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# History of Chess

The origins of chess are not exactly clear, though most believe it evolved from earlier chess-like games played in India almost two thousand years ago. The game of chess we know today has been around since the 15th century where it became popular in urope.

## The Goal of Chess

!hess is a game played between two opponents on opposite sides of a board containing "# s\$uares of alternating colors. ach player has 1" pieces% 1 king, 1 \$ueen, & rooks, & bishops, & knights, and ' pawns. The goal of the game is to checkmate the other king. !heckmate happens when the king is in a position to be captured (in check) and cannot escape from capture.

Starting a Game
*t the beginning of the game the chessboard is laid out so that each player has the white (or light) color s\$uare in the bottom right-hand side. The chess pieces are then arranged the same way each time. The second row (or rank) is filled with pawns. The rooks go in the corners, then the knights next to them, followed by the bishops, and finally the \$ueen, who always goes on her own matching color (white \$ueen on white, black \$ueen on black), and the king on the remaining s\$uare. The player with the white pieces always moves first. Therefore, players generally decide who will get to be white by chance or luck such as flipping a coin or having one player guess the color of the hidden pawn in the other player+s hand. ,hite then makes a move, followed by black, then white again, then black and so on until the end of the game.

## How the Pieces Move

ach of the " different kinds of pieces moves differently. -ieces cannot move through other pieces (though the knight can .ump over other pieces), and can never move onto a s\$uare with one of their own pieces. /owever, they can be moved to take the place of an opponent+s piece which is then

captured. -ieces are generally moved into positions where they can capture other pieces (by landing on their s\$uare and then replacing them), defend their own pieces in case of capture, or control important s\$uares in the game. The King The king is the most important piece, but is one of the weakest. The king can only move one s\$uare in any direction - up, down, to the sides, and diagonally. !lick on the +>+ button in the diagram below to see how the king can move around the board. The king may never move himself into check (where he could be captured). The Queen The \$ueen is the most powerful piece. 0he can move in any one straight direction - forward, backward, sideways, or diagonally - as far as possible as long as she does not move through any of her own pieces. *nd, like with all pieces, if the \$ueen captures an opponent+s piece her move is over. !lick through the diagram below to see how the \$ueens move. 1otice how the white \$ueen captures the black \$ueen and then the black king is forced to move. The Rook The rook may move as far as it wants, but only forward, backward, and to the sides. The rooks are particularly powerful pieces when they are protecting each other and working together2 The Bisho The bishop may move as far as it wants, but only diagonally. ach bishop starts on one color (light or dark) and must always stay on that color. 3ishops work well together because they cover up each other4s weaknesses. The Knight 5nights move in a very different way from the other pieces 6 going two s\$uares in one direction, and then one more move at a 78 degree angle, .ust like the shape of an 9:;. 5nights are also the only pieces that can move over other pieces. The Pawn -awns are unusual because they move and capture in different ways% they move forward, but capture diagonally. -awns can only move forward one s\$uare at a time, except for their very first move where they can move forward two s\$uares. -awns can only capture one s\$uare diagonally in front of them. They can never move or capture backwards. If there is another piece directly in front of a pawn he cannot move past or capture that piece.

Promotion
-awns have another special ability and that is that if a pawn reaches the other side of the board it can become any other chess piece (called promotion). * pawn may be promoted to any piece. <1=T % * common misconception is that pawns may only be exchanged for a piece that has been captured. That is 1=T true.> * pawn is usually promoted to a \$ueen. =nly pawns may be promoted.

!n Passant
The last rule about pawns is called 9en passant,; which is ?rench for 9in passing;. If a pawn moves out two s\$uares on its first move, and by doing so lands to the side of an opponent4s pawn (effectively

.umping past the other pawn4s ability to capture it), that other pawn has the option of capturing the first pawn as it passes by. This special move must be done immediately after the first pawn has moved past, otherwise the option to capture it is no longer available. !lick through the example below to better understand this odd, but important rule.

Castling
=ne other special rule is called castling. This move allows you to do two important things all in one move% get your king to safety (hopefully), and get your rook out of the corner and into the game. =n a player4s turn he may move his king two s\$uares over to one side and then move the rook from that side4s corner to right next to the king on the opposite side. (0ee the example below.) /owever, in order to castle, the following conditions must be met% it must be that king4s very first move it must be that rook4s very first move there cannot be any pieces between the king and rook to move the king may not be in check or pass through check

1otice that when you castle one direction the king is closer to the side of the board. That is called castling kingside. !astling to the other side, through where the \$ueen sat, is called castling \$ueenside. @egardless of which side, the king always moves only two s\$uares when castling.

## Check " Checkmate

*s stated before, the purpose of the game is to checkmate the opponent4s king. This happens when the king is put into check and cannot get out of check. There are only three ways a king can get out of check% move out of the way (though he cannot castle2), block the check with another piece, or capture the piece threatening the king. If a king cannot escape checkmate then the game is over. !ustomarily the king is not captured or removed from the board, the game is simply declared over.

#raws
=ccasionally chess games do not end with a winner, but with a draw. There are 5 reasons why a chess game may end in a draw% The position reaches a stalemate where it is one player4s turn to move, but his king is 1=T in check and yet he does not have another legal move The players may simply agree to a draw and stop playing There are not enough pieces on the board to force a checkmate (example% a king and a bishop vs.a king) * player declares a draw if the same exact position is repeated three times (though not necessarily three times in a row) ?ifty consecutive moves have been played where neither player has moved a pawn or captured a piece.

Chess\$%&
!hess7"8 (also called ?ischer @andom) is a chess variant that follows all of the normal rules of chess, but where the "opening theory" does not play a large role in the game. The starting position of the

pieces is randomly chosen by following only & rules% the bishops must be on opposite colors, and there must be one rook on each side of the king. The black and white pieces are in a mirrored position. There are exactly 7"8 possible starting scenarios that follow these rules (thus the name "960"). The only odd rule is with castling% the rules are mostly the same (king and rook cannot have moved and cannot castle through check or in check), with the additional rule that the s\$uares between where the king and castled rook will end up must be vacant from all pieces except the king and rook. ?or more info and examples, How 'o ( castle in a Chess\$%& game) The most important thing to remember about castling in a 7"8 game is that the 5ing and @ook end up on exactly the same s\$uares as they would in a standard game% !astling king-side (8-8) results in the 5ing on the g-file and the @ook on the f-fileA likewise, castling \$ueen-side (8-8-8) leaves the 5ing on the c-file and the @ook on the d-file. *s always, the 5ing and relevant @ook must not have any pieces between themA the 5ing cannot move out of or through checkA and the two pieces cannot have moved prior to castling. 0ame as always2 If you+re having Btechnical difficultiesB trying to castle (especially where there is only one s\$uare between the 5ing and @ook), click first on the 5ing, then on the @ook.

## Some Tournament Rules

Cany tournaments follow a set of common, similar rules. These rules do not necessarily apply to play at home or online. Touch*move If a player touches one of their own pieces they must move that piece as long as it is a legal move. If a player touches an opponent4s piece, they must capture that piece. * player who wishes to touch a piece only to ad.ust it on the board must first announce the intention, usually by saying 9ad.ust;. (ntro'uction to Clocks an' Timers Cost tournaments use timers to regulate the time spent on each game, not on each move. ach player gets the same amount of time to use for their entire game and can decide how to spend that time. =nce a player makes a move they then touch a button or hit a lever to start the opponent4s clock. If a player runs out of time and the opponent calls the time, then the player who ran out of time loses the game (unless the opponent does not have enough pieces to checkmate, in which case it is a draw).

Basic Strategy
There are four simple things that every chess player should know% +, Protect your king Det your king to the corner of the board where he is usually safer. Eon4t put off castling. Fou should usually castle as \$uickly as possible. @emember, it doesn4t matter how close you are to checkmating your opponent if your own king is checkmated first2 +- #on.t give ieces away Eon4t carelessly lose your pieces2 ach piece is valuable and you can4t win a game without pieces to

checkmate. There is an easy system that most players use to keep track of the relative value of each chess piece% * pawn is worth 1 * knight is worth G * bishop is worth G * rook is worth 5 * \$ueen is worth 7 The king is infinitely valuable

*t the end of the game these points don4t mean anything 6 it is simply a system you can use to make decisions while playing, helping you know when to capture, exchange, or make other moves. +/ Control the center Fou should try and control the center of the board with your pieces and pawns. If you control the center, you will have more room to move your pieces and will make it harder for your opponent to find good s\$uares for his pieces. In the example above white makes good moves to control the center while black plays bad moves. +0 1se all of your ieces In the example above white got all of his pieces in the game2 Four pieces don4t do any good when they are sitting back on the first row. Try and develop all of your pieces so that you have more to use when you attack the king. Hsing one or two pieces to attack will not work against any decent opponent.

## Getting Better at Chess

5nowing the rules and basic strategies is only the beginning - there is so much to learn in chess that you can never learn it all in a lifetime2 To improve you need to do three things% +, 2 Play Iust keep playing2 -lay as much as possible. Fou should learn from each game 6 those you win and those you lose. +- 2 Stu'y If you really want to improve \$uickly then pick up a <recommended chess book>. There are also many resources on !hess.com to help you study and improve. +/ Have fun Eon4t get discouraged if you don4t win all of your games right away. veryone loses 6 even world champions. *s long as you continue to have fun and learn from the games you lose then you can en.oy chess forever2

3aws of Chess
?IE :aws of !hess cover over-the-board play. The nglish text is the authentic version of the :aws of !hess, which was adopted at the J7th ?IE !ongress at Eresden (Dermany), 1ovember &88', coming into force on 1 Iuly &887. In these :aws the words Khe4, Khim4 and Khis4 include Kshe4 and Kher4. Preface The :aws of !hess cannot cover all possible situations that may arise during a game, nor can they regulate all administrative \$uestions. ,here cases are not precisely regulated by an *rticle of the :aws, it should be possible to reach a correct decision by studying analogous situations which are discussed in the :aws. The :aws assume that arbiters have the necessary competence, sound .udgement and absolute ob.ectivity. Too detailed a rule might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of .udgement and thus prevent him from finding the solution to a problem dictated by fairness, logic and special factors. ?IE appeals to all chess players and federations to accept this view. * member federation is free to introduce more detailed rules provided they% 1. do not conflict in any way with the official ?IE :aws of !hess, and &. are limited to the territory of the federation concerned, and G. are not valid for any ?IE match, championship or \$ualifying event, or for a ?IE title or rating tournament. B4S(C R13!S 56 P347 4rticle ,8 The nature an' o9:ectives of the game of chess 1.1 The game of chess is played between two opponents who move their pieces alternately on a s\$uare board called a Kchessboard4. The player with the white pieces commences the game. * player is said to Khave the move4, when his opponent4s move has been Kmade4. (0ee *rticle ".J) The ob.ective of each player is to place the opponent4s king Kunder attack4 in such a way that the opponent has no legal move. The player who achieves this goal is said to have Kcheckmated4 the opponent4s king and to have won the game. :eaving one4s own king under attack, exposing one4s own king to attack and also 4capturing4 the opponent4s king are not allowed. The opponent whose king has been checkmated has lost the game. If the position is such that neither player can possibly checkmate, the game is drawn. 4rticle -8 The initial osition of the ieces on the chess9oar' &.1 The chessboard is composed of an ' x ' grid of "# e\$ual s\$uares alternately light (the Kwhite4 s\$uares) and dark (the Kblack4 s\$uares).

1.&

1.G

The chessboard is placed between the players in such a way that the near corner s\$uare to the right of the player is white. &.& *t the beginning of the game one player has 1" light-coloured pieces (the Kwhite4 pieces)A the other has 1" dark-coloured pieces (the Kblack4 pieces). These pieces are as follows% * white king, usually indicated by the symbol * white \$ueen, usually indicated by the symbol Two white rooks, usually indicated by the symbol Two white bishops, usually indicated by the symbol Two white knights, usually indicated by the symbol ight white pawns, usually indicated by the symbol * black king, usually indicated by the symbol * black \$ueen, usually indicated by the symbol Two black rooks, usually indicated by the symbol Two black bishops, usually indicated by the symbol Two black knights, usually indicated by the symbol ight black pawns, usually indicated by the symbol &.G The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard is as follows%

&.#

The eight vertical columns of s\$uares are called Kfiles4. The eight horiLontal rows of s\$uares are called Kranks4. * straight line of s\$uares of the same colour, running from one edge of the board to an ad.acent edge, is called a Kdiagonal4. 4rticle /8 The moves of the ieces

G.1

It is not permitted to move a piece to a s\$uare occupied by a piece of the same colour. If a piece moves to a s\$uare occupied by an opponent4s piece the latter is captured and removed from the chessboard as part of the same move. * piece is said to attack an opponent4s piece if the piece could make a capture on that s\$uare according to the *rticles G.& to G.'.

* piece is considered to attack a s\$uare, even if such a piece is constrained from moving to that s\$uare because it would then leave or place the king of its own colour under attack. G.& The bishop may move to any s\$uare along a diagonal on which it stands.

G.G

The rook may move to any s\$uare along the file or the rank on which it stands.

G.#

The \$ueen may move to any s\$uare along the file, the rank or a diagonal on which it stands.

G.5

,hen making these moves the bishop, rook or \$ueen may not move over any intervening

pieces. G." The knight may move to one of the s\$uares nearest to that on which it stands but not on the same rank, file or diagonal.

G.J

1. The pawn may move forward to the unoccupied s\$uare immediately in front of it on the same file, or &. on its first move the pawn may move as in G.J.a or alternatively it may advance two s\$uares along the same file provided both s\$uares are unoccupied, or G. the pawn may move to a s\$uare occupied by an opponent4s piece, which is diagonally in front of it on an ad.acent file, capturing that piece.

#. * pawn attacking a s\$uare crossed by an opponent4s pawn which has advanced two s\$uares in one move from its original s\$uare may capture this opponent4s pawn as though the latter had been moved only one s\$uare. This capture is only legal on the move following this advance and is called an Ken passant4 capture.

5. ,hen a pawn reaches the rank furthest from its starting position it must be exchanged as part of the same move on the same s\$uare for a new \$ueen, rook, bishop or knight of the same colour. The player4s choice is not restricted to pieces that have been captured previously. This exchange of a pawn for another piece is called Kpromotion4 and the effect of the new piece is immediate. G.' 1. There are two different ways of moving the king% by moving to any ad.oining s\$uare not attacked by one or more of the opponent4s pieces

or by Kcastling4. This is a move of the king and either rook of the same colour along the player4s first rank, counting as a single move of the king and executed as follows% the king is transferred from its original s\$uare two s\$uares towards the rook on its original s\$uare, then that rook is transferred to the s\$uare the king has .ust crossed.

&. (1) The right to castle has been lost% 1. if the king has already moved, or &. with a rook that has already moved. (&) !astling is prevented temporarily% G. if the s\$uare on which the king stands, or the s\$uare which it must cross, or the s\$uare which it is to occupy, is attacked by one or more of the opponent+s pieces, or #. if there is any piece between the king and the rook with which castling is to be effected. G.7 The king is said to be +in check+ if it is attacked by one or more of the opponent+s pieces, even if such pieces are constrained from moving to that s\$uare because they would then leave or place their own king in check. 1o piece can be moved that will either expose the king of the same colour to check or leave that king in check.

4rticle 08 The act of moving the ieces #.1 ach move must be made with one hand only.

#.& -rovided that he first expresses his intention (for example by saying M.4adoube9 or 9I ad.ust;), the player having the move may ad.ust one or more pieces on their s\$uares.

#.G

xcept as providedin *rticle #.&, if the player having the move deliberately touches on the chessboard% a. one or more of his own pieces, he must move the first piece touched which can be moved b. one or more of his opponent4s pieces, he must capture the first piece touched which can be captured c. one piece of each colour, he must capture the opponent4s piece with his piece or, if this is illegal, move or capture the first piece touched which can be moved or captured. If it is unclear, whether the player4s own piece or his opponent4s was touched first, the player4s own piece shall be considered to have been touched before his opponent4s.

#.# If a player having the move% a. deliberately touches his king and rook he must castle on that side if it is legal to do so b. deliberately touches a rook and then his king he is not allowed to castle on that side on that move and the situation shall be governed by *rticle #.G.a c. intending to castle, touches the king or king and rook at the same time, but castling on that side is illegal, the player must make another legal move with his king (which may include castling on the other side). If the king has no legal move, the player is free to make any legal move d. promotes a pawn, the choice of the piece is finalised, when the piece has touched the s\$uare of promotion. #.5 If none of the pieces touched can be moved or captured, the player may make any legal move. #." ,hen, as a legal move or part of a legal move, a piece has been released on a s\$uare, it cannot be moved to another s\$uare on this move. The move is then considered to have been made% a. in the case of a capture, when the captured piece has been removed from the chessboard and the player, having placed his own piece on its new s\$uare, has released this capturing piece from his hand b. in the case of castling, when the player+s hand has released the rook on the s\$uare previously crossed by the king. ,hen the player has released the king from his hand, the move is not yet made, but the player no longer has the right to make any move other than castling on that side, if this is legal c. in the case of the promotion of a pawn, when the pawn has been removed from the chessboard and the player+s hand has released the new piece after placing it on the promotion s\$uare. If the player has released from his hand the pawn that has reached the promotion s\$uare, the move is not yet made, but the player no longer has the right to play the pawn to another s\$uare. The move is called legal when all the relevant re\$uirements of *rticle G have been fulfilled. If the

move is not legal, another move shall be made instead as per *rticle #.5. #.J * player forfeits his right to a claim against his opponent4s violation of *rticle # once he deliberately touches a piece. 4rticle ;8 The com letion of the game 5.1 a. The game is won by the player who has checkmated his opponent4s king. This immediately ends the game, provided that the move producing the checkmate position was a legal move. b. The game is won by the player whose opponent declares he resigns. This immediately ends the game. 5.& a. The game is drawn when the player to move has no legal move and his king is not in check. The game is said to end in Kstalemate4. This immediately ends the game, provided that the move producing the stalemate position was legal. b. The game is drawn when a position has arisen in which neither player can checkmate the opponent4s king with any series of legal moves. The game is said to end in a Kdead position4. This immediately ends the game, provided that the move producing the position was legal. (0ee *rticle 7.") c. The game is drawn upon agreement between the two players during the game. This immediately ends the game. (0ee *rticle 7.1) d. The game may be drawn if any identical position is about to appear or has appeared on the chessboard at least three times. (0ee *rticle 7.&) e. The game may be drawn if each player has made at least the last 58 consecutive moves without the movement of any pawn and without any capture. (0ee *rticle 7.G) C5MP!T(T(5< R13!S 4rticle %8 The chess clock ".1 K!hess clock4 means a clock with two time displays, connected to each other in such a way that only one of them can run at one time. K!lock4 in the :aws of !hess, means one of the two time displays. ach time display has a Kflag4. K?lag fall4 means the expiration of the allotted time for a player. ".& a. ,hen using a chess clock, each player must make a minimum number of moves or all moves in an allotted period of time andNor may be allocated an additional amount of time with each move. *ll these must be specified in advance. b. The time saved by a player during one period is added to his time available for the next period, except in the Ktime delay4 mode. In the time delay mode both players receive an allotted Kmain thinking time4. ach player also

receives a Kfixed extra time4 with every move. The countdown of the main time only commences after the fixed time has expired. -rovided the player stops his clock before the expiration of the fixed time, the main thinking time does not change, irrespective of the proportion of the fixed time used. ".G Immediately after a flag falls, the re\$uirements of article ".& a. must be checked. ".# 3efore the start of the game the arbiter decides where the chess clock is placed. ".5 *t the time determined for the start of the game the clock of the player who has the white pieces is started. "." a. *ny player who arrives at the chessboard after the start of the session shall lose the game. Thus the default time is 8 minutes. The rules of a competition may specify otherwise. b. If the rules of a competition specify a different default time, the following shall apply. If neither player is present initially, the player who has the white pieces shall lose all the time that elapses until he arrives, unless the rules of the competition specify or the arbiter decides otherwise. ".J a. Euring the game each player, having made his move on the chessboard, shall stop his own clock and start his opponent4s clock. * player must always be allowed to stop hisclock. /is move is not considered to have been completed until he has done so, unless the move that was made ends the game. (0ee the *rticles 5.1.a, 5.&.a, 5.&.b, 5.&.c and 7.") The time between making the move on the chessboard and stopping his own clock and starting his opponentKs clock is regarded as part of the time allotted to the player. b. * player must stop his clock with the same hand as that with which he made his move. It is forbidden for a player to keep his finger on the button or to Khover4 over it. c. The players must handle the chess clock properly. It is forbidden to punch it forcibly, to pick it up or to knock it over. Improper clock handling shall be penalised in accordance with *rticle 1G.#. d. If a player is unable to use the clock, an assistant, who must be acceptable to the arbiter, may be provided by the player to perform this operation. /is clock shall be ad.usted by the arbiter in an e\$uitable way. ".' * flag is considered to have fallen when the arbiter observes the fact or when either player has made a valid claim to that effect. ".7 xcept where one of the *rticles% 5.1.a, 5.1.b, 5.&.a, 5.&.b, 5.&.c applies, if a player does not complete the prescribed number of moves in the allotted time, the game is lost by the player. /owever, the game is drawn, if the position is such that the opponent cannot checkmate the player4s king by any possible series of legal moves. very indication given by the clocks is considered to be conclusive in the absence of any evident defect. * chess clock with an evident defect shall be replaced. The arbiter shall replace the clock and use his best .udgment when determining the times to be shown on the replacement

".18 a.

chess clocks. b. If during a game it is found that the setting of either or both clocks was incorrect, either player or the arbiter shall stop the clocks immediately. The arbiter shall install the correct setting and ad.ust the times and move counter. /e shall use his best .udgement when determining the correct settings. ".11 If both flags have fallen and it is impossible to establish which flag fell first then% a. the game shall continue if it happens in any period of the game except the last period b. the game is drawn if it happens in the period of a game, in which all remaining moves must be completed. ".1& a. If the game needs to be interrupted, the arbiter shall stop the clocks. b. * player may stop the clocks only in order to seek the arbiter4s assistance, for example when promotion has taken place and the piece re\$uired is not available. c. The arbiter shall decide when the game is to be restarted in either case. d. If a player stops the clocks in order to seek the arbiter4s assistance, the arbiter shall determine if the player had any valid reason for doing so. If it is obvious that the player had no valid reason for stopping the clocks, the player shall be penalised according to *rticle 1G.#. ".1G If an irregularity occurs andNor the pieces have to be restored to a previous position, the arbiter shall use his best .udgement to determine the times to be shown on the clocks. /e shall also, if necessary, ad.ust the clock4s move counter. ".1# 0creens, monitors, or demonstration boards showing the current position on the chessboard, the moves and the number of moves made, and clocks which also show the number of moves, are allowed in the playing hall. /owever, the player may not make a claim relying solely on information shown in this manner. 4rticle =8 (rregularities J.1 a. If during a game it is found that the initial position of the pieces was incorrect, the game shall be cancelled and a new game played. b. If during a game it is found that the chessboard has been placed contrary to *rticle &.1, the game continues but the position reached must be transferred to a correctly placed chessboard. J.& If a game has begun with colours reversed then it shall continue, unless the arbiter rules otherwise. J.G If a player displaces one or more pieces, he shall re-establish the correct position on his own time. If necessary, either the player or his opponent shall stop the clocks and ask for the arbiter4s assistance. The arbiter may penalise the player who displaced the pieces.

J.# a. If during a game it is found that an illegal move, including failing to meet the re\$uirements of the promotion of a pawn or capturing the opponent4s king, has been completed, the position immediately before the irregularity shall be reinstated. If the position immediately before the irregularity cannot be determined the game shall continue from the last identifiable position prior to the irregularity. The clocks shall be ad.usted according to *rticle ".1G. The *rticles #.G and #." apply to the move replacing the illegal move. The game shall then continue from this re-instated position. b. *fter the action taken under *rticle J.#.a, for the first two illegal moves by a player the arbiter shall give two minutes extra time to his opponent in each instanceA for a third illegal move by the same player, the arbiter shall declare the game lost by this player. /owever, the game is drawn if the position is such that the opponent cannot checkmate the player4s king by any possible series of legal moves. J.5 If during a game it is found that pieces have been displaced from their s\$uares, the position before the irregularity shall be re-instated. If the position immediately before the irregularity cannot be determined, the game shall continue from the last identifiable position prior to the irregularity. The clocks shall be ad.usted according to *rticle ".1G. The game shall then continue from this re-instated position. 4rticle >8 The recor'ing of the moves '.1 In the course of play each player is re\$uired to record his own moves and those of his opponent in the correct manner, move after move, as clearly and legibily as possible, in the algebraic notation (0ee *ppendix !), on the scoresheet prescribed for the competition. It is forbidden to write the moves in advance, unless the player is claiming a draw according to *rticle 7.&, or 7.G or ad.ourning a game according to the Duidelines of *d.ourned Dames point 1.a. * player may reply to his opponent4s move before recording it, if he so wishes. /e must record his previous move before making another. 3oth players must record the offer of a draw on the scoresheet. (0ee *ppendix !.1G) If a player is unable to keep score, an assistant, who must be acceptable to the arbiter, may be provided by the player to write the moves. /is clock shall be ad.usted by the arbiter in an e\$uitable way. '.& The scoresheet shall be visible to the arbiter throughout the game. '.G The scoresheets are the property of the organisers of the event. '.# If a player has less than five minutes left on his clock at some stage in a period and does not have additional time of G8 seconds or more added with each move, then for the remainder of the period he is not obliged to meet the re\$uirements of *rticle '.1. Immediately after one flag has fallen the player must update his scoresheet completely before moving a piece on the chessboard. '.5 a. If neither player is re\$uired to keep score under *rticle '.#, the arbiter or an assistant should try

to be present and keep score. In this case, immediately after one flag has fallen,the arbiter shall stop the clocks. Then both players shall update their scoresheets, using the arbiter4s or the opponent4s scoresheet. b. If only one player is not re\$uired to keep score under *rticle '.#, he must, as soon as either flag has fallen, update his scoresheet completely before moving a piece on the chessboard. -rovided it is the player4s move, he may use his opponent4s scoresheet, but must return it before making a move. c. If no complete scoresheet is available, the players must reconstruct the game on a second chessboard under the control of the arbiter or an assistant. /e shall first record the actual game position, clock times and the number of moves made, if this information is available, before reconstruction takes place. '." If the scoresheets cannot be brought up to date showing that a player has overstepped the allotted time, the next move made shall be considered as the first of the following time period, unless there is evidence that more moves have been made. '.J *t the conclusion of the game both players shall sign both scoresheets, indicating the result of the game. ven if incorrect, this result shall stand, unless the arbiter decides otherwise. 4rticle \$8 The 'rawn game 7.1 a. The rules of a competition may specify that players cannot agree to a draw, whether in less than a specified number of moves or at all, without the consent of the arbiter. b. If the rules of a competition allow a draw agreement the following apply% 1. * player wishing to offer a draw shall do so after having made a move on the chessboard and before stopping his clock and starting the opponent4s clock. *n offer at any other time during play is still valid but *rticle 1&." must be considered. 1o conditions can be attached to the offer. In both cases the offer cannot be withdrawn and remains valid until the opponent accepts it, re.ects it orally, re.ects it by touching a piece with the intention of moving or capturing it, or the game is concluded in some other way. &. The offer of a draw shall be noted by each player on his scoresheet with a symbol. (0ee *ppendix !.1G) G. * claim of a draw under *rticle 7.&, 7.G or 18.& shall be considered to be an offer of a draw. 7.& The game is drawn upon a correct claim by the player having the move, when the same position, for at least the third time (not necessarily by a repetition of moves)% a. is about to appear, if he first writes his move on his scoresheet and declares to the arbiter his intention to make this move, or b. has .ust appeared, and the player claiming the draw has the move. -ositions as in (a) and (b) areconsidered the same, if the same player has the move, pieces of the

same kind and colour occupy the same s\$uares, and the possible moves of all the pieces of both players are the same. -ositions are not the same if a pawn that could have been captured en passant can no longer be captured in this manner. ,hen a king or a rook is forced to move, it will lose its castling rights, if any, only after it is moved. 7.G The game is drawn, upon a correct claim by the player having the move, if% a. he writes his move on his scoresheet and declares to the arbiter his intention to make this move, which shall result in thelast58 moves having been made by each player without the movement of any pawn and without any capture, or b. the last 58 consecutive moves have been made by each playerwithout the movement of any pawn and without any capture. 7.# If the player touches a piece as in *rticle #.G without having claimed the draw he loses the right to claim, as in *rticle 7.& or 7.G, on that move. 7.5 If a player claims a draw as in *rticle 7.& or 7.G he may stop both clocks. (0ee *rticle ".1&.b) /e is not allowed to withdraw his claim. a. If the claim is found to be correct, the game is immediately drawn. b. If the claim is found to be incorrect, the arbiter shall add three minutes to the opponent4s remaining thinking time. Then the game shall continue. If the claim was based on an intended move, this move must be made as according to *rticle #. 7." The game is drawn when a position is reached from which a checkmate cannot occur by any possible series of legal moves. This immediately ends the game, provided that the move producing this position was legal. 4rticle ,&8 Quick lay 6inish 18.1 * K\$uickplay finish4 is the phase of a game when all the (remaining) moves must be made in a limited time. 18.& If the player, having the move, has less than two minutes left on his clock, he may claim a draw before his flag falls. /e shall summon the arbiter and may stop the clocks. (0ee *rticle ".1&.b) a. If the arbiter agrees the opponent is making no effort to win the game by normal means, or that it is not possible to win by normal means, then he shall declare the game drawn. =therwise he shall postpone his decision or re.ect the claim. b. If the arbiter postpones his decision, the opponent may be awarded two extra minutes and the game shall continue, if possible in the presence of an arbiter. The arbiter shall declare the final result later in the game or as soon as possible after a flag has fallen. /e shall declare the game drawn if he agrees that the final position cannot be won by normal means, or that the opponent

was not making sufficient attempts to win by normal means. c. If the arbiter has re.ected the claim, the opponent shall be awarded two extra minutes time. d. The decision of the arbiter shall be final relating to (a), (b) and (c). 4rticle ,,8 Points 11.1 Hnless announced otherwise in advance, a player who wins his game, or wins by forfeit, scores one point (1), a player who loses his game, or forfeits scores no points (8) and a player who draws his game scores a half point (O). 4rticle ,-8 The con'uct of the layers 1&.1 The players shall take no action that will bring the game of chess into disrepute. 1&.& -layers are not allowed to leave the Kplaying venue4 without permission from the arbiter. The playing venue is defined as the playing area, rest rooms, refreshment area, area set aside for smoking and other places as designated by the arbiter. The player having the move is not allowed to leave the playing area without permission of the arbiter. 1&.G 1. Euring play the players are forbidden to make use of any notes, sources of information or advice, or analyse on another chessboard &. ,ithout the permission of the arbiter a player is forbidden to have a mobile phone or other electronic means of communication in the playing venue, unless they are completely switched off. If any such device produces a sound, the player shall lose the game. The opponent shall win. /owever, if the opponent cannot win the game by any series of legal moves, his score shall be a draw. G. 0moking is permitted only in the section of the venue designated by the arbiter

1&.# The scoresheet shall be used only for recording the moves, the times of the clocks, the offers of a draw, and matters relating to a claim and other relevant data. 1&.5 -layers who have finished their games shall be considered to be spectators. 1&." It is forbidden to distract or annoy the opponent in any manner whatsoever. This includes unreasonable claims, unreasonable offers of a draw or the introduction of a source of noise into the playing area. 1&.J Infraction of any part of *rticles 1&.1 to 1&." shall lead to penalties in accordance with *rticle 1G.#. 1&.' -ersistent refusal by a player to comply with the :aws of !hess shall be penalised by loss of the game. The arbiter shall decide the score of the opponent. 1&.7 If both players are found guilty according to *rticle 1&.', the game shall be declared lost by both

players. 1&.18 In the case of *rticle 18.&.d or *ppendix E a player may not appeal against the decision of the arbiter. =therwise a player may appeal against any decision of the arbiter, unless the rules of the competition specify otherwise. 4rticle ,/8 The role of the 4r9iter ?See Preface@ 1G.1 The arbiter shall see that the :aws of !hess are strictly observed. 1G.& The arbiter shall act in the best interest of the competition. /e should ensure that a good playing environment is maintained and that the players are not disturbed. /e shall supervise the progress of the competition. 1G.G The arbiter shall observe the games, especially when the players are short of time, enforce decisions he has made and impose penalties on players where appropriate. 1G.# The arbiter can apply one or more of the following penalties% 1. &. G. #. 5. ". warning increasing the remaining time of the opponent reducing the remaining time of the offending player declaring the game to be lost reducing the points scored in the game by the offending party increasing the points scored in the game by the opponent to the maximum available for that game J. expulsion from the event. 1G.5 The arbiter may award either or both players additional time in the event of external disturbance of the game. 1G." The arbiter must not intervene in a game except in cases described by the :aws of !hess. /e shall not indicate the number of moves made, except in applying *rticle '.5, when at least one flag has fallen. The arbiter shall refrain from informing a player that his opponent has completed a move or that the player has not pressed his clock. 1G.J 1. 0pectators and players in other games are not to speak about or otherwise interfere in a game. If necessary, the arbiter may expel offenders from the playing venue. If someone observes an irregularity, he may inform only the arbiter. &. Hnless authorised by the arbiter, it is forbidden for anybody to use a mobile phone or any kind of communication device in the playing venue and any contiguous area designated by the arbiter. 4rticle ,08 6(#!
1#.1 Cember federations may ask ?IE to give an official decision about problems relating to the :aws of !hess.