5erson/ %he verb?s a!reemen% chooses %he formal number 9hereas 5re#ica%ive a#6ec%ives sho9 referen%ial a!reemen% (in !en#er an# number/3
(+41/ Dumneavoas%rL sun%eRi nemulRumi%LK 0ou$PGLIT7 are1PL unha550$FSG Are 0ou unha550K

For %he non-fuse# forms of %he 1n# 5erson (%he %05e Domnia :a$Eoastr/ %he verb usuall0 %a-es 1n# 5erson (referen%ial/ a!reemen% bu% 2r# 5erson a!reemen% 9i%h %he noun domnia is also 5ossible3
(+42/ a$ Domnia Ta eM%i / es%e invi%a%ul nos%ru$ lor#shi5-%he 0our( SG/ are$1SG / is !ues%-%he our >0ou are our !ues%? b$ Domnia Voas%rL rLmWneRi / rLmWne aici$ lor#shi5-%he 0our( PL/ remain$1PL / remains here >qou remain here?

In %his case %oo a#6ec%ival 5re#ica%es have onl0 referen%ial a!reemen% (%he0 canno% a!ree in !en#er 9i%h %he noun domnie bu% have %he !en#er of %he referen%/ 9hich forces referen%ial a!reemen% on %he verb3
(+44/ Domnia voas%rL sun%eRi foar%e amabil /Xes%e foar%e amabilL$ (s5ea-in! %o a male/ lor#shi5-%he 0our( PL/ are$1PL ver0 -in#$:SG / is ver0 -in#$FSG >qou are ver0 -in#?

124

Pronouns

2.$. T8e 1se of 5ol.teness fo06s To a##ress %o a sin!le 5erson %he follo9in! scale of forms is available3
familiar tu lo9 #e!ree #eference dumneata of s%an#ar# 5oli%eness dumneavoastr honorific Domnia Eoastr

Table (. Fo06s fo0 s.n41la0 a330essees In 5resen%-#a0 Romanian dumneata is rarel0 use#I i% is use# merel0 b0 ol#er 5eo5le in a##ressin! 0oun! 5eo5le or in si%ua%ions of verbal conflic%3
(+4,/ Dumnea%a sL nu vorbeM%id 0ou$PGLIT7$SG SD'N no% %al-$1SG >Don?% s5ea- 0oud&

Dumneavoastr is %he #ominan% form of s%an#ar# 5oli%eness$ Domnia Eoastr is rarel0 use#$ The shor%ene# forms (b0 a5heresis/ mata (e dumneata/ an# matale (e dumitale/% an# %heir #iminu%ives mtlu% mtlic% tlic are collo@uial conve0in! affec%ive or ironical values$ The mos% fre@uen% is matale ori!inall0 an obli@ue form 9hich became a uni@ue form for all cases (+4.a/I in nons%an#ar# varie%ies i% combines 9i%h %he 5re5ose# obli@ue mar-er lu)i*3
(+4./ a$ :a%ale un#e ai fos%K matale 9here have$1SG been >Uhere 9ere 0ouK? b$ As%a e casa lu(i/ ma%aleK %his is house-%he G'L matale >Is %his 0our houseK?

For 5lural a##ressees %he scale is sim5ler3


familiar voi s%an#ar# 5oli%eness dumneavoastr honorific Domniile Eoastre

Table ). Fo06s fo0 5l10al a330essees For %he 2r# 5erson %he choice is richer bu% %he hierarch0 of %he forms is no% unanimousl0 a55lie# or reco!niAe#3
familiar el$ea ei$ele me#ium #e!ree s%an#ar# or me#ium of #eference 5oli%eness dnsul$dnsa dumnealui $dumneaei (rarel0/ dumneasa dnii $ dnsele dumnealor s%an#ar# 5oli%eness or honorific Domnia 9a (rarel0/ Domnia Lui% Domnia Ei Domniile Lor

Table *. 303 5e0son fo06s Dnsul is consi#ere# a re!ular 5ersonal 5ronoun b0 %ra#i%ional !rammars bu% i% ac@uire# a 5oli%eness value in cer%ain re!ions (in %he Sou%h/$ I%s use as a 5oli%eness form is cri%iciAe# an# s%i!ma%iAe# bu% never%heless occurs ver0 fre@uen%l0$ Dumnealui an# dumneaei belon! %o %he same formal series as dumneavoastr bu% %he0 #on?% have %he same s%an#ar# value an# %he same fre@uenc03 in %he 5resen%-#a0 Romanian %he0 are in%er5re%e# as ra%her collo@uial an#

12,

Pronouns

even ironical$ The %hir# 5erson form dumneasa has almos% #isa55eare#$ Poli%eness forms obe0 %he !eneral rules for %he use of s%ron! 5ronominal forms (see **+$,$2-+$,$, above/$ In con%e;%s 9here reference is mar-e# onl0 b0 cli%ics or verb a!reemen% %he onl0 5ossibili%0 %o e;5ress 5oli%eness is for sin!ular a##ressees for 9hich 5lural 1 n# 5erson cli%ics an# 5lural verb a!reemen% conve0 #eference3
(+4</ V-aRi ui%a% umbrela$ CL$1PL$DAT-have$1PL for!o%%en umbrella-%he >qou (5oli%e/ for!o% 0our umbrella? (9i%h a sin!ular a##ressee/

3. T8e 50ono6.nal .ntens.f.e0 nsui


The 5ro%o%05ical in%ensifier nsui has bo%h 5ronominal an# a#6ec%ival fea%ures$ This 9or# is a DP-mo#ifier %ha% func%ions as a focal 5ar%icle rou!hl0 5ara5hrasable b0 "gm0- 0our- him-$$$hself&$ Combine# 9i%h 5ersonal 5ronouns i% can also be use# as a refle;ive mar-er$ 3.1. Mo058olo49 Gri!ina%in! in a com5oun# form %his 9or# sho9s an in%ernal inflec%ion3 %he elemen% nsuvaries accor#in! %o %he ca%e!ories of number !en#er an# (in %he feminine sin!ular/ case (nsu$ ni-R ns- $ nse-/I %he secon# elemen% is i#en%ical 9i%h %he #a%ive refle;ive cli%ic an# in#ica%es 5erson an# number (-mi% -i% -i% -ne% -v% -i/I for %he 2r# 5lural feminine %he en#in! -le (formall0 i#en%ical %o %he #efini%e ar%icle/ can be use# as a free varian% of -i3
(+4B/ + s!$ m$ nsumiI f$ NA nsmi GD nsemi 1 s!$ m$ nsuiI f$ NA nsi GD nsei 2 s!$ m$ nsuiI f$ NA nsi (GD nsei + 5l$ m$ nine f$ nsene 1 5l$ m$ niv f$ nsev 2 5l$ m$ nii f$ nsei $ nsele

In subs%an#ar# varie%ies %his rich inflec%ion %en#s %o be sim5lifie#$ Some s5ea-ers use an invariable form nsui or nsi$ G%hers -ee5 %he 5erson inflec%ion bu% fail %o mar- !en#er (usin! ei%her nsumi% nsui e%c$ or nsmi% nsi e%c$ for bo%h !en#ers/$

In%ensifiers are al9a0s s%resse# as 5ar% of %he focus$ No%e %ha% unli-e in o%her Romance lan!ua!es in Romanian %he in%ensifier is formall0 #is%inc% from %he i#en%i%0 #e%erminer (9hich is acelai >%he same?/$ 3.2. S9nta/t./ 50o5e0t.es The in%ensifier nsui func%ions as a mo#ifier of a DP3 omul nsui >%he man himself? $ nsui omul >himself %he man? (vs$ Xom nsui >man himself? $ Xnsui om >himself man?/$ I% can mo#if0 DPs hea#e# b0 le;ical nouns or #efini%e 5ronouns (5ersonal #emons%ra%ive/$ Uhen mo#if0in! a 5ersonal or refle;ive 5ronoun P e$!$ el nsui )nsui el* >he himself?% sine nsui >2$R7FL$ACC himself? P i% can be in%er5re%e# as an em5ha%ic refle;ive mar-er (see *2$4/$ Snsui a!rees in number !en#er an# case 9i%h %he nominal hea# (see +4Ca/I %he +s% an# n# 1 5erson forms a!ree 9i%h %he 5ronominal hea# in 5erson number an# case an# sho9 a referen%ial a!reemen% in !en#er (see +4Cb/3

12.

Pronouns (+4C/ a$ fe%ei EnseMi !irl-%he$SG$G7N/DAT herself$ SG$G7N/DAT >%o/of %he !irl herself? b$ eu EnsLmi/ Ensumi I m0self$F/ m0self$: >m0self? (9hen a female/male is s5ea-in!/

Ui%h DPs hea#e# b0 nouns %he in%ensifier can be 5lace# ei%her %o %he lef% of %he DP or %o i%s ri!h%3
(+,=/ a$ `nsuMi Y5reMe#in%ele com5aniei Z a Encurca% #a%ele himself 5resi#en%-%he com5an0-%he$G7N has mi;e#-u5 #a%a-%he b$ YPreMe#in%ele com5aniei Z EnsuMi a Encurca% #a%ele 5resi#en%-%he com5an0-%he$G7N himself has mi;e#-u5 #a%a-%he >The 5resi#en% of %he com5an0 himself mi;e# u5 %he #a%a? c$ Am vorbi% cu EnsuMi YEm5Lra%ul Na5onieiZ have$+ %al-e# 9i%h himself em5eror-%he Na5an-%he$ G7N #$ Am vorbi% cu YEm5Lra%ul Na5onieiZ EnsuMi have$+ %al-e# 9i%h em5eror-%he Na5an-%he$G7N himself >I/9e %al-e# %o %he 7m5eror of Na5an himself?

If %he DP is com5le; %he 5re5ose# 5osi%ion is 5referre#$ 7;ce5%ionall0 %he in%ensifier can a55ear imme#ia%el0 af%er a #efini%e noun an# 5rece#in! an a#nominal cons%i%uen%$ In such cases i% em5hasiAes %he noun$ Therefore i% is acce5%able in (+,+/ bu% no% in an e;am5le such as (+,1/ 9here %he noun is no% em5hasiAe#3
(+,+/ (+,1/ Pe a%unci era Ymo#elul Nns1C. al succesuluiZ b0 %hen 9as$2SG mo#el-%he i%self G7N success-%he$G7N >In %hose %imes (s/he 9as %he ver0 mo#el of success? KK A veni% Y5rie%enul EnsuMi al RalucLiZ has come frien#-%he himself G7N Raluca$G7N

Ui%h 5ersonal 5ronouns 5os%5osi%ion is 5referre# an# is obli!a%or0 if %he 5ronoun is in%ro#uce# b0 a 5re5osi%ion or is in %he obli@ue case (see (+,4//3
(+,2/ (+,4/ 7l EnsuMi / `nsuMi el a Encurca% #a%ele he himself himself he has mi;e#-u5 #a%a-%he >Oe mi;e# u5 %he #a%a himself? a$ L-am invi%a% 5e el EnsuMi CL$ACC-have$+ invi%e# DG: him himself >I/Ue invi%e# himself? b$ - L-am invi%a% 5e EnsuMi el CL$ACC-have$+ invi%e# DG: himself him c$ Lui Nns1C. i se 5o%riveM%e #efiniRia$ he$DAT himself CL$2SG$DAT R7FL fi%s #efini%ion-%he >The #efini%ion sui%s himself? #$XMns1C. lui i se 5o%riveM%e #efiniRia himself he$DAT CL$2SG$DAT R7FL fi%s #efini%ion-%he

The 5re5ose# 5osi%ion is also e;clu#e# 9i%h 5lural +s% an# 1n# 5ronouns3
(+,,/ a$ Voi NnC.2: s5uneRi as%a0 0ou 0ourselves sa0$1PL %ha% >qou 0ourselves sa0 %ha%?

12<

Pronouns b$ X MnC.2: voi s5uneRi as%a 0ourselves 0ou sa0$1PL %ha%

In #efini%e DPs 9i%h unmo#ifie# nouns in%ro#uce# b0 5re5osi%ions 9here %he #efini%e ar%icle mus% be #ro55e# accor#in! %o a rule s5ecific of Romanian (see Cha5%er B *+$2/ %he use of %he 5re5ose# in%ensifier 5reclu#es ar%icle #ro53
(+,./ a$ Au fos% 5rimiRi #e 5rimar / X#e 5rimarul have$2PL been receive# b0 ma0or b0 ma0or-%he >The0 9ere receive# b0 %he ma0or? b$ Au fos% 5rimiRi #e EnsuMi 5rimarul /X #e EnsuMi 5rimar have$2PL been receive# b0 himself ma0or-%he b0 himself ma0or >The0 9ere receive# b0 %he ma0or himself?

The 5os%5ose# in%ensifier seems %o be some%imes ra%her mar!inal in such con%e;%s bu% e;am5les can be foun# (see (+,</c/I in %his case %oo ar%icle #ro5 is im5ossible (see (+,</b/3
(+,</ a$ KAu fos% 5rimiRi #e 5rimarul EnsuMi have$2PL been receive# b0 ma0or-%he himself b$ XAu fos% 5rimiRi #e 5rimar EnsuMi have$2PL been receive# b0 ma0or himself c$ En s5iri%ul a#evLrului es%e%ic cu5rins En %e;%ul EnsuMi in s5iri%-%he %ru%h-%he$G7N aes%he%ic com5rise# in %e;%-%he i%self >in %he s5iri% of %he aes%he%ic %ru%h con%aine# in %he %e;% i%self? (%alusa+C4.$forumcul%ure$ne%//

The in%ensifier of%en occurs a%%ache# %o a s%ron! 5ronoun 9hich #oubles %he sub6ec%3
(+,B/ :aria a fos% (ea EnsLMi/ #e faRL (ea EnsLMi/ :aria has been she herself 5resen% she herself >:aria 9as 5resen% herself?

This %05e of #oublin! cons%ruc%ion is use# in or#er %o mar- %he sub6ec% bo%h as %o5ic an# as a (5ar%icular %05e of/ focus$ This use of #oublin! 5ronouns is no% limi%e# %o nsui3 i% can be foun# 9i%h o%her focal 5ar%icles (such as c!iar >even? i >also? see (+,C/a-b/I %he 5ronoun can also occur 9i%hou% an0 focal elemen% bu% bearin! focal s%ress (see (+,C/c/3
(+,C/ a$ :aria e chiar ea bolnavL :aria is even she ill >:aria herself is ill? b$ Ion mer!e Mi el cu noi Ion !oes also he 9i%h us >Ion comes 9i%h us %oo? c$ Geor!e s5alL 7L maMina Geor!e 9ashes he car-%he >Geor!e 9ashes %he car himself?

In %he ol# lan!ua!e nsui coul# be use# as a #oubler 9i%hou% bein! a%%ache# %o a 5ronoun bein! a floa%in! in%ensifier li-e 7n!l$ !imself3 (+.=/ un#e era nevoie nsui sL vWrWea (Dreche/ 9here 9as nee# himself R7FL in%ro#uce$I:PF$2SG >Uhenever nee#e# he !o% involve# himself

12B

Pronouns

This use reflec%s i%s 5ronominal ori!in (%he elemen% nsu- comes from %he La%in 5ronoun ipse/$

3.3. T8e .ntens.f.e0 1se Gn i%s in%ensif0in! use nsui 5resen%s %he focaliAe# elemen% as a less e;5ec%e# al%erna%ive an# i% can have %9o rea#in!s3 (i/ %he inclusive rea#in! in 9hich i% #oes no% e;clu#e o%her al%erna%ives bu% ra%her 5resu55oses %ha% %he 5ro5osi%ion f(;/ is %rue for o%her values of ; %han %he focusI here nsui ma0 be 5ara5hrase# b0 >even? (Romanian c!iar/3
(+.+/ Co5iii EncL nu s-au fLcu% bine$ Acum mama lor EnsLMi e bolnavL / EnsLMi chil#ren-%he 0e% no% R7FL-have ma#e 9ell no9 mo%her-%he %heir herself is ill herself mama lor e bolnavL mo%her-%he %heir is ill >The chil#ren have no% 0e% recovere#$ No9 %heir mo%her herself is ill?

,!iar >even e;ac%l0 reall0? is a focal 5ar%icle 9hich unli-e nsui lac-s nominal fea%uresI %herefore i% has a 9i#er #is%ribu%ion bein! able %o mo#if0 all sor%s of cons%i%uen%s (no% onl0 DPs bu% also PPs APs a#verbs or verbs e$!$ c!iar acolo >ri!h% %here? E c!iar frumoas >She?s reall0 beau%iful? c!iar cnt >he even sin!s?/$ I% forms a class %he focal 5ar%icles i >also %oo? doar >onl0? numai >onl0? (see cha5%er + *4$2/$

(ii/ %he e;clusive rea#in! in 9hich %he o%her al%erna%ives are e;clu#e#3
(+.1/ a$ A rLs5uns acuAa%ul EnsuMi (nu avoca%ul sLu/$ has ans9ere# #efen#an%-%he himself (no% la90er-%he his/$ >The #efen#an% himself ans9ere# (no% his la90er/? b$ A rLs5uns el EnsuMi (nu al%cineva/$ has ans9ere# he himself (no% somebo#0-else/ >Oe himself !ave %he ans9er (no% somebo#0 else/?

I% seems %ha% %he 5os%5osi%ion of %he in%ensifier is 5referre# for %his rea#in!$ These %9o rea#in!s can also be foun# 9hen nsui a%%aches %o a 5ronoun #oublin! %he sub6ec% (see (+.2/ for %he inclusive rea#in! an# (+.4/ for %he e;clusive rea#in!/3
(+.2/ a$ Aici 5WnAa susurL%oare #e a5L nu a6un!ea #ar aerul era el EnsuMi ume# (inclusive/ here s%rea--%he 5urlin! of 9a%er no% reache# bu% air-%he 9as i% i%self 9e% >The 5urlin! 9a%er #i# no% !e% here bu% %he air i%self 9as 9e%$? (CLr%Lrescu/ b$ S%L5Wnul viselor era el EnsuMi un vis (CLr%Lrescu/ mas%er-%he #reams-%he$G7N 9as he himself a #ream >The mas%er of %he #reams 9as a #ream himself? Direc%orul Mi-a re5ara% el EnsuMi maMina (e;clusive/ mana!er-%he CL$R7FL$2$DAT-has re5aire# he himself car-%he >The mana!er himself re5aire# %he car?

(+.4/

The in%ensifier normall0 occurs 9i%h DPs 9hich are a% %he %o5 in %he hierarch0 of a!en%ivi%0 (5ro5er names 5ersonal 5ronouns e%c$/ bu% i% #oes no% e;clu#e inanima%es3
(+.,/ A5a EnsLMi era fierbin%e 9a%er-%he i%self 9as ho%

12C

Pronouns

3.$. T8e 0efle<.2e 1se Uhen a%%ache# %o 5ersonal 5ronouns nsui is of%en use# as an em5ha%ic refle;ive mar-er$ The use of in%ensifiers as refle;ive mar-ers is 9i#el0 a%%es%e# cross-lin!uis%icall0 #ue %o a !ramma%icaliAa%ion 5rocess$ This meanin! #evelo5men% ma0 be #ue %o %he fac% %ha% for man0 rela%ions R(; 0/ %he choice of 0 as i#en%ical %o ; is a less e;5ec%e# al%erna%ive$ Snsui can a%%ach %o a refle;ive 5ronoun (see (+../b (+.</b/ a 5ersonal 5ronoun #ouble# b0 a refle;ive cli%ic (see (+../# (+.</#/ or a 5ersonal 5ronoun insi#e a PP (see (+.B/b #/$ As can be seen from %hese e;am5les nsui is no% obli!a%or0 9i%h ana5horic 5ronouns (see (+../a c (+.</a c (+.B/a c/I local ana5hors re@uire refle;ive cli%ics for #irec% an# in#irec% ob6ec%s (see (+../-(+.<// bu% 9i%h PPs %here is no obli!a%or0 refle;ive mar-er (see (+.B// an# %herefore nsui can #isambi!ua%e %he sen%ence b0 elimina%in! %he 5ossibili%0 of %he #is6oin% reference (see (+.B/b-#/$ I% can also be no%ice# %ha% %he s%ron! #a%ive 5ronoun can %a-e %he -i elemen% unless follo9e# b0 nsui (see (+.</a-b/$
(+../ a$ Dani sei a#mirL 5e YsineZi Dan CL$R7FL$2$ACC a#mires DG: 20R7FL$ACC b$ Dani sei a#mirL 5e Ysine EnsuMiZi Dan CL$R7FL$2$ACC a#mires DG: 2$R7FL$ACC himself c$ Dani sei a#mirL 5e YelZi$ Dan CL$R7FL$2$ACC a#mires DG: him #$ Dani sei a#mirL 5e Yel EnsuMiZi Dan CL$R7FL$2$ACC a#mires DG: him himself >Dan a#mires himself? a$ Direc%oruli EMii vin#e gsiei / sieMii h acRiuni$ mana!er-%he CL$R7FL$2$DAT sells 2R7FL$DAT / 2R7FL$DAT shares b$ Direc%oruli EMii vin#e gYsie EnsuMiZi / X YsieMi EnsuMiZi h acRiuni$ mana!er-%he CL$R7FL$2$DAT sells 2R7FL$DAT himself 2R7FL$DAT himself shares c$ Direc%oruli EMii vin#e luii acRiuni$ mana!er-%he CL$R7FL$2$DAT sells he$DAT shares #$ Direc%oruli EMii vin#e Ylui EnsuMiZi acRiuni$ mana!er-%he CL$R7FL$2$DAT sells him$DAT himself shares >The mana!er sells shares %o himself? a$ Dani are Encre#ere En eli/Dan has %rus% in him >Dan is confi#en% 9i%h him/himself? b$ Dani are Encre#ere En Yel EnsuMiZi Dan has %rus% in him himself >Dan is confi#en% 9i%h himself? c$ Dani a reuMi% #a%ori%L luii/Dan has succee#e# %han-s he$DAT >Dan succee#e# %han-s %o him/himself? #$ Dani a reuMi% #a%ori%L Ylui EnsuMiZ i Dan has succee#e# %han-s he$DAT himself >Dan succee#e# %han-s %o himself?

(+.</

(+.B/

Uhen a%%ache# %o a 5ronoun coreferen% 9i%h ano%her DP in %he same clause nsui can -ee5 i%s in%ensifier func%ion bu% i% can also ac% as a mere refle;ive mar-er$ Thus %he follo9in! sen%ence can be use# ou%-of-%he-blue in a ne9s re5or% 9i%hou% im5l0in! a scalar focus (i$e$ base# on %he or#erin! of focal al%erna%ives in %erms of / on %he PronounHnsui cons%i%uen%3
(+.C/ Dn son#a6 ara%L cum se 5erce5 i%alienii 5e ei EnMiMi a 5oll sho9s ho9 R7FL 5erceive$2PL I%alians-%he DG: %hem %hemselves

14=

Pronouns >An o5inion 5oll sho9s ho9 I%alians vie9 %hemselves?

Li-e9ise %he focal al%erna%ive >%hemselves? can b0 no means be seen as une;5ec%e# in %he follo9in! sen%ence3
(+<=/ ToRi %in# sL-Mi ier%e lor EnMiMi !reMelile all$:PL %en# SD'N-CL$R7FL$2$DAT for!ive$2 %hem$DAT %hemselves faul%s-%he >7ver0bo#0 %en#s %o for!ive %hemselves for %heir faul%s?

No%ice %ha% in %hese e;am5les nsui is a mere refle;ive mar-er al%hou!h refle;ivi%0 is alrea#0 e;5resse# b0 %he cli%ics$ 7;5ec%e#l0 i% can ac% as a mere refle;ive mar-er 9hen refle;ive cli%ics are no% available3
(+<+/ Sun% curios ce 5Lrere are #es5re el EnsuMi am curious 9ha% o5inion has abou% him himself >I?m curious 9ha% o5inion he has on himself?

The lac- of %he focal meanin! 9hen use# 9i%h !ramma%ical ana5hors is also 5roven b0 %he 5ossibili%0 of bein! #es%resse#3
(+<1/ 7l se AD:IRa 5e el EnsuMi he R7FL a#mires DG: him himself >Oe AD:IR7S himself?

In %he s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ions 9here a refle;ive rea#in! is 5ossible (e$!$ ob6ec% 5osi%ions/I %he se@uence nsuiHPronoun %en#s %o be res%ric%e# %o %he refle;ive use$ Thus e;am5les such as (+<2/a 9here %he 5ronoun is no% co-in#e;e# 9i%h %he sub6ec% are ra%her mar!inal$ The in%ensifier use is never%heless 5ossible 9i%h non-5ronominal DPs (see (+<2/b/3
(+<2/ a$ K L-am En%Wlni% 5e el EnsuMi$ CL$ACC have$+ me% DG: him himself b$ L-am En%Wlni% 5e EnsuMi au%orul romanului$ CL$ACC have$+ me% DG: himself au%hor-%he novel-%he$G7N >I me% %he novel?s au%hor himself?

Ue ma0 %hus conclu#e %ha% nsui is al9a0s an in%ensifier 9hen use# 9i%h a DP hea#e# b0 a le;ical N$ Uhen i% a%%aches %o a 5ronoun i% is an in%ensifier or a refle;ive #e5en#in! on 9he%her %he 5ronoun occu5ies %he sub6ec% or some o%her 5osi%ion$ The in%ensifier use for non-sub6ec% 5ronouns is onl0 rarel0 a%%es%e#$

$. Re/.50o/al /onst01/t.ons
$.1. Int0o31/t.on Reci5rocal forms consis% of 5ronominal cli%ics %ha% are formall0 i#en%ical 9i%h refle;ive cli%ics (see *+$1 an# *+$< above for %he forms/ an# %he com5le; 5hrases unul )pe$cu$ln $despre00* altul $ unul altuia >one - Pre5osi%ion - o%her? / >one o%her$ DAT?% unul )pe$cu$ln $despre00* cellalt $ unul celuilalt >one - Pre5osi%ion - %he-o%her? / >one %he-o%her$ DAT?% an# (less fre@uen%l0 use#/ fiecare )pe$cu$ln $despre00* fiecare >each - Pre5osi%ion - each? an# ntre noi$voi$ei >be%9een H Plural Pronoun?3
(+<4/ a$ Ion Mi Ana se iubesc (1n1l 5e alt1l/$

14+

Pronouns Ion an# Ana 2$R7FL$ACC ha%e one DG: o%her >Ion an# Ana love each o%her? b$ Co5iii nu NC. mai vorbesc (1n1l alt1.a/$ chil#ren-%he no% 2$R7FL$DAT more %al- one o%her$DAT >The chil#ren #on?% %al- %o each o%her an0 more? c$ Cei #oi s5uneau lucruri urW%e 1n1l 3es50e /el:lalt %he %9o sai0$I:PF %hin!s ba# one abou% %he-o%her >The %9o use# %o sa0 / 9ere sa0in! ba# %hin!s abou% each o%her? #$ 7i se cri%icau f.e/a0e 5e f.e/a0e %he0 2$R7FL$ACC cri%iciAe$I:PF each DG: each >The0 9ere cri%iciAin! / use# %o cri%iciAe each o%her? e$ Poli%icienii se #uMmLnesc Nnt0e e. 5oli%icians-%he 2$R7FL$ACC ha%e be%9een %hem >The 5oli%icians ha%e each o%her? f$ Ne-au 5us 1n1l lKn4: alt1l us-have$2PL 5lace# one ne;% o%her >The0 5lace# us ne;% %o each o%her?

Such reci5rocal forms (see %he bol#-face# cons%i%uen%s in (+/a-f/ func%ion as ana5hors %ha% %a-e a !rou5-referrin! an%ece#en% e;5resse# b0 ei%her a 5lural DP or b0 a con6unc%ion of DPs$ In %he e;am5les above %he an%ece#en% is %he sub6ec% in a-e an# %he #irec% ob6ec% in fI for o%her 5ossible 5osi%ions see *4$2$ Cons%ruc%ions of %his %05e are un#ers%oo# as in#ica%in! %ha% each member of %he 5lurali%0 e;5resse# b0 %he an%ece#en% s%an#s in a cer%ain rela%ion (e;5resse# b0 %he 5re#ica%e of %he clause/ %o all or some of %he o%her members of %his 5lurali%0 (see *4$, belo9 on %he seman%ics of reci5rocals/3
(+<,/ Ion Ana Mi An#rei se urLsc unul 5e al%ul Ion Ana an# An#rei R7FL ha%e one DG: o%her >Ion Ana an# An#rei ha%e each o%her(s/? [ Ion ha%es Ana an# Ion ha%es An#rei an# Ana ha%es Ion an# Ana ha%es An#rei an# An#rei ha%es Ion an# An#rei ha%es Ana %he 5lurali%0 [ gIon Ana An#reihI %he rela%ion [ !ate

The 5re#ica%e of %he clause can have ar!umen%s %ha% are no% involve# in %he reci5rocal rela%ion (see (+<./ belo9 an# (+<4/c above 9here reci5roci%0 hol#s be%9een %he a!en% an# %he !oal an# #oes no% concern %he %hemeI see also (+<4/f above 9here reci5roci%0 hol#s be%9een %he #irec% ob6ec% an# %he !oal an# #oes no% concern %he sub6ec%/3
(+<./ Co5iii Mi-au oferi% ca#ouri unul al%uia chil#ren-%he R7FL$DAT-have offere# 5resen%s one o%her$DAT
The reci5rocal rela%ion can also hol# be%9een an ar!umen% an# an a#6unc% (see (+<<//$

(+<</

7i

fac %o%ul unul 5en%ru al%ul %he0 #o ever0%hin! one for

o%her

For clear cases in 9hich %he %9o ar!umen%s for 9hich reci5roci%0 hol#s are no% ar!umen%s of %he same 5re#ica%e see *4$2 belo9$ Such e;am5les sho9 %ha% %he rela%ion mar-e# as reci5rocal can consis% of more ma%erial %han a mere le;ical 5re#ica%e P e$!$ "r !ives 5resen%s %or& "r ma-e ever0%hin! for r&$ 141

Pronouns

In s0n%ac%ic s%ruc%ure one of %he ar!umen%s 5ar%ici5a%in! %o %his (5o%en%iall0 com5le;/ rela%ion occu5ies a hi!her 5osi%ion %han %he o%her one$ I% is %his hi!her 5osi%ion %ha% hos%s %he an%ece#en% 5lurali%0 9hereas %he lo9er 5osi%ion is mar-e# b0 %he reci5rocal ana5hor$ Some%imes %he firs% 5ar% of %he reci5rocal ana5hor also con%ains a mar-in! charac%eriAin! %he hi!her 5osi%ion (see *4$1 belo9 e;$ (+C=//$ $.2. Re/.50o/al 6a0>.n4 $.2.1. Cl.t./s As 9e sai# above reci5rocal cli%ics are formall0 i#en%ical %o refle;ive cli%ics (9hich have s5ecial forms onl0 in %he 2r# 5erson accusa%ive se an# #a%ive iI for %he o%her 5ersons %he0 are i#en%ical %o %he 5ersonal 5ronouns see *+$1/$ Given %his formal i#en%i%0 9e shall some%imes refer %o reci5rocal cli%ics as >refle;ive/reci5rocal? cli%ics$ If %he 5osi%ion of %he reci5rocal ana5hor allo9s a cli%ic reci5roci%0 mus% be mar-e# b0 a refle;ive/ reci5rocal cli%ic$ This is %he case for #irec% ob6ec%s an# a#-verbal #a%ives$ In e;am5les of %his %05e %he use of a s%ron! reci5rocal ana5hor co-occurrin! 9i%h %he cli%ic is o5%ional3
(+<B/ a$ Ion Mi Ana se iubesc Ion an# Ana 2$R7FL$ACC ha%e >Ion an# Ana love each o%her? b$ Ion Mi Ana se iubesc 1n1l 5e alt1l Ion an# Ana 2$R7FL$ACC ha%e one DG: o%her >Ion an# Ana love each o%her? c$ X Ion Mi Ana iubesc unul 5e al%ul Ion an# Ana love each DG: o%her a$ Ion Mi Ana NC. scriu Ion an# Ana 2$R7FL$DAT 9ri%e >Ion an# Ana 9ri%e %o each o%her? b$ Ion Mi Ana NC. scriu 1n1l alt1.a Ion an# Ana 2$R7FL$DAT 9ri%e one o%her$DAT >Ion an# Ana 9ri%e %o each o%her? c$ X Ion Mi Ana scriu unul al%uia Ion an# Ana 9ri%e one o%her$DAT

(+<C/

As %he reci5rocal an# refle;ive cli%ics have %he same form some%imes s%ron! reci5rocal (or refle;ive/ ana5hors are nee#e# for #isambi!ua%ion3
(+B=/ a$ Tinerele se analiAau En#elun! 0oun!(F$PL/-%he 2$R7FL$ACC anal0Ae$I:PF for-a-lon!-%ime >The 0oun! 9omen use# %o anal0Ae %hemselves/each o%her for a lon! %ime? b$ Tinerele se analiAau En#elun! una 5e al%a 0oun!(F$PL/-%he 2$R7FL$ACC anal0Ae$I:PF for-a-lon!-%ime one DG: o%her >The 0oun! 9omen use# %o anal0Ae each o%her for a lon! %ime?
The use of %he same mar-ers for refle;ives an# reci5rocals is foun# in man0 lan!ua!es of %he 9orl#$ This ma0 be #ue %o %he fac% %ha% %he reci5rocal rela%ion can be conce5%ualiAe# as a varie%0 of a rela%ion a 5lurali%0 has 9i%h i%self$ Some of %he li%era%ure on Romance lan!ua!es %rea% %hese cli%ics as mar-ers of a refle;ive-reci5rocal voice$ I% is %rue %ha% refle;ive cli%ics have some voice mar-er uses (see *+$,$1 above (ii// bu% i% is no% cer%ain 9he%her %he0 shoul# be anal0Ae# as such in %he 5ro5er refle;ive an# reci5rocal uses a% leas% in Romanian$ As can be seen in %he e;am5les (+<B/-(+<C/ above (an# %his also hol#s for 5ro5er refle;ives/ %he0 #o no% %ri!!er a re#uc%ion of %he valenc0 of %he verb3 %he #irec% an# in#irec% ob6ec% can s%ill be e;5resse# b0 a s%ron! ana5hor$ The re@uiremen% of cli%ic #oublin! is no% s5ecific %o reci5rocals an# 5ro5er refle;ives bu% also hol#s for 5ersonal 5ronouns (see *+$,$2/3

142

Pronouns

(i/ (ii/

Ana X(El/ iubeM%e 5e el Ana him$CL$ACC loves DG: him >Ana loves him? Ana X(Emi/ scrie mie Ana me$CL$DAT 9ri%es me$DAT >Ana is 9ri%in!/9ri%es %o me?

Secon#l0 %hese cli%ics mar- case P %he0 can be ei%her accusa%ive or #a%ive$ The use as a voice mar-er is onl0 foun# 9i%h accusa%ive cli%ics (see %he inchoa%ive mi##le 5assive/im5ersonal uses briefl0 men%ione# in *+$,$1 above/$ I% is %herefore #is5u%able 9he%her one can %al- of a >#a%ive refle;ive/reci5rocal voice?$

$.2.2. St0on4 0e/.50o/al ana58o0s The com5le; 5hrases 9hich mar- reci5roci%0 9ill be calle# >s%ron! reci5rocal ana5hors? (some%imes abbrevia%e# as >s%ron! reci5rocals?/ in o55osi%ion %o cli%ics$ Ue have seen above (e;$ (+<B/b-c (+<C/b-c/ %ha% for %he #irec% ob6ec% an# a#-verbal #a%ive s%ron! reci5rocals can a55ear onl0 9i%h a co-occurrin! cli%ic$ If %he 5osi%ion of %he ana5hor has no corres5on#in! cli%ic %he onl0 9a0 %o e;5ress reci5roci%0 is %o use a s%ron! reci5rocal ana5hor (in (+B+/a 9e have a PPI in (+B+/b a #a%ive com5lemen% of an a#6ec%ive/3
(+B+/ a$ :aria Mi Tu#or vorbesc frumos 1n1l 3es50e alt1l :aria an# Tu#or %alnicel0 one abou% o%her >:aria an# Tu#or s5ea- 9ell abou% each o%her? b$ Rar am vLAu% 5ar%eneri a%W% #e fi#eli 1n1l alt1.a rarel0 have$+ seen 5ar%ners so lo0al one o%her$ DAT >I?ve sel#om seen 5ar%ners so lo0al %o each o%her?

The mos% usual s%ron! reci5rocal ana5hor is com5ose# of %he in#efini%e #e%erminer unul >one? follo9e# b0 %he al%erna%ive altul >o%her? or cellalt >%he o%her? 9hich bears %he case mar-er or 5re5osi%ion in#ica%in! %he func%ion of %he secon# (lo9er/ ar!umen% of %he reci5rocal rela%ion (see (+B1//$ In %he sin!ular %he #efini%e al%erna%ive cellalt >%he o%her? can a55ear onl0 if %he 5lurali%0 con%ains %9o members3
(+B1/ a$ Direc% ob6ec% Cei #oi nu se au# 1n1l 5e alt1l @ 1n1l 5e /el:lalt %he %9o no% 2$R7FL$ACC hear one$:SG DG: o%her$:SG / one$:SG DG: %he-o%her$:SG >The %9o can?% hear each o%her? b$ In#irec% ob6ec% (#a%ive com5lemen%/3 7i C.-au %ransmis %o% ce M%iau 1n1l alt1.a @ 1n1l %he0 2$R7FL$DAT %ransmi%%e# all %ha% -ne9 one$:SG o%her$:SG$DAT / one$:SG /el1.lalt %he-o%her$:SG$DAT >The0 %ransmi%%e# all %he0 -ne9 %o each o%her/%o one ano%her? c$ Possessive #a%ive3 :aria Mi Ileana NC. cum5LrL a#esea %ablourile 1na alte.a @ 1na :aria an# Ileana 2$R7FL$DAT bu0 of%en 5ain%in!s-%he one$FSG o%her$FSG$DAT /one$FSG /ele.lalte %he-o%her$FSG$DAT >:aria an# Ileana of%en bu0 each o%her?s 5ain%in!s? #$ PP com5lemen%3 Ta%Ll Mi fiul erau mWn#ri 1n1l 3e alt1l @ 1n1l 3e /el:lalt fa%her-%he an# son-%he 9ere 5rou# one$:SG of o%her$:SG / one$:SG of %he-o%her$:SG >The fa%her an# son 9ere 5rou# of each o%her?

144

Pronouns e$ PP a#6unc%3 Nu fLceau nimic 1n1l f:0: alt1l @ 1n1l f:0: /el:lalt no% #i#$I:PF$2PL no%hin! one$:SG 9i%hou% o%her$:SG/ one$:SG 9i%hou% %he-o%her$:SG >The0 #i#n?% (use %o/ #o an0%hin! 9i%hou% each o%her?

'o%h altul an# cellalt can be use# in %he 5lural onl0 if %he an%ece#en% 5lurali%0 con%ains more %han %9o members3
(+B2/ a$ Ra#u Mi Ana se 5lac unul 5e al%ul / Xunii 5e alRii Ra#u an# Ana 2$R7FL$ACC li-e one$:SG DG: o%her one$:PL DG: o%hers b$ Ra#u Ana Mi Pe%re se 5lac unul 5e al%ul / unii 5e alRii Ra#u Ana an# Pe%re 2$R7FL$ACC li-e one$:SG DG: o%her one$:PL DG: o%hers a$ X Cei #oi co5ii se 5lac unii 5e ceilalRi %he %9o chil#ren 2$R7FL$ACC li-e one$:PL DG: %he-o%her$:PL b$ Cei %rei co5ii se 5lac unii 5e ceilalRi %he %hree chil#ren 2$R7FL$ACC li-e one$:PL DG: %he-o%her$:PL

(+B4/

The %9o 5hrases com5osin! %he reci5rocal 5hrase (unul an# P/CaseHaltul$cellalt/ canno% be se5ara%e# b0 an0 o%her elemen%$ The0 mus% share %he same !en#er an# number fea%ures$ The usual !en#er resolu%ion rules a55l0 (e$!$ 9i%h anima%es masculine is unmar-e# see (+B,/a/3
(+B,/ a$ Ra#u Mi Ana se 5lac unul 5e al%ul / Xunul 5e al%a Ra#u an# Ana 2$R7FL$ACC li-e one$:SG DG: o%her$:SG one$:SG DG: o%her$FSG / Xuna 5e al%ul one$FSG DG: o%her$:SG b$ Co5iii se a6u%L unul 5e al%ul / unii 5e alRii chil#ren-%he 2$R7FL$ACC hel5 one$:SG DG: o%her$:SG / one$:PL DG: o%her$:PL / Xunul 5e alRii / unul 5e celLlal% / unii 5e ceilalRi one$:SG DG: o%her$:PL one$:SG DG: %he-o%her$:SG one$:PL DG: %he-o%her$:PL / X unul 5e ceilalRi one$:SG DG: %he-o%her$:PL

If %he an%ece#en% is a con6oine# 5hrase con%ainin! a 5lurali%0 as one of i%s members %he reci5rocal 5hrase mus% be mar-e# as 5lural3
(+B./ :aria Mi co5iii se iubesc unii 5e alRii / Xunul 5e al%ul :aria an# chil#ren-%he 2$R7FL$ACC love one$:PL DG: o%her$:PL / one$:SG DG: o%her$:SG

If %he an%ece#en% con%ains more %han %9o members i% is 5ossible %o use 0e% ano%her reci5rocal binomial cons%ruc%ion fiecare >each? H Pre5 H fiecare 9hich s%ren!%hens %he fac% %ha% all %he members of %he 5lurali%0 are involve# in %he reci5rocal rela%ion3
(+B</ a$ S-au a%aca% fiecare 5e fiecare 2$R7FL$ACC-have$2PL a%%ac-e# each DG: each >The0 all a%%ac-e# each o%her / 7ach of %hem a%%ac-e# ever0 o%her one? b$ RW#eau fiecare #e fiecare lou!he#$I:PF$2PL each of each >The0 9ere all lau!hin! a% each o%her / 7ach of %hem 9as lau!hin! a% ever0 o%her one?

Ano%her 5hrase e;5ressin! reci5roci%0 is ntre (li%$ >be%9een/amon!?/ H Plural Personal Pronoun 9hich can onl0 be use# if %he an%ece#en% has more %han %9o members an# %he reci5rocal ana5hor is mar-e# b0 a cli%ic (5referabl0 an accusa%ive one/$ The res%ric%ion %o ana5hors mar-e# b0 a cli%ic is #ue %o %he fac% %ha% %he ntre-PP #oes no% bear a mar- 9hich can 14,

Pronouns

i#en%if0 %he func%ion of %he reci5rocal ana5hor3


(+BB/ a$ Scrii%orii se #enunRau En%re ei 9ri%ers-%he 2$R7FL$ACC #enounce$I:PF be%9een %hem >The 9ri%ers 9ere #enouncin! each o%hers? b$ (K/ Scrii%orii EMi %rime%eau mul%e scrisori En%re ei 9ri%ers-%he 2$R7FL$DAT sen#$I:PF man0 le%%ers be%9een %hem >The 9ri%ers 9ere sen#in! each o%hers man0 le%%ers? c$ X Scrii%orii con%au En%re ei 9ri%ers-%he coun%$I:PF be%9een %hem

$.3. Lo/al.t9 /onst0a.nts an3 5os.t.ons of t8e ante/e3ent Dn%il no9 9e have mos%l0 seen e;am5les in 9hich %he an%ece#en% is a sub6ec%$ 'u% i% can also be a #irec% ob6ec% in 9hich case %he reci5rocal ana5hor can be an in#irec% ob6ec% or a PP3
(+BC/ a$ I-am 5reAen%a% 5e invi%aRi unii al%ora %hem$ACC-have$+ in%ro#uce# DG: !ues%s one$:PL o%her$:PL$DAT >I 5resen%e# %he !ues%s %o each o%her(s/? b$ I-am aMeAa% unul lWn!L al%ul %hem$ACC-have$+ 5lace# one$:SG besi#e o%her$:SG >I 5lace# %hem one besi#e %he o%her?

If %he an%ece#en% is e;5resse# b0 an Accusa%ive cli%ic %he firs% elemen% of %he reci5rocal 5hrase (unul$unii/ can receive %he 5re5osi%ional ob6ec% mar-er pe if i% refers %o humans3
(+C=/ DumneAeu ne-a Encre#inRa% 5e unii al%ora Go# us-has en%rus%e# DG: one$:PL o%her$:PL$DAT

The an%ece#en% can be a #erive# sub6ec% (sub6ec% of 5assives see (+C+// or a #erive# ob6ec% (see %he 7C: cons%ruc%ion in (+C1//3
(+C+/ a$ A%unci am fos% 5reAen%aRi unul al%uia %hen have$+ been in%ro#uce# one$:SG o%her$:SG$DAT >I% is %hen %ha% 9e have been in%ro#uce# %o each o%her? b$ Gamenii Mi-au fos% Encre#inRaRi unii al%ora #e DumneAeu 5eo5le$%he 2$R7FL$DAT-have been en%rus%e# one$:PL o%her$:SG$DAT b0 Go# >Peo5le have been en%rus%e# %o one ano%her b0 Go#? I-am vLAu% rWAWn# unul la al%ul %hem$ACC-have$+ seen lau!hin! one$:SG %o o%her$:SG >I sa9 %hem lau!hin! %o each o%her?

(+C1/

7;am5les of %he %05e (+C+/b 9here %he an%ece#en% is a #erive# sub6ec% an# %he ana5hor is a cli%ic are im5ossible in o%her Romance lan!ua!es such as French an# I%alian 5robabl0 #ue %o %he fac% %ha% %hese lan!ua!es #o no% #is%in!uish #a%ive from accusa%ive refle;ive-reci5rocal cli%ics$ The reci5rocal ana5hor can i%self be a #erive# ob6ec% (see %he 7C: cons%ruc%ion in (+C2//$ In %his case %he reci5rocal rela%ion hol#s be%9een %9o ar!umen%s of %9o #is%inc% 5re#ica%es3 %he hi!her ar!umen% 5osi%ion corres5on#s %o %he 7;5eriencer role of %he verb considera >consi#er? 9hereas %he lo9er ar!umen% 5osi%ion a #irec% ob6ec% of considera is in%er5re%e# as %he sub6ec% of %he embe##e# 5re#ica%e prost >s%u5i#?3
(+C2/ Cei #oi se consi#erau 5roM%i unul 5e al%ul

14.

Pronouns %he %9o 2$R7FL$ACC consi#ere#$I:PF s%u5i# one$:SG DG: o%her$:SG >The %9o (of %hem/ consi#ere# each o%her s%u5i#?

A similar si%ua%ion ob%ains 9i%h 5ossessive #a%ives (see also (+B1/c above/ 9here %he lo9er ar!umen% is seman%icall0 %he >5ossessor? or in%ernal ar!umen% of %he noun hea#in! %he ob6ec% (tablou in (+B1/c/ an# %he hi!her ar!umen% is %he e;%ernal ar!umen% of %he verb (cumpra in (+B1/c/3
(+C4/ :aria Mi Ileana Mi-au vLAu% una al%eia co5iii la %eleviAor :aria an# Ileana 2$R7FL$DAT-have seen one$FSG o%her$FSG$DAT chil#ren-%he a% TV >:aria an# Ileana sa9 each o%her?s chil#ren on TV?

Ano%her case in 9hich %he reci5rocal rela%ion is >s5rea#? amon! more %han a sin!le 5re#ica%e is 9hen %he an%ece#en% en%ers a con%rol rela%ion$ In %his case illus%ra%e# in (+C,/ %he an%ece#en% occu5ies %he con%roller 5osi%ion (an ar!umen% 5osi%ion of %he hi!her 5re#ica%e P +I here %he #irec% ob6ec% of nva >%each?/ an# %he reci5rocal ana5hor a55ears in %he embe##e# clause (as a com5lemen% of %he embe##e# 5re#ica%e P 1I here %he #irec% ob6ec% of cunoate >-no9? mar-e# b0 a refle;ive cli%ic/$ The #is%ribu%ive o5era%or 9hich o5era%es on %he an%ece#en% an# in%ro#uces %he reci5rocal rela%ion ("for each ;An%ece#en% for each 0An%ece#en% 0w;&/ a55lies imme#ia%el0 belo9 %he an%ece#en% an# one of %he variables i% in%ro#uces a55ears as an ar!umen% of bo%h 5re#ica%es as re5resen%e# in (+C./3
(+C,/ (+C./ I-am EnvLRa% sL se cunoascL unul 5e al%ul %hem$ACC-have$+ %au!h% SD'N R7FL -no9$2PL one$:SG DG: o%her$:SG >I %au!h% %hem %o !e% %o -no9 each o%her? For each ;YY%he0ZZ for each 0YY%he0ZZ 0w; I %au!h% ; (; -no9 0/

This occurrence of one of %he variables as an ar!umen% of %9o 5re#ica%es can also a55ear in cases 9hen %here is no con%rol as in (+C</$ This e;am5le has %9o rea#in!s3 %he rea#in! re5resen%e# in (+C</a is %he normal case in 9hich %he reci5rocal rela%ion hol#s be%9een %he ar!umen%s of a sin!le 5re#ica%e$ In %he rea#in! (+C</b one of %he variables is %he ar!umen% of bo%h t!in# an# love %he reci5rocal rela%ion R bein! a com5le; >; %hin-s ; loves 0?$ No%e %ha% %he an%ece#en% a55ears as %he ar!umen% of %he hi!her 5re#ica%e ( crede >%hin-?/ an# %he reci5rocal ana5hor a55ears in %he embe##e# clause (%he secon# variable is %he ar!umen% of %he embe##e# 5re#ica%e/3
(+C</ :aria Mi Ion cre# cL se iubesc unul 5e al%ul :aria an# Ion %hin- %ha% 2$R7FL$ACC love$2PL one$:SG DG: o%her$:SG >:aria an# Ion %hin- %he0 love each o%her? a$ :aria %hin-s %ha% she loves Ion an# Ion loves her an# Ion %hin-s %ha% he loves :aria an# :aria loves him b$ :aria %hin-s %ha% she loves Ion an# Ion %hin-s %ha% he loves :aria
This non-local rela%ion rea#in! is ho9ever no% al9a0s availableI i% seems %ha% 9ha% ma-es (+C</ 5ossible is %he 5ossibili%0 of %rea%in! %he 5re#ica%e "; %hin-s ; loves 0& as a conce5%ual uni%$ In o%her cases %he rea#in! is im5ossible3 (i/ :aria Mi Ion au s5us cL se iubesc unul 5e al%ul :aria an# Ion have sai# %ha% 2$R7FL$ACC love one DG: o%her a$ [ :aria sai# she an# Ion love each o%her an# Ion sai# he an# :aria love each o%her b$ w :aria sai# she loves Ion an# Ion sai# %ha% he loves :aria

14<

Pronouns
I% has been claime# %ha% in lan!ua!es 9i%h refle;ive-reci5rocal cli%ics non-local rea#in!s in %his %05e of e;am5les are al9a0s e;clu#e# because such cli%ics are verbal o5era%ors$ The fac% %ha% Romanian some%imes allo9s %his in%er5re%a%ion (as in (+C<// sho9s %ha% %he correla%ion be%9een %he use of cli%ics an# %he im5ossibili%0 of a non-local rea#in! is no% universal$

Reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions are also 5ossible insi#e NPs in 9hich case %he hi!her 5osi%ion is a !eni%ive or a!reein! 5ossessor an# %he lo9er 5osi%ion is an a#nominal PP3
(+CB/ a$ o5iniile lor unul #es5re al%ul o5inions-%he %he0$ G7N one$:SG abou% o%her$:SG b$ amin%irile noas%re unul #es5re celLlal% memories(F/-%he our$FPL one$:SG abou% %he-o%her$:SG c$ sen%imen%ele lor unul 5en%ru al%ul feelin!s-%he %he0$ G7N one$:SG for o%her$:SG

Reci5rocal ana5hors can also a55ear as com5lemen%s of a#6ec%ives$ In %his case %he an%ece#en% is %he e;%ernal ar!umen% of %he a#6ec%ive$ If %he a#6ec%ive is 5re#ica%ive %his ar!umen% is realiAe# as %he sub6ec% of %he 5re#ica%ion (see (+CC/a an# (+B1/# above/$ If %he a#6ec%ive is NP-in%ernal %he an%ece#en% is %he 5lural en%i%0 #eno%e# b0 %he overall DP (see (+CC/b/3
(+CC/ a$ Cei #oi 5rie%eni erau #evo%aRi unul al%uia %he %9o frien#s 9ere #evo%e# one$:SG o%her$:SG$DAT >The %9o frien#s 9ere #evo%e# %o each o%her? b$ aceM%i 5rie%eni #evo%aRi unul al%uia %hese frien#s #evo%e# one$:SG o%her$:SG$DAT >%hese frien#s #evo%e# %o each o%her?

$.$. Re/.50o/al 6a0>.n4 an3 s966et0./ 50e3./ates Ui%h some 5re#ica%es %he reci5roci%0 be%9een %9o %hema%ic 5osi%ions ; an# 0 hol#s b0 vir%ue of %he le;ical meanin!$ In %his case %he 5re#ica%e is calle# s0mme%ric$ For e;am5le if ; is close %o 0 i% necessaril0 follo9s %ha% 0 is close %o ; or if ; is 0?s nei!hbor %hen 0 9ill also be ;?s nei!hbor$ If %he 5re#ica%e has more %han %9o ar!umen%s s0mme%r0 is rela%iviAe# %o 5airs of ar!umen% 5osi%ions - e$!$ 9i%h to unite s0mme%r0 hol#s be%9een %he ob6ec% an# %he &it!ar!umen%3 if >; uni%es 0 9i%h A? is %rue %hen >; uni%es A 9i%h 0? is also %rue$ S0mme%ric 5re#ica%es can a55ear in reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions combinin! 9i%h a 5lurali%0 com5risin! all %he ar!umen%s 9hich s%an# in %he s0mme%rical rela%ion3
(1==/ a$ PLmWn%ul e a5roa5e #e :ar%e -f PLmWn%ul Mi :ar%e sun% a5roa5e unul #e al%ul 7ar%h-%he is close of :ars 7ar%h-%he an# :ars are close one of o%her >7ar%h is close %o :ars? -f >7ar%h an# :ars are close %o each o%her? b$ Tabloul aces%a seamLnL cu %abloul acela -f Tablourile seamLnL unul cu 5ain%in!-%he %his resembles 9i%h 5ain%in!-%he %ha% 5ain%in!s-%he resemble one 9i%h al%ul o%her >This 5ain%in! resembles %ha% 5ain%in!? -f >The 5ain%in!s resemble each o%her?

Oere is an e;am5le 9i%h more %han %9o ar!umen%s 9here reci5roci%0 hol#s be%9een %he ob6ec% an# a PP3
(1=+/ Vom com5ara aces% roman cu acela -f Vom com5ara romanele unul cu celLlal% 9ill$+PL com5are %his novel 9i%h %ha%-one 9ill$+PL com5are novels-%he one 9i%h %he-o%her

14B

Pronouns >Ue 9ill com5are %his novel 9i%h %ha% one? -f >Ue 9ill com5are %he novels 9i%h each o%her?

Reci5rocal cons%ruc%ion 9i%h s0mme%ric 5re#ica%es can also be foun# insi#e NPs3
(1=1/ Ra5or%urile noas%re unul cu al%ul s-au s%rica% En ul%ima vreme rela%ions-%he our one$:SG 9i%h o%her$:SG R7FL-have #e%eriora%e# in las%-%he %ime >Gur rela%ions 9i%h each o%her have #e%eriora%e# la%el0?

As can be seen from %he e;am5les %he lo9er ar!umen% of a s0mme%ric ar!umen% 5air is of%en mar-e# b0 cu >9i%h?$ The use of %he comi%a%ive mar-in! for %he lo9er ar!umen% of a s0mme%ric ar!umen% 5air is a 9i#es5rea# 5ro5er%0 5robabl0 a lin!uis%ic universal$ The mar-in! of reci5roci%0 is no% obli!a%or03 if %he verb has a 5lural ar!umen% ins%ea# of %9o s0mme%ric ar!umen%s i% can be un#ers%oo# as reci5rocal 9i%hou% an0 reci5roci%0 mar-in!3
(1=2/ a$ Vom com5ara romanele 9ill$+PL com5are novels-%he >Ue 9ill com5are %he novels? b$ Ra5o0t10.le noast0e s-au s%rica% rela%ions-%he our R7FL-have #e%eriora%e# >Gur rela%ions have #e%eriora%e#? c$ Tablourile seamLnL 5ain%in!s-%he resemble >The 5ain%in!s are similar? #$ PLmWn%ul Mi :ar%e sun% a5roa5e 7ar%h an# :ars are close >7ar%h an# :ars are close?

Some s0mme%ric verbs are #erive# from non-s0mme%ric verbs b0 bein! mar-e# 9i%h a refle;ive-reci5rocal cli%ic P in (1=4/b %he fac% %ha% %he verb is s0mme%ric is reflec%e# in %he use of &it! as an in%ro#uc%or0 elemen% of %he secon# ar!umen%3
(1=4/ a$ Ion a bL%u%-o 5e :aria Ion has bea%en-CL$2FSG$ACC DG: :aria >Ion bea% :aria? b$ Ion s-a bL%u% cu :aria Ion 2$R7FL$ACC-has bea%en 9i%h :aria >Ion fou!h% 9i%h :aria?

This refle;ive-reci5rocal mar-in! can be rela%e# %o i%s use in %he reci5rocal cons%ruc%ion$ Thus no%ice %ha% a reci5rocal buil% on (1=4/a is i#en%ical 9i%h %he reci5rocal varian% of (1=4/b unless s%ron! reci5rocal ana5hors are use#3
(1=,/ a$ Ion Mi :aria s-au bL%u% (unul 5e al%ul/ Ion an# :aria 2$R7FL$ACC-have bea%en one DG: o%her >Ion an# :aria bea% each o%her? b$ Ion Mi :aria s-au bL%u% (unul cu al%ul/ Ion an# :aria 2$R7FL$ACC-have bea%en one 9i%h o%her >Ion an# :aria fou!h% (9i%h each o%her/?

G%her e;am5les of such verbs are se bate )cu* >fi!h% (9i%h/? e bate >bea%? se vedea )cu* >mee%? e vedea >see? (cf$ en!l$ see eac! ot!er/ se ntrece )cu* >com5e%e? e ntrece >sur5ass over%a-e? se sruta )cu* >-iss (each o%her/? e sruta >-iss (somebo#0/? se certa )cu* >ar!ue 14C

Pronouns

(9i%h/? e certa >re5rove blame? se consulta )cu* >%a-e counsel 9i%h? e consulta >consul%? se +uca )cu* >5la0 (9i%h/? (cf$ +oc >!ame? +uca >5la0 a !ame?/$ Ue can also inclu#e here refle;ivel0-mar-e# verbs #erive# from s0mme%ric 5re#ica%es 9i%h no causa%ive coun%er5ar% e$!$ se nvecina )cu* >have $$$ as a nei!hbor? se nrudi )cu* >be a rela%ive of$$? se mprieteni >become frien#s?$ Some s%u#ies %rea% %he seHVerbH&it! 5a%%ern as a s5ecial reci5rocal cons%ruc%ion P %he #iscon%inuous reci5rocal cons%ruc%ion$ Oo9ever i% shoul# be no%ice# %ha% %his cons%ruc%ion #oes no% corres5on# %o %he #efini%ion of reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions 9e !ave in *1$+ P i% #oes no% have a 5lurali%0 as one of i%s members P an# correla%ivel0 #oes no% allo9 s%ron! reci5rocal ana5hors3
(1=./ X :aria se ba%e cu Ion unul 5e/cu al%ul :aria R7FL bea%s 9i%h Ion one DG:/9i%h o%her

:oreover %his cons%ruc%ion is le;icall0 res%ric%e# no% bein! available for all verbs (unli-e %he reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions #iscusse# in *4$+-*4$2/ P see (1=</ P an# some%imes in%ro#uces s5ecial meanin!s (e$!$ se vedea cu >mee%? e vedea >see? se ntrece )cu* >com5e%e? e ntrece >sur5ass over%a-e?I ntlni (%ransi%ive/ >mee%? is use# for un5lanne# mee%in! se ntlni )cu* >mee%? is use# for bo%h 5lanne# an# un5lanne# mee%in!s/$
(1=</ a$ X :aria se cri%icL cu Ana :aria R7FL cri%iciAes 9i%h Ana In%en#e# meanin!3 :aria an# Ana cri%iciAe each o%her b$ X :aria se a#mirL cu Geor!e :aria R7FL a#mires 9i%h Geor!e In%en#e# meanin!3 :aria an# Geor!e a#mire each o%her

Ue conclu#e %herefore %ha% 9e are #ealin! 9i%h refle;ivel0-mar-e# s0mme%ric verbs$ Ue can call such verbs inheren%l0 reci5rocal verbs bu% 9e mus% -ee5 in min# %ha% %he0 #o no% re5resen% a !enuine reci5rocal cons%ruc%ion$ As for %he fac% %ha% %he0 allo9 reci5rocal ana5hors 9hen %he0 %a-e a 5lural ar!umen% ins%ea# of %he %9o ar!umen%s of %he &it!- cons%ruc%ion (%he sub6ec% an# %he &it!- ar!umen%/ %his is a !eneral 5ro5er%0 of s0mme%ric verbs (as e;5laine# in %he be!innin! of %his sec%ion/ 9hich #oes no% #e5en# on %he 5resence of %he refle;ive cli%ic (see (1=B/b above 5erfec%l0 5arallel 9i%h (1=B/a/3
(1=B/ a$ :aria se cear%L cu Ion s :aria Mi Ion se cear%L unul cu al%ul :aria 2$R7FL$ACC ar!ues 9i%h Ion :aria an# Ion 2$R7FL$ACC ar!ue one 9i%h o%her >:aria is ar!uin! 9i%h Ion? >:aria an# Ion are ar!uin! 9i%h each o%her? b$ :aria seamLnL cu Ion s :aria Mi Ion seamLnL unul cu al%ul :aria resembles 9i%h Ion :aria an# Ion resemble one 9i%h o%her >:aria resembles Ion? >:aria an# Ion resemble each o%her?

$.%. T8e se6ant./s of 0e/.50o/al /onst01/t.ons Crosslin!uis%icall0 reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions can have several rea#in!s 9hich resul% from %he in%er5la0 of several fac%ors$ $.%.1. St0on4 2s. Dea> 0e/.50o/.t9 Gn %he s%ron! rea#in! %he rela%ion R mus% hol# be%9een an0 %9o members of %he an%ece#en% 5lurali%03
(1=C/ Cei %rei fraRi se iubesc unul 5e al%ul

1,=

Pronouns %he %hree bro%hers R7FL love one DG: o%her ; 0 YY%he %hree bro%hersZZ ;w0 s ; loves 0 ; 0 A ;w0 s R(; 0/ (S%ron! reci5roci%0/

(1+=/

Gn %he 9ea- rea#in! all %ha% is re@uire# is %ha% an0 member ; of %he 5lurali%0 s%an#s in %he rela%ion R 9i%h some o%her member of %he 5lurali%0 (bo%h in %he firs% an# secon# 5osi%ion of %he rela%ion P i$e$ ;R0 an# AR;/$ Thus (1++/ is %rue if each chil# ; receives %he ball from a #ifferen% chil# 0 an# sen#s i% bac- %o ano%her chil# AI i% is nei%her necessar0 %ha% 0 shoul# be %he same as A nor %ha% %he chil# shoul# %hro9 %he ball (in %urn/ %o all %he o%her chil#ren or receive i% from all of %hem3
(1++/ (1+1/ Co5iii EMi aruncau min!ea unii al%ora chil#ren-%he R7FL$DAT %hro9$I:PF ball-%he one$PL o%hers$DAT >The chil#ren 9ere %hro9in! %he ball %o each o%her? ;A 0A ;w0 an# R(; 0/ an# AA ;wA an# R(A ;/

(Uea- reci5roci%0/

I% has been observe# %ha% %hese %9o in%er5re%a%ions corres5on# %o %he 5ossible in%er5re%a%ions of 5lural rela%ions P i$e$ rela%ions be%9een 5lurali%ies 9hich are in%er5re%e# in %erms of rela%ions be%9een members of %hose 5lurali%ies$ Ta-e for e;am5le %he follo9in! sen%ence3
(1+2/ Surorile mele au #ansa% cu Ra#u Mi Paul sis%ers-%he m0 have #ance# 9i%h Ra#u an# Paul

In %he distributive rea#in! (1+2/ is %rue if each of m0 sis%ers #ance# 9i%h bo%h Ra#u an# Paul$ In %he cumulative rea#in! all %ha% is re@uire# is %ha% each of m0 sis%ers #ance# 9i%h a% leas% one of %he %9o men an# %ha% each of %he men #ance# 9i%h a% leas% one of m0 sis%ers3
(1+4/ a$ R(A '/ is %rue if ;A 0' R(; 0/ (Dis%ribu%ive rea#in!/ b$ R(A '/ is %rue if ;A 0' such %ha% R(; 0/ an# ;' AA such %ha% R(A ;/ (Cumula%ive rea#in!/

In %he case of reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions %he rela%ion is es%ablishe# be%9een a 5lurali%0 A an# i%self 9i%h %he fur%her cons%rain% %ha% 9hen chec-e# on %he members of %he 5lurali%0 onl0 different members are %a-en in%o accoun%$ Thus s%ron! reci5roci%0 corres5on#s %o %he #is%ribu%ive rea#in! an# 9ea- reci5roci%0 corres5on#s %o %he cumula%ive rea#in!3 b0 re5lacin! ' 9i%h A an# a##in! %he re@uiremen%s ;w0 an# ;wA %o %he formulas in (1+4/ one ob%ains %he formulas in (1+=/ an# (1+1/$ The %9o meanin! com5onen%s of reci5rocal cons%ruc%ions P ana5hora (%he fac% %ha% %he an%ece#en% en%ers a 5lural rela%ion &it! itself/ an# #ifference (%he re@uiremen% %ha% %he rela%ion R shoul# be chec-e# a!ains% different elemen%s/ corres5on# %o over% mar-ers3 ana5hora is mar-e# b0 refle;ive cli%ics an# #ifference b0 %he use of ot!er in %he s%ron! reci5rocal forms unul00altul% unul00cellalt% 7n!l$ eac! other e%c$ Re!ar#in! %he choice be%9een %hese rea#in!s i% has been no%ice# %ha% s5ea-ers %en# %o use %he s%ron! rea#in! 9henever 5ossible allo9in! a 9ea- rea#in! 9hen 9orl# -no9le#!e ma-es a s%ron! rea#in! im5ossible or im5robable$ Thus (1=C/ onl0 has %he s%ron! rea#in! 9hereas %he follo9in! e;am5le can onl0 have a 9ea- rea#in!3
(1+,/ FrunAele co5acilor se a%in! leaves-%he %rees-%he$G7N R7FL %ouch >The leaves of %he %rees %ouch each o%her?

1,+

Pronouns

$.%.2. In3.2.31al 2s. 40o15 0ea3.n4s A fur%her #imension of varia%ion concerns %he 9a0 in 9hich %he #is%ribu%ion of %he 5lurali%0 is achieve#$ Dn%il no9 9e onl0 consi#ere# #is%ribu%ion %o in#ivi#ual members of %he 5lurali%0$ 'u% %he rela%ion can also be chec-e# a% %he level of subse%s of %he 5lurali%0$ Thus in %he follo9in! e;am5le %he reci5rocal rela%ion is es%ablishe# be%9een %he !rou5s forme# b0 %he villa!ers in each villa!e$ No%ice %ha% %he reci5rocal ana5hor mus% be 5lural in %his case3
(1+./ SL%enii #in cele 5a%ru comune s-au alia% unii cu alRii / Xunul cu al%ul 5easan%s-%he from %he four communes R7FL-have allie# one$PL 9i%h o%hers / one$SG 9i%h o%her >The 5easan%s of %he four 5arishes forme# an alliance

A s5ecial rea#in! %ha% can be ob%aine# usin! !rou5s is %he collec%ive rea#in! 9i%h res5ec% %o %he secon# member of %he rela%ion$ In %his case for each ; member of A %he rela%ion is chec-e# no% 9i%h res5ec% %o each (or some/ member of A #ifferen% from ; bu% 9i%h res5ec% %o %he sum of all %he o%her members of A3
(1+</ Aici cWm5urile !ravi%aRionale ale celor %rei s%ele se anuleaAL unele 5e here fiel#s-%he !ravi%a%ional G7N %he$G7N %hree heavenl0-bo#ies R7FL cancel one$PL DG: al%ele / Xunul 5e al%ul o%hers / one DG: o%her >Oere %he !ravi%a%ional fiel#s of %he %hree heavenl0 bo#ies cancel each o%her ou%?

Oere i% is clear %ha% %he !ravi%a%ional fiel# of a heavenl0 bo#0 ; is no% cancele# b0 %he fiel# of 6us% %he bo#0 0 bu% onl0 b0 %he sums of %he fiel#s of %he o%her bo#ies 0 an# A$ No%ice %ha% because %he secon# member of %he rela%ion is a 5lurali%0 (%he 5lurali%0 con%ains 2 members %herefore "%he o%hers& 9i%h res5ec% %o a member ; 9ill al9a0s be a !rou5 of 1 members/ in Romanian %he reci5rocal ana5hor mus% have 5lural number$ $.%.3. S5e/.al 0ea3.n4 D.t8 o03e0.n4 50e3./ates Cer%ain 5re#ica%es allo9 a rela;a%ion of %he con#i%ions of 9ea- reci5roci%0 re@uirin! %ha% for each elemen% ; %here shoul# be ano%her 0 such %ha% ;R0 or 0R; (i$e$ %he elemen% nee# no% fi!ure on bo%h si#es of %he rela%ionI "an#& in (1+1/ is re5lace# 9i%h "or&/$ This is clear in %he follo9in! e;am5le 9hich is %rue in s5i%e of %he fac% %ha% %here is a 5la%e %ha% #oes no% have ano%her one on %o5 of i% (%he u55ermos% 5la%e/ an# a 5la%e 9hich is no% on %o5 of ano%her (%he lo9ermos% 5la%e/3
(1+B/ Farfuriile sun% 5use una 5es%e al%a 5la%es-%he are 5u% one above o%her >The 5la%es are s%ac-e# on %o5 of each o%her?

I% has been no%ice# %ha% %his rea#in! is res%ric%e# %o cer%ain le;ical i%ems e;5ressin! as0mme%ric s5a%ial an# %em5oral rela%ions3 peste >above? sub >un#er? dup >af%er? n spatele >behin#? urma >follo9?$

1,1

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

&. #en.t.2e DPs an3 P0ono6.nal Possesso0s


CAR:7N DG'RGVI7-SGRIN (**=-2/ CAR:7N DG'RGVI7-SGRIN ) ISA'7LA N7D7LCD (*4/ CAR:7N DG'RGVI7-SGRIN ) IGN GIDRG7A (*,/ ,. Int0o31/t.on 1. T8e S9nta< of #en.t.2es
+$+$ S0n%he%ic !eni%ives an# al-!eni%ives +$1$ S0n%he%ic !eni%ives follo9in! #efini%e nouns are #is!uise# al-!eni%ives +$2$ In#e5en#en% !eni%ive DPs +$4$ Prenominal Geni%ives +$,$ The s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ion of 5os%nominal !eni%ives +$.$ The s%a%us of %he !eni%ive "ar%icle& al occurrin! in 5os%nominal !eni%ives +$<$ Co-occurrin! !eni%ives

2. T8e Inte050etat.on of #en.t.2es


1$+$ The seman%ic com5osi%ion 1$1$ (In/#efini%eness S5rea# 1$2$ In%er5re%ive Variabili%0 1$4$ The Seman%ic Com5osi%ion of !eni%ives in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions

3. #en.t.2e Case alte0nat.n4 D.t8 P0e5os.t.onal Ma0>.n4


2$+$ Geni%ive Case al%erna%in! 9i%h de-:ar-in! 2$1$ Geni%ive Case al%erna%in! 9i%h a-:ar-in!

$. "e-al 4en.t.2es
4$+$ The s%ruc%ure of de-al !eni%ives 4$1$ The in%er5re%a%ion of de-al !eni%ives 4$2$ G%her #is%ribu%ional 5ro5er%ies of de-al !eni%ives 4$4$ Par%i%ive de-al

%. P0ono6.nal 5ossesso0s
,$+$ A non-uniform 5ara#i!m 3 !eni%ive-mar-e# 5ronouns an# a!reein! 5ossessors ,$1$ The 5osi%ion of 5ronominal 5ossessors ,$2$ Gn %he ca%e!orial s%a%us of a!reein! 5ossessors ,$4$ Suffi;al a!reein! 5ossessors 9i%h -inshi5 %erms

1,2

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

,. Int0o31/t.on
This cha5%er is #evo%e# %o %he s0n%a; of !eni%ive-mar-e# cons%i%uen%s$ The main em5irical !eneraliAa%ions re!ar#in! !eni%ive DPs (inclu#in! 5ersonal 5ronouns/ also hol# for 5ossessive a#6ec%ives 9hich 9ill %herefore be %rea%e# 5arallell0$ Their s5ecial 5ro5er%ies 9ill be si!nalle# in %he a55ro5ria%e 5laces$ The inflec%ional mar-in! of %he !eni%ive-#a%ive case ("%he obli@ue case&/ is hos%e# b0 %he #e%erminer inclu#in! %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle$ The nouns %hemselves as 9ell as %he a#6ec%ives a!reein! 9i%h %he nouns sho9 onl0 a #efec%ive case mor5holo!03 a #is%inc% obli@ue form a55ears onl0 in %he fem$ s!$ an# onl0 9hen %he 5hrase is in%ro#uce# b0 a #e%erminer 9i%h an obli@ue form3 in o%her 9or#s Romanian nouns can be mar-e# 9i%h mor5holo!ical Case onl0 if %he0 are !overne# b0 a De% %ha% is mar-e# for %ha% 5ar%icular Case$
(+/ a$ In#ef$ar%HNoun :$SG$ >a !oo# bo0? :$PL$>!oo# bo0s? F$SG$ >a !oo# !irl? F$PL$ >!oo# !irls? NG:ACC un bLia% bun (niM%e/ bLieRi buni o fa%L bunL (niM%e/ fe%e bune G7NDAT un1. bLia% bun uno0 bLieRi buni une. fe%e bune uno0 fe%e bune b$ NounH#ef$ar%$ :$SG >%he !oo# bo0? :$PL$ >%he !oo# bo0s? F$SG$ >%he !oo# !irl? F$PL$ >%he !oo# !irls? NG:ACC bLia%ul bun bLieRii buni fa%a bunL fe%ele bune G7NDAT bLia%ul1. bun bLieRilo0 buni fe%e. bune fe%elo0 bune

Romanian is charac%eriAe# b0 a remar-able al%erna%ion be%9een sim5le/s0n%he%ic !eni%ives (as in (1// an# anal0%ic !eni%ives forme# b0 a s0n%he%ic !eni%ive 5rece#e# b0 a !eni%ive 5ar%icle (see (2// %he so-calle# "5ossessive ar%icle& (se% in bol# charac%ers/$ In unmar-e# uses bo%h of %hese %05es of !eni%ives occur 5os%nominall03
(1/ a$ casa vecinului /vecinilor house-%he nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N /nei!hbours(:/-%he$G7N >%he nei!hbour?s/%he nei!hbours? house? b$ casa unei vecine /unor vecine house(F/-%he a$F$G7N nei!hbour(F/ /some$F$G7N nei!hbours(F/ >a nei!hbour?s/some nei!hbours? house? a$ o casL a vecinului /a unei vecine a house(F/ al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N /al0FSG a$F$G7N nei!hbour(F/ >a house of %he nei!hbour?s/of a nei!hbour?s(fem/? b$ aces% obicei al vecinului /al unei vecine %his habi% al$:SG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N /al$:SG a$F$G7N nei!hbour(F/ >%his habi% of %he nei!hbour?s/of a nei!hbour?s? c$ casele #e 5ia%rL ale vecinului /ale unei vecine houses(F/-%he in s%one al$FPL nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N /al0FPL a$F$G7N nei!hbour(F/ >%he houses in s%one of %he nei!hbour?s/of a nei!hbour?s? #$ 5rimii s%u#enRi a. mamei mele firs%-%he s%u#en%s(:/ al0:PL mo%her(F/-%he$G7N m0 >%he firs% s%u#en%s of m0 mo%her?s?

(2/

The 5re-!eni%ive 5ar%icle is ma#e u5 of an invariable 5ar% a- follo9e# b0 %he nomina%ive forms of %he #efini%e ar%icle 9hich are inflec%e# for number an# !en#er3 al(m$s!$//a(f$s!$/$ai(m$5l//ale(f$5l/$ This 5ar%icle a!rees 9i%h %he hea# noun of %he overall 5ossessive DP (referrin! %o %he Possessee/$ In sec%ion + i% 9ill be sho9n %ha% s0n%he%ic !eni%ives !overne# b0 le;ical nouns (see (1// are bes% anal0Ae# as al-!eni%ives in 9hich al 9as #ele%e# via a rule com5arable %o

1,4

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

ha5lolo!0$ The res% of %he sec%ion 9ill be #evo%e# %o %he in%ernal s%ruc%ure an# #is%ribu%ion of al-!eni%ives$ Sec%ion 1 #eals 9i%h various as5ec%s of %he seman%ic anal0sis of !eni%ives3 #efini%e 5ossessive DPs are remar-able insofar as %he0 are in%er5re%e# as #efini%e or in#efini%e #e5en#in! on %he (in/#efini%e fea%ures of %he !eni%ive DP i%selfI %he seman%ic rela%ion be%9een %he hea# N an# %he !eni%ive DP is e;%remel0 fle;ible bein! lar!el0 #e%ermine# b0 %he con%e;% (%he no%ions of Possessor an# Possessee are curren%l0 use# im5ro5erl0 as a cover %erm for various %05es of rela%ions/I 9e 9ill formula%e %he various cons%rain%s %ha% hol# be%9een %he #e%erminer of %he !eni%ive DP an# %he #e%erminer of %he overall 5ossessive DP$ Sec%ion 2 is #evo%e# %o %he al%erna%ion be%9een al-!eni%ives mar-e# 9i%h mor5holo!ical !eni%ive mar-in! an# nominal 5ro6ec%ions %ha% are 5re5osi%ion-mar-e#$ This al%erna%ion is clearl0 #riven b0 %he s0n%ac%ic ca%e!or0 of %he a#nominal cons%i%uen%3 full DPs hea#e# b0 mor5holo!icall0 variable #e%erminers NPs (9hich can be mo#ifie#/ an# DPs hea#e# b0 invariable @uan%i%a%ive #e%erminers mus% res5ec%ivel0 be realiAe# as al-!eni%ives PPs hea#e# b0 de an# PPs hea#e# b0 a3
(4/ a$ uMa 1ne. biserici #oor(F/-%he a$F$G7N church(F/ >%he #oor of a church? b$ o uML 3e bisericL veche a #oor de church ol# >an ol# church-#oor? c$ uMile a #ouL biserici #oors-%he a %9o churches >%he #oors of %9o churches?

Sec%ion 4 is concerne# 9i%h 0e% ano%her %05e of cons%ruc%ion %he "5ar%i%ive& !eni%ive forme# b0 an al-!eni%ive 5rece#e# b0 %he 5re5osi%ion de >of? (dou studente de-ale 5ariei >%9o s%u#en%s(F/ of-al$FPL :aria (G7N/? >%9o s%u#en%s of :aria?s?/$ The #is%ribu%ion of %he 5ronominal 5ossessors is com5arable %o %ha% of nominal !eni%ives an# %herefore 9e 9ill 5rovi#e e;am5les of ei%her %05e$ Oo9ever 5ronominal forms #o have some s5ecific 5ro5er%ies %o 9hich sec%ion , 9ill be #evo%e#$ The main 5roblem is %ha% %he 5ara#i!m is no% uniform3 5ersonal 5ronouns mar-e# 9i%h !eni%ive-#a%ive Case are use# for %he 2r# 5erson an# 5ossessive "a#6ec%ives& are use# for %he +s% an# 1n# 5ersons an# for %he 2r# 5erson sin!ular buil% on a mor5holo!icall0 refle;ive form$ The label 5ossessive "a#6ec%ive& is #ue %o %he fac% %ha% %he relevan% elemen%s a!ree in !en#er an# number fea%ures 9i%h %he Possessee al%hou!h %he0 refer %o %he Possessor3
(,/ a$ bLieRii mei bo0s(:/-%he m0$ :PL >m0 bo0s? b$ fe%ele mele !irls(F/-%he m0$ FPL >m0 !irls? c$ celLlal% fra%e al meu %he$:SG-o%her bro%her(:/ al$:SG m0$ :SG >%he o%her bro%her of mine?

The label "5ronominal 5ossessor& is convenien% insofar as i% covers bo%h !eni%ive-mar-e# 5ersonal 5ronouns an# 5ossessive a#6ec%ives$

1,,

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

1. T8e S9nta< of #en.t.2es


1.1. S9nt8et./ 4en.t.2es an3 al+4en.t.2es In %he In%ro#uc%ion above 9e have si!nalle# %he al%erna%ion be%9een s0n%he%ic !eni%ives an# al-!eni%ives$ S0n%he%ic !eni%ives are use# 9hen %he !eni%ive imme#ia%el0 follo9s %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle$ G%her9ise %he anal0%ic !eni%ive is use#$ 'u% since al-!eni%ives embe# a s0n%he%ic !eni%ive 9e ma0 formula%e %he follo9in! #is6unc%ive !eneraliAa%ion concernin! %he #is%ribu%ion of s0n%he%ic !eni%ives3 (./ S0n%he%ic !eni%ives inclu#in! 5ronominal 5ossessors are imme#ia%el0 5rece#e# ei%her b0 %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle a%%ache# %o %he 5ossessee (e;$ (1// or b0 %he so-calle# "5ossessive ar%icle& al (e;$ (2//$

In e;am5les (</-(+=/ 9e have bol#-face# %he relevan% elemen%s$ The feminine sin!ular form a 9hich a!rees 9i%h %he Possessee is !losse# as al$FSG3
(</ a$ casa YDP-GenvecinuluiZ /YDP-Genunui vecinZ house(F/-%he nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N/ a$:$G7N nei!hbour(:/ >%he nei!hbour?s house/%he house of a nei!hbour? b$ casa YmeaZ /YluiZ house(F/-%he m0$ FSG / he$G7N >m0/his house? a$ o casL a YDP-GenvecinuluiZ /YDP-Genunui vecinZ a house(F/ al0FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N/ a$:$G7N nei!hbour(:/ >a house of %he nei!hbour?s/a nei!hbour?s? b$ o casL a YmeaZ /YluiZ a house(F/ al$FSG m0$ FSG /he$G7N >a house of mine/his? casa frumoasL a YDP-GenvecinuluiZ /YDP-Genunui vecinZ house(F/-%he beau%iful al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N / a$:$G7N nei!hbour(:/ >%he beau%iful house of %he nei!hbour/a nei!hbour? a$ Casa es%e a YDP-GenvecinuluiZ$ house(F/-%he is al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N >The house is %he nei!hbour?s$? b$ Casa mea es%e mai frumoasL #ecW% a YDP-GenvecinuluiZ$ house(F/-%he m0 is more beau%iful %han al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N >:0 house is more beau%iful %han %he nei!hbour?s$?

(B/

(C/ (+=/

No%e no9 %ha% %he "5ossessive ar%icle& al is forme# b0 an invariable elemen% a-follo9e# b0 %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle as %he follo9in! %able sho9s3
(++/
:$ SG$ F$ SG$ :$ PL$ F$ PL$

7ncl$ #ef$ ar%$

Poss$ ar%$

-l -le -a -i -le

al a ai ale

Given %ha% %he !eni%ive 5ar%icle con%ains a #efini%e ar%icle %he #a%a in (</-(+=/ in#ica%e %ha% %he em5irical !eneraliAa%ion formula%e# in (./ can be res%a%e# in a non-#is6unc%ive 9a0 as in (._/3

1,.

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

(._/

Geni%ive-mar-e# DPs (inclu#in! 5ronominal !eni%ives/ mus% be imme#ia%el0 5rece#e# b0 %he #efini%e ar%icle (9hich is suffi;al/$

Romanian !eni%ives ma0 also occur in 5renominal DP-ini%ial 5osi%ions$ :os% DPini%ial !eni%ives are s%0lis%icall0 mar-e# bein! use# onl0 in 5oe%r0 (see (+1/b-c/$ The 5renominal 5osi%ion is never%heless 5ro#uc%ivel0 use# for !eni%ive &!-5hrases (see (+1/a/3
(+1/ a$ a cLrui casL al$FSG 9hose$:SG house(F/ >9hose house? b$ ale %ale #oruri %oa%e al0FPL 0our(SG/$G7N #esires all >all of 0our #esires? c$ al no5Rii mele #omn al$:SG ni!h%(F/-%he$G7N m0$ G7N lor#(:/ >m0 ni!h%?s lor#? S%an#ar# Poe%ic (7minescu H% rmi/ Poe%ic (7minescu Luceafrul/

The e;am5les in (+1/ mus% be #is%in!uishe# from %hose in (+2/ 9hich are also buil% 9i%h a 5renominal !eni%ive 9hich is ho9ever no% DP-ini%ial bein! 5rece#e# b0 an a#6ec%ive$ In %his case %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle a55ears on %he a#6ec%ive (see sec%ion B of Cha5%er 2/ an# al #oes no% a55ear3
(+2/ 5rima noas%rL En%Wlnire firs%-%he our mee%in! >our firs% mee%in!?

I% shoul# be observe# %ha% onl0 5ronominal 5ossessors can occur in be%9een DP-ini%ial a#6ec%ives an# hea# Ns as in (+2/$ Cons%ruc%ions of %he %05e A#6-#ef$ar%$HDPGenHN 9here %he Geni%ive DP is hea#e# b0 a noun (e$!$ mictoarea mrilor sin urtate >res%less-%he seas-%he$G7N soli%u#e? meanin! >%he res%less soli%u#e of %he seas?/ are ver0 mar!inal bein! foun# onl0 in 5oe%r0$ Such e;am5les are even more mar!inal %han %hose of %he %05e a mpratului fat Bal0FSG em5eror%he0G7N #au!h%er(F/? (meanin! >%he em5eror?s #au!h%er?/% 9here %he 5renominal !eni%ive is DP ini%ial$ In abs%rac% %erms %he %9o #is%inc% %05es of confi!ura%ions %ha% allo9 5renominal !eni%ives are !iven in (+4/a-b$ The label DPGen covers bo%h nominal !eni%ives an# %heir 5ronominal coun%er5ar%s3 (+4/ a$ al H DPGen H N b$ A#6$-#ef$ar%$ H 5ronominal 5ossessor H N

No%e %ha% 5ossessive DPs buil% 9i%h 5renominal al-!eni%ives have a #efini%e meanin! 9hich clearl0 se%s %hem a5ar% from 5os%nominal al-!eni%ives (see e;am5les such as (B/a-b 9hich are hea#e# b0 in#efini%e #e%erminers/$ 1.2. S9nt8et./ 4en.t.2es folloD.n4 3ef.n.te no1ns a0e 3.s41.se3 al+4en.t.2es Le% us no9 e;amine more closel0 %he a#6acenc0 cons%rain% s%a%e# in (.~/ an# illus%ra%e# a!ain belo9 3

1,<

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors (+,/ a$ casa (Xa/ vecinului house(F/-%he al$FSG nei!hbour-%he$G7N >%he nei!hbour?s house? b$ casa frumoasL X(a/ vecinului house(F/-%he beau%iful al$FSG nei!hbour-%he$G7N >%he nei!hbour?s beau%iful house? c$ o casL X(a/ vecinului a house(F/ al$FSG nei!hbour-%he$G7N >a house of %he nei!hbour?s?

In 9ha% follo9s 9e 9ill 5rovi#e evi#ence in favor of %he h05o%hesis %ha% s0n%he%ic !eni%ives ((+,/a/ are %o be anal0Ae# as al-!eni%ives in 9hich al is #ele%e# via a mor5ho-5honolo!ical rule com5arable %o ha5lolo!0$ In or#er for %he rea#er %o be imme#ia%el0 convince# b0 %his line of anal0sis le% us res%a%e %he em5irical !eneraliAa%ion$ Ins%ea# of sa0in! %ha% %he !eni%ive mus% be a#6acen% %o %he #efini%e ar%icle (con%aine# in al or in a le;ical noun suffi;e# 9i%h %he #efini%e ar%icle/ le% us sa0 %ha%3 (.__/ All Romanian !eni%ives con%ain al e;ce5% 9hen %he0 are 5rece#e# b0 a #efini%e N or b0 a #efini%e A#6 (in o%her 9or#s %he s%rin!s XN- 3ef al DPGen an# XA-3ef al DPGen N are ille!i%ima%e/$ No%e no9 %ha% %he un!ramma%ical se@uences con%ain %9o 5ar%iall0 i#en%ical a#6acen% elemen%s3 %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle an# al 9hich i%self con%ains %he #efini%e ar%icle (see (++/ above/$ This se@uence ma0 be assume# %o be %he in5u% of a rule %ha% #ele%es an elemen% %ha% is a#6acen% %o a (5ar%iall0/ i#en%ical one (Oa5lolo!0/3 (+./ Al is #ele%e# in %he con%e;% Y-L rrr Z$ :ore concre%el0 an e;am5le such as (+,/a 9oul# be #erive# as sho9n belo9 3
(+,_/ %he$G7N a$ casa a vecinului house(F/-%he al0FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N casa vecinului house(F/-%he nei!hbour(:/-

The #ecisive evi#ence su55or%in! %he rule in (+./ rela%es %o %he coor#ina%ion of 5os%nominal !eni%ives$ The follo9in! e;am5le sho9s %ha% a "s0n%he%ic& 5os%-nominal !eni%ive can be coor#ina%e# 9i%h an al-!eni%ive
(+</ a5ar%amen%ul 6a6e. 6ele Mi al Ma0.e. a fos% vWn#u% a5ar%men%(:/-%he mo%her-%he$G7N m0$ G7N an# al0:SG :aria$G7N has been sol# >m0 mo%her?s an# :aria?s a5ar%men% has been sol#?

As sho9n b0 %he sin!ular a!reemen% on %he verb (+</ involves one 5ossessee 9hich means %ha% %he 5hrase al 5ariei is no% a DP coor#ina%e# %o Yapartamentul mamei meleZ$ Ins%ea# i% is %he %9o !eni%ives %ha% are coor#ina%e#$ Since con6unc%s mus% occu50 %he same s%ruc%ural 5osi%ion 9e conclu#e %ha% Ymamei meleZ in %he e;am5le above is an ins%ance of "anal0%ic& !eni%ive on a 5ar 9i%h Yal :arieiZ$ The #ele%ion of al is #ue %o %he rule s%a%e# in (+./ 9hich can affec% %he firs% bu% no% %he secon# con6unc% (because onl0 %he firs% con6unc% sa%isfies %he #escri5%ion of %he rule i$e$ is a#6acen% %o a 5rece#in! #efini%e ar%icle/ 3

1,B

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

(+<_/

a5ar%amen%ul al mamei mele Mi a5ar%men%(:/-%he al0:SG mo%her-%he$G7N m0$ G7N an# a5ar%amen%ul mamei mele Mi al a5ar%men%(:/-%he mo%her-%he$G7N m0$ G7N an# al0:SG

al :ariei al0:SG :aria$G7N :ariei :aria$G7N

Da%a from %he his%or0 of %he lan!ua!e su55or% %he anal0sis a#o5%e# here$ In %he mos% ancien% %e;%s #a%in! from %he +.%h cen%ur0 9e fin# si#e b0 si#e al imme#ia%el0 follo9in! -L an# %he 5resen%-#a0 #is%ribu%ion P as if %he ha5lolo!0 rule 9as o5%ional$ Ue 5resen% here %hese cases im5ossible in %he con%em5orar0 lan!ua!e3
(+B/ a$ 5:/atele ale %u%uror sins(F/-%he al0FPL all$G7N b$ 3181l al Domnului nos%ru s5iri%(:/-%he al$:SG Lor#-%he$G7N our c$ 103B.0ea a lumiei crea%ion-%he al0FSG 9orl#-%he$G7N #. Nna.ntea a %u%uror oamenilor before-%he al$FSG all$G7N humans-%he$G7N
The ar!umen% in favour of ha5lolo!0 ma#e here #e5en#s on %he possibility of coor#ina%in! a s0n%he%ic 9i%h an anal0%ic !eni%ive$ This is ho9ever no% %he onl0 o5%ion as sho9n in (i/ 9here %9o s0n%he%ic !eni%ives are coor#ina%e#3 (i/ 5arfumul crinilor Mi %ran#afirilor 5erfume-%he lilies-%he$G7N an# roses-%he$G7N

7;am5les of %his %05e are 5re#ic%ible because coor#ina%e# DPs ma0 form %he com5lemen% of a sin!le un#erl0in! al 9hich !e%s #ele%e# via ha5lolo!03 (i?/ 5arfumul al Ycrinilor Mi %ran#afirilorZ 5erfume-%he$:SG al0:SG lilies-%he$G7N an# roses-%he$G7N 5arfumul crinilor Mi %ran#afirilor 5erfume-%he$:SG lilies-%he$G7N an# roses-%he$G7N

In fac% such coor#ina%ion is obli!a%or0 if %he hea# noun is a 5re#ica%e %ha% selec%s !rou5s so %ha% %he en%ire con6unc%ion is i%s ar!umen%3 (ii/ reuniunea #e5u%aRilor Mi (Xa/ sena%orilor En Me#inRL comunL reunion(F/-%he #e5u%ies-%he$G7N an# al0FSG sena%ors-%he$G7N in session 6oine#

The same behaviour 9i%h res5ec% %o coor#ina%ion is sho9n b0 !eni%ives subca%e!oriAe# b0 %hose 5re5osi%ions %ha% en# in -l -le or -a% 9hich are mor5holo!icall0 i#en%ical %o %he suffi;al #efini%e ar%icle (-ul 9i%h masculine nouns in consonan% - le 9i%h masculine nouns in Pe an# -a 9i%h feminines/$ Such 5re5osi%ions are follo9e# b0 a "s0n%he%ic& !eni%ive inclu#in! 5ronominal Possessors bu% 9hen %heir com5lemen%s are coor#ina%e# al ma0 a55ear before %he secon# con6unc%3
(+C/ a$ Em5o%riva RLrii Mi (a/ 5o5orului a!ains% lan#-%he$G7N an# al0FSG 5eo5le-%he$G7N >a!ains% %he lan# an# %he 5eo5le? b$ Em5o%riva mea Mi X(a/ %a a!ains% m0$ FSG an# al$FSG 0our$FSG >a!ains% me an# 0ou?

1,C

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors


:os% of %hese 5re5osi%ions come from nouns an# are 5erha5s s%ill anal0sable as such 9hich 9oul# e;5lain %he a!reemen% of al an# of %he 5ossessive a#6ec%ive3 (i/ a$ En faRa :ariei Mi a mea in face(F/-%he :aria$G7N an# al$FSG m0$FSG >in fron% of me before me? b$ En s5a%ele meu Mi al :ariei in bac-(:/-%he m0$:SG an# al$:SG :aria$G7N >behin# me an# :aria?

'u% in some cases %here is no nominal basis for %he 5re5osi%ion3 ei%her %he basis is an a#verb an# a 5re5osi%ion 9as #erive# from i% b0 a##in! an -a b0 analo!0 9i%h %he 5re5osi%ions #erive# from nominals as in nainte (9hich comes from n >in? an# ainte >before? e la%$ ab ante >from before?/ or %he 5re5osi%ion is a borro9in! en#in! in - a 9hich 9as rein%er5re%e# as an ins%ance of %he feminine sin!ular #efini%e ar%icle a%%ache# %o 5re5osi%ions as in contra >a!ains%? (a neolo!ical borro9in! from la%$ contra% i%$ contra/3 (ii/ a$ Enain%e >before? b$ Enain%ea mea before-%he$FSG m0$FSG >before me? c$ En#LrL%1l sLu behin#-%he$:SG his/her >behin# him/her?

For %hese cases 9e nee# %o assume a %rue reanal0sis b0 9hich 5re5osi%ions became ca5able of receivin! a #efini%e ar%icle an# correla%ivel0 ca5able of assi!nin! !eni%ive Case or of %ri!!erin! a!reemen% 9i%h + s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronominal 5ossessors (as in (ii/b-cI see also sec%ion , of %his cha5%er/$ In fac% all !eni%ive-assi!nin! 5re5osi%ions en# in ei%her -l% -le or "a 9hich are formall0 i#en%ical 9i%h #efini%e ar%icles$ Since %his affi; an# %he f-fea%ures i% carries are obviousl0 non-in%er5re%able (because 5re5osi%ions are non-referen%ial/ 9e mus% ac-no9le#!e %ha% %he mecanism of co50in! of fea%ures un#er a!reemen% is no% cons%raine# b0 %he referen%ial/in%er5re%able na%ure of %hose fea%ures$

SummariAin! Romanian !eni%ives follo9in! #efini%e nouns are %o be anal0Ae# as al!eni%ives a% %he s0n%ac%ic level of re5resen%a%ion$ The absence of al is #ue %o %he a55lica%ion of a mor5ho-5honolo!ical rule com5arable %o Oa5lolo!0$ Ue are %hus le# %o conclu#e %ha% all Romanian !eni%ives !overne# b0 le;ical nouns are %o be uniforml0 anal0Ae# as con%ainin! a s5ecialiAe# elemen% al$ As 9e 9ill sho9 in subse@uen% sec%ions %his #oes no% mean %ha% al is some -in# of !eni%ive mar-er bu% ra%her a 5ronominal elemen% corres5on#in! %o a fuse# s0n%ac%ic ca%e!or0 YDHNZ$ Romanian s0n%he%ic !eni%ives %hus a55ear %o be anal0sable as full 5ossessive DPs !overne# b0 a s5ecifie# 5ronominal hea#$ Des5i%e %heir i#en%ical mor5holo!ical form Romanian !eni%ives can be !rou5e# in%o a% leas% %hree classes from %he 5oin% of vie9 of %heir e;%ernal #is%ribu%ion3 free-s%an#in! (i$e$ nona#nominal/ !eni%ive DPs 5renominal !eni%ives an# 5os%nominal !eni%ives$ In 9ha% follo9s 9e 9ill anal0se each of %hese %05es in %urn$ 1.3. F0ee+stan3.n4 4en.t.2e DPs Le% us firs% consi#er e;am5les such as (1=/ in 9hich al-!eni%ives occur as ar!umen%s of verbs or 5re5osi%ions3
(1=/ a$ A 2e/.n1l1. a fos% #is%rusL ieri$ al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N has been #es%ro0e# 0es%er#a0 >The nei!hbour?s 9as #es%ro0e# 0es%er#a0$?

1.=

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors b$ Casa mea es%e mai frumoasL #ecW% a 2e/.n1l1.$ house(F/-%he m0 is more beau%iful %han al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N >:0 house is more beau%iful %han %he nei!hbour?s$?

8ui%e obviousl0 %he al-!eni%ives occurrin! in %hese e;am5les canno% be "bare& !eni%ives bu% mus% ins%ea# be anal0Ae# as full 5ossessive DPs$ This anal0sis can be fur%her refine# b0 choosin! be%9een %he %9o 5ossible anal0ses sho9n belo93 (1+/ DP 3 D= DPGen

NP 3 N

#
al (11/ vecinului DP

#
YeZ

3 NHD

DPGen

al

vecinului

In (1+/ %he !eni%ive DP is anal0Ae# as occu50in! a 5renominal S5ecifier 5osi%ion al is inser%e# un#er DT as a s5ecial form of %he #efini%e ar%icle an# %he N-hea# is em5%0 (5ossibl0 fille# b0 an em5%0 5ro-YNZ/$ This s%ruc%ure ma0 also be assume# for e;am5les 9i%h 5renominal !eni%ives of %he %05e a mpratului fat >al0FSG em5eror-%he$G7N #au!h%er?$ In (11/ on %he o%her han# al is anal0Ae# as a 5ro-YNHDZ form an# %he !eni%ive DP occu5ies a 5os%nominal S5ecifier 5osi%ion$ Al%hou!h 9e #o no% 9an% %o choose be%9een %hese %9o 5ossible anal0ses i% is 9or%h men%ionin! %ha% (1+/ is 5roblema%ic3 if 5renominal !eni%ives ha# %he s%ruc%ure sho9n in (1+/ %he0 9oul# be sim5ler %han 5os%nominal !eni%ives 9hich as 9e have seen (see sec%ion +$1$ above/ are DPs embe##in! an en%ire al-5hrase$ So 9e 9oul# e;5ec% 5renominal !eni%ives %o be an unmar-e# 5ro#uc%ive form$ Oo9ever 5renominal !eni%ives are hi!hl0 res%ric%e#3 recall %ha% onl0 al crui >9hose? can be foun# in s%an#ar# s5eech o%her forms bein! 5oe%ic$ This %hen is 5roblema%ic for %he anal0sis a% han# since 9e 9oul#n?% e;5ec% a lan!ua!e %o choose more elabora%e s%ruc%ures 9hen i% has sim5ler ones available$ In vie9 of %his fac% 9e su!!es% %ha% %he s%ruc%ure (1+/ is no% a#e@ua%e3 al shoul# no% be anal0Ae# as a #efini%e #e%erminer %a-in! an NP com5lemen%$ Ins%ea# al #irec%l0 en%ers %he #eriva%ion 9i%h %he label NHD as sho9n in (11/$ Le% us no9 consi#er e;am5les such as (12/ 9here an al-5hrase occurs in a 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion3
(12/ Casa es%e a 2e/.n1l1.$ house(F/-%he is al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N >The house is %he nei!hbour?s$?

The @ues%ion is 9he%her al-5hrases occurrin! in 5os%-co5ular 5osi%ions can be anal0Ae# as full 5ossessive DPs on a 5ar 9i%h al-5hrases occurrin! in ar!umen%al 5osi%ions$ Such an anal0sis is s%ron!l0 su!!es%e# b0 %he follo9in! crosslin!uis%ic !eneraliAa%ion3

1.+

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

(14/

A !eni%ive form can a55ear in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion onl0 if i% can also a55ear >free s%an#in!? in ar!umen% 5osi%ions$ This !eneraliAa%ion #oes no% %a-e in%o accoun% %hose !eni%ive forms 9hich in cer%ain lan!ua!es are no%
!overne# b0 a hea# N bu% ins%ea# are ins%ances of >inheren% Case? i$e$ Case forms %ha% are #irec%l0 correla%e# 9i%h 5ar%icular %h-roles e$!$ La%in Naec domus est patris mei >%his house is fa%her$G7N m0$G7N> vs$ XAmo patris mei0 >love$+SG fa%her$G7N m0$G7N?0 A no%e9or%h0 e;ce5%ion %o %he !eneraliAa%ion in (14/ is mio in I%alian3 questo T mio >%his is mine? vs$ -mi piace mio >I li-e mine?

The e;am5les in (1,/-(1./ illus%ra%e %he !eneraliAa%ion s%a%e# in (14/$ Thus %he Sa;on !eni%ive forms as 9ell as %he 5ronominal forms mine an# yours in 7n!lish or celui de D/ an# le mien$le tien in French occur in bo%h ar!umen% an# 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions 9hereas 7n!lish of!eni%ives French de-Geni%ives an# 5ossessive a#6ec%ives (my% your% our t!eir in 7n!lishI mon% ton% son% e%c$ in French* are #isallo9e# in bo%h 5osi%ions3
(1,/ (1./ a$ I li-e Nohn?s/mine/Xof Nohn/Xm0$ b$ This car5e% is Nohn?s/ mine/Xof Nohn(>s//Xm0$ a$ N?aime celui #e Nean /le mien/X#e Nean/X#e moi$ b$ Ce %a5is es% celui #e Nean /le mien/X#e Nean/ X#e moi/$

The anal0sis su!!es%e# here accor#in! %o 9hich 5os%-co5ular !eni%ives are in fac% full 5ossessive DPs ma0 seem 5roblema%ic on seman%ic !roun#s$ For %his issue see * 1$, belo9$
Free s%an#in! al-!eni%ives buil% 9i%h nominal 5ossessors canno% be mar-e# 9i%h obli@ue Case3 (i/ Iam scris 5rofesorului :ariei /meu$ CL$2SG$DAT-have$+ 9ri%%en %eacher(:/$DAT :aria$G7N m0$:SG >I have 9ri%%en %o :aria?s/m0 %eacher$? (i]/ XI-am scris al1. :ariei /meu$ CL$2SG$DAT-have$+ 9ri%%en al$:SG$DAT :aria$G7N m0$:SG (ii/ Am ci%i% car%ea 5rofesorului :ariei /meu$ have$+ rea# boo--%he %eacher-%he$G7N :aria$G7N m0$:SG >I have rea# :aria?s/m0 %eacher?s boo-$? (ii]/ XAm ci%i% car%ea al1. :ariei /meu$ have$+ rea# boo--%he al$:SG$G7N :aria$G7N m0$:SG In cer%ain re!ional varie%ies an# re!is%ers e;am5les of %he %05e in ((i/-(ii/ can be rescue# b0 %he use of %he 5re5osi%ional Da%ive mar-e# b0 la 3 (iii/ Am scris la al :ariei /meu have$+ 9ri%%en %o al$ :SG :aria$G7N m0$:SG Gbli@ue Case-mar-in! can a55ear on a subse% of %he al-!eni%ives buil% 9i%h pronominal 5ossessors namel0 on %he forms ma#e u5 of %he 5lural form ai )corres5on#in!l0 %he overall DP refers %o a 5lural Possessee/ follo9e# b0 (a!reein!/ +s% or 1n# 5ronominal 5ossessors e$!$ alor mei $ ti $ notri e%c$ >al$PL$G'L m0$:PL/0our(SG/$:PL/our$:PL >mine/0ours/ours? 9hich have an i#ioma%ic meanin! 5ara5hrasable b0 "m0/0our/our 5aren%s/rela%ives/frien#s/su55or%ers& #e5en#in! on %he con%e;% (see (iv//3 (iv/ Le-am scris alo0 6e. CL$2PL$DAT -have$+ 9ri%%en al$PL$DAT m0$:PL >I 9ro%e %o m0 5aren%s? Some s5ea-ers can also use an obli@ue form for %he feminine sin!ular3 (v/ au mul%e maMini En faRa ale. 6ele (In%erne%/ have$+PL man0 cars before al$FSG$G7N m0$FSG$G7N >The0 have man0 cars in fron% of mine?

1.1

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

1.$. P0eno6.nal #en.t.2es Le% us no9 e;amine 5renominal !eni%ives$ The firs% 5ossibili%0 9oul# be %o assume %ha% %he0 occu50 a 5renominal S5ecifier 5osi%ion insi#e %he NP cons%i%uen%3 (1</ ru DT NP to DPGen 5 #
cLrui no5Rii mele

DP

N
casL #omn

a al

As alrea#0 observe# above %his anal0sis is 5roblema%ic !iven %he #iscre5anc0 be%9een i%s >sim5lici%0? an# %he mar-e# charac%er of Romanian 5renominal !eni%ives$ Ue 9ill %herefore anal0Ae 5renominal !eni%ives as full DPs si%%in! in S5ec DP as sho9n belo93 (1B/ DP 3 S5ec DP YDPZ 3 D= YDHNZ YDPGenZ
a cLrui

D? 3 NP

casL

Le% us no9 recall %he #escri5%ive !eneraliAa%ion men%ione# in 5revious sec%ions accor#in! %o 9hich in Romanian 5renominal !eni%ives are mar!inal 5oe%ic e;ce5% for 5ronominal 9h!eni%ives 9hich are full0 acce5%able$ The reason for %he full acce5%abili%0 of 9h-!eni%ives mi!h% be %ha% S5ec DP is %he onl0 5osi%ion 9hich allo9s !eni%ives %o raise ou% of %he DP in or#er %o chec- (!e% acces %o/ %he 9h-fea%ure of %he Com5 of %he sen%ence in 9hich %he0 occur$ No%e %ha% %here are %9o 5ro5er%ies %ha% #is%in!uish 5renominal &!-!eni%ives from &!!eni%ives in 5os%nominal an# free-s%an#in! 5osi%ions (9here %he0 are 5rece#e# b0 al/3 (a/ Al%hou!h %he0 are 5ronouns 5renominal 9h-!eni%ives #on?% have %he "s%ron!& forms charac%eris%ic of o%her ins%ances of 5ronominal use mar-e# 9i%h %he affi; - a bu% %he "9ea-& form ins%ea# (9i%hou% -a/3
(1C/ a$ A cLrui casL ai vLAu%-oK al$FSG 9hose house(F/ have$1SG seen-i% >Uhose house #i# 0ou seeK? b$ Casa cLruia ai vLAu%-oK (from >casa a cLruia? b0 rule (+.// house(F/-%he 9hose-a have$1SG seen-i% house(F/-%he al$FSG 9hose-a >Uhose house #i# 0ou seeK Gf 9hom #i# 0ou see %he houseK? c$ A cLruia ERi 5laceK al$FSG 9hose-a 0ou$DAT li-es >Uhose (one/ #o 0ou li-eK?

(b/ The0 are al9a0s hea#e# b0 an em5%0 (5ronominal/ hea# 9hile &!-!eni%ives in 5os%nominal as 9ell as free-s%an#in! 5osi%ions can also combine 9i%h an (over%/ noun3

1.2

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

(2=/

a$ XYale cLrui omZ fe%e al$FPL 9hose$:SG man(:/ !irls(F/ b$ fe%ele YcLrui omZ !irls(F/-%he 9hose$:SG man c$ ale YcLrui omZ al$FPL 9hose$:SG man(:/

For 5oe%ic !eni%ives %here are %9o 9a0s of e;5lainin! %heir mar!inal s%a%us3 ei%her %he0 re5resen% %he s%ruc%ure (1</ 5erha5s available a% a 5revious s%a!e of %he lan!ua!e an# survivin! no9 in %he 5oe%ic lan!ua!e as an archaism or %he0 are cons%i%uen%s in S5ecDP (as #e5ic%e# in (1B// carr0in! a To5(ic/ fea%ure$ Ue coul# %hus asume %ha% %he S5ecDP 5osi%ion is accessible onl0 %o !eni%ive DPs %ha% are mar-e# 9i%h an e#!e fea%ure ei%her H9h or HTo5ic bu% onl0 %he former is full0 acce5%able$ The anal0sis a#o5%e# here for 5renominal al-!eni%ives is com5arable %o %he anal0sis of 5renominal su5erla%ives an# or#inals (%he la%%er bein! forme# 9i%h %he same #e%erminer al/ a#o5%e# in cha5%er 2 sec%ion B 3 (2+/ a$ DP 3 GenP D? 5 2 a cLrui D= NumP/NP g 5 H#ef casL

b$ DP 3 DP D? 5 2 cea mai mare D= NumP/NP g 5 H#ef casL c$ DP 3 DP D? 5 2 a %reia D= NumP/NP g 5 H#ef casL In all %hese confi!ura%ions #efini%e DPs mar-e# b0 ei%her al (for !eni%ives an# or#inals/ or cel (for su5erla%ives/ si% in S5ec DP an# correla%ivel0 DT s%a0s em5%0 bu% is never%heless in%er5re%e# as H#ef 5ossibl0 #ue %o a!reemen% 9i%h %he #efini%e DP in S5ec DP$

1.4

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

1.%. T8e s9nta/t./ 5os.t.on of 5ostno6.nal 4en.t.2es Pos%nominal al-!eni%ives can be anal0Ae# ei%her as N-com5lemen%s (i$e$ as sis%ers of NT/ or as NP-a#6unc%s$ The firs% o5%ion sui%s al-5hrases %ha% occur as com5lemen%s of rela%ional nouns3
(21/ un 5rie%en al vecinei a frien#(:/ al$:SG nei!hbour(F/-%he$G7N >a frien# of %he nei!hbour?s?

(21]/

DP 3 DT N #
un a 5rie%en frien#(:/

NP 3 DP1 #

al vecinei al$:SG nei!hbour(F/-%he$G7N

Com5are %hose al-!eni%ives %ha% combine 9i%h ob6ec%-#eno%in! nouns (cat% table e%c$/$ Since %his %05e of noun #oes no% have ar!umen%s i% is curren%l0 assume# %ha% %he0 #o no% 5ro6ec% a com5lemen% 5osi%ion$ Conse@uen%l0 %he !eni%ives associa%e# 9i%h such nouns are %a-en %o occu50 an a#6unc%ion 5osi%ion$
(22/ o/aceas%L 5isicL a vecinei a/%his ca%(F/ al$FSG nei!hbour(F/-%he$G7N >A/%his ca% of %he nei!hbour?s?

(22]/ DT

DP 3 NP 3 NP #
o/ aceas%L 5isicL a/ %his ca%(F/

DP1 #
a vecinei al$FSG nei!hbour(F/-%he$G7N

Ano%her 5ossibili%0 9oul# be %o assume %ha% 5os%nominal Geni%ives are DP-a#6unc%s$ This o5%ion seems %o be ina#e@ua%e !iven %ha% 5os%nominal !eni%ives canno% a%%ach %o 5ersonal 5ronouns e$!$ Xei ai vecineiG?%he0 al$:PL nei!hbour(F/-%he$G7N?$ For fur%her evi#ence su55or%in! %he same conclusion see sec%ion 4 of %his cha5%er$ The #is%inc%ion be%9een !eni%ives si%%in! in %he com5lemen% an# a#6unc%ion 5osi%ions is over%l0 mar-e# in cer%ain lan!ua!es e$!$ in 7n!lish3 a friend of t!e nei !bour% t!e le of t!e table vs t!is cat of t!e nei !bourUs% a !ouse of 5aryUs $ Since no similar #is%inc%ion e;is%s in Romanian 9e ma0 9on#er 9he%her al-!eni%ives shoul# be assume# %o occu50 #is%inc% 5osi%ions #e5en#in! on %he na%ure of %he hea# N or shoul# ins%ea# be %a-en %o si% in one an# %he same 5osi%ion$ Shoul# 9e %hen choose %he a#6unc%ion 5osi%ion or ra%her %he com5lemen% 5osi%ion %o uniforml0 hos% all al-!eni%ivesK

1.,

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

1.&. T8e stat1s of t8e 4en.t.2e Ta0t./leU al o//100.n4 .n 5ostno6.nal 4en.t.2es Romanian !eni%ives e;hibi% a remar-abl0 uniform in%ernal ma-e-u5 ( al follo9e# b0 a !eni%ive-mar-e# DP or b0 a !eni%ive 5ronoun/ al%hou!h %he0 sho9 u5 in a% leas% four ver0 #ifferen% s0n%ac%ic con%e;%s3 ar!umen% (i$e$ non-a#nominal/ 5osi%ions 5renominal 5osi%ions 5os%nominal com5lemen% 5osi%ion 5os%nominal a#6unc% 5osi%ion$ The @ues%ion %ha% arises is 9he%her a uniform syntactic anal0sis (ma%chin! %heir uniform morp!olo ical form/ is com5a%ible 9i%h %heir various s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ions$ In sec%ion 2 above al-!eni%ives occurrin! in ar!umen% 5osi%ions 9ere anal0Ae# as sho9n in (24>/3
(24/ a$ Al Ma0.e. nu mi-a 5lLcu%$ al$:SG :aria$G7N no% me$DAT-has 5lease# >:aria?s I #i#n?% li-e$? b$ N-am vLAu%-o EncL 5e a 2e/.n1l1.. no%-have$+ seen-i% 0e% DG: al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N >I/9e haven?% 0e% seen %he nei!hbour?s$?

For concre%eness 9e 9ill assume %ha% al$a$$$ is a fuse# DHN form lis%e# as such in %he Le;icon3
(24]/ Nma;/DP 3 DHN S5ec Nma;/S5ec DP (DPGen/ YNTaZHYDTlZ vecinei a H %he$:SG nei!hbour(F/-%he$G7N YNTaZHYDTaZ vecinului a H%he$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N

a$ b$

This anal0sis can be e;%en#e# %o 5os%nominal !eni%ives$ Thus %he re5resen%a%ion !iven in (24]/ can be ma#e more e;5lici% b0 in#ica%in! %he in%ernal s%ruc%ure of %he 5os%nominal al-!eni%ive as sho9n belo93
(2,/ a$ un cWine a #o!(:/ b$ o casL a house(F/ al vecinului al0:SG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N a vecinului al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N

1..

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

(2,]/ 3 D+T

DP+ NP 3 NP+ # NP+ D1] DP1 3 S5ec DP # DPGen

a$

un a b$ o a

cWine YNTaZHYDTlZ vecinului #o!(:/ al0:SG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N casL YNTaZHYDTaZ vecinului house(F/ al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N

Pos%nominal !eni%ives coul# %hus be anal0Ae# as 5er%ainin! %o some -in# of rela%iviAin! mechanism$ This #oes no% necessaril0 mean %ha% al i%self is %o be anal0Ae# as some -in# of rela%ive 5ronounI i% ma0 also be anal0Ae# as 5ar% of %he nominal 5re#ica%e of a re#uce# rela%ive clause 9here %he rela%ive 5ronoun as 9ell as %he co5ula are em5%03 %he !loss of %he overall DP 9oul# be ]a #o! Y%ha% isZ %he one of %he nei!hbour]s]$ G%her anal0ses of a#nominal al-!eni%ives are 5ossible 5rovi#e# %ha% 9e assume %ha% %he in%ernal s0n%ac%ic s%ruc%ure of a#nominal !eni%ives is #ifferen% from %ha% of ar!umen%al !eni%ives e$!$ al 9oul# be a 5re5osi%ion or some -in# of Geni%ive mar-er$ This anal0sis is 5roblema%ic !iven %he fac% %ha% %his elemen% carries 5hi-fea%ures %ha% a!ree 9i%h %he hea# N$ Gne mi!h% s%ill 9an% %o ar!ue %ha% 5re5osi%ions (an# 5ossibl0 Case mar-ers/ ma0 carr0 5hifea%ures %ha% a!ree 9i%h %he elemen% %ha% !overns %hem$ This su!!es%ion is 5roblema%ic for a% leas% %9o reasons 3 (i/ Romanian has no o%her a!reein! 5re5osi%ions I (ii/ in all %he cases %ha% are 9ell-un#ers%oo# concor# a!reemen% (e$!$ be%9een le;ical a#6ec%ives an# N or be%9een 5ossessive a#6ec%ives an# N/ hol#s no% onl0 for !en#er an# number bu% also for Case 3
(2./ a$ fa%a frumoasL !irl-%he$FSG$NG:/ACC beau%iful$FSG$NG:/ACC b$fe%ei frumoase !irl-%he$FSG$G7N/DAT beau%iful$FSG$G7N/DAT

No%e no9 %ha% al a!rees 9i%h %he hea# N in !en#er an# number bu% no% in Case 3
(2</ a$ I-am scris 5rofesoarei #e franceAL a vecinului her$DAT-have$+ 9ri%%en %eacher(F/$SG$DAT of French al$FSG nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N >I/Ue 9ro%e %o %he nei!hbour?s French %eacher? b$ XI-am scris 5rofesoarei #e franceAL ale vecinului her$DAT-have$+ 9ri%%en %eacher(F/$SG$DAT of French al$FSG$G7N nei!hbour(:/-%he$G7N

The un!ramma%icali%0 of (2</b follo9s from %he !eneral 5rohibi%ion of obli@ue Case mar-in! on al (see %he en# of * +$2 above/$ The in%eres%in! fac% ho9ever is %he full !ramma%icali%0 of (2<a/$ I% seems %o su55or% %he vie9 %ha% %he !en#er an# number fea%ures of %he !eni%ive 5ar%icle a in (2<a/ are no% co5ie# from %he hea# N (if %he0 ha# been co5ie# Case shoul# have been co5ie# also/ bu% ins%ea# %he0 are inheren% fea%ures of a %he Case of 9hich is Nomina%ive$ This is coheren% 9i%h %he rela%ive-li-e anal0sis 5ro5ose# in (2,]/ above$

1.<

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

1.(. Co+o//100.n4 4en.t.2es The e;am5les belo9 sho9 %ha% %9o 5os%nominal !eni%ives canno% a%%ach %o %he same N if bo%h of %hem are %he%a-mar-e#$ Some of %hem are mar!inall0 acce5%able (see %he #iscussion aroun# (42/ belo9/3
(2B/ a$ KK%ra#ucerea Ilia#ei a lui SluManschi %ransla%ion(F/-%he Ilia#$G7N al$FSG G'L SluManschi >Slusanschi?s %ransla%ion of Ilia#? b$ X#esco5erirea Americii a lui Columb #iscover0(F/-%he America-%he$G7N al$FSG G'L Columbus >Columbus? #iscover0 of America? c$ KK5or%re%ul lui Aris%o%el al lui Rembran#% 5or%rai%(:/-%he G'L Aris%o%le al$:SG G'L Rembran#% >Rembran#%?s 5or%rai% of Aris%o%le? #$ K conce5Ria liber%LRii a lui San% conce5%ion(F/-%he free#om-%he$G7N al$FSG G'L San% >San%?s conce5%ion of free#om?

The e;am5les in (2C/ sho9 %ha% %he same cons%rain% hol#s for %he co-occurrence of a 5ronominal Possessor 9i%h a 5os%nominal !eni%ive$ These e;am5les are no% onl0 un!ramma%ical bu% also unin%er5re%able (com5are %he e;am5les in (2B/ 9hich are >meanin!ful? in %he sense %ha% %he s5ea-er ma0 un#ers%an# 9ha% %he e;am5le 9oul# mean if i% 9ere !ramma%ical/3
(2C/ a$ X%ra#ucerea ei a lui SluManschi %ransla%ion(F/-%he she$G7N al$FSG G'L SluManschi b$ X#esco5erirea ei a lui Columb #iscover0(F/-%he she$G7N al$FSG G'L Columbus c$ X5or%re%ul lui al lui Rembran#% 5or%rai%(:/-%he he$G7N al$:SG G'L Rembran#% #$ Xconce5Ria ei a lui San% conce5%ion(F/-%he she$G7N al$FSG G'L San%

These un!ramma%icali%ies can be un#ers%oo# b0 assumin! %ha% %here is onl0 one s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ion for DP-in%ernal 5os%nominal !eni%ives (i% 9ill be sho9n belo9 %ha% a DP-in%ernal 5os%nominal !eni%ive can co-occur 9i%h a DP-a#6oine# !eni%ive/$ The e;am5les in (4=/ sho9 %ha% 5re-nominal !eni%ives can co-occur 9i%h 5os%nominal !eni%ives 3
(4=/ a$ 5rima lui %ra#ucere a Ilia#ei firs%-%he$FSG he$G7N %ransla%ion(F/ al$FSG Ilia#$G7N >his firs% %ransla%ion of Ilia#? b$ Columb a cLrui #esco5erire a Americii Columbus al$FSG 9hose$:SG #iscover0(F/ al$FSG America$%he$G7N >Columbus 9hose #iscover0 of America? c$ San% a cLrui conce5Rie a liber%LRii mL in%ri!L San% al$FSG 9hose$:SG conce5%ion(F/ al$FSG free#om-%he$G7N me$ACC in%ri!ue$2SG >San% 9hose conce5%ion of free#om in%ri!ues me?

I% shoul# be observe# %ha% 5os%nominal &!-5ossessors canno% co-occur 9i%h ano%her !eni%ive (no%e %ha% %he e;am5les in (4+/b?-c? are !ramma%ical if %he secon# !eni%ive is su55resse#/3 1.B

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

(4+/

b]$ XColumb #esco5erirea cLruia a Americii Columbus #iscover0(F/-%he 9hose$:SG-a al$FSG America-%he$G7N c]$ XSan% conce5Ria cLruia a liber%LRii mL in%ri!L San% conce5%ion(F/-%he 9hose$:SG-a al$FSG free#om-%he$G7N me$ACC in%ri!ue$2SG

The !ramma%icali%0 of %he e;am5les in (4=/ can be e;5laine# b0 assumin! %ha% 5renominal !eni%ives an# 5os%-nominal !eni%ives occu50 %9o #is%inc% s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ions 9hich are base-!enera%e# in#e5en#en% of each o%her$ I#en%ical mor5holo!ical mar-in! %hus a55ears %o be allo9e# insi#e %he same s0n%ac%ic #omain 5rovi#e# %ha% %9o #is%inc% 5osi%ions are available$ Ue mus% conclu#e %ha% i#en%ical mor5holo!ical mar-in! canno% be %a-en %o in#ica%e i#en%ical s0n%ac%ic 5osi%ion$ Uhich means %ha% 9hen %he0 occur on %heir o9n 5os%nominal !eni%ives shoul# no% be assume# %o ori!ina%e in %he 5renominal 5osi%ionI an# conversel0 5re-nominal !eni%ives shoul# no% be assume# %o ori!ina%e in %he 5os%-nominal 5osi%ion$ The anal0sis 5ro5ose# in %he 5rece#in! sec%ions sa%isfies %hese #esi#era%a$ The e;am5les in (4=/ obe0 %he 9ell--no9n %hema%ic hierarch0 9hich re@uires %ha% Themes an# A!en%s res5ec%ivel0 occu50 %he com5lemen% an# %he S5ecifier 5osi%ions (9hich in Romanian are 5os%-nominal an# 5re-nominal res5ec%ivel0/$ In#ee# if 9e reverse %he 5osi%ions %he e;am5les in (41/ become un!ramma%ical3
(41/ a$ X5rima ei %ra#ucere a lui SluManschi firs%-%he$FSG her$G7N %ransla%ion(F/ al$FSG G'L SluManschi b$ XAmerica a cLrei #esco5erire a lui Columb America al$FSG 9hose$FSG #iscover0(F/ al$FSG G'L Columbus c$ Xliber%a%ea a cLrei conce5Rie a lui San% free#om(F/-%he al$FSG 9hose$FSG conce5%ion(F/ al$FSG G'L San%

Le% us finall0 observe %ha% e;am5les such as (42/ are mar!inall0 5ossible 5rovi#e# %ha% %he secon# !eni%ive is in%er5re%e# as a 5ossessor3
(42/ a$ K%abloul lui Rembran#% al bunicii mele 5ain%in!(:/-%he G'L Rembran#% al$:SG !ran#mo%her-%he$G7N m0$ FSG$G7N >m0 !ran#mo%her?s 5ain%in! of Rembran#%? b$ Kbus%ul lui 'ee%hoven al bunicii mele bus%(:/-%he G'L 'ee%hoven al$:SG !ran#mo%her-%he$G7N m0$ FSG$G7N >m0 !ran#mo%her?s bus% of 'ee%hoven? c$ #icRionarul lui DuRescu al mamei #ic%ionar0( :/-%he G'L DuRescu al$:SG mo%her-%he$G7N >m0 mo%her?s #ic%ionar0 of DuRescu?

The secon# !eni%ive canno% be in%er5re%e# as a Theme or an A!en%3


(44/ a$ X%abloul bunicii mele al lui Rembran#% 5ain%in!(:/-%he !ran#mo%her-%he$G7N m0 al$:SG G'L Rembran#% b$ Xbus%ul bunicii mele al lui 'ee%hoven bus%(:/-%he !ran#mo%her-%he$G7N m0 al$:SG G'L 'ee%hoven c$ X#icRionarul mamei al lui DuRescu #ic%ionar0( :/-%he mo%her-%he$G7N al$:SG G'L DuRescu

The cons%rain%s on co-occurrin! 5os%nominal !eni%ives are e;5ec%e# !iven %he !eneral vie9 %ha% s%ruc%ural !eni%ive Case can be assi!ne# in onl0 one 5os%nominal 5osi%ion %o a

1.C

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

DP %ha% is %h-mar-e# b0 %he hea# N$ The secon# 5os%nominal !eni%ive is an a#6unc% (9hich ma0 a%%ach %o ei%her NP or DP/ %ha% is assi!ne# inheren% Case 9hich is #irec%l0 rela%e# %o %he 5ossessive in%er5re%a%ion$ 1.). Con/l1s.ons ? t95es of 4en.t.2es= t95es of no6.nal 50o7e/t.ons an3 3ete06.ne0s To conclu#e %his sec%ion le% us briefl0 commen% on %he s%ric% cons%rain% %o 9hich mor5holo!icall0-mar-e# s0n%he%ic !eni%ives are sub6ec% in Romanian3 %he0 can a55ear onl0 on DPs %ha% are !overne# b0 %he fuse# NHD form al$a$ai$ale$ This hi!hl0 res%ric%e# #is%ribu%ion of s0n%he%ic !eni%ives brin!s %o min# com5arable res%ric%ions in o%her lan!ua!es e$!$ 5renominal Sa;on !eni%ives in 7n!lish or associa%es of cons%ruc% s%a%e nominals in Oebre9$ Al%hou!h %he res%ric%ions are obviousl0 no% %he same %he0 are com5arable3 (i/ in lan!ua!es 9i%h #ifferen% realiAa%ions for !eni%ive cons%i%uen%s s0n%he%ic forms are more cons%raine# %han anal0%ic formsI (ii/ %he occurrence of s0n%he%ic !eni%ives is cons%raine# b0 %he %05e of #e%erminer of %he overall 5ossessive DP3 %he0 are allo9e# onl0 if %he #e%erminer is ei%her a #efini%e ar%icle (in Romanian/ or em5%0 (in 7n!lish or Oebre9/$ No%e %ha% Romanian s0n%he%ic !eni%ives are even more cons%raine# insofar as %he0 can occur onl0 if %he hea# of %he 5ossessive DP is 5ronominal (a fuse# form of an em5%0 noun an# a #efini%e #e%erminer/$ Gur 5resen%a%ion leaves o5en %he choice be%9een several 5ossible anal0ses of s0n%he%ic !eni%ives occurrin! insi#e free-s%an#in! (i$e$ non-a#nominal/ !eni%ives3 %he0 ma0 be assume# %o occu50 ei%her a (5renominal/ S5ec NP 5osi%ion or a (5os%nominal/ S5ec DP 5osi%ion an# correla%ivel0 al 9oul# be a s5ecial De% elemen% or a fuse# 5ronominal form labelle# YNHDZ$ A unif0in! anal0sis forces us %o assume %ha% a#nominal al-5hrases are no% mere !eni%ive DPs bu% ra%her full 5ossessive DPs as 9hen %he0 occur free-s%an#in! in ar!umen% 5osi%ions of verbs or 5re5osi%ions$ The #ifference be%9een free-s%an#in! an# a#nominal al-!eni%ives 9oul# be %ha% in %he former case al is coreferen% 9i%h a DP-e;%ernal cons%i%uen% 9hereas in %he la%%er case al is coreferen% 9i%h %he hea# of %he overall 5ossessive DP$ The al%erna%ive anal0sis is %o assume %ha% a#nominal al-5hrases are mere !eni%ive DPs (ra%her %han 5ossessive DPs/ in 9hich case al 9oul# be some -in# of !eni%ive-mar-er$

2. T8e Inte050etat.on of #en.t.2es


The seman%ic anal0sis of definite 5ossessive DPs is in%eres%in! for a% leas% %9o reasons3 (i/ %he #efini%eness or in#efini%eness of %he !eni%ive DP is %ransferre# %o %he 5ossessive DP (al%hou!h %he over% #e%erminer of %he la%%er is #efini%e/I (ii/ %he in%er5re%a%ion of %he hea# N is con%e;%#e5e#en%$ In sec%ions 1$1$ an# 1$2$ i% 9ill be sho9n %ha% %hese %9o !eneraliAa%ions follo9 as a conse@uence of %he rule of seman%ic com5osi%ion %ha% charac%eriAes #efini%e 5ossessive DPs 9hich 9ill be #efine# in sec%ion 1$+$ Sec%ion 1$4 9ill 5resen% several cons%rain%s %ha% %he #e%erminers of !eni%ive DPs an# %he #e%erminers of %he overall 5ossessive DP im5ose on each o%her$ Finall0 in sec%ion 1$, 9e commen% on %he seman%ic anal0sis of !eni%ive DPs (or ra%her 5ossessive DPs/ occurrin! in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions$ 2.1. T8e se6ant./ /o65os.t.on Le% us consi#er %he e;am5les in (4,/$ In or#er %o sim5lif0 %he 5resen%a%ion 9e 9ill i!nore %he fac% %ha% 5os%nominal s0n%he%ic !eni%ives are 5rece#e# b0 a #ele%e# al$ For our 5resen% 5ur5oses 9e ma0 assume %ha% %he #ele%e# al is e;5le%ive i$e$ #oes no% 5ar%ici5a%e %o %he seman%ic com5osi%ion (bu% see %he e;am5les in (,1/ a% %he en# of %his subsec%ion/$

1<=

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors (4,/ a$ mama :ariei mo%her(F/-%he :aria$G7N >:aria?s mo%her? b$ sora vecinei mele sis%er(F/-%he nei!hbour-%he$G7N m0 >m0 nei!hbour?s sis%er? c$ bicicle%a :ariei bi-e(F/-%he :aria$G7N >:aria?s bi-e?

Le% us assume %ha% #efini%e 5ossessive DPs rel0 on %he rule of seman%ic com5osi%ion s%a%e# in (4./3 (4./ A #efini%e noun buil% 9i%h a !eni%ive DP is in%er5re%e# as a func%ion from in#ivi#uals %o in#ivi#uals (%05e ee ef/ 9hich a55lies %o %he in#ivi#ual #eno%e# b0 %he !eni%ive DP an# 0iel#s %he in#ivi#ual #eno%e# b0 %he overall 5ossessive DP$ This anal0sis is s%rai!h%for9ar# for 5ossessives such as (4,/a 9hich are hea#e# b0 nouns %ha% are le;icall0 s5ecifie# as func%ional (mot!er% capital% middle e%c$/$ I% shoul# ho9ever be s%resse# %ha% %he func%ional anal0sis formula%e# in (4./ is no% %ri!!ere# b0 %he le;ical 5ro5er%ies of %he noun bu% shoul# be vie9e# as structure-dependent in %he sense %ha% i% is %ri!!ere# b0 a 5ar%icular s0n%ac%ic confi!ura%ion namel0 a #efini%e noun buil% 9i%h a !eni%ive DP$ As such %he rule in (4./ can a55l0 re!ar#less of 9he%her %he hea# noun is le;icall0 s5ecifie# as func%ional rela%ional or ob6ec%-#eno%in!$ In case %he hea# noun is no% le;icall0 s5ecifie# as func%ional i% is coerce#$ For rela%ional nouns such as sister% friend e%c$ (see (4,b// uni@ueness is %ri!!ere#3 %o one referen% of %he !eni%ive corres5on#s a uni@ue referen% for %he overall 5ossessive (see (4</a/$ As %o ob6ec%-#eno%in! nouns %he func%ion %ri!!ere# b0 #efini%e 5ossessives is no% name# b0 %he hea# noun bu% remains un#ers5ecifie# (no%a%e# R!en in (4</c/I %he role of %he hea# noun is %o res%ric% %he co-#omain of %he func%ion (cons%rains %he value of %he in#ivi#ual re%urne# b0 %he func%ion/$
(4</ a$ mo%her (;/ [ ; 0 Ymo%her (; 0/Z b$ sis%er (;/ [ ; 0 Ysis%er (; 0/Z c$ fbi-e (;/ [ ; 0 YR!en(; 0/ an# bi-e (0/Z$

'0 a55l0in! %hese func%ions (#eno%e# b0 %he hea# noun of a #efini%e DP5oss/ %o %he in#ivi#ual #eno%e# b0 %he !eni%ive DP 9e ob%ain %he in#ivi#ual #eno%a%e# b0 DP5oss3
(4,J/ a$ YYmama :arieiZZ b$ YYsora vecinei meleZZ c$ YYbicicle%a :arieiZZ [ [f [ [f [ [f ; 0 Ymo%her (; 0/Z (m/ 0 Ymo%her (m 0/Z ; 0 Ysis%er (; 0/Z (YYm0 nei!hbourZZ/ 0 Ysis%er (YYm0 nei!hbourZZ 0/Z ; 0 YR!en(; 0/ an# bi-e (0/Z (m/ 0 YR!en(m 0/ an# bi-e (0/Z

Geni%ive s5ecifiers !overne# b0 5lural hea# nouns can also be anal0Ae# as rel0in! on %he rule in (4./$ In %his case %he value of %he func%ion is a 5lural in#ivi#ual (!rou5/ no%a%e# b0 a ca5i%al le%%er in (4B&/ belo93

1<+

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors (4B/ casele vecinului houses-%he nei!hbour-%he$G7N >%he nei!hbour?s houses? YYcasele vecinuluiZZ [ [f ; q YR!en(; q/ an# houses (q/Z (6/ q YR!en (6 q/ an# houses (q/Z$

(4B&/

The overall Nma; #eno%es %he ma;imal !rou5 of houses %ha% is associa%e# %o Nohn b0 %he un#ers5ecifie# R!en$ Ue s%ill nee# %o ma-e 5recise %he anal0sis of 8Ps occurrin! as !eni%ives embe##e# in #efini%e 5ossessive DPs 3
(4C/ :aMina fiecLrui s%u#en% va fi con%rola%L$ car(F/-%he ever0$ :SG$G7N s%u#en%(:/ 9ill be chec-e# >7ver0 s%u#en%?s car 9ill be chec-e#$?

For e;am5les of %his %05e 8uan%ifier Raisin! can be assume#$ An LF such as %he one sho9n in (4C>/ can be ob%aine# in %hree s%e5s b0 (+/ a#6oinin! maina fiecrui student >ever0 s%u#en%?s car? %o %he 9hole sen%ence (1/ raisin! fiecare student >ever0 s%u#en%? ou% of %he 5re5ose# cons%i%uen% (2/ raisin! an# a#6oinin! %he @uan%ifier i%self i$e$ fiecare >ever0? (%ransla%e# as %he universal @uan%ifier/ %o %he 9hole formula3
(4C?/ ; (; is a s%u#en%/ Y0 (R!en (; 0/ car (0// 9ill be chec-e#Z

No%e finall0 %ha% a#6ec%ives such as fostul >former? allo9 #ifferen% sco5al in%er5re%a%ions3 fostul meu restaurant >former m0 res%auran% m0 former res%auran%? ma0 mean ei%her >%he res%auran% 9hich is no lon!er mine? (in %his case fostul >former? is in%er5re%e# above meu >m0?/ or >m0 belon!in! e$!$ house 9hich is no lon!er a res%auran%?$ These in%er5re%a%ions are bo%h 5ossible an# %he0 #o no% seem %o be sub6ec% %o #is%ribu%ional cons%rain%s$ The seman%ic anal0sis 5resen%e# here for #efini%e 5ossessive DPs can be e;%en#e# %o cover free s%an#in! al-5hrases3
(,=/ a$ A :ariei a 5leca% aAi$ al#FSG :aria$G7N has lef% %o#a0 b$ Al vecinei e avoca%$ al0:SG nei!hbour-%he$G7N is la90er(:/ c$ Leam #a% la re5ara% 5e ale co5iilor$ %hem$FPL$ACC-have$+ !iven %o re5airin! DG: al$FPL chil#ren-%he$G7N YYalZZ [ ; 0 YR!en(; 0/ an# N (0/Z (9here N is %he an%ece#en% of al e$!$ mo%her nei!hbour bic0cle(s/ e%c$/ a$ YYal :arieiZZ [ 0 YR!en(:aria 0/ an# N (0/Z (9here N is %he an%ece#en% of al/

(,+/

(,+>/

Accor#in! %o %his re5resen%a%ion al-5hrases are in%er5re%e# as 3 >%he onl0 in#ivi#ual 0 %ha% is rela%e# %o DP!en (:aria %he nei!hbour %he chil#ren/ an# is N (fa%her cousin bic0cle(s/ e%c$/$ Comin! bac- %o #efini%e 5ossessives hea#e# b0 le;ical Ns recall %ha% %he0 embe# an al 9hich a55ears over%l0 in %hose con%e;%s in 9hich %he !eni%ive is no% a#6acen% %o %he noun3

1<1

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors (,1/ a$ !ar#ul roMu al vecinei fence(:/-%he re# al$:SG nei!hbour-%he$G7N b$ !ar#ul al vecinului Mi al vecinei fence(:/-%he al$:SG nei!hbour-%he$G7N an# al$:SG c$ !ar#ul al vecinei$ fence(:/-%he al$:SG nei!hbour-%he$G7N

nei!hbour-%he$G7N

The no%a%ion "al& in#ica%es %ha% al is 5resen% in %he s0n%a; bu% #ele%e# in %he mor5ho-5honolo!ical com5onen%$

If 9e anal0Ae 5os%nominal alP!eni%ives as 5ar% of some -in# of rela%iviAa%ion s%ra%e!0 %hese e;am5les can be 5ara5hrase# as follo9s3 >%he re# fence such %ha% i% is %he onl0 fence rela%e# %o %he nei!hbour?$ In a com5arable manner e;am5les such as o carte a 5ariei an# fiecare biciclet a lui Dumitru are anal0Aable as bein! buil% b0 combinin! a De% here %he in#efini%e ar%icle o or %he @uan%ifica%ional De% fiecare >each? 9i%h a com5le; 5ro5er%0 ob%aine# b0 in%ersec%in! %he nominal 5ro5er%0 e$!$ carte >boo-? an# biciclet >bic0cle? 9i%h %he 5ro5er%0 corres5on#in! %o %he a#nominal Geni%ive ob%aine# b0 abs%rac%in! over %he 5osi%ion of %he Possessee %hus 0iel#in! >%he se% of en%i%ies ; such %ha% ; is rela%e# %o :aria? an# >%he se% of en%i%ies ; such %ha% ; is rela%e# %o Dumi%ru? res5ec%ivel0$ 2.2. EInF3ef.n.teness S50ea3 Defini%e 5ossessive DPs are in%er5re%e# as #efini%e or in#efini%e #e5en#in! on 9he%her %he !eni%ive i%self is #efini%e or in#efini%e3
(,2/ a$ Pe aces% s%u#en%/KKPe un s%u#en% Enal% El cunoaM%e %oa%L lumea$ DG: %his s%u#en%/ DG: a s%u#en% %all him -no9s all 5eo5le >This s%u#en%/a %all s%u#en% ever0bo#0 -no9s? b$ Pe fra%ele aces%ui s%u#en%/KKPe fra%ele unui s%u#en% El cunoaM%e %oa%L lumea$ DG: bro%her-%he %his$G7N s%u#en%/DG: bro%her-%he a$G7N s%u#en% him -no9s all 5eo5le >This s%u#en%?s bro%her/A s%u#en%?s bro%her ever0bo#0 -no9s$?

The e;am5les in (,2a/ sho9 a con%ras% in acce5%abili%0 be%9een DPs hea#e# b0 a #emons%ra%ive an# in#efini%e DPs3 in a lef%-#isloca%e# 5osi%ion (9hich correla%es 9i%h obli!a%or0 cli%ic-#oublin!/ %he former are full0 !ramma%ical 9hereas %he la%%er are mar!inal$ The same con%ras% sho9s u5 in (,2b/ 9here bo%h e;am5les are #efini%e 5ossessive DPs 9hich #iffer onl0 insofar as %he !eni%ive DP is a #emons%ra%ive an# an in#efini%e res5ec%ivel0$ The conclusion is %ha% (in/#efini%eness is %ransmi%%e# from %he !eni%ive DP %o %he overall 5ossessive DP$ The %ransmission of (in/#efini%eness can be anal0Ae# as a conse@uence of %he func%ional anal0sis a#o5%e# above for #efini%e 5ossessive DPs3
(,4/ a$ ferma :ariei [f 0 [ f(;/ 9here farm (f(;// an# //;// [ :aria farm-%he :aria$G7N >:aria?s farm? b$ ferma unui vecin [f 0 [ f(;/ 9here farm (f(;// an# a nei!hbour (;/ farm-%he a$G7N nei!hbour >a nei!hbour?s farm?

In (,4/a %he func%ion f a55lies %o %he cons%an% in#ivi#ual #eno%e# b0 5aria an# %herefore %he value of %he func%ion is i%self a cons%an% in#ivi#ual hence %he #efini%e-li-e in%er5re%a%ion$ In (,4/b on %he o%her han# %he #eno%a%ion of ferma unui vecin >a nei!hbour]s farm? is ob%aine# b0 a55l0in! %he func%ion f %o %he in#ivi#ual variable ; in%ro#uce# b0 a nei !bour$ The #eno%a%ion of %he overall 5ossessive varies 9i%h %he values of %he !eni%ive s5ecifier i%self$ 1<2

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

'0 #efini%ion %he rule of seman%ic com5osi%ion %ha% charac%eriAes #efini%e 5ossessive DPs (see (4.// %ri!!ers uni@ueness3 for each value of %he !eni%ive %here is onl0 one value for %he func%ion$ Oo9ever %he 5roblem of uni@ueness is com5lica%e# b0 5ra!ma%ic fac%ors 9hich 9ill no% be a##resse# here$ For some fur%her observa%ions on %his issue see * 1$4$ belo9$ 2.3. Inte050et.2e 2a0.ab.l.t9 I% has of%en been observe# %ha% %he in%er5re%a%ion of #efini%e 5ossessives is con%e;%-#e5en#en%$ A DP such as (,,/a ma0 %a-e #e5en#in! on %he con%e;% %he various in%er5re%a%ions !iven in (,,/b3
(,,/ a$ car%ea lui Ion boo--%he G'L Ion >Ion?s boo-? b$ %he boo- 5ossesse#/9ri%%en/e#i%e# b0 Ion / abou% 9hich Ion %al-s / of 9hich Ion %a-es care

Ui%hin %he anal0sis a#o5%e# in * 1$+$ above %he in%er5re%ive fle;ibili%0 charac%eris%ic of #efini%e 5ossessive DPs is #ue %o %he un#ers5ecifie# na%ure of %he func%ion %ha% un#erlies %he seman%ic com5osi%ion of !eni%ive s5ecifiers$ This func%ion is con%e;%uall0 #e%ermine# hence %he various in%er5re%a%ions !iven in (,,/b$ The e;am5les in (,./a sho9 %ha% #efini%e 5ossessives+ %a-e %rul0 "free& in%er5re%a%ions 9hereas all %he o%her 5ossessives hea#e# b0 #e%erminers o%her %han %he #efini%e ar%icle (see (,./b/ are more cons%raine#3
(,./ Ieri Ion Mi Paul au fos% a%acaRi #e #ouL hai%e #e cWini qes%er#a0 Ion an# Paul have been a%%ac-e# b0 %9o !rou5s of #o!s >qes%er#a0 Ion an# Paul 9ere a%%ac-e# b0 %9o !rou5s of #o!s? a$ $$$ #in nefericire /K.n.. l1. Ion erau %urbaRi$ b0 unfor%une #o!s-%he G'L Ion 9ere rabi# >$$$unfor%una%el0 Ion?s #o!s 9ere rabi#$? b$ $$$ m #in nefericire /KA.2a@3o.@61lA.@a/eCt. /K.n. a. l1. Ion erau %urbaRi$ b0 unfor%une some /%9o/man0/%hese #o!s al0:PL G'L Ion 9ere rabi# >m unfor%una%el0 some/%9o/man0/%hese #o!s of Ion?s 9ere rabi#$?

Possessive DPs o%her %han #efini%e allo9 in%er5re%a%ions %ha% can be #escribe# as involvin! a "con%rol& rela%ion 9hich is a cons%an% con%e;%-in#e5en#en% rela%ion 9i%h a "bleache#& un#ers5ecifie# meanin! %ha% can be con%e;%uall0 s5ecifie#3 %he con%e;% #e%ermines %he choice amon! various s5ecific meanin!s of %his un#ers5ecifie# cons%an% rela%ion (e$!$ be entrusted% ta#e care of/3
(,</ Ieri lui Ion Mi Paul l. s+a1 Nn/0e3.nAat #ouL hai%e #e cWini$ qes%er#a0 G'L Ion an# Paul CL$2PL$DAT R7FL-have en%rus%e# %9o !rou5s of #o!s >qes%er#a0 Ion an# Paul 9ere en%rus%e# %9o (#ifferen%/ !rou5s of #o!s$? #in nefericire /KA.2a@3o.@61lA.@a/eCt. /K.n. a. l1. Ion erau %urbaRi$ b0 unfor%une some /%9o/man0/%hese #o!s al0:PL G'L Ion 9ere rabi# >unfor%una%el0 some/%9o/man0/%hese #o!s of Ion]s 9ere rabi#$?

The unacce5%abili%0 sho9n in (,.b/ arises because %he rela%ion be attac#ed 9hich is 5rovi#e# b0 %he con%e;% is no% a sub-%05e of %he con%rol rela%ion3 an in#ivi#ual 9ho is a%%ac-e# canno% be sai# %o con%rol %he in#ivi#ual 9ho a%%ac-s him$
+

In line 9i%h Par%ee (+CB2 +CC4/ S%or%o assumes %ha% 5ossessive e;5ressions %ha% embe# Sa;on !eni%ives are hea#e# b0 a null #efini%e De%$

1<4

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

2.$. M1t1al /onst0a.nts betDeen t8e 3ete06.ne0s of 4en.t.2es an3 t8e 8ea3 N In %his sec%ion 9e 9ill be concerne# 9i%h some cons%rain%s %ha% hol# be%9een %he #e%erminers of !eni%ive DPs an# %he #e%erminers of %he overall 5ossessive DPs %ha% embe# %hem$ Le% us firs% lis% %he 5ermissible cases 3 %he #e%erminer of N + is no% cons%raine# if %he !eni%ive DP is a 5ro5er nameI if N+ is !overne# b0 a #efini%e or b0 a #emons%ra%ive %he #e%erminer %ha% hea#s %he !eni%ive DP is no% cons%raine#$ The res%ric%ions mainl0 concern 5ossessive DPs hea#e# b0 in#efini%e #e%erminers$ The e;am5les belo9 sho9 %ha% in %his con%e;% %he !eni%ive DP can be a 5ro5er name a #emons%ra%ive or a #efini%e DPI an in#efini%e DP is #is5referre# (see (,B/b c/ 3
(,B/ a$ Ieri am s5Lla% o 0o/8.e a Ma0.e. @a a/este. fet.Ae @ a qes%er#a0 have$+ 9ashe# a #ress(F/ al$FSG :aria$G7N / al$FSG %his$G7N !irl / al$FSG 2e/.ne.$ nei!hbour-%he$G7N >qes%er#a0 I 9ashe# :aria?s/%his !irl?s/%he nei!hbour?s #ress$? b$ m Ieri am s5Lla% o 0o/8.e a 1ne. 2e/.ne$ qes%er#a0 have$+ 9ashe# a #ress(F/ al$FSG a$G7N nei!hbour >qes%er#a0 I 9ashe# a #ress of a nei!hbour?s$? c$ mAm afla% as%a #e la 1n 50.eten al 1n1. /ole4$ Oave$+ foun# %his from a frien# al$:SG a$G7N collea!ue >I hear# %his from a frien# of a collea!ue?s$?

The e;am5les in (,C/a-b are no% un!ramma%ical an# %he0 mi!h% even be acce5%able in cer%ain con%e;%s$ The0 are ho9ever rarel0 use# 5robabl0 because %heir meanin! can be more economicall0 e;5resse# b0 usin! %he #efini%e ar%icle on %he hea# N3
(,C/ a$ Ieri am s5Lla% 0o/8.a 1ne. 2e/.ne$ qes%er#a0 have$+ 9ashe# #ress(F/-%he a$G7N nei!hbour >qes%er#a0 I 9ashe# %he #ress of some nei!hbour/some nei!hbour?s #ress$? b$ Am afla% as%a #e la 50.eten1l 1n1. /ole4$ Oave$+ foun# %his from frien#-%he a$G7N collea!ue >I hear# %his from %he frien# of some collea!ue/some collea!ue?s frien#$?

Al%hou!h %he func%ional in%er5re%a%ion rela%e# %o %he #efini%eness of %he hea# N is b0 #efini%ion correla%e# 9i%h uni@ueness (in (,C/a roc!ia unei vecine >some nei!hbour?s #ress? refers %o %he uni@ue ob6ec% %ha% is rela%e# %o a nei!hbour an# is a #ress/ %he e;am5les in (,B/a-b leave o5en %he 5ossibili%0 %ha% %he nei!hbour has several #resses$ This a55aren% con%ra#ic%ion can be solve# b0 sa0in! %ha% uni@ueness hol#s in a 5ra!ma%icall0 res%ric%e# con%e;%$ A much s%ric%er cons%rain% is illus%ra%e# belo93
(.=/ a$ KXAm mWnca% 6e0e @b0KnBet10. ale l1. Ion$ have$+ ea%en a55les(F//cheese(F/-PL al0FPL G'L Ion >I a%e some of Ion?s a55les/%05es of cheese$? b$ KXAm ascul%a% 3.s/10. ale l1. Ion$ have$+ lis%ene# #is-s al0FPL G'L Ion >I lis%ene# %o some of Ion?s #is-s$? c$ KXAm ci%i% 5oeB.. ale l1. Ion$ have$+ rea# 5oems al0FPL G'L Ion >I rea# some of Ion?s 5oems$?

1<,

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

These e;am5les sho9 %ha% al-!eni%ives (re!ar#less of %heir o9n #e%erminer/ canno% be buil% 9i%h bare 5lurals in %he 5osi%ion of %he hea# noun$ The cons%rain% seems %o be even s%ric%er 9i%h mass/abs%rac% Ns3
(.+/ a$ KXAm mWnca% 6.e0e @b0KnB: a l1. Ion$ have$+ ea%en hone0(F//cheese(F/ al0FSG G'L Ion >I a%e Ion?s hone0/cheese$? b$ KXAm ascul%a% 61B./: a l1. Ion. have$+ lis%ene# music al0FSG G'L Ion >I lis%ene# %o Ion?s music$? c$ KXAm ci%i% 5oeB.e a l1. Ion$ have$+ rea# 5oe%r0 al0FSG G'L Ion >I rea# a 5oem of Ion?s$?

All %hese e;am5les become !ramma%ical 9i%h a de-al !eni%ive (see sec%ion 4 belo9/$ 2.%. T8e Se6ant./ Co65os.t.on of 4en.t.2es .n 50e3./ate 5os.t.ons The anal0sis 5resen%e# in *+$2 above accor#in! %o 9hich 5os%-co5ular !eni%ives are full 5ossessive DPs is confron%e# 9i%h seman%ic 5roblems3 9hereas 5ossessive DPs hea#e# b0 em5%0 nouns (or 5ronouns/ 5resu55ose uni@ueness 9hen %he0 occur in ar!umen%al 5osi%ions %he0 #o no% #o so in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ions$ Thus in (.1/a-b i% is 5resu55ose# %ha% Nohn is rela%e# %o onl0 one ob6ec% e$!$ he has onl0 one car5e% 9hereas (.2/a-b sa0 no%hin! abou% %he number of car5e%s %ha% Nohn has3
(.1/ (.2/ a$ I li-e Nohn?s/mine$ b$ N?aime celui #e Nean /le mien$ a$ This car5e% is Nohn?s/ mine$ b$ Ce %a5is es% celui #e Nean/le mien$

This #ifference in in%er5re%a%ion mi!h% be ar!ue# %o be in#uce# b0 %he #ifference be%9een ar!umen% an# 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions3 %he 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion in#uces lamb#a-abs%rac%ion over %he e;%ernal ar!umen% of %he hea# N 9hich 0iel#s %he se% of ob6ec%s %ha% are rela%e# %o %he in#ivi#ual #eno%e# b0 %he !eni%ive DP$ No%e %ha% %he sus5ension of uni@ueness in %he 5re#ica%e 5osi%ion of 5resen%a%ional co5ular sen%ences can be observe# no% onl0 for 5ossessive DPs hea#e# b0 an (over% or cover%/ 5ronoun bu% also for 5ossessive DPs hea#e# b0 le;ical Ns3
(.4/ This is Nohn?s bro%her$

3. #en.t.2e Case alte0nat.n4 D.t8 P0e5os.t.onal Ma0>.n4


In Romanian mor5holo!ical Geni%ive Case is %i!h%l0 rela%e# %o %he s0n%a;3 i% can onl0 be realiAe# on #e%erminers$ This is no% a !eneral cons%rain% on %he mor5holo!0 of !eni%ives 3 in mos% lan!ua!es e$!$ German mor5holo!ical !eni%ive Case a55ears on a#nominal N5ro6ec%ions re!ar#less of %heir in%ernal s0n%a; (9he%her %he0 are >bare? NT-cons%i%uen%s nouns !overne# b0 car#inal numerals or DPs/ an# of %heir #is%ribu%ion (9he%her %he0 are N-com5lemen%s S5ec DPs or DP-a#6unc%s/$ A com5arable un#er-s5ecifica%ion of over% mar-in! re!ar#in! %he s0n%a; of a#nominal N-5ro6ec%ions can be observe# in French 9here %he func%ional 5re5osi%ion de is use# bo%h for >!eni%ive?-Case mar-in! (la fille de mon ami* an# on a#nominal N-mo#ifiers (une tasse de t!V/ an# in 7n!lish 9here

1<.

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

5renominal Bs-!eni%ives can a%%ach %o bo%h DPs an# NPs (YY DPa frien#?sZ Y#au!h%erZZ vs Ya YYNPmen?sZ YroomZZ/$ Insi#e Romanian i%self %his cons%rain% canno% be rela%e# %o %he realiAa%ion of mor5holo!ical Cases in !eneral since Voca%ive Case can be realiAe# on %he noun i%self e$!$ biete% vino ncoace or las-m fato$fat n pace (see Cha5%ers + an# +,/$ In 9ha% follo9s 9e 9ill e;amine in %urn a#nominal NPs an# a#nominal 5ro6ec%ions hea#e# b0 car#inals (an# o%her #e%erminers %ha% canno% be inflec%e# for Case/ 9hich are mar-e# b0 %9o #is%inc% 5re5osi%ions res5ec%ivel0 de >of? an# a >of?$ 3.1. #en.t.2e Case alte0nat.n4 D.t8 de+Ma0>.n4 Romanian #is5la0s a remar-able al%erna%ion be%9een DPs %ha% are mor5holo!icall0 mar-e# for Geni%ive case an# PPs hea#e# b0 %he 5re5osi%ion deW
(.,/ a$ fiul re!elui son-%he -in!-%he$G7N b$ cons%ruirea caselor buil#in!-%he houses-%he$G7N c$ fo%o!rafia !ru5ului 5ic%ure-%he !rou5- %he$G7N #$ uMa bisericii #oor-%he church-%he$G7N vs$ fiul #e re!e son-%he de -in! vs$ cons%ruirea #e case buil#in!-%he de houses vs$ fo%o!rafia #e !ru5 5ic%ure-%he de !rou5 vs$ uMa #e bisericL #oor-%he de church

As sho9n b0 %hese e;am5lesI %he %9o %05es of cons%ruc%ion can a55ear 9i%h an0 %05e of noun 3 rela%ional nouns (.,/a #everbal nouns (.,/b 5ic%ure nouns (.,/c ob6ec%-#eno%in! nouns (.,/#$ Correla%ivel0 %he %9o cons%ruc%ions e;5ress similar seman%ic values 3 alienable 5ossession (../a inalienable 5ossession (../b human rela%ionshi5 (../c !oal (../# con%en% (../e loca%ion (../f %ime (../! e%c$3
(../ a$ cur%ea Em5Lra%ului cour%-%he em5eror-%he$G7N b$ !ulerul cLmLMii collar-%he shir%-%he$G7N c$ ne5o%ul unchiului ne5he9-%he uncle-%he$G7N #$ camera oas5eRilor room-%he !ues%s-%he$G7N e$ os%rovul florilor isle-%he flo9ers-%he$G7N f$ aerul mun%elui air-%he moun%ain-%he$G7N !$ cLl#ura verii hea%-%he summer-%he$G7N vs$ vs$ vs$ vs$ vs$ vs$ vs$ cur%ea #e Em5Lra% cour%-%he de em5eror !ulerul #e cLmaML collar-%he de shir% ne5o%ul #e unchi ne5he9-%he de uncle camera #e oas5eRi room-%he de !ues%s os%rovul #e flori isle-%he de flo9ers aerul #e mun%e air-%he de moun%ain cLl#ura #e varL hea%-%he de summer

The DPGen vs de-NP al%erna%ion e;is%s also for a#nominal cons%i%uen%s %ha% func%ion as (in%ernal or e;%ernal/ ar!umen%s in even%-nominaliAa%ions3
(.</ a$ cons%ruirea caselor /aces%or case vs$ cons%ruirea #e case buil#in!-%he houses-%he$G7N /%hese$G7N houses buil#in!-%he de houses b$ 5lWnsul co5iilor vs$ 5lWnsul #e co5ii cr0-%he chil#ren-%he$G7N cr0-%he de chil#ren

The a#nominal noun in%ro#uce# b0 de >of? can be mo#ifie# b0 an a#6ec%ive or b0 a PP as 1<<

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

sho9n belo93
c$ fiul #e re!e african son-%he de -in! African cons%ruirea #e case #in lemn buil#in!-%he de houses of 9oo#

SummariAin! %he al%erna%ion be%9een !eni%ive-Case mar-in! an# de-mar-in! can be #escribe# as follo9s3 (.B/ An a#nominal nominal 5ro6ec%ion is mar-e# (i/ 9i%h !eni%ive Case if an# onl0 if i% is a full DP cons%i%uen%$ (ii/ 9i%h D7 iff i% is a nominal 5ro6ec%ion %ha% lac-s #e%erminers$

No%e %ha% in all of %he e;am5les above 9e have use# onl0 #efini%es in %he 5osi%ion of %he hea# noun$ This is a 5resen%a%ional o5%ion 9hich allo9s us %o !ive minimal 5airs for a lar!e number of e;am5les$ The use of o%her #e%erminers on %he hea# noun im5oses cer%ain res%ric%ions (9hich are seman%ic in na%ure see *1$4$ above/ on %he #e%erminer of %he a#nominal cons%i%uen% 9hich ma-es i% some9ha% more #ifficul% bu% no% im5ossible %o fin# minimal 5airs3
(.C/ a$ un/aces% 5ala% al Em5Lra%ului /al unui Em5Lra% /#e Em5Lra% a/%his 5alace(:/ al$:SG em5eror-%he$G7N/ al$:SG a$G7N em5eror/de em5eror b$ o/aceas%L fo%o!rafie a 5eisa6ului /#e 5eisa6 a/%his 5ic%ure(F/ al$FSG lan#sca5e-%he$G7N /de lan#sca5e

Goin! bac- %o %he %9o correla%ions s%a%e# in (.B/i-ii i% shoul# be observe# %ha% %he0 #o no% hol# crosslin!uis%icall0 an# are even rare from a %05olo!ical 5oin% of vie93 mos% lan!ua!es use ei%her mor5holo!ical Case or 5re5osi%ional mar-in! on all a#nominal cons%i%uen%s re!ar#less of 9he%her %he0 are full DPs or lo9er-level nominal 5ro6ec%ions$ No%e fur%hermore %ha% in Romanian i%self %he !eneraliAa%ion in (.B/i hol#s for #a%ives (9hich are homo5honous %o !eni%ives/ bu% no% for Voca%ive Case 9hich can be mar-e# on %he noun i%self3
(<=/ a$ Am #a% bomboane 1no0 /o5.. @/o5..lo0 @la /o5.. have$+ !iven can#ies some$PL$DAT chil#ren /chil#ren-%he$DAT /%o chil#ren >I have !iven can#ies %o some -i#s/%o %he -i#s/%o -i#s$? b$ B:.ete vino re5e#e la mined bo0$VGC come$I:PV$1SG @uic-l0 %o me >'o0 come @uic-$?

Ue ma0 %hus conclu#e %ha% %he re@uiremen% of 5ro6ec%in! %he De%-level of re5resen%a%ion 9hich charac%eriAes Romanian !eni%ives (see (.B/i/ an# #a%ives is no% a !eneral re@uiremen% for mor5holo!ical-Case mar-in!$ A %en%a%ive e;5lana%ion for %his s%a%e of fac%s coul# be rela%e# %o %he homon0m0 9i%h #a%ives3 crosslin!uis%icall0 Goals (in %he lar!e sense/ canno% func%ion as 5re#ica%e-mo#ifiers an# canno% be e;5resse# b0 bare NPs$ (no%e %ha% e;am5les such as a da mr ritare la porci >li%%$ %o !ive 6e9els %o 5i!s? #o no% cons%i%u%e a coun%ere;am5le %o %his !eneraliAa%ion because here %he bare NP is in fac% a #efini%e DP 9i%h a !eneric in%er5re%a%ion see Cha5%er B sec%ion +$2 on %he #ele%ion of %he #efini%e ar%icle af%er 5re5osi%ions/$ 'ecause !eni%ives are homon0mous 9i%h #a%ives %he0 are sub6ec% %o %he same cons%rain%$ As is a55aren% from %he e;am5les above a#nominal de-cons%i%uen%s func%ion as NPmo#ifiers 9henever %he hea# N is ob6ec%-#eno%in!$ In even%-nominaliAa%ions %he0 func%ion as ar!umen%s 3

1<B

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

(<+/

a$ D.st014e0ea 3e 6ate0.al 3.3a/t./ #e cL%re elevi es%e as5ru 5e#e5si%L$ #es%ruc%ion-%he de ma%erial #i#ac%ic b0 5u5ils is severel0 5unishe# b$ Des/o5e0.0ea 3e ele6ente /8.6./e no. #e cL%re savanRi En ul%imul secol^ #iscover0-%he de elemen%s chemical ne9 b0 scien%is%s in las%-%he cen%ur0

Le% us no9 %r0 %o un#ers%an# %he !eneraliAa%ion s%a%e# un#er (.B/ii namel0 9h0 full DPs canno% be mar-e# 9i%h de3
(<1/ (<2/ Xfiul #e re!ele vs$ Xfiul #e un re!e son-%he de -in!-%he son-%he de a -in! a$ mWna omului (bolnav/ vs$ XmWna #e omul bolnav han#-%he man-%he$G7N (sic-/ han#-%he de man-%he sicb$ mWna unui om (bolnav/ vs$ XmWna #e un om bolnav han#-%he a$G7N man (sic-/ han#-%he de a man sicc$ mWna fiecLrui om (bolnav/ vs$ XmWna #e fiecare om bolnav han#-%he ever0$ G7N man (sic-/ han#-%he de ever0 man sic#$ chi5urile %u%uror co5iilor (nevinovaRi/ vs$ Xchi5urile #e %oRi co5ii (nevinovaRi/ faces-%he all$G7N chil#ren-%he$G7N (innocen%/ faces-%he de all chil#ren (innocen%/ e$ casele aces%or /acelor familii (refu!ia%e/ vs$ Xcasele #e aces%e /acele houses-%he %hese$G7N/%hose$G7N families (fleein!/ houses-%he de %hese /%hose familii (refu!ia%e/ families (fleein!/ f$ manualele cW%orva elevi vs$ Xmanualele #e cWRiva elevi %e;%boo-s-%he fe9$G7N 5u5ils %e;%boo-s-%he de fe9 5u5ils !$ manualele niciunui elev vs$ Xmanualul #e niciun elev %e;%boo-s-%he no$G7N 5u5il %e;%boo--%he de no 5u5il h$ a%i%u#inea cW%e unui consilier vs$ Xa%i%u#inea #e cW%e un consilier a%%i%u#e-%he DISTR a$G7N counsellor a%%i%u#e-%he de DISTR a counsellor

A 5lausible ans9er is %o sa0 %ha% %he func%ional 5re5osi%ion D7 is a #efaul% /else9here mar-er 9hich is use# on %hose a#nominal cons%i%uen%s %ha% canno% be mar-e# 9i%h !eni%ive Case$ No%e %ha% %he 5reference for !eni%ive Case can be observe# even for %he le;ical 5re5osi%ion de meanin! >b0?$ Gf course a#nominal DPs ma0 in 5rinci5le be 5rece#e# b0 le;ical 5re5osi%ions an# in 5ar%icular b0 de meanin! >b0? as sho9n in (<4/a$ Le% us ho9ever recall %ha% au%horshi5 or more !enerall0 %he a!en%ive in%er5re%a%ion can also be e;5resse# b0 !eni%ive Case mar-in! 9hich seems %o be 5referre# 9henever 5ossible$ Oence %he al%erna%ion be%9een de-mar-in! on 5ro5er names %ha% are 5ar% of our enc0clo5ae#ic -no9le#!e an# as such seem %o func%ion as mo#ifiers of %he hea# N an# !eni%ive Case 9hich is nee#e# for DPs hea#e# b0 common nouns as 9ell as b0 5ro5er names %ha% refer %o in#ivi#uals %ha% are no% no%orious (see (<4/b-c/$ No%e %ha% no%orious 5ro5er names can also be mar-e# 9i%h !eni%ive Case in 9hich case %heir mo#if0in! in%er5re%a%ion is less 5rominen%3
(<4/ a$ romanele #e Rebreanu/Slavici/^ novels-%he de Rebreanu/Slavici/^ b$ KK/Xromanele #e Ion/Pe%re/:aria novels-%he de Ion/Pe%re/:aria c$ Xromanele #e 5rie%enul meu/vecina mea novels-%he de frien#-%he m0 /nei!hbour m0

1<C

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors (<,/ a$ romanele novels-%he b$ romanele novels-%he c$ romanele novels-%he lui Rebreanu/Slavici/^ Rebreanu/Slavici/^ lui Ion /lui Pe%re /:ariei G'L Ion/ G7N Pe%re/:aria$G7N 5rie%enului meu /vecinei mele frien#-%he$G7N m0 /nei!hbour-%he$G7N m0

G'L

I#ioma%ic com5oun# nominals can be buil% 9i%h ei%her !eni%ives or de-5hrases 3


(<./ a$ floarea soarelui flo9er-%he sun-%he$G7N >sunflo9er? b$ re!ina no5Rii @ueen-%he ni!h%-%he$G7N >ni!h% flo9er? c$ iarba #racului !rass-%he #evil-%he$G7N ?9ee#s? #$ mWna-:aicii-Domnului han#-%he -:o%her-%he$G7N- Lor#-%he$G7N >hone0suc-le? e$ coa#a-Moricelului %ail-%he - mouse-%he$G7N >milfoil? a$ floarea-#e-colR flo9er-%he -de- corner >e#el9eiss? b$ la5%ele-#e-5asLre mil--%he -de- bir# ?#esser%? c$ #in%ele #e la5%e %oo%h-%he de mil?mil- %oo%h?

(<</

As in %he case of 5ro#uc%ive cons%ruc%ions %he choice be%9een !eni%ive Case an# #e-mar-in! s%ric%l0 correla%es 9i%h %he s0n%ac%ic ca%e!or0 of %he a#nominal cons%i%uen%$ Oo9ever 5recisel0 because %hese e;am5les are le;ical com5oun#s %here is no al%erna%ion for %he realiAa%ion of %he a#nominal cons%i%uen% !iven a 5ar%icular le;ical choice for %he hea# N$ Gne ma0 s%ill 9on#er 9he%her %he choice of %he !eni%ive vs D7 is ran#om as mi!h% be su!!es%e# b0 %he i#ios0ncra%ic na%ure of com5oun#s$ A closer observa%ion of %he e;am5les reveals cer%ain in%eres%in! !eneraliAa%ions 9hich in#ica%e %ha% %he le;ical 5ro5er%ies of %he hea# N an# %he mo#ifier (9hich are in#ee# ran#oml0 5u% %o!e%her/ #e%ermine %he choice be%9een a DP an# an NP (lac-in! a #e%erminer/ in %he mo#ifier 5osi%ion 9hich in %urn #e%ermines %he choice be%9een %he !eni%ive an# de$ No%e in#ee# %ha% in e;am5les such as (<./a-c %he mo#if0in! noun refers %o a uni@ue en%i%0 9hich mus% be referre# %o b0 a DP hence %he use of %he !eni%ive$ The choice of %he !eni%ive in (<./#-e seems less 9ell mo%iva%e# since %he !eneric meanin! of common nouns such as oricel >mouse?% rndunic >s9allo9? or noapte >ni!h%? can be e;5resse# ei%her b0 a bare NP or b0 a #efini%e sin!ular DP 9hich 9oul# allo9 ei%her #e or %he !eni%ive$ The choice of %he !eni%ive can 5robabl0 be e;5laine# as a means of #is%in!uishin! le;ical com5oun#s such as coada-oarecelui fusta-rndunicii% re ina-nopii from %he corres5on#in! mo#ifica%ion confi!ura%ions e$!$ o$aceast coad de oarece >a/%his %ail of mouse? o$aceast 1B=

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

fust de rndunic >a/%his s-ir% of s9allo9?$ 3.2. #en.t.2e Case alte0nat.n4 D.t8 a+Ma0>.n4 Car#inals as 9ell as some o%her #e%erminers or #e%erminer-li-e a#6ec%ives such as diferit >#ifferen%? canno% be inflec%e# for mor5holo!ical Case$ Since %he0 are full DPs %he0 canno% be mar-e# b0 de >of? ei%her$ Gn %his %05e of DP !eni%ive Case is mar-e# b0 %he invariable 5re5osi%ion a$ The e;am5les belo9 illus%ra%e %he use of a 9i%h car#inals (<Ba/ %he 5re-De% universal @uan%ifier tot >all? in %he sin!ular (<Bb/ %he neu%er rela%iviAin! 5ronoun ceea ce >%ha% 9hich 9ha%? (<Bc/ an# %he #e%erminer-li-e a#6ec%ive diferit >#ifferen%? 3
(<B/ a$ cLrRile a t0e. ele2. (conM%iincioMi/ boo-s-%he a %hree 5u5ils (#ili!en%/ >%he boo-s of %hree (#ili!en%/ 5u5ils? b$ a#unarea a tot sat1l !a%herin!-%he a all villa!e-%he >%he !a%herin! of all %he villa!e? c$ urmarea a /eea /e s-a 5ro#us En urmL cu cWRiva ani conse@uence-%he a %ha% 9ha% R7FL-has ha55ene# before 9i%h several 0ears >%he conse@uence of 9ha% ha55ene# a fe9 0ears before? b$ realiAarea a 3.fe0.te t.510. #e s%ruc%uri achievemen%-%he a #ifferen% %05es of s%ruc%ures >%he achievemen% of #ifferen% %05es of s%ruc%ures? a$ familiile a 3o. ele2. families-%he a %9o 5u5ils b$ a#unarea a tot sat1l !a%herin!-%he a en%ire villa!e-%he c$ consecinRa a /eea /e s-a s5us mai #evreme conse@uence-%he a %ha% 9ha% R7FL-has sai# earlier >%he conse@uence of 9ha% has been sai# earlier?

(<C/

Some #e%erminers allo9 bo%h !eni%ive Case mar-in! (see (B=// an# a-mar-in! (see (B+// 3
(B=/ a$ familiile /Kto02a elevi families-%he fe9$G7N 5u5ils b$ a#Lu!area 1n1. 5./ #e AahLr a##in!-%he a$G7N li%%le of su!ar a$ familiile a /KA.2a elevi families-%he a fe9 5u5ils b$ a#Lu!area a 1n 5./ #e AahLr a##in!-%he a a li%%le of su!ar

(B+/

Oo9ever in %he !eneral case variable #e%erminers canno% be mar-e# b0 a in %he s%an#ar# lan!ua!e (no%e ho9ever %ha% a !ains !roun# in %he subs%an#ar# lan!ua!e/ 3
(B1/ a$ familia f.e/:01. famil0-%he ever0$ G7N b$ lec%ura n./.1ne. rea#in!-%he no$G7N a$ Xfamilia elev 5u5il cLrRi boo-

(B2/

a f.e/a0e elev

1B+

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors famil0-%he a ever0 5u5il b$ Xlec%ura a n./.o car%e rea#in!-%he a no boo-

$. "e-al 4en.t.2es
$.1. T8e st01/t10e of de-al 4en.t.2es A s5ecial form of %he !eni%ive is foun# in e;am5les of %he %05e sho9n in (B4/-(B,/ 9here %he !eni%ive DP is 5rece#e# b0 %he 5re5osi%ion de3
(B4/ (B,/ o car%e 3e+a Ma0.e. a boo-(F/ de-al$FSG :aria$G7N (niM%e/ cLrRi 3e+ale Ma0.e. (some/ boo-s(F/ de-al$FPL :aria$G7N

In %hese e;am5les 6us% as in !eni%ives 9i%hou% de al a!rees in !en#er an# number 9i%h %he hea# noun$ This a!reemen% 5a%%ern 9hich is use# no% onl0 in collo@uial s5eech bu% also in %he 9ri%%en lan!ua!e of e#uca%e# s5ea-ers 9as un%il recen%l0 (un%il DGG: 1==,/ no% acce5%e# b0 norma%ive !rammars (see in 5ar%icular %he Aca#emic Grammar of +C.2/ 9hich consi#er (B4/ %o be a non-s%an#ar# varian% of (B./ 9i%h a 5lural al3
(B./ o car%e 3e+ale Ma0.e. a boo-(F/ de-al$FPL :aria$G7N

7;am5les of %he %05e in (B4/ 9ere 6u#!e# "incorrec%& b0 Romanian !rammarians because %he 5re5osi%ion de Bof. 9as anal0Ae# as havin! a 5ar%i%ive meanin! (e@uivalen% %o dintre% din >of amon!?/ an# conse@uen%l0 %he 5hrase alHDP(Gen/ 9as anal0Ae# as a 5lural-mar-e# frees%an#in! al- 5hrase corres5on#in! %o %he su5er-se% of a 5ar%i%ive cons%ruc%ion$ In o%her 9or#s e;am5les of %he %05e in (B4/ 9ere anal0Ae# as e@uivalen% %o %he %05e sho9n in (B</3
(B</ o car%e 3.n@3.nt0e a boo-(F/ from/amon! ale Ma0.e. al$FPL :aria$G7N

The 5ar%i%ive anal0sis of e;am5les such as (B4/-(B,/ is ho9ever mis!ui#e# since %he 5re5osi%ion de is no lon!er use# in 5ar%i%ive cons%ruc%ions (see cha5%er 2 * 4$4/ in mo#ern Romanian$ Thus in %he 5ar%i%ive confi!ura%ions sho9n in (BB/ dintre% din canno% be re5lace# b0 de3
(BB/ a$ niciunul 3.nt0e no. none from us a]$ Xniciunul 3e no. none de us b$ una 3.nt0e sK6bete one amon! Sa%ur#a0s b]$ Xuna 3e sK6bete one de Sa%ur#a0s c$ care 3.n no. 9hich from us c]$ Xcare 3e no. 9hich de us

1B1

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

The non-a!reein! 5a%%ern sho9n in (B./ is use# onl0 b0 %hose s5ea-ers 9ho %r0 %o obe0 %he aca#emic norm (9hich %he0 5erceive as >unna%ural?/ an# can be foun# in school boo-s an# ne9s5a5ers (9here i% is im5ose# b0 %he correc%ors/$ All na%ive s5ea-ers re!ar#less of %heir level of e#uca%ion use onl0 (B4/ in a na%ural (uncon%rolle#/ con%e;%$
In ol# Romanian de ha# a 5ar%i%ive meanin! in cons%ruc%ions of %he %05e Y DP+ D (N/ de DP1Z in 9hich DP1 9as no% res%ric%e# %o !eni%ives / 5ossessives3 Nece unuia de voi pru din capu nu-i va cdea $ (CGD$ VGR$1$ 4.v/+2/ >None of 0ou 9ill lose his hair?I $nu de noi trebe s merem n tr $ (ALR II 2 111/24C in DLR/ >Gne of us has %o !o %o %he mar-e%?I una de sm%ete (in DA/ >one of Sa%ur#a0s?I nimea de ceaia (arch$I in DLR/ >nobo#0 of %hose?I carele de noi (arch$I in DLR/ >9hich of us?$ The s%ruc%ures 9i%h 5ar%i%ive de an# !eni%ive in 9hich DP1 is 5lural or buil% 9i%h a massive or collec%ive noun are ol#er %han %hose 9i%h sin!ular DP 1$ in %he ol#es% %e;%s (from %he +. %h an# +<%h cen%uries/ DP1 is e;clusivel0 5lural 9hen %he noun of DP + is a coun% sin!ular3 neceo d(is de-ale mele% (tLe!en#a #uminicii& P ,ode' 9turd(anus/ >none of m0 9or#s?R Xi nc un Easco oarecarile de-ai notri 000 s-au nc!inat la lei (Gri!ore Dreche a5u# C$ FrWncu (+CB2// >an# some o%her Vasco of ours have !ave in %o %he Polish?$ The sin!ular number in DP1 9hen %he noun of DP+ is a coun% sin!ular onl0 s%ar%s %o a55ear s5ora#icall0 in %he +B%h cen%ur03 niciun !risov nici de-al lor nici de-al monenilor >no #ocumen% of %heirs? or of %he freehol#ers? (+<<, Ar!eM a5u# FrWncu +CB23 +</$ This cons%ruc%ion becomes fre@uen% in %he +C%h cen%ur0$

In mo#ern Romanian %he 5ar%i%ive meanin! of de has survive# onl0 in some s5ecial severel0 res%ric%e# cons%ruc%ions 9hich 9ill be #iscusse# in * 4$4 belo9$ To sum u5 e;am5les such as (B4/ an# (B,/ are no% 5ar%i%ive s%ruc%ures an# %herefore 9e 9ill no% use %he label "5ar%i%ive !eni%ive& %o refer %o %he se@uence de H al-5hrase$ Correla%ivel0 %he !eni%ive DP is no% necessaril0 5lural (as im5ose# b0 aca#emic norms/$ In %he 5ar%i%ive cons%ruc%ion %he secon# DP #eno%es %he 9hole from 9hich a 5ar% is %a-en$ In de-al !eni%ives on %he o%her han# de is no% even a 5re5osi%ion since i% #oes no% bloca!reemen% be%9een al an# %he hea# noun$ Ue ma0 anal0Ae de-al as a le;ical com5oun# a varian% of al e;5ressin! "an%i-uni@ueness& (on %his in%er5re%a%ive effec% see * 4$1 belo9/3 (B4]/ D o 3 DP NP 2 car%e NP #e-a :ariei DP1

$.2. T8e .nte050etat.on of de-al 4en.t.2es The seman%ic effec% %ri!!ere# b0 %he 5resence of de 5rece#in! %he !eni%ive is no% 5ar%i%ivi%0 bu% ra%her "an%i-uni@ueness&3 %he s%ruc%ure in#ica%es %ha% %he referen% of %he 9hole 5ossessive 5hrase (%he en%i%0 bein! 5ossesse#/ is no% %he onl0 one %ha% s%an#s in a cer%ain rela%ion R %o %he en%i%0 #eno%e# b0 %he !eni%ive$ In 5ar%icular an e;am5le such as (B,/ 9hich corres5on#s %o some boo#s of 5ary.s in 7n!lish 5resu55oses %ha% :aria has more boo-s %han %he se% of boo-s #eno%e# b0 nite cri ale 5ariei >some boo-s of :aria?s?I %he e;am5le in (B4/ corres5on#in! %o a boo# of 5ary.s 5resu55oses %ha% :aria has more %han one boo-0 'ecause %he0 are incom5a%ible 9i%h uni@ueness de-al !eni%ives canno% be 5ar% of DPs 9i%h #efini%e #e%erminers (#efini%e ar%icles or #emons%ra%ives/ or 5ro5er names3
(BC/ a$ elevii buni (X#e/-ai :ariei 5u5ils(:/-%he !oo# (de-/al$:PL :aria$G7N b$ aces% elev (X#e/-al meu %his 5u5il(:/ (de-/al$:SG m0$ :SG

1B2

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors c$ Ion (X#e/-al meu Ion (de-/al$:SG m0$ :SG

The hea# noun can be !overne# b0 in#efini%e #e%erminers or i% can be a bare noun3
(C=/ a$ un elev #e-al meu a 5u5il(:/ de-al$:SG m0$ :SG b$ niM%e elevi #e-ai mei some 5u5ils(:/ de-al$:PL m0$ :PL c$ mulRi / cWRiva/ unii elevi #e-ai mei man0 / a fe9/ some 5u5ils(:/ de-al$:PL m0$ :PL #$ #ouL maMini noi #e-ale firmei %9o cars(F/ ne9 de-al$FPL firm-%he$G7N Ion es%e /l.ent 3e+al 6e1. Ion is clien%(:/ de-al$:SG m0$ :SG >Ion is a clien% of mine$? A bLu% sKn4e 3e+al 31C6an1l1.$ has #run- bloo# de-al$:SG enem0-%he$G7N >Oe has #run- %he enem0?s bloo#$? a$ 7i sun% 50.eten. 3e+a. 6e. $ %he0 are frien#s(:/ de-al$:PL m0$ :PL >The0 are frien#s of mine$? b$ La 5e%recere au veni% numai 50.eten. 3e+a. 6e. $ %o 5ar%0 have$2PL come onl0 frien#s de-al$:PL m0$ :PL >Gnl0 frien#s of mine came %o %he 5ar%0$? c$ Am ci%i% a0t./ole 3e+ale l1.$ have$+ rea# ar%icles de-al$FPL he$G7N >I have rea# 5a5ers of his$?

(C+/ (C1/ (C2/

The hea# noun can also be em5%0 (elli#e#/3


(C4/ a$ #oi #e-ai 5rofesorului %9o de-al$:PL %eacher-%he$G7N >%9o of %he %eacher?s (ones/? b$ unul #e-al nos%ru one$:SG de-al$:SG our$:SG >one of ours?

No%e %ha% in e;am5les such as (C=/ de can bu% nee# no% be use# (see (C,/a/$ The 5resence of de %ri!!ers %he an%i-uni@ueness in%er5re%a%ion #escribe# above sim5le !eni%ives have an in%er5re%a%ion %ha% is com5a%ible 9i%h uni@ueness3 %herefore in con%e;%s 9here %he in#efini%e is use# because e;is%ence is asser%e# no% because %here are o%her en%i%ies sa%isfi0n! %he NP 5ro5er%0 de canno% be use# as seen in (C,/bI com5are %his e;am5le %o (C,/c 9here de can a55ear 9i%h %he same au%horshi5 in%er5re%a%ion of %he !eni%ive as in (C,/b$
(C,/ a$ Va veni o elevL (#e-/a :ariei 9ill come a 5u5il(F/ (de/al0FSG :aria$G7N b$ A a5Lru% o car%e (KK#e-/a lui >A boo- b0 him has been issue#? c$ Am ci%i% o car%e (#e-/a lui >I rea# a boo- b0 him?

The use of de is re@uire# in e;am5les such as (C./ buil% 9i%h in#efini%e 5ronouns such as

1B4

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

ceva >some%hin!?% cineva >somebo#0? nimic >no%hin!?% nimeni >nobo#0? (for in#efini%e 5ronouns see cha5%er 2 * 2/ 5ossibl0 because such e;am5les favor an an%i-uni@ueness in%er5re%a%ion of %he !eni%ive3
(C./ a$ Cre# cL mai era acolo /e2a LE3e+Fal b1n./.. 6ele. %hin-$+SG %ha% s%ill 9as %here some%hin! (de-/al$:SG !ran#mo%her-%he$G7N m0$ FSG >I %hin- %here 9as some%hin! else of m0 !ran#mo%her?s? b$ Pen%ru f.e/a0e LE3e+Fal nost01 5e care-l uci#eRi vom uci#e Aece for ever0 (de-/al$:SG our$:SG DG: 9hom-CL$ACC -ill$1PL 9ill$+PL -ill %en #e-ai voM%ri de-al$:PL 0our(PL/$:PL >For each of our men %ha% 0ou -ill 9e 9ill -ill %en of 0ours? c$ `n%r-o RarL s%rLinL un#e nu-i n.6en. LE3e+Fal t:1 in-a coun%r0 forei!n 9here no%-is nobo#0 (de-/al$:SG 0our(SG/$:SG >In a forei!n coun%r0 9here %here noone of 0ours? #$ o0./a0e LE3e+Fal lo0 an0one (de-/al$:SG %he0$G7N

No%e %ha% even 9i%h 5ronouns if %he an%i-uni@ueness con#i%ion is no% sa%isfie# al !eni%ives canno% %a-e de3
(C</ a$ Ai ceva al %Lu care Emi 5lace have$1SG some%hin! al$:SG 0our$:SG 9hich me$DAT li-es >qou have some%hin! s5ecial (li%$ 0ours/ %ha% I li-e? b$ Nu mai am nimic al meu no% an0-lon!er have$+SG no%hin! al$:SG m0$ :SG >There?s no%hin! lef% 9hich is mine?

$.3. Ot8e0 3.st0.b1t.onal 50o5e0t.es of de-al 4en.t.2es De-al !eni%ives are usuall0 foun# 9i%h !eni%ives e;5ressin! 5ossession an# in%er5ersonal rela%ions$ Never%heless 9e can also fin# e;am5les 9henin 9hich %he N hea# is an abs%rac% noun3
(CB/ G cali%a%e #e-a mea es%e rLb#area a @uali%0( F/ de-al$FSG m0$ FSG is 5a%ience-%he >A @uali%0 of mine is 5a%ience?

De-al !eni%ives are no% use# 9hen %he !eni%ive e;5resses a 5ar%-9hole rela%ion (5resumabl0 because %he an%i-uni@ueness in#ica%ion is re#un#an% here bein! -no9n %ha% %here are o%her 5ar%s %han %ha% referre# %o b0 %he DP/3
(CC/ a$ X un membru #e-al !uvernului a member de-al$:SG !overnmen%-%he$G7N b$ X o 5ar%e #e-a noas%rL a 5ar% de-al0FSG our$FSG

Finall0 de-al !eni%ives are e;clu#e# if %he !eni%ive noun is inanima%e3


(+==/ a$ o a bo a 5ro5rie%a%e 5ro5er%0(F/ con#iRie con#i%ion(F/ (X#e/-a aurului (de-/al$FSG !ol#-%he$G7N (X#e/-a reuMi%ei (de-/al$FSG success-%he$G7N

1B,

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors c o 5roblemL (X#e/-a a 5roblem(F/ (de-/al$FSG acor#ului a!reemen%-%he$G7N

$.$. Pa0t.t.2e de-al $.$.1. $nul V de V 5l10al al- 580ase In con%em5orar0 s5o-en Romanian %he onl0 ins%ance of 5lural al 9i%h a sin!ular hea# noun is %he cons%ruc%ion unul >one? H de-al$ Unul is %he form %a-en b0 %he in#efini%e ar%icle un in %he con%e;% of N elli5sis (-ul can be anal0Ae# as a 5ro-NI see cha5%er 2 * 2/$
(+=+/ a$ unul #e-ai noM%ri one-%he de-al$:PL our$:PL >one of ours? b$ unul #e-ai mei one-%he de-al$:PL m0$ :PL >one of mine?

The meanin! of %he cons%ruc%ion is >someone belon!in! %o %he !rou5 of 5ersons rela%e# %o V P his su55or%ers rela%ives frien#s e%c$?$ In %his cons%ruc%ion %he em5%0 hea# N is necessaril0 in%er5re%e# as >Hhuman?I no%e %ha% %he i#iom de-ai casei >of %he house? is onl0 a55aren%l0 an e;ce5%ion since i% >house? #oes no% refer %o %he ob6ec% i%self bu% ra%her %o >5eo5le 9ho are familiar in a cer%ain house3 members of %he famil0 H close famil0 frien#s?$ In mos% of %he cases (as in (+=+/ above/ %he 5ossessor is 5ronominal (see * 4$,/$ Pro5er names or common nouns referrin! %o uni@ue eni%i%ies are allo9e# bu% common nouns are unacce5%able3
(+=1/ a$ unul #e-ai lui Va#im one-%he de-al$:PL G'L Va#im b$ unul #e-ai mamei one-%he de-al$:PL mo%her-%he$G7N c$ Xunul #e-ai Mcolii one-%he de-al$:PL school-%he$G7N #$ Xunul #e-ai oraMului one-%he de-al$:PL ci%0-%he$G7N

The ne!a%ive coun%er5ar% of %his 5ar%i%ive cons%ruc%ion is also a%%es%e# al%hou!h less fre@uen%l03
(+=2/ Nu seamLnL cu n.6en. 3e+a. No% ressembles 9i%h nobo#0 de-al$:PL >Oe #oesn?% ressemble an0one of ours? noM%ri$ our$:PL

In %he con%em5orar0 lan!ua!e %here are some relics of %he cons%ruc%ion de H 5lural DP in 9hich de is no lon!er 5ar%i%ive 3 %he cons%ruc%ion deH5lural #emons%ra%ive e;5resses @uali%0 meanin! >li-e %hose? >of %ha% -in#?I %he #emons%ra%ive can also a!ree in number (see (i/c/$ (i/ a$ o elevL 3e a/elea a 5u5il(F/ de %hose$F >a 5u5il li-e %hose/ %ha% -in# of 5u5il? b$ unul 3e+:.a one$:-%he de -%hose$:PL >one of %hose? c$ unul 3+:la one$:-%he de -%ha%$:SG

1B.

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors


>one of %ha% -in#? Ano%her le;icaliAe# cons%ruc%ion in 9hich de in%ro#uces a 5lural DP is %he cons%ruc%ion deH%he feminine universal toate$ This cons%ruc%ion is onl0 use# as a free s%an#in! DP 5resumabl0 9i%h an elli5%ical hea# N an# a null #e%erminer (see cha5%er 2 * 2$4 on nominal elli5sis in bare nouns/ an# means >%hin!s of all sor%s ever0 sor% of %hin!s?$ (ii/ Am a#us 3e toate$ have$+ brou!h% de all$FPL >I/Ue have brou!h% all sor%s of %hin!s$?

$.$.2. Ell.5t./al /onst01/t.ons Consi#er ne;% e;am5les such as (+=4/3


(+=4/ a$ Au veni% numai 3e+a. 6e.. have$2PL come onl0 de-al$:PL m0$ :PL >Gnl0 frien#s/collea!ues/rela%ives of mine have come$? b$ La nun%L au veni% 3e+a. /ase.. %o 9e##in! have$2PL come de-al$:PL house-%he$G7N >Close frien#s an# famil0 members came %o %he %he 9e##in!$?

These e;am5les ma0 be vie9e# as 5ar%i%ive cons%ruc%ions in 9hich %he hea# N is em5%0 (an em5%0 noun in%er5re%e# as \Ouman P e$!$ om% oameni >man/men in#ivi#ual(s/? in (+=4/ or lucruri >%hin!s? in (+=./ belo9/ because %hese e;am5les sho9 res%ric%ions %ha% are similar %o %hose observe# in %he 5ar%i%ive cons%ruc%ion e;amine# in * 4$4$+ above3 5ossessive 5ronouns an# %he i#ioma%ic de-ai casei >of %he house? are acce5%able bu% ran#om common nouns are #isallo9e# (for a s%ron!er ar!umen% see (+=C/ belo9/3
(+=,/ KK S-au En%Wlni% 3e+a. C/ol.. /3e+a. 2e/.n1l1.. R7FL-have$2PL me% de-al$:PL school-%he$G7N /de-al$:PL nei!hbour-%he$G7N >Peo5le close %o %he school/%o %he nei!hbour have me%$?
Ue ma0 also fin# con%e;%ual elli5sis 9i%h bare nouns follo9e# b0 de-al 9i%h an ana5horic in%er5re%a%ion of %he em5%0 N$ In %his case as %here is no cons%rain% on %he N similar %o %he cons%rain% in *4$4$+ %here is no reason %o assume %ha% 9e are #ealin! 9i%h a 5ar%i%ive cons%ruc%ion ra%her %han 9i%h %he normal de-al cons%ruc%ion #iscusse# in *4$+-*4$23 (i/ N-au veni% s%u#enRi #e-ai %Li$ Au veni% numai 3e+a. 6e.. no%-have$2PL come s%u#en%s de-al$:PL 0our(SG/$:PL have$2PL come onl0 de-al$:PL m0$:PL >S%u#en%s of 0ours #i#n?% come onl0 (s%u#en%s/ of mine #i#$?

Common nouns use# !enericall0 can never%heless be foun# 9hich su!!es%s %ha% %he cons%ruc%ion un#er #iscussion here is no% a sub-%05e of %he 5ar%i%ive cons%ruc%ion #iscusse# in * 4$4$+3
(+=./ a$ Au 5oves%i% 3e+ale t.ne0eA.. @2.eA.. have$2PL #iscusse# de-al$FPL 0ou%h-%he$G7N /life-%he$G7N >The0 %al-e# abou% %hin!s rela%e# %o 0ou%h/life$? b$ Au cum5Lra% 3e+ale 410.. have$2PL bou!h% de-al$FPL mou%h-%he$G7N >The0 bou!h% foo# (li%%$%hin!s for %he mou%h?/

Uhen occurrin! in ar!umen% 5osi%ions elli5%ical de-al !eni%ives have %he #is%ribu%ion of bare nouns (see cha5%er 1/3 in 5ar%icular %he0 can a55ear in ob6ec% 5osi%ions an# in 5os%verbal sub6ec% 5osi%ions bu% no% in %he 5reverbal sub6ec% 5osi%ion$ Thus (+=B/ is 5ossible onl0 9i%h a s5ecial in%ona%ion P ei%her a con%ras%ive focus in%ona%ion or a con%ras%ive %o5ic in%ona%ion P on 1B<

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

%he sub6ec% 9hich in#ica%es %ha% i% is #isloca%e# 3


(+=</ (+=B/ Au veni% 3e+a. noCt0.. have$2PL come de-al$:PL our$:PL m De+a. noCt0. au veni%$ de-al$:PL our$:PL have$2PL come

7lli5%ical de-al 5hrases ma0 also a55ear in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ions3


(+=C/ a$ 7l e 3e+a. noCt0.. he is de-al$:PL our$:PL >Oe is one of ours$? b$ 7l e 3e+a. l1. 'a3.6. he is de-al$:PL G'L Va#im >Oe is one of Va#im?s$?

No%e %ha% in %his e;am5le %he !eni%ive is in %he 5lural #es5i%e %he fac% %ha% %he sub6ec% is in %he sin!ular$ Thus %hese !eni%ives ma0 be vie9e# as 5ar%i%ives an anal0sis 9hich can be e;%en#e# %o %hose sho9n in (+=4/ above$ The onl0 #ifference is %ha% in %his case %he eli#e# hea# N is sin!ular (%he e;am5le can be 5ara5hrase# as unul dintre ai notri >one of ours?/$ The fac% %ha% in ar!umen% 5osi%ions de-al !eni%ives buil% 9i%h an em5%0 N can onl0 be use# in %he 5lural is #ue %o a !eneral cons%rain% on bare nouns (see cha5%er 1/3 sin!ular coun% nouns canno% be use# bare in ar!umen% 5osi%ions (onl0 coun% 5lurals can #o so/$ Since 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions are no% sub6ec% %o %his cons%rain% (e$!$ >on e biat bun >Ion is bo0 !oo#?/ 5ar%i%ive de-al !eni%ives 9i%h a sin!ular elli5%ical hea# N can a55ear in 5re#ica%e 5osi%ions as sho9n in (+=C/$ No%e fur%hermore %ha% in 5re#ica%ive 5osi%ion %he !eni%ive ma0 also a!ree in number 9i%h %he sub6ec%3
(++=/ a$ 7l e 3e+al nost01. he is de-al$:SG our$:SG >Oe is one of ours$? b$ 7l e 3e+al l1. 'a3.6. he is de-al$:SG G'L Va#im >Oe is one of Va#im?s$?

In e;am5les of %his %05e de-al !eni%ives canno% be anal0Ae# as 5ar%i%ives$ The0 coul# be vie9e# as a s5ecial cons%ruc%ion meanin! "belon!in! %o %he !rou5 of ;&$

%. P0ono6.nal Possesso0s
%.1. A non+1n.fo06 5a0a3.46 ? 4en.t.2e+6a0>e3 an3 a40ee.n4 50ono6.nal 5ossesso0s Li-e man0 o%her In#o-7uro5ean lan!ua!es Romanian uses so-calle# "5ossessive a#6ec%ives& i$e$ 5ronominal 5ossessors %ha% a!ree 9i%h %he hea# noun for %he +s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns bo%h sin!ular an# 5lural3

1BB

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors (+++/ a$ fa%a mea / %a / noas%rL / voas%rL !irl-%he m0$ FSG / 0ours!$FSG / our$FSG / 0our5l$FSG b$ fraRii mei / %Li / noM%ri / voM%ri bro%hers-%he m0$ :PL / 0ours!$:PL / our$:PL / 0our5l$:PL

For %he 2r# 5erson re!ular !eni%ive forms of %he 5ersonal 5ronouns are use# P i$e$ mar-e# 9i%h %he obli@ue mor5heme3
(++1/ a$ fa%a lui / ei / lor !irl-%he he$G7N / she$G7N / %he0$G7N b$ fraRii lui / ei / lor bro%hers-%he he$G7N / she$G7N / %he0$G7N

'esi#es %hese forms for %he 2r# 5erson sin!ular %here is also %he 5ossibili%0 of usin! a!reein! forms base# on %he refle;ive roo% s-$
(++2/ a$ fa%a sa [ fa%a lui / ei !irl-%he 2SG$FSG !irl-%he he$G7N / she$G7N b$ fraRii sLi [ fraRii lui / ei bro%hers-%he 2SG$:PL bro%hers-%he he$G7N / she$G7N

These forms 9ere refle;ive in %he ol#es% %e;%s bu% %he0 soon los% %he refle;ive in%er5re%a%ion #evelo5in! ins%ea# a number res%ric%ion bein! use# onl0 for sin!ular referen%s$ In%eres%in!l0 %he same evolu%ion %oo- 5lace in I%alian an# French$ Oo9ever unli-e %hese lan!ua!es Romanian also -e5% !eni%ive forms of %he 2 r# 5erson 5ronouns (lui >he$G7N? an# ei >she$G7N?/$ In %he 5resen%-#a0 lan!ua!e %he !eni%ive forms are 5referre# in %he collo@uial re!is%er$ The forms su$sa$si$sale are mos%l0 confine# %o %he 9ri%%en re!is%er$ Uh0 are a!reein! forms use# onl0 in 5ar% of %he 5ronominal 5ara#i!mK I% has been no%ice# %ha% %here is a correla%ion be%9een %he mor5holo!0 of 5ronouns an# %he availabili%0 of a!reein! forms3 5ronouns 9here %he inheren% -fea%ures are mar-e# on %he roo% have a!reein! forms 9hereas 5ronouns 9here %he inheren% -fea%ures are mar-e# on %he inflec%ional mor5heme have inflec%ional !eni%ive$ The follo9in! %able sho9s %ha% +s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns 9hich have a!reein! forms have #is%inc% roo%s for #ifferen% 5ersonHnumber combina%ions (!en#er is no% mor5holo!icall0 mar-e#/$ Nomina%ive +s%s! 1n#s! +s%5l 1n#5l eu tu no-i vo-i Accusa%ive s%ron cli%ic ! mm- ine t-ine t-e no-i n-e Da%ive s%ron cli%ic ! m-ie m-} A!reein! 5ossessor m-e-u% m-e-a% m-e-i% m-e-le

-ie t--u% t-a% t--i% t-a-le -} none no-str-u% noa-str-% no-tr-i% noa-str-e u vo-i v- vov vo-str-u% voa-str-% vo-tr-i% voa-str-e u Table I3 The mor5holo!0 of 5ronouns 9i%h a!reein! forms

The %able also sho9s %ha% %he 5ronominal roo% is foun# in %he a!reein! forms bu% no% imme#ia%el0 before %he inflec%ional mor5heme 9hich mar-s %he fea%ures inheri%e# b0 a!reemen% from %he hea# noun3 be%9een %he %9o ano%her elemen% is foun# 9hich 9e call >5ossessive suffi;?3 -e- for %he +s% sin!ular -a$- for %he 1n# sin!ular an# -str- for %he 5lural$ 1BC

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

The 5ossessive suffi; is use# %o #erive %he a!reein! 5ossessor s%em from %he 5ronominal roo%$ In con%ras% 2r# 5erson 5ronouns have all %he same roo% 9hich ho9ever un#er9en% con%e;%ual al%era%ions a55earin! no9 in %he forms }el-$}e- an# 9i%h %he fall of %he roo% vo9el l-$}- in %he obli@ue$ '0 a s5ecial or%o!ra5hic rule of Romanian %he ini%ial } is no% no%a%e# in %hese forms$ Uha% is im5or%an% is %ha% %he inheren% !en#er an# number are e;5resse# on inflec%ional mor5hemes a##e# %o %he various forms of %his roo% as can be seen from %he follo9in! %able3 :asc$s!$ Fem$ s!$ :asc$ 5l$ Fem$ 5l$ Direc% Case }el-Y (9ri%%en el/ }-a (9ri%%en el/ }e-i (9ri%%en ei/ }el-e (9ri%%en ele/ (s%ron! forms/ Gbli@ue Case l-ui l-or }-ei (9ri%%en ei/ r# Table II3 The mor5holo!0 of 5ronouns 9i%h !eni%ive forms (2 5erson 5ronouns/ Ta-in! in%o accoun% %hese fac%s %he #is%ribu%ion of a!reein! an# !eni%ive forms of 5ronominal 5ossessors can be #erive# from %he follo9in! rules3 (++4/ A 9or# canno% con%ain %9o #is%inc% se%s of inflec%ional -fea%ures (i$e$ -fea%ures mar-e# on inflec%ional mor5hemes/ (++,/ Uhenever 5ossible use an a!reein! form ins%ea# of a !eni%ive$ The rule in (++4/ ensures %ha% 9or#s 9here %he inheren% -fea%ures are mar-e# on an inflec%ional mor5heme canno% ac@uire a secon# se% of -fea%ures inheri%e# b0 a!reemen% (no%e %ha% inheri%e# -fea%ures are al9a0s mar-e# on inflec%ional mor5hemes/$ This allo9s a!reein! forms onl0 for +s% an# 1n# 5erson 5ronouns 9here inheren% -fea%ures (number an# 5erson/ are mar-e# on %he roo% (see Table I/$ Rule (++,/ ensures %ha% %he 5ossibili%0 of a!reein! forms e;clu#es %he use of !eni%ive forms for %hese 5ronominal 5ossessors$ No%e %ha% %he lac- of !eni%ive forms for %he +s% an# 1n# 5ersons canno% be e;5laine# b0 invo-in! a 5ara#i!m !a5 because !eni%ive an# #a%ive forms are i#en%ical in Romanian an# %hese 5ronouns #o have #a%ive forms$ This is 9h0 %he rule (++,/ is nee#e#$ A s5ecial remar- is in or#er for %he 2r# sin!ular a!reein! 5ossessors su% sa% si% sale$ The0 are covere# b0 %he !eneraliAa%ions above since %he inheren% fea%ures P 2 r# 5erson an# sin!ular P are mar-e# on %he roo% (s-$sa-/ 9hich ori!ina%es in %he 5ossessive s%em of %he refle;ive roo%$ As sho9n in %he %able belo9 %his roo% is #ecom5osable in%o %he refle;ive roo% s- an# %he same -$a- 5ossessive suffi; 9hich a55ears in %he 1 n# 5erson sin!ular 5ossessive tu% ta (see Table I above/3 2r# 5erson refle;ive 5ronoun 2r# 5erson sin!ular a!reein! 5ossessor Accusa%ive Da%ive s%ron! cli%ic s%ron! cli%ic s-ine s-e s-ie s--u% s-a% s--i% s-a-le -} Table III3 Refle;ive Pronouns an# 2r# s!$ a!reein! 5ossessors Oo9ever s0ncronicall0 %he forms su% sa% si% sale canno% be consi#ere# %o belon! %o %he same 5ara#i!m as %he refle;ive forms sine% se% sie% )*i because %he0 are no lon!er refle;ive (%he0 are no% re@uire# %o have an an%ece#en% in %he same clause bu% have %he referen%ial 5ro5er%ies of 5ersonal 5ronouns/ an# %he0 are res%ric%e# %o sin!ular referen%s (9hereas %he refle;ive 5ronouns are use# for bo%h numbers/$

1C=

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

%.2. T8e 5os.t.on of 50ono6.nal 5ossesso0s As 9e men%ione# in %he In%ro#uc%ion in Romanian unli-e in o%her Romance lan!ua!es such as French or S5anish a!reein! 5ossessors have %he #is%ribu%ion of !eni%ives bein! imme#ia%el0 5rece#e# ei%her b0 %he #efini%e ar%icle or b0 %he !eni%ival 5ar%icle al3
(++./ a$ casa mea / 5rofesorului house(F/-%he m0$ FSG %eacher-%he$G7N b$ casa #e vacanRL a mea / a 5rofesorului house(F/-%he of holi#a0 al$FSG m0$ FSG al$FSG %eacher-%he$G7N c$ o 5rie%enL a mea / a 5rofesorului a frien#(F/ al$FSG m0$ FSG al$FSG %eacher-%he$G7N

There are never%heless %9o #ifferences be%9een %he #is%ribu%ion of 5ronominal 5ossessors an# %ha% of non-5ronominal !eni%ives$ Cruciall0 in %hese cases a!reein! forms an# !eni%ive 2 r# 5erson 5ronouns behave ali-e 9hich sho9s %ha% %he s5ecial #is%ribu%ion is no% correla%e# 9i%h a!reemen% bu% 9i%h 5ronominal na%ure3 (i/ Pronominal 5ossessors can a55ear imme#ia%el0 af%er %he #efini%e ar%icle even 9hen %he ar%icle is suffi;e# on a 5renominal a#6ec%ive 9hereas non-5ronominal !eni%ives are e;clu#e# from %his 5osi%ion3
(++</ a$ ul%ima noas%rL / lor #esco5erire las%-%he our$FSG / %he0$G7N #iscover0(F/ b$ X ul%ima cerce%L%orilor #esco5erire las%-%he researchers-%he$G7N #iscover0

This in#ica%es %ha% 5ronominal 5ossessors can occur in %he func%ional #omain of %he noun 5hrase (see cha5%er 2 on %he e;is%ence of minor func%ional 5ro6ec%ions be%9een D an# N/$ This fac% can also be seen 9hen %he suffi;al ar%icle is born b0 %he noun3 a 5ronominal 5ossessor can a55ear be%9een %he noun an# a ver0 lo9 mo#ifier such as a classif0in! a#6ec%ive or a de-PP 9hich forms a le;icaliAe# (i#ioma%ic/ uni% 9i%h %he noun (a @uasi-com5oun#/ 9hereas a non5ronominal !eni%ive is e;clu#e# from %his 5osi%ion3
(++B/ a$ cen%ralele noas%re / lor a%omice 5o9er-s%a%ions(F/-%he our$FPL %he0$G7N a%omic b$ X cen%ralele FranRei / franceAilor a%omice 5o9er-s%a%ions(F/-%he France$G7N Frenchmen-%he$G7N a%omic c$ faRa mea / lui #e masL face(F/-%he m0$ FSG / he$G7N of %able >m0 %able clo%h? #$ X faRa mamei #e masL face-%he mo%her-%he$G7N of %able

(ii/ Pronominal 5ossessors canno% be coor#ina%e# 9hereas non-5ronominal !eni%ives can #o so3
(++C/ a$ X En%Wlnirea noas%rL Mi voas%rL / noas%rL Mi lor mee%in!-%he our$FSG an# 0our5l$FSG our$FSG an# %he0$G7N b$ En%Wlnirea 5rofesorilor Mi s%u#enRilor mee%in!-%he 5rofessors-%he$G7N an# s%u#en%s-%he$G7N

This 5ro5er%0 in#ica%es %ha% 5ronominal 5ossessors are 9ea- forms$ In %he !eneral %05olo!0 of

1C+

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

5ronouns 9ea- forms are #is%in!uishe# from s%ron! forms b0 %he im5ossibili%0 of coor#ina%ion an# mo#ifica%ion an# from cli%ics b0 %he fac% %ha% %he0 can be 5hone%icall0 in#e5en#en% an# %he0 can occu50 %he same 5osi%ions as s%ron! forms$ This secon# 5ro5er%0 is also a%%es%e# in Romanian3 9e have in#ee# seen %ha% 5ronominal 5ossessors a55ear af%er al an environmen% in 9hich non-5ronominal !eni%ives also a55ear$ No%e %ha% al- 5hrases base# on 5ronominal 5ossessors #o no% behave as 9ea- forms bu% as s%ron! forms allo9in! coor#ina%ion an# mo#ifica%ion3
(+1=/ a$ o 5rie%enL YYa meaZ Mi Ya luiZZ a frien#(F/ al$FSG m0$ FSG an# al$FSG he$G7N b$ 7s%e 5Lrerea Y#oar Ya luiZZ is o5inion(F/-%he onl0 al$FSG he$G7N >I%?s onl0 OIS o5inion?

%.3. On t8e /ate4o0.al stat1s of a40ee.n4 5ossesso0s As 9e have seen above a!reein! 5ossessors have %he s0n%a; of !eni%ive 5ronouns an# no% %ha% of a#6ec%ives$ A!reein! 5ossessors also resemble 5ronouns in behavin! as referen%ial e;5ressions$ Thus a!reein! 5ossessors ma0 bin# refle;ives 9hich is im5ossible for a#6ec%ives even for %hema%ic ones (a#6ec%ives 9hich charac%eriAe an ar!umen% of %he hea# noun behavin! as @uasi-ar!umen%al/3
(+1+/ a$ o5inia sai #es5re sinei o5inion(F/-%he 2SG$FSG abou% hm/herself >Ois/her o5inion on him/herself? b$ X o5inia franceAL #es5re sine o5inion-%he French abou% hm/herself

The referen%ial s%a%us of a!reein! 5ossessors is fur%her su55or%e# b0 e;am5les of %he %05e in (+11/ an# (+12/ 9hich con%ain a55osi%ive rela%ive clauses an# secon#ar0 5re#ica%es license# b0 %he 5ossessor3
(+11/ SL ascul%e Mi 5Lrerea noas%rL care am fos% #e a%W%ea ori 5LcLliRi lis%ens also o5inion-%he our$FSG 9hich have$+PL been of so-man0 %imes #eceive# >(S/he shoul# lis%en 9ha% 9e have %o sa0 (li%$3 our o5inion/ 9ho have been so man0 %imes #eceive#? 5oAele mele %WnLrL 5ho%os(F/-%he m0$ FPL 0oun!$FSG >%he 5ho%os of me (9hen I 9as/ 0oun!?
SD'N

(+12/

For all %hese reasons 9e conclu#e %ha% %he %ra#i%ional label >5ossessive a#6ec%ive? is no% a#e@ua%e$ A!reein! 5ossessors are 5ronouns 9hich have %he 5eculiari%0 of bein! mar-e# b0 a!reemen% mor5holo!0$
A 5ossible anal0sis of %his 5henomenon resor%s %o a func%ional hea# above D (%a-in! DP as a com5lemen%/ 9hich realiAes case mor5holo!0 (ei%her inflec%ional or b0 a func%ional 5re5osi%ion see cha5%er + sec%ion +$4 Cha5%er B sec%ion +$1$2/ calle# S (or Case/$ The inheri%e# -fea%ures of a!reein! 5ossessors can be anal0Ae# as fea%ures in%ro#uce# b0 a 5ossessive S$ The 5ossessive suffi; use# %o #erive 5ossessive s%ems from 5ronominal roo%s (see %able I above/ can be anal0Ae# as %he s5ell-ou% of %his 5ossessive S$

1C1

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

%.$. S1ff.<al a40ee.n4 5ossesso0s D.t8 >.ns8.5 te06s Li-e o%her lan!ua!es (amon! %he Romance lan!ua!es see I%alian/ Romanian has a s5ecial 5ossessive cons%ruc%ion use# 9i%h -inshi5 %erms$ In %his cons%ruc%ion forms base# on %he sin!ular a!reein! 5ossessor 5ara#i!ms (meu% tu% su/ a%%ach as suffi;es %o %he noun$ 'o%h %he 5ossessor an# %he hea# noun some%imes sho9 s5ecial forms in %his cons%ruc%ionI %hus %he 5ossessor has %he forms -miu% -tu% -su% ins%ea# of meu% tu% su$ The various mo#ifica%ions of %he noun s%ems are 5resen%e# in Cha5%er +. (Inflec%ion/ sec%ion <$ No%e %ha% %he suffi;al 5ossessive cons%ruc%ion 9hich is use# in collo@uial s5eech #oes no% bloc- %he normal cons%ruc%ion #efini%e-noun H a!reein!-5ossessor$ The follo9in! e;am5les sho9 %he #ifference be%9een %he suffi;al 5ossessive cons%ruc%ion an# %he normal one3
(+14/ a$ fra%e-miu [ fra%ele meu bro%her-m0$ :SG bro%her-%he m0$ :SG >m0 bro%her? b$ sor-%a [ sora %a sis%er-0ours!$FSG sis%er-%he 0our$FSG >0our sis%er? c$ cumna%L-su [ cumna%ul sLu bro%her-in-la9-2SG$PGSS$:SG bro%her-in-la9 2SG$PGSS$:SG >his/her bro%her-in-la9? #$ fi-miu [ fiul meu son-m0$ :SG son-%he m0$ SG e$ fiicL-mea fi-mea [ fiica mea #au!h%er-m0$ FSG #au!h%er-%he m0$ FSG

For >mo%her? an# >fa%her? %he nouns maic an# taic a55ear in %his cons%ruc%ion or (for %he secon# an# %hir# 5erson onl0/ %he monos0llabic bases m- an# ta)c*-I %he forms maic an# taic are no% use# in#e5en#en%l0 as %he basic %erms for >mo%her? an# >fa%her? in %he s%an#ar# lan!ua!e (as in#e5en#en% 9or#s maic means >nun? or is use# as an a##ressin! form taic is use# as a familiar a##ressin! form no% onl0 for %he fa%her bu% also for el#erl0 5eo5le/$ Ue can %hus sa0 %ha% %he suffi;al 5ossessive 5ara#i!m for >mo%her? an# >fa%her? is com5le%el0 irre!ular3
(+1,/ a$ maicL-mea maicL-%a / mL-%a maicL-sa / mL-sa [ mama mea mama %a mama sa mo%her-m0 mo%her-0our mo%her-2SG$PGSS mo%her-%he m0 >m0/0our/his(her/ mo%her? b$ %aicL-miu %aicL-%u / %ac-%u %aicL-su / %a-su [ %a%Ll meu %a%Ll %Lu %a%Ll sLu >m0/0our/his(her/ fa%her?

The suffi;al 5ossessive cons%ruc%ion is res%ric%e# %o sin!ular 5ossessees an# sin!ular 5ossessors$ The com5le; cons%i%uen% YNounH Suffi;al PossessorZ behaves as a 5ro5er name$ Thus li-e 9i%h masculine 5ro5er names %he obli@ue inflec%ion is realiAe# b0 %he 5re5ose# mar-er lui3
(+1./ maMina lui %aicL-miu car-%he G'L fa%her-m0 >m0 fa%her?s car?

The feminine obli@ue inflec%ion can ei%her be realiAe# b0 %he same 5re5ose# mar-er or for 1C2

Geni%ive DPs an# Pronominal Possessors

some nouns b0 an obli@ue inflec%ion of %he 5ossessor 5rovi#e# %he 5ossessor is + s% or 2r# 5erson (for #e%ails see cha5%er +. sec%ion </3
(+1</ maicL-mii [ lui maicL-mea

mo%her-m0$G'L

G'L

mo%her-m0

Normall0 onl0 %he 5ossessor sho9s %he obli@ue mor5holo!0 as 9e can see in (+1</$ The onl0 e;ce5%ion is %he noun nevast >9ife? 9here bo%h %he noun an# %he 5ossessor sho9 obli@ue inflec%ion e$!$ nevesti-mii >9ife$G'L-m0$G'L?$

The YNHPossZ cons%i%uen% also behaves s0n%ac%icall0 li-e a 5ro5er name in %ha% i% is in%er5re%e# as a #efini%e DP an# correla%ivel0 i% canno% combine ei%her 9i%h #e%erminers or 9i%h 5renominal or 5os%nominal mo#ifiers3
(+1B/ a$ X aceas%L sor-%a %his sis%er-0ou b$ X 5rima nevas%L-mea firs%-%he 9ife-m0 c$ X fra%e-miu mai mic bro%her-%he more 0oun!

Li-e 9i%h 5ro5er names cer%ain 5os%nominal mo#ifiers namel0 celHAPs an# deJPPs (see (+1C/a-b/ can e;ce5%ionall0 be use# 9i%h a res%ric%ive in%er5re%a%ion (see cha5%er +1 * 1/$ No%e ho9ever %ha% res%ric%ive rela%ives are no% allo9e# (see (+1C/c/3
(+1C/ a$ fra%e-miu #e la Pi%eM%i bro%her-m0 from Pi%eM%i b$ fra%e-miu cel mic bro%her-m0 %he 0oun! c$ X sor-%a care a emi!ra% nu cea #in RomWnia sis%er-0our 9hich has emi!ra%e# no% %he from Romania

The affi;al charac%er of 5ronominal 5ossessors in %his cons%ruc%ion is si!nalle# b0 %he im5ossibili%0 %o combine 9i%h a coor#ina%ion (see (+2=/a/$ Com5are %he normal cons%ruc%ion in (+2=/b 9hich allo9s %he 5ossessor %o combine 9i%h a coor#ina%ion of nouns3
(+2=/ a$ XYvLr Mi fra%e-Zsu cousin an# bro%her-2SG$PGSS b$ YvLrul Mi fra%eleZ sLu cousin-%he an# bro%her-%he 2SG$PGSS

1C4

The A#6ec%ive

(. T8e A37e/t.2e
AL7VANDRA CGRNIL7SCD ) IGN GIDRG7A (**+-4/ IGN GIDRG7A (*,/

1. Int0o31/t.on. T8e a37e/t.2e /o65a0e3 to t8e ot8e0 le<./al /ate4o0.es


+$+$ A#6ec%ives an# nouns$ The nominaliAa%ion of a#6ec%ives$ +$1$ A#6ec%ives an# verbs$ +$2$ A#6ec%ives as a ne!a%ivel0 #efine# ca%e!or0 +$4$ A#6ec%ives an# a#verbs

2. Classes of a37e/t.2es. Se6ant./ t95es of a37e/t.2es an3 t8e.0 3.st0.b1t.on


1$+$ Dis%ribu%ional classes 1$1$ Firs%-or#er vs$ secon#-or#er or in%ersec%ive