Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

PHILIPPINE STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Conceptual Framework The only rational way of planning the country's national

progress is through sustainable development: meeting the needs of citizens of today without limiting the options of future generations to fulfill their needs. It is development without destruction; it is the achievement of material progress without compromising the life-support functions of natural systems; it is the pursuit of higher levels of quality of life while preserving or even enhancing environmental quality. It is the only true development.

GOAL AND OBJECTIVES: Goal Sustainable development stresses the need to view environmental protection and economic growth as mutually compatible. This implies that growth objectives should be compatible not only to the needs of society but also to the natural dynamics and carrying capacities of ecosystems. The goal of the PSSD is to achieve economic growth with adequate protection of the country's biological resources and its diversity, vital ecosystem functions, and over-all environmental quality. Objectives The following objectives have been identified toward the attainment of the PSSD goal. 1. To ensure the sustainable utilization of the country's natural resources such as forests, croplands, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. 2. To promote social and intergenerational equity in the utilization of the country's natural resources. 3. To develop management programs to preserve the country's heritage of biological diversity. 4. To promote the technologies of sustainable lowland agriculture and upland agroforestry through the encouragement of research and development (R and D) and demonstration projects. 5. To achieve and maintain an acceptable quality of air and water. 6. To promote and encourage an exploration program for economically important minerals. 7. To promote R and D in environmentally-sound and economically-efficient processing of the country's mineral and energy resources. 8. To enhance the foundation for scientific decision-making through the promotion and support of education and research in ecosystems. 9. To promote and support the integration of population concern including migration variables and family welfare considerations in development programs with special emphasis in ecologically critical areas. 10. To expand sustantially the family planning programs and responsible parenthood program. GUIDING PRINCIPLES Sustainable development, as defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), "is meeting the needs and aspirations of the people without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs". It is difficult, however, to make use of a general definition to guide actions with regard to particular development situations. This general definition needs to be further explained in operational terms. Operationally, sustainable development can be further explained through the following principles, which form the guiding framework for actions under the PSSD:

systems-oriented and integrated approach In the analysis and solution of development problems; a concern for meeting the needs of future generations, otherwise termed as Inter-generation equity: a concern for equity of people's access to natural resources: a concern not to exceed the carrying capacity of ecosystems; living on the Interest rather than on the capital or stock of natural resources; maintenance or strengthening of vital ecosystem functions In every development activity; a concern for resource use efficiency; promotion of research on substitutes, recycling, exploration, etc. from revenues derived from the utilization of nonrenewable resources; a recognition that poverty Is both a cause and consequence of environmental degradation; and promotion of citizens' participation and decentralization in implementing programs.

GENERAL STRATEGIES The goal of the Philippine strategy for sustainable development (PSSD) is to achieve economic growth with adequate protection of the country's biological resources and its diversity, vital ecosystem functions, and overall environmental quality. The PSSD has for its core a number of implementing strategies. This is aimed at resolving and reconciling the diverse and sometimes conflicting environmental, demographic, economic and natural resource use issues arising from the country development efforts. The strategies are: 1) integration of environmental considerations in decision-making; 2) proper pricing of natural resources; 3) property rights reform; 4) establishment of an integrated protected areas system; 5) rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems; 6) strengthening of residuals management in industry (pollution control); 7)integration of population concerns and social welfare in development planning; 8) inducing growth in rural areas; 9) promotion of environmental education; 10) strengthening of citizen's participation and constituency building.

Sustainable Tagbilaran Project Sustainable Tagbilaran Project (STP)

The Sustainable Cities Programme was implemented in the Philippines through the "Strengthening Local Environmental Planning and Management" (L-EPM) by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The Project was established to strengthen the Local Government Units (LGUs) and enhance their capacities for participatory environmental planning and management at the local level, whilst enhancing the capability of national institutions like DENR and the League of Cities of the Philippines (LCP) to support LGUs in EPM. Through the financial support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and UN-HABITAT, the three year programme was implemented through a Project Management Coordinating Unit (PMCU) established in the DENR, in partnership with the LCP.

Tagbilaran City was selected as one of the three (3) SCP-EPM demo cities, based on a selection process conducted by the Project Steering Committee (PSC), Inter-Agency Technical Working Group (IA-TWG) and the Project Management Coordinating Unit

(PMCU). The project was launched in December 1998 after the Mayor signed the Memorandum of Agreement for the project implementation, committing to localise the Philippine Agenda 21, and strengthen the LGU environmental planning and management capacities. Whilst the Local-EPM project ended in the first quarter of 2002, a Cooperation Agreement between UN-Habitat and the University of the Philippines - School of Urban and Regional Planning (UP-SURP) was signed late 2005 to document the city's experience, lessons learned and good practices in Solid Waste Management, and disseminate these to neighboring cities.

Tagbilaran City Environmental Profile

The first City Environmental Profile was prepared in 1999 through extensive stakeholder discussions, becoming the information baseline for awareness raising, analysis and clarification of the city's most pressing environmental concerns, such as solid waste management, water and air quality management and costal resource management. The TEP was also instrumental during the negotiation of strategies amongst stakeholders, when they reviewed policy options and formulated area specific action plans to strengthen implementation Throughout its preparatory process the Project Team continuously identified and mobilized to further promote the sustainable development of Tagbilaran.

In 2006 the updated Tagbilaran City Environmental Profile was prepared, with revised data on population, agricultural production, infrastructure, tourism, air pollution level, etc., generated in coordination with the City departments. In the process a workshop for the stakeholders was held in May 2006, when the following six (6) issues were highlighted: 1) solid and liquid waste management; 2) coastal resource management; 3) air pollution; 4) green spaces and uptown development; 5) freshwater resource management; and 6) tourism and cultural heritage.

Key Environmental Issues and Demonstration Projects

Priority Issues

Solid waste management (SWM) Coastal resource management

Demonstration Projects

- Bio-composting and organic fertilizer production facility in Dampas District. - Segregation of biodegradable waste at source

Coastal clean-up campaign, (Coastal resource management plan)

Bio-Composting and Organic Fertilizer Production in Dampas District

The demo project seeks to address the increasing amount of solid waste that the city generates, by reducing the amount of biodegradable and recyclable wastes (to about 60% and 15%, respectively) and by re-using these as organic fertilizers. The project beneficiaries are the farming groups and city constituents.

The community, CBOs/ POs and other stakeholders played important roles in its implementation. For example, the group of market vendors is responsible for the segregation of biodegradable waste at the source. The city's Solid Waste Management Office (SWMO) is responsible for the collection of biodegradable waste. Finally, the Bohol Initiators for Sustainable Agriculture and Development, Inc. (BISAD) is directly in-charge of actually operating the bio-composting facility, i.e., from the production process through to promotion and marketing of the finished product (organic fertilizers). A series of mini-consultation meetings were held in order to promote stakeholder participation. Monitoring is done at regular intervals to evaluate implementation of the demo project against the original work-plan.

The Bio-Composting and Organic Fertilizer Production facility in Dampas District, Tagbilaran City

Sustainable Cagayan de Oro Project Brief introduction of Cagayan de Oro City

Sustainable Cagayan de Oro Project (SCdOP)

The Sustainable Cities Programme was implemented in the Philippines through the "Strengthening Local Environmental Planning and Management" (L-EPM) by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The Project was established to strengthen the Local Government Units (LGUs) and enhance their capacities for participatory environmental planning and management at the local level, whilst enhancing the capability of national institutions like DENR and the League of Cities of the Philippines (LCP) to support LGUs in EPM. Through the financial support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and UN-HABITAT, the three year programme was implemented through a Project Management Coordinating Unit (PMCU) established in the DENR, in partnership with the LCP.

The Cagayan de Oro City was chosen as one of three demonstration cities of the Local-EPM Project, based on a selection process conducted by the Project Steering Committee (PSC), Inter-Agency Technical Working Group (IA-TWG) and the Project Management Coordinating Unit (PMCU). The project was launched in December 1998 after the Mayor signed the Memorandum of Agreement for the project implementation, committing to enhance the city government's capabilities by pioneering the integration of environmental planning and management within the city organizations As part of the Mayor's commitment for project implementation the city L-EPM unit was established under the City Environment and National Resources Office (City ENRO) from the start, which

provided regular staff and an annual budget to help institutionalize project support from inception. Whilst the Local-EPM project ended in the first quarter of 2002, a Cooperation Agreement between UN-HABITAT and The Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) was forged in January 2005, facilitating a second phase of support to document L-EPM experiences amongst the DILG partners, review opportunities to mainstream lessons learned in the Local Government Units (LGUs) and collaborate in the implementation of the Good Practices in Local Governance facility for Adaptation and Replication ("GOFAR").

Cagayan de Oro City Environmental Profile

The process of developing the City Environmental Profile (CEP) was instrumental to enhance and update the city's data base, which included information provided by different city stakeholders. The CEP became a fundamental tool to enhance stakeholder understanding and appreciation on interactions between development activities and natural resources, which highlighted the crosscutting nature of environmental issues and the need for joint cros-sectoral efforts to improve the city's socio-economic development. Over the years the design of the CEP as a data base expanded as an important source of data when preparing Environmental Impact Assessments for major project proposals. Preparation of the CEP also helped identify the main environmental problems, such as solid waste management, coastal pollution, and the opportunities to use waste as compost for agricultural productivity, etc.

Key Environmental Issues and Demonstration Projects

Priority Issues

Solid waste management (SWM) Coastal pollution

Demonstration Projects

- Recovery of municipal solid waste into compost - Per-urban organic farming and water management development

- City coastal clean-up - Artificial reef development - Mangrove rehabilitation and plantation - Fish sanctuary project

Brief Description of Demonstration Projects

Given the fact that solid waste management was the priority issue in Cagayan de Oro City and its 40 Barangays, part of the demonstration projects were developed to introduce innovative practices on SWM by strengthening Public Private Partnerships, sorting at source, bio-degradable composting & recycling, and developing peri-urban agriculture through community gardening. In the process of implementation especially regarding composting technologies, the sharing of experiences from the Sri Lankan SCP cities were instrumental in building awareness, and adapting appropriate composting technologies. The three pilot Barangays selected as demonstration projects on SWM were Bugo, Lapasan and Gusa. The local government of

Gusa was also identified for coastal management projects, which included a fish sanctuary, artificial coral reefs, and mangrove reforestation.

* The Integrated Solid Waste Management Project (ISWMP) and Allotment Garden in the Barangay Bugo

The Integrated Solid Waste Management Project of Bugo was pioneered by the Local Environmental Planning and Management (LEPM) process, and is now promoted by DILG's "Good Practice in Local Governance: Facility for Adaptation and Replication" (GOFAR). The focus of DILG's program is to support LGU efforts in confronting local environmental issues through city-to-city exchanges. KALAMBUAN or the ISWM project of Bugo was designed to answer the garbage issue in the Barangay. It emphasized waste segregation as an initial and important component in any proper garbage disposal system, creating livelihood opportunities for the marginalized fraction of the Barangay population. KALAMBUAN has earned Barangay Bugo an award from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources' "National Search for Model Barangay" for its Eco-Waste Management in 2004. Currently, there is a plan to expand the project throughout Bugo with a 5-year implementation plan. Prioritization will depend on the immensity of the waste problem of the Barangay, and an available area for an accessible community garden. (download full document) Through the GO-FAR scheme, the City of Surigao has volunteered to the BLGD-DILG to replicate the experiences of Cagayan De Oro city. A Manual on Replication has been developed to guide the Local Government Units which are interested to undergo the GO FAR/EPM Process.

Peri-urban Agriculture under ISWM

* Coastal Management Projects in the Barangay Gusa

Looking for sanctuary location

Whilst Barangay Gusa has traditionally been one of Cagayan de Oro's main sources of fish catch, by the end of the 1990's it was experiencing a critical depletion of marine resources. Applying the SCP process, stakeholders identified coastal zone management as their top priority and, after securing the cooperation of the fishing community, the stakeholder issue Working Group prioritised efforts to preserve marine resources and rehabilitate/reforest the marine ecosystem in order to increase the fish stock. The end result was establishment of a fish sanctuary in a 8.6 hectare area chosen because of its relatively undisturbed environment, considerable distance from households, and mild nature of its currents.

The mangrove plantation

Today the sanctuary houses 43 units of concrete pyramid "corals", supported by nearby mangrove re-afforestation. Field visit orientations for city-folk continues to build awareness and support for wider replication, mobilising civil society support for regular beach clean-ups by reminding them of the endangered state of their marine life. Support for the project was obtained and sustained through regular Working Group meetings and planning sessions, information drives, and clean-up activities to root marine conservation in the collective consciousness of all citizens. The project coupled with enforced legislation against over exploitation of fish stocks by non-local fisher folks, which was reflected in the significant increases of fish stocks.