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KNOWLEDGE INSTITUTE OF

TECHNOLOGY
SALEM-637 504

Beyond Knowledge

MOBILE COMPUTING
Prepared by,

M.Kavipriya
B.E II-year-cse
kaviabi.163@gmail.com

V.Nandhini
B.E II-year-cse
nandhiniviswam@gmail.com

personal digital assistants (PDAs), and

ABSTRACT
Mobile computing has become

mobile phones. By distinguishing mobile

an important new paradigm in today's

computing

world of networked computing systems.

computing systems we can identify the

Ranging

to

distinctions in the tasks that they

cellular phones and WiFi/Bluetooth-

perform, the way that they are designed,

enabled

sensor

and the way in which they are operated.

networks, mobile computing has become

Among the distinguishing aspects of

ubiquitous in its impact on our daily

mobile computing systems are their

lives. The debut if iPhones and the

prevalent wireless network connectivity,

proliferation of other handheld devices

their small size, the mobile nature of

has spurred excitement and interest in

their use, their power sources, and their

this evolving field. In a time where

functionalities that are particularly suited

mobile

and

to the mobile user. Whereas there are a

embedded systems gain importance, too

variety of methodologies, techniques,

much time is spent to reinventing user

frameworks and tools that are used in

interfaces for each new device. To

developing

enhance

and

systems, there are very few for mobile

reusability of systems and their user

systems. Although mobile computing

interfaces we propose a runtime user

systems have existed as long as their

interface description language, which

stationary counterparts, most of the

can cope with constraints found in

mature

embedded

architectures in software engineering

from
PDAs

wireless
to

wireless

computing

future

laptops

devices

extensibility

systems

and

mobile

computing devices.

INTRODUCTION
Mobile computing systems are
computing systems that may be easily
moved physically and whose computing
capabilities may be used while they are
being moved. Examples are laptops,

systems

software

tools,

from

for

other

stationary

methodologies,

and

today address the needs of stationary


systems.

Mobile computing is an

umbrella

term

used

to

describe

technologies that enable people to access


network services anyplace, anytime, and
anywhere. Ubiquitous computing and
nomadic computing are synonymous
with mobile computing. Information
access via a mobile device is plagued by
low

available

bandwidth,

poor

connection maintenence, poor security,

be connected to a fixed physical link. In

and addressing problems. Unlike their

wireless connectivity, mobile computing

wired counterparts, design of software

devices found a great way to connect

for

consider

with other devices on the network.

resource limitation, battery power and

Mobile computing devices need not be

display size.

wireless.

DEFINITION

Mobile

mobile

devices

must

Users with portable computers

computing.

Good

or

bad?

still have network connections while

The mobile computing where

they move. Mobile Computing is when a

anyone with a mobile computer, laptop

(work) process is moved from a normal

or net book and a wireless internet

fixed position to a more dynamic

connection can do some work. Yet is this

position. The term mobile computing is

a good thing? Sure it allows people to be

used to describe ones use of computing

more productive yet every coin has two

devices while away from a normal, fixed

sides. In these stressful times where

workplace. In other words, mobile

every minute is accounted for, where

computing is using portable computing

every second lost means money, life and

systems and communications devices to

status could be missed out on. We need

access mobile wireless networks while

more than ever some time off to relax

in

common

and unwind. There are too many

misconception is that wireless means the

examples of people going nuts because

Internet. However, wireless actually

they don't have enough time off to relax.

refers to the underlying technology that

If we use these mobile computing tools

supports the transport of data between a

the way they are supposed to be used I

mobile device and a central computing

can say that they are a big boon for our

system without a wired communication

lives. If these tools are abused then the

between the two. Mobile computing is

only loss is our sanity. Personally I value

extremely versatile and can be beneficial

my sanity and now that I have scratched

to anyone, including individuals, small

my daily computing itch (its an

companies, and large organizations. A

addiction I am sure) I have some rather

technology that allows transmission of

inviting waves calling me.

transit.

The

most

data, via a computer, without having to

Cellular Digital Packet Data

MOBILE

COMPUTING

(CDPD) in mobile computing

COMPONENTS

CDPD technology utilizes the


same

analog

cellular

(1) a mobile network,

network

(2) systems and

infrastructure that is used for voice


communications with mobile telephones,

applications software, and


(3) a portable

but adapts it for packet switched data.


Data is transmitted over radio channels
during

idle

times

between

voice

transmissions, making efficient use of

communications system.
HOW

have priority over data in accessing the


shared radio channels. Users log on once
per day to register on the network and
messages automatically locate them.
Provider fees are based on the amount of
data that's transmitted not the actual
connection time. The channel data rate
supported by a CDPD network is 19.2
kilobits per second (kbps), however
actual data throughput is more like 10
kbps due to protocol overhead and radio
channelcontention.

COMPUTING

WORKS?
First, a person must be able

bandwidth that would otherwise be


wasted. However, voice users always

MOBILE

to access a mobile network. Mobile


wireless

networks

involve

radio

communications services carried on


between mobile stations or receivers and
land stations, and by mobile stations
communicating

amongst

themselves.

These services consist of Wi-Fi (wireless


fidelity) network service providers who
provide wireless network coverage in
offices, public places, homes, small
workplaces, etc. The network service
providers use a wireless access point
device to provide wire-free network
coverage in designated areas, which
allow mobile devices to connect to the
mobile wireless network. These mobile
networks typically provide users with
service that is comparable to that of
stationary subscribers.
Second, a person must
have system and applications software,
which is also referred to as mobile
services.

The

software,

or

mobile

service, enables a person to access the

think in terms of model transformation

Internet, send and receive e-mails, and

instead of code generation, because

download electronic content on their

implementation languages are also based

portable

on their own metamodel definitions. The

communications

Additionally,
windows

users

word

system.

may

work

Unified

Modeling

Language

is

excel

standard representation and graphical

audio/video

notation for describing these shared

Microsoft

models. The important point is that we

PowerPoint, draw images, write text

must think about the information content

message, and download audio files such

model without getting caught up in the

as mp3.

details

spreadsheets,

documents,

on

make

presentations

using

Third, a person must


have

some

form

of

portable

of

implementation

syntax.

Conceptual models of XML applications


also

improve

communication

with

communications system, also referred to

business stakeholders who are unfamiliar

as

or

with the increasingly complex grammars

Such

of new XML schema and Web service

devices are mobile because they are

definition languages. Whereas the DTD

designed to be easily carried around.

schema standard is easy to learn, the

Examples of these devices include

W3C XML Schema offers many more

laptops, notebooks, palmtops, smart cell

design alternatives, and the growing

phones, or PDAs.

array of Web service specifications such

mobile

handheld

computing

computing

devices

devices.

as SOAP, WSDL and WSFL present

XML in UML Analysis and

database systems, successful deployment

Design
If we gain a deep
understanding of the conceptual models
that define e-business processes and
related information content, we can
transform these logical models into
alternative implementation languages,
and

further challenges. However, as in

reverse

engineer

the

implementations into logical models. In


my recent work, I've found it helpful to

of XML in large distributed systems


depends on critical design decisions.
UML profiles are used to describe these
design choices when customizing the
UML models for XML schemas and
Web services. But there are also several
hundred preexisting Models are an
essential part of system analysis and
design, be they specified in UML or
defined by the structure of software

artifacts

such

schemas.

encryption and authentication unit and

However, models that are tied too

an external packet processing device

closely

deployment

which is provided in a visited network at

technology may be short-lived. If your

which the mobile computer is located

company decides to switch from J2EE to

and having a function for relaying

Microsoft's .NET, will your system's

packets transferred between a computer

design survive the migration? The

located in the visited network and a

answer is yes, if you build in resilience

computer located in another network by

from the start by using a model-driven

applying

architecture (MDA). MDA enables a

authentication

separation of domain models from

controlling a selected one of the packet

specific deployment platforms.

encryption and authentication unit and

to

as

XML

today's

the

encryption

and

processing;

and

the external packet processing device to

PRIVACY AND SECURITY


With proper proofs of
knowledge of inputs, our mix net
achieves privacy similar to standard
ElGamal-based

mix

nets.

Public

Verifiability: The operations of our mix


net on the well-formed messages can be

carry

out

the

authentication

processing

Authentication: A packet
encryption and authentication method

and

on

the

input/output packets, by setting the


packet encryption and authentication
unit ON when the packet encryption and
authentication unit is selected, and
setting

the

packet

authentication

verified.

encryption

unit

encryption
OFF

when

and
the

external packet processing device is


selected.

for use in a mobile computer for


carrying
moving

out

communications

among

while

BENEFITS

inter-connected

To answer this and the many

networks, the mobile computer being

question that must be addressed in the

provided with a packet encryption and

decision-making

authentication unit for applying an

importance to understand how the

encryption and authentication processing

mobile technology solution solves a

on input/output packets of the mobile

particular business problem and fits into

computer, the method comprising the

the workspace. In fact, addressing the

steps of: selecting one of the packet

how determines the people, process, and

process,

it

is

technology changes that will make the

ADVANTAGE

introduction

COMPUTING

of

mobile

computing

requires careful planning, executive


sponsorship, and end-user commitment.
Here is an example of a busy family
clinic

that

computing.

is

considering

This

clinic

is

mobile
having

problems with timely charge capture,


high volume of lost charge, and claim
denials based on inaccurate visit coding.
Physicians use pre-printer check-off
forms to indicate visit services and
handwrite in anything that is not on the
sheet. The forms are dropped into a box
at front desk and then keyed into the
billing system by the administrative staff
at the end of the day or whenever there
is free time. In reality, the charge forms
may not get entered for days.

OF

MOBILE

Mobile computing offers


several advantages for everyone who
chooses to utilize the increasingly
attractive technology.

For example,

mobile computing is extremely versatile.


Additionally, ad hoc mobile networks
allow

for

increased

capability,

in

information

improvements

accessibility and efficiency, enhanced


flow of information, and quick and
efficient information retrieval. Utilizing
a

mobile

network

through

mobile

computing saves time, reduces rework,


reduces unnecessary travel, and can
reduce costs. Advantages of mobile
computing
business

specifically
environments

related
may

to

include

reducing operational and administrative

CHALLENGES IN MOBILE

staff,

COMPUTING

improving customer service, reducing

Wireless Communications

improving

communications,

manufacturing costs, shortening business

Quality of connectivity

cycles, reducing costs, and increasing

Bandwidth limitations

worker efficiency.

Mobility
Location transparency

LIMITATIONS OF MOBILE

Location dependency

COMPUTING

Portability
Power limitations
Display, processing,
storage limitations

Although mobile
computing offers numerous advantages,
there are some limitations to the
technology. For example, a user may
experience insufficient bandwidth. This

means when a user needs access to a

Social Interactivity: Social

network such as the internet while in

interaction is a dynamic, changing

transit may have to resort to slow

sequence of social actions between

wireless WAN (wide area network)

individuals (or groups) who modify their

systems that were primarily intended for

actions and reactions according to those

telephone use. Higher speed wirelesses

of their interaction partner(s). In other

LANs (local area network) are available,

words, they are events in which people

but only in specific locations. Another

attach meaning to a situation, interpret

limitation

what others are meaning, and respond

of

mobile

computing

is

security.

accordingly. In sociological hierarchy,


social interaction is more advanced than
behavior, action, social behavior, social

CHARACTERISTICS
Portability: Portability is a
characteristic attributed to a computer
program if it can be used in an operating
systems other than the one in which it
was created without requiring major
rework. Porting is the task of doing any

action and social contact, and is in turn


followed by more advanced concept of
social relation. In other words, social
interactions, which consist of social
actions, form the basis for social
relations.
Context Sensitivity: Reduced

work necessary to make the computer


program

run

in

environment.However,

the

new

programmers

using standard interfaces also sometimes


use operating system extensions or
special capabilities that may not be
present in the new operating system.
Uses of such extensions have to be
removed or replaced with comparable
functions in the new operating system.
In addition to language differences,
porting may also require data conversion
and adaptation to new system procedures
for running an application.

number of commands required to be


known to the user for a given level of
productivity. Reduced number of clicks
or keystrokes required to carry out a
given

operation.

Allows

consistent

behavior to be pre-programmed or
altered by the user. Reduces the number
of options to be on screen at one time.
Connectivity: Ability to be
digitally connected for the purpose of
communication
environment.

of
The

data
Portliest

in

any

Mobile

Computing & Connectivity Channel


delivers product teardown reports that
cover devices used to conduct business

-- and often to deliver entertainment as


well -- for the mobile professional.

6. Unified user profiles simplify


interaction with the mobile Internet.

Product sub-categories include mobile

7. Mobile security gets serious.

Internet devices (MIDs), ultra-mobile

8. The wireless industry goes green.

PCs

(UMPCs),

net

books,

laptop

computers, and wireless communication

APPLICATION

cards and dongles used to support data


communications in mobile computing
environments. Product selection in the
Mobile

Computing

&

Connectivity

Channel tends to emphasize new product


categories and very compact platforms
supporting an established set of product
functions.

The aim of pervasive


computing is to combine the world of
computation and human environment in
an effective and natural way so that the
data can be easily accessible from
anywhere, at

anytime by the users

[1].the potential for pervasive computing


evident in almost every aspect of our

Individuality: Ability to use


the technology to provide scaffolding on
difficult

activities

and

lesson

customization for individual learners.

lives, including hospitals, emergency


and

critical

solutions,

industry,

education. or the hospital battlefield. The


use of this technology in the field of
health and wellness has been termed

TRENDS

IN

MOBILE

computing is introduced, cancer can be

COMPUTING
1.

pervasive health care. When pervasive

Unified-memory-as-a-service

provides wireless memory on demand.


2. Mobile surface computing makes
the device interface more powerful.
3. Widgets improve the mobile user

treated in more organized and better


fashion. With pervasive health care,
cancer patients.
Emergency Services: Ability to receive
information on the move is vital where
the emergency services are involved.

experience.
devices

Information regarding the address, type

constantly maintain the best connectivity

and other details of an incident can be

for users.

dispatched quickly, via a CDPD system

4.

Applications

and

management

using mobile computers, to one or

frameworks help manage the risks of

several appropriate mobile units which

mobile content.

are in the vicinity of the incident.

5.

Mobile

content

Vehicles: Transmission of news, road

limitations of mobile computing, using

condition, weather, music via DAB

mobile computing systems is extremely

Personal communication using GSM.

beneficial and has become, and will

Position via GPS. Local ad-hoc network

continue to be, a very important part of

with

prevent

life.

system,

REFERENCES

vehicles

accidents,

close-by

to

guidance

redundancy .Vehicle data (e.g., from


busses,

high-speed

trains)

can

be

transmitted in advance for maintenance.

1. The
networks

Mobile computing is an important,


technology
communicating.

increasingly
and

and
book

Communications,

CONCLUSION
and

of

popular

method

Regardless

of

of
the

Wireless
mobile

computing, by Ivan Stojmenovi.


2. The

evolving,

book

"Mobile
Addison-

Wesley.
3. The

book

UMTS

mobile computing, By
Huber.

and

Josef Franz