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Electricity and Magnetism

Electricity has been known about since ancient times. But the phenomenon was studied systematically by M. Faraday (1791-1867) to produce an electric current from a magnetic field. Thereafter, J.C. Maxwell (1831-1879) formulated classical electromagnetic theory. 1. Survey of basic concepts: A) Electric Charge, Current and Force A.1 Electric Charge Electric charge is an important property of nature. Some particles, for example the proton, have a positive charge. Some particles, like the electron, have a negative charge. Neutrons have no overall charge, because they contain three quarks whose charges cancel each other out. Photons, which are particles of electromagnetic radiation, have no electrical charge at all. Objects that have an electrical charge exert electrostatic forces on each other. Two like charges repel Two opposite charges attract

A.2 The unit of charge The unit used to measure electrical charge is the coulomb (C). Charge is conserved and quantized: Electrical charge could only be found in which multiples of a fundamental amount of charge, e = 1.602192 C.

A.3 Coulombs Law Charged objects interact by exerting forces on one another: Unit of qs: [ ] = C (coulomb) = A s; k= ; = 8.85 (electric current)

(permittivity constant) ) m, q m, q

( Compare to Newtons law for the gravitational force: HM 1: How large is the angle ? (m=0.01 kg, l=1m, q = C) With help of Coulombs law we define the electric field field. HM 2: Calculate the static force between the proton and electron in hydrogen. Calculate eventually the gravitational force between two protons in the same distance. Compare the magnitudes both of them.

analog to of gravitational

Quiz: Consider the neutron decay: If the positive particle and the negative particle not always in , what can you conclude in the case? A.4 Examples of Electrostatic force Van de Graaff generator : The dome of a Van de Graaff generator is charged by the friction of a rotating belt. The force due to the large positive charge on the belt nearby ionizes atoms in the air (this means it gives them a charge by adding or removing some electrons). If a second sphere is brought close then a charge transfer results, often producing a spark between the sphere and the dome. Painting a large steel plate: load positively the spray nozzle and ground the steel plate. Dust filtration using electrostatics Reading Assignment: By oil tank transportation, Foto-copy Thunderstorm lightning A.5 Current and resistance Current is a stream of moving charges, i.e. it is a transfer of charge from one place to another. In a metal, the movement of free electrons produces the charge transfer. (A lightning strike is a charge transfer in which ions and electrons move very rapidly.) The size of the current is the rate of charge transfer per second: , [ ] = A(mpere) A.6 The microscopic nature of current Charge carriers are the moving charged particles that make up an electric current. Charge carriers Conductor Charge Example Ions liquid pos. or negative car battery Ions gas pos. or negative fluorescent tube Electrons metal or gas negative wires n is the number of charge carriers in every ( ) speed. Then, current in wire , A is the cross-sectional area, and v is the average . q is the charge on each charge carrier.

Example: The number of free electron per cubic meter in a copper wire is approximately 8x , that is, about 1 or 2 per atoms. A typical diameter of wire is 1 mm. if the current 1 A, what is the average speed of the electrons along the wire?
( )( ( ) )( )

v= m/s

= 9.9

But current is instantaneous. What is that? Think about a water carrying long hose! A.7 Resistance 2

The forces between charge carriers make them accelerate until they collide with atoms or ions within a material, causing them to transfer energy to the material, and increasing its temperature. The charge carriers then continue to accelerate as before. As a result of this cycle of acceleration and collision, the charge carriers settle into a motion with a constant average speed. They are continually gaining energy from the cell and losing it to the material. This is a microscopic view of resistance in a circuit. A.8 Thermal motion At room temperature electrons in a circuit have far more thermal energy than electrical. This makes them move very quickly at around m/s. The collisions between electrons and metal ions are random, and the thermal motion does not carry the electrons any distance along the wire. If there is a temperature difference between the ends of the wire, the electrons at the hotter end will be moving faster than those at the colder end. Slowly moving electrons colliding with faster ones will tend to speed up, and there will be a transfer of energy along the wire. This process is still essentially random, because there is overall force acting on the electrons, and individual electron will remain in the same region of the wire. Energy is transferred, but charges not.

If the wire is connected to a cell, the electrons gain an additional drift motion that carries them along the wire, and so charge is transferred. The direction of this is not random, because they are being directed by the line of force from the cell. Free electrons (conduction electrons) in an isolated length of copper wire are in random motion at speeds of the order of m/s. the electric current in wire can be imagined like the flow of water through a garden hose represents the direction flow of positive charge. Current splitting at a junction into branches conserved: , of which statement is the Kirchhoffs law A.9 Current density Drift speed: when a conductor does have a current through it, electrons actually move randomly, but tend to drift with a drift speed vd in the direction opposite that of the applied electric field that causes the current. The drift speed ( or m/s) is tiny compared with the speeds in the random motion. The number of charge carriers in a length L of the wire is nAL, where n is the number of carriers per unit volume. So, the total charge q = (nAL) e. With the drift speed vd, the time crossing L is t = . Therefore, . So, vd = = . In the form of vector ( ) . 3

A.10 Resistance and resistivity A potential difference V should be proportional to i. so, we define its resistance R = , which is the Ohms law. Unit is ohm ( ), which is derived from V/A. In the similar fashion we define resistivity of a material A.11 A conductivity, count concept of the resistivity, . The unit is . Then, = . = .

Resistance is a property of an object. Resistivity is a property of a material. From above definitions we see the followings: E = V/L and j = i / A. So, . Then, . ( ). is called the

Empirically, a good approximation form is: temperature coefficient of resistivity. A.12 A microscopic view of Ohms law

Suppose an electron of mass m in an electric field of magnitude E. According to Newtons law a= So, vd = a = = . . Combining this result to vd = leads to = , which we can write as E = ( ) . In the average time between collisions, the average electron will acquire a drift speed of vd = a . Comparing this result with

. This is hardly affected by the field E. )); is

A.13 Variation of resistance with temperature: R = R0 (1 + ( temperature in K and R0 is the resistance at T0 = 273 K(= C). 1. Survey of basic concepts: B) Electric Circuits

A simple water circuit can be compared to an electric circuit. The pump plays the role of the battery cell, the narrow pipe that of the large resistance, and the wide pipe that of a smaller resistance. B.1 Series and parallel circuits Circuit Series Parallel Current same splits Voltage splits same

B.2 Energy transformations in circuits Even though the drift speed of electrons in the conductor(wire) is very slow, the transport of their energy is almost instantaneous. Imagine a water carrying long hose. Fill a small amount of ink at one end. If we give some impulse to the end, then we see the instantaneous impulse transfer to the other end, but the ink part its self not moving quickly!

Inside a cell, chemical energy is transformed into the electrical potential energy of the electrons. This is transformed into the kinetic energy of the electrons by the forces acting on them, in the same way as gravitational potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy when an object falls. B.3 Potential difference, electromotive force (e.m.f.), and voltage drop Potential difference := 1 V = 1 J/C e.m.f. := voltage drop :=
() ( ) () ( )

Example: a cell converting 6 J chemical energy into electrical energy, two identical lamps, observing 3 C of charge moving around circuit. e.m.f. = = 2 V. voltage drop across each lamp = =1V

( each lamp converting half of the available energy) Remark: a power supply has its own internal resistance, i.e. efficiency < 100 % B.4 Kirchhoffs laws The total current arriving at a junction in a circuit must equal the total current leaving the junction. ( charge-conserving) Also, the sum of the potential difference round any closed loop in a circuit must be zero. ( energy-conserving) Example: voltage drop AD equal for both circuits: V = R I; I = IL + IR at A, Kirchhoff RL = 2k +2k = 4k RR = 1k +2k +1k = 4k . So, RL = RR. Therefore, IL = IR because of symmetry! IL = 0.5 I = IR. V = RR IR = RL IL. Thus, IL = V/RL = 4V/4 = 1 A. Also, IR = 1 A. The circuit is like a simple circuit with the cell (emf=4V), a resistance R = 2k , and a current I = 2 A. B.5 Resistors Data infos of a commercial resistor: 5

B.6 Factors that influence resistance Electrical energy is converted into thermal energy whenever current passes through a conductor. This may be necessary to reduce the current in a circuit, but it may also be a wasteful loss of energy needed elsewhere in the circuit. Materials that do not have any resistance to current are called superconductors, do exist, but they only work at extremely low temperature (a few kelvin). 2. Electric fields and electric flux 2.1 Electric Fields In analog to the gravitational field we can define the electric field. The electric field is a vector field:

2.2 Electric Field Lines If we let a test charge freely move, it moves along certain path. This path is called the electric field line (line of force). The relation between the field lines and electric field vectors is: (1) At any point, the direction of a straight field line or the direction of the tangent to a curved field line gives the direction of at that point, and (2) the field lines are drawn so that the number of lines per unit area, measured in a plane that is perpendicular to the lines, is proportional to the magnitude of . Thus, E is large where field lines are close together and small where they are far apart. Quiz 1: Imagine the field lines of a charge in a homogeneous space. Imagine field lines of an infinitely large, non-conducting sheet. 2.3 Electric field due to a point charge 2.4 Electric field due to an electric dipole A dipole is for two charged particles of magnitude q but of opposite sign, separated by a distance d. The line binding two charges is called the dipole axis. At a point z from the dipole center on the axis, E is in the direction of the dipole axis: (for d << z: far from dipole) E = E+ + E- = {1+ ( )} = = =
( ) ( )

) .

. So,

with a dipole moment

The torque of a dipole is exerted in an electric field: Its potential energy is U = -W = Example: micro wave cooking 2.5 Electric field due to a line of charge =

= pE cos =

We learned that the charge is quantized microscopically. But macroscopically we handle a great number of charges. So, such distributions are said to be rather continuous within a volume with a charge density. Positive electric charge q is distributed uniformly along a line with length 2a, lying along the y-axis between y=-a and y=+a (charged rod). The electric field at point on the xaxis at a distance x from the origin is: dq = = dy. The distance r from this segment to P is (x2+y2)1/2, so the magnitude of field dE at P due to this segment is dE = dEx = dE cos , We note that sin for dE, we find
( )

. Split this in terms of its x- and y-components: = x/(x2+y2)1/2; combining these with the expression

dEy = -dE sin . = y/(x2+y2)1/2 and cos dEx =



dEy =

To find the total field components Ex and Ey, we integrate these expressions, noting that to include all of q, we must integrate from y=-a to y=+a. Ex = function) Ey = So,
( )

, (even

= 0. (odd function)

= .

For an infinite line of charge is:

2.6 Electric field due to a charged disk Electric field at point P, a distance x from the disk along its central axis: dq = (2 ), Ex =
( ( ) )

dA =


( )


For a large plate is Ex =

. Thus, the field is uniform! The direction is perpendicular to the

plate. HM 3: Electric field due to a sphere of homogeneous charge distribution 3. Gauss Law Gauss law considers a hypothetical imaginary closed surface enclosing the charge distribution: Gaussian surface (maximal symmetry!) 3.1 Flux Let represent the volume flow rate at which air flows through the loop:

3.2 Gauss law qenc The net flux of an electric field through a closed surface ( a Gaussian surface ) to the net charge qenc that is enclosed by that surface. i.e. Poisson-Equation

= qenc (=

QUIZ 2: Verify an electric field (Gaussian law)

under the conserving electric charge q using flux concept

3.3 Gauss law and coulombs law Suppose a surface of a sphere which is centered in q: On the surface E is the same for all on the surface. So, q = = E = E (4 r2): this is the Coulombs law E = . Examples Suppose an infinitely long cylindrical rod with a uniform positive linear charge density . at a distance r from the axis of the rod. If we take the surface of the circular cylinder of radius r and length h, coaxial with the rod as the Gaussian, E should be radial and constant on the circle of the cylinder because of symmetric reason: h = E (2 r h), which yields = . Suppose a homogeneously charged plate: A = E (2A), which yields E = . E is

perpendicular as the normal of each surface. Two conducting plates (capacitor): Suppose a box parallel to the plates surfaces charged in opposite sign each other. If the box contains both plates, then the total charge inside of the box is zero. So, E = 0 outside of the plates! Now, suppose a box contains only one plate. Then, A = E (2A), which is E = . The other part contributes the same amount because of its opposite sign. So, E = Suppose a conduction sphere: inside E = 0. Outside E = . Its direction is radial. HM 4: Suppose a non-conducting sphere with a homogeneous charge distribution. Discuss E for whole space. 4. Electric potential energy and power Converted Energy U = charge X potential difference = q V = t V 4.1 Power in electric circuits P= The unit of P is 1 V A = ( . )( ) inside plates.

. P due to a resistance P = i2 R (or P = ).

Energy units : Wh 8

4.2 Electric Potential V= ; U = Uf Ui = -W

4.3 Equipotential surfaces Vf = Vi; consequently, W = 0. 4.4 A conductor forms an equipotential volume and has an equipotential surface. There can be no electric fields inside a perfect conductor. A charged conductor carries its charge in a thin layer on the surface. There can be no net charge in the volume of a conductor. Field lines touch conductors at 900.

4.5 Induced charges A conducting sphere placed near a point charge will become polarized. Charge carriers (electrons) will move round the sphere until an equipotential surface is formed. 4.6 Fafaday cage The Faraday cages are simple devices that use the properties of conductors to prevent electromagnetic fields getting into or out of the cage. They can be used to screen electronic and electrical equipment. They are literally cages constructed from a mesh of metal. If the cages are placed in the presence of an electric field it forms an equipotential charges will be induced on the surface of the metal mesh. The total electrical field inside the mesh is the sum of the external field and the field due to the induced charges. These two fields will always cancel each other inside the cage. Any equipment placed inside the cage will be screened. Field and potential gradient work done on test charge = F ; moved distance by , test charge with F = E energy, so E= . The work done on the test charge is equal to the decrease in electric potential

4.7 Conservative fields The potential difference between two points in an electric field does not depend on the route taken between the points. So if a charge is moved round a closed path no net work is done by the electric force. Its implications in circuit theory is the Kirchhoffs law. Exapmle: electric field, gravitational field 4.8 Calculating the Potential from the Field dW = . by an electric field. So, W = q (define Vf = == = 0) . Therefore, V =

4.9 Potential due to a point charge Vf Vi = So, V = = =

4.10 Calculating the Field from the potential 4.11 Potential of a charged isolated conductor V is continuous HM 5: Sketch or draw E and V.

Ex =

4.12 Ohmic and non-ohmic conductors: an ohmic conductor has a constant resistance independent of the current that is passing through it. In electronics, resistors are designed to be as nearly ohmic as possible. They are very good at dissipating thermal energy generated by the current passing through them. A graph of current against resistance for an ohmic conductor is a straight line passing through the origin. The gradient of the line is the conductance ( 1/resistance ) of the conductor. Non-ohmic is, for example, a filament: its temperature rises and alters its resistance. On the other hand, there are semiconductor devices in which the number of charge carriers changes with temperature. 4.13 Variation of resistance with current The filament of a lamp gets hotter as the current increases. This increases the lamps resistance. A semiconductor diode is also a non-ohmic conductor. Once a silicon diode is conducting, it will adjust its resistance to maintain a voltage drop of about 0.6 V 10

across its terminal. If a diode is connected across a supply of emf greater than 0.6 V, then a very large current will pass through the diode, which will probably destroy it. For this reason, diodes often have protective resistors in series with them to limit the amount of current. A diode will only conduct current in one direction. 4.14 Variation of resistance with temperature and light Thermistors and light-dependent resistors(LDRs) are semiconductor devices with resistances that change dramatically under different conditions. Unlike a device made from a metallic conductor, a thermistors resistance falls as the temperature rises. As the temperature increases, the number of charge carriers in the material increases, reducing the resistivity. Similarly, the energy from light falling on the surface of an LDR is used by the semiconductor material to make more charge carriers available, so its resistivity falls as the level of light rises. 4.15 Variable resistors and potential dividers all variable resistors, potentiometers or pots, is being adjusted to control a voltage drop or current in a circuit. 4.16 Potential divider circuits A potential divider circuit is formed whenever two resistances are connected in series across a source of emf. 4.17 Ammeters and voltmeters An instrument used to measure currents is called an ammeter. It is essential that the resistance RA of the ammeter be very much


smaller than other resistances in the circuit. A meter used to measure potential is called a voltmeter. It is essential that the resistance RV of a voltmeter be very large than the resistance of any circuit element across which the voltmeter is connected. In general use, a digital meter is much better than an analogue meter. However, if you are recording a slowly changing current, a digital meter can be difficult to use as it too precise and the last digit may fluctuate rapidly, which is very hard to read. In this case an analogue meter would show a smoother change with time f. 4.18 Altering current Alternating current (ac) is very close to being a pure sinusoidal wave form (f=60 Hz). I = I0 sin(2 ) P= R (the factor is because of the average: P = R= R. So, ( ft) dt = ..

= 1/2). If the power is provided by a dc, then

4.19 Semiconductor devices We can roughly explain the differences in resistivity between semiconductors, insulators and metallic conductors in terms of the energies of their electrons. In a metallic conductor: Valence electrons that require only little energy can become free. Thermal energy can supply that energy, as can an electric field applied across the conductor. In an insulator: Significantly greater energy is required to free electrons. Thermal energy cannot supply enough energy. So, an insulating, or dielectric, material has no free charge. However, in the presence of an electric field the motion of the electrons round the atom can be disturbed. Normally the electrons circulate in a symmetrical manner so that the charge of the nucleus is screened. An electric field can exert a force on the electrons that disturbs the symmetrical nature of their motion, and the atom becomes polarized. If an electric field is generated through the volume of a dielectric, the polarized atoms will tend to line up along the field lines. Thus, The end surfaces of the material become charged A second electric field is set up in the material due to the charge on the polarized field E: Ep = E.

Therefore, Etot = E-Ep = (1- )E. This reduction in the total field in the material helps to increase the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor.


A semiconductor: it is like an insulator except that the energy required to free some electrons is not quite so great. Look at the resistivity In a conductor, n is large but very nearly constant with any change in temperature. The increase of resistivity with temperature for metals is due to an increase in the collision rate of the charge carriers. In a semiconductor, n is small but increase very rapidly with temperature as the increased thermal agitation makes more charge carriers available. Superconductors Resistivity disappears at below certain temperature. It means that charge can flow through a superconducting conductor without losing its energy to thermal energy. No colliding 4.20 Diodes are formed from a block of semiconductor material, half of which has been doped to make it p-type (Ga), and the other half n-type (As). At the p-n junction electrons move to p-region and combine to p-atoms and the previous in nregion occupied place now a hole with the positive charge. If an applied voltage with negative pole to p-side, then the applied negative pole drives away further coming electrons. So, reverse bias. If an applied voltage with positive pole to p-side, then the applied pole attracts further electrons from opposite side. So, forward bias. 4.21 L(ight)-E(mitting)-D(iode) behave just like ordinary junction diodes, but in addition they are extremely efficient converters of electric energy into light. 4.22 Laser diodes work in the same way as LEDs. In a laser diode two faces of the semiconductor wafer are turned into mirrors so that they reflect light back along the junction plane. The photons passing along the junctions stimulate electrons to emit light of the same wavelength and in the same direction. This increases the amount of light that is produced and also direct it along the plane of the junction. One of the mirrors is designed to let some light through, and the result is a laser beam emerging from this face of the wafer. 4.23 Photodiodes are reverse biased diodes. When a diode is reverse biased a small current ( A) arises because of thermal production of electron-hole pairs. If light of a specific frequency is shone onto the diodes depletion region, the energy of the photons can be absorbed 13

and used to produce extra electron-hole pairs. The result is an increase in the revere-bias current that is proportional to the light intensity. A vibration on this device is the solid-state particle detector. In this context some of the energy from a high-energy subatomic particle passing through the detector is used to create the electronhole pairs. Strips of these detectors close to one another are used to record the direction in which particles are travelling. Since the depletion region increased by the reverse bias is a volume with an electric field, it can be used as a radiation detector. 4.24 Electricity in the home Effects of electric shock: > 15 mA at 50 Hz and > 30 mA at 5 Hz or 1000 Hz Why is 230V? by 2 kW: 9A by 230V, but 18A by 110V, which is heating wire. To lower resistance one must use thicker wires which cost a lot. And think about the loss to minimize. The lower the supply voltage, the higher the current for the same power by long distance! Safety features: Double insulation to protect by a higher voltage. Fuses, but residual current devices (RCDs) better Earthing 5. Capacitance Capacitors are devices for storage of electric energy. Any arrangement of two conductors isolated from one another by an insulator will form a capacitor. When a capacitor is charged up, will be a potential difference between two conducting plates. The ratio between the charge and the pd is called the capacitance: C := q/V. [C] = F(arad) In practice or pF are more convenient units.

5.1 Capacitors are in equipotential Why are they in equipotential? Because they are capacitors! 5.2 Dielectric between capacitor plates The strength of the electric field between the plates of a capacitor is given by E = . So, E1 = and E2 = . Without the dielectric E1 = E2, but with the dielectric, an insulating material, in place in capacitor 2 E2 = (1 ) E1. Thus, V2 = (1 ) V2 C1 = and for the capacitor2 with

For the air-filled capacitor 1 the dielectric C2 = where

is the relative permittivity of the 14

dielectric. Hence, oil: 4.5, water: 80.4

. Examples: vacuum

= 1, air: 1.00054, polystyrene: 2.6, paper: 3.5,

5.3 Dielectrics: an atomic view For an example, water has permanent electric dipole moments. Normally disordered molecules will be arranged in an electric field . Because of this arrangement the electric field in . Then, The medium(E) will be decreased E = . Introducing the electric displacement Gauss law becomes .

Manufacture of capacitors a) Paper or plastic capacitors The conductors are metal foil strips; the insulator is waxed paper or plastic b) Mica capacitors The sheets of metal foils are separated by strips of mica, a natural mineral that is easily split into very thin sheets (like slate) c) Electrolytic capacitors Metal sheets (aluminium) are separated by paper that has been soaked in a chemical. The paper does not insulate the two plates, but as the capacitor is charging up a thin layer of aluminium oxide is formed on the positive plate, providing an insulating layer between the plates. The layer is very thin ( 0.01 mm ) so the capacitance is very high. (polarity-capacitors, because of the nature of the chemical reaction ) d) Variable capacitors The insulator is air, and the capacitance can be changed by altering the overlapping area between the plates.

The resistance of a conductor depends on: R= , the nature of the material the size of sample (length and cross-sectional area) R L and R 1/A the temperature of the sample. is the resistivity of the material: [ ] = Resistivity, 1.7 21.0 2.4 1.6 m /K

Material copper lead gold silver

/ m Temperature coefficient, 4.3 4.3 4.0 4.0


nichrome constantan

130.0 47.0

0.17 0.02

5.4 Calculating the capacitance: apply a Gussian surface with a box for a parallel plate capacitor. q= E A. V = = = E d.

Then, C = =

5.5 Capacitors in parallel and in series Capacitors are in equipotential. So, CV = q = q1 + q2 + q3 = C1V+C2V+C3V. Therefore, C = C1+C2+C3. Induced q is the same for each capacitors in series. So, CV = q = C1V1 = C2V2 = C3V3 and V = V1+V2+V3. Therefore, That is . Example: Capacitor 1, with C1 = 3.55 F, is charged to a potential difference V0 = 6.30 V, using a 6.30 V battery. The battery is then removed, and the capacitor is connected as in the figure to an uncharged capacitor 2, with C2 = 8.95 F. When switch s is closed, charge flows between the capacitors. Find the charge on each capacitor when equilibrium is reached. Total charge in the circuit is q0 = C1V0. After switch on, C1 and C2 are in equipotential, V1 = V2, . , i.e. .

The charge balance is q0 = q1 + q2. Therefore, 5.6 Energy stored in an electric field dW = V dq = dq. U= So, W = = CV2 = =

. This work is stored in the capacitor, so that

In a parallel-plate capacitor with volume Ad, U = CV2 is stored. So, we can say a energy density u per unit volume: u = U/(Ad) = 6. Circuits DC: Circuits through which charge flows in one direction, direct-current circuits. 16 ( ) = whereby the relation C = is used.

AC: alternating currents. Pumping charges 6.1 Work, Energy, and Emf Emf 6.2 Resistance in Series battery with 12.0V dW = dq = i dt = . R dt =iR emf : electromotive force battery, electric generator

- iR1 iR2 iR3 = 0. So, i = V= (- ir).

6.3 Potential difference between two points

6.4 Ground: Grounding a circuit usually means connecting the circuit to a conducting path to Earths surface. Such a connection means only that the potential is defined to be zero at the grounding point in the circuit. 6.5 RC circuits The capacitor of capacitance is initially uncharged. To charge it, we close switch S on point a. This complete an RC series circuit consisting of the capacitor, an ideal batarry of emf , and a resistance R. As soon as the circuit is complete, charge begins to flow (current exists) between a capacitor plate and a battery terminal on each side of the capacitor. This current increases the charge q on the plates and the potential difference equals the potential difference VC ( = q/C) across the capacitor. When that potential difference equals the potential difference across the battery, the current is zero. What is the behavior q(t) of charge in time? From the circuit we know that = 0. The solution is q = C So, VC = = (1 (1 ). = 10 V: ) and i = =( ) . - iR - = 0 and i = . So, R + = (charging) with initial condition q (0)

Example: With R = 2000 , C = 1 F and The capacitive time constant q = C (1) = 0.63 C = RC;

During the first time constant the charge has increased from zero to 63 % of its final value C . HM5: complete a discharging process.


7. Magnetic fields We know a permanent magnet, which has always pair wise the opposite pols: with , : magnetic permeability constant ( or inductionsconstant) Analog to : charges. div = 0 : Amperic law = = = 0 because there rae no magnetic

Ex.: The magnetic field of a straight currentwire: . So, = .

Moving charges produce magnetic field. But, there is no magnetic charge. Electric field is defined by its force:

Magnetic field is defined in a same manner: (remember the right hand rule) [B] = tesla = 1 T = 1 N/(A.m); 1 G(auss) =

T is the order of the magnetic field of the earth.

In the interior of atoms: 10 T, The largest steady magnetic field in laboratory: 45 T, for short time(ms) 120 T, at the surface of neutron stars T. 7.1 Motion of charged particles in a magnetic field Lorentz-force: ( ).

Circular motion in magnetic field: qvB = m m=

7.2 Application of motion of charged particles Velocity selector v = m= for undeflected particles

Bainbridges mass spectrometer

7.3 Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor


7.4 Force between two parallel currents . the parallel current lines attract each other!

7.5 Force and torque on a current loop Define magnetic dipole moment Atomic magnetic moment: (A is the closed area of ) .

and the rotational moment . So, .

Suppose a rectangular loop (A = ab) The force of both sides are compensated each other. The force on the top side is F = I a B The total force is equal zero, but the torque =2F(b/2 sin ) = I B ab sin = I B A sin . So, .

Analog to electric case, 7.6 Electric motor


torque = F w cos . Now, F = B h . So, = How to increase the torque

Increasing the area of the coil Increasing the current in the coil Using more turn of wire in the coil Using a stronger magnetic field Making he magnetic field radial rather than uniform (so

most of time)

7.7 Hall effect

7.8 Magnetic field of a current element law of Biot and Savart 7.9 Solenoids and Toroids A solenoid is the magnetic field produced by the current in a long, tightly wound helical coil of wire. Apply Amperian law, outside B = 0. With n number of turns per unit length: Bh = i n h. So, the inside B = in uniform Toroid: wired around on the surface of a doughnut (torus). B 2 r = Field of magnetic dipole: 8. Induction and inductance Faradays law of induction = BA for uniform B. unit 1 weber = 1 Wb = 1 T . Magnetic flux Faradays law: (solenoid)

i n. So, B =

: HM 6

Lenzs law: nature reacts against the change. Quiz:

8.1 Self-induction For any inductor: n = L i. According to Faradays law:

( )

. So,

. 20

RL-circuit: A Resistor and an inductor in series: current) (decay of current): iR + L = 0;

- iR -L

= 0;

). (rise of

8.2 Energy stored in a magnetic field with multiplication of i: . Therefore, . . Thus, integral yields

8.3 LC Oscillator U= S0, 0 = Therefore, Thus, q = ( ). = ( ) . ( ) with

. There is no thermal energy dispatching due to R. . However, and .

8.4 RLC circuits ( ), with

. Consequently, ( ) . . ( )

a) A resistive load by an alternating generator with driving angular frequency By the loop ( ). b) A capacitive load ( ( constant c) An inductive load ( phase constant 8.5 The series RLC circuit Applied emf: sin ( ). Find ( ) in RLC series circuit. ) and ( ) . . Thus, ( ) ( ). Thus, ) and ) ( ). ( ). Thus, . So, ( ). Thus,

For a purely capacitive load the phase

For a purely inductive load the


Resistor: Here current and voltage are in phase; so the angle of rotation of voltage phasor the same as that of phasor . Capacitor: Here current leads voltage by less than that of phasor . Inductor: Here current lags voltage by greater than that of phasor . ; so the angle of rotation of voltage phasor is


; so the angle of rotation of voltage phasor


Impedance Z =

) ;

tan Ansatz: ( ). ,
( )

Solution with complex number: ( ( ) . Introduce Z = ) .

( ) ( )

Imaginary of Z is zero means the resonance frequency Therefore, 8.6 Transformator ; . Thus, (opposite helicity: in the same phase). . and ( ).


parallel helicity:

Eddy-current, dipole radiation, Pointing-vector, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung 9. Electromagnetic wave


Maxwells equations 9.1 Gauss law differential version 9.2 Induced magnetic fields differential version 9.3 EM-wave propagation ( (

) ) (

a) b) Direction of propagation: c) The fields always vary sinusoidally, just like transverse waves. Moreover, the fields vary with the same frequency and in phase with each other.

The dashed rectangle of dimensions dx and h: Faradays law dx , or ( ), or ( ) and ( ) = B (hdx). So,

. Thsu, h dE = h because of no

. In the same way for the induced E: and

current. Then,

= E (hdx). Thus,

. In this way induced E and B each other. So,


. To three dimensional extension with c = Solution of

( )

: .


| |. Also,

9.4 Energy and momentum in EM waves u= , because B = E/c. . is the energy flow. ( dU = u dV = )

Define Pointing vector in a vacuum: ( )( ). Bild S = u/c =

Energy flow per unit time per unit area. Then, S =

Power P =

Momentum p (pc = u):

Momentum flow rate per unit area is

10. Special relativity Einsteins fundamental postulates of special relativity can be stated as follow: A) The form of each physical law is the same in all inertial frames. B) Light moves at the same speed relative to all observers. 10.1 derivation of the factor

Suppose a free object moves at constant velocity. We assume that at time zero the object was at the point where the origins coincided. With no net external force, it must travel at constant velocity: its position must be a linear function of time in both frames. x = ut x = ut (12-1) Because of constants of u and u (x,t) must be related to (x,t) by a linear transformation. x = Ax + Bt t = Cx + Dt (12-2)

where A,B,C, and D are constants. The quantanty x/t = (Ax+Bt)/(Cx+Dt) = (Ax/t+B)/(Cx/t+D) = (Au+b)/(Cu+D) = constant ! If the object were fixed at the origin of frame S, it would move at speed v relative to frame S, so equation (12-1) would become x = 0 and x = vt. Inserting these in the first of equation (12-2), we obtain B = -Av (12-3) If the object were fixed at the frame S origin, it would have a velocity of v according to someone in frame S, so equations (12-1) would be x=-vt and x = 0. Inserting these in (12-2) gives D = -B/v or D = A (12-4)


If the object were a beam of light, Einsteins second postulate demands that its speed be c in both frames. Equations (12-1) become x = ct x = ct (12-5)

Inserting these in (12-2) and using (12-3) and (12-4) gives C = -v/c2 A With B, C, and D now in terms of A, we may write equations (12-2) as x = A (x-vt) t = A (-v/c2 x + t) (12-7) (12-6)

We can deduce A by a fairly simple argument if we first solve equations (12-7) for x and t. x=
( )



(+v/c2 x+t)

The factors, A and

, must be same in both frames of reference since there is no difference .

between S and S other than in the sign of v, which yields A =


x = ( x = (

), y = y, z = z, t = ( ), y = y, z = z, t = (

) and ) with .

10.2 Time dilation (t0 = t2 t1 at the point x) t1 =

(t1 + v/c2 x) and t2 =

(t2 + v/c2 x). So, t = t2-t1 = t1 =

10.3 Length contraction (L0 = x2 x1) L = x2 x1 = (x2 x1) = L0

10.4 Velocity addition For S: Vx = , Vy = , Vz = dx = . For S: Vx = , Vy = , Vz = .

By differentiations:

, dy = dy, dz = dz, dt =

So, Vx =

, Vy =

, Vz =



ux = (ux v), uy = uy, ux = (ux+v), uy = ) ) uy,

uz = uz with uz = uz with

and .

For forces: ( (

10.5 Relativistic momentum Classically

. In relativistic circumstance one uses its own time variable

instead of the classical dt. ( The velocity is its own velocity v = dr/dt.) So, redefined

. Reinterpretation the rest mass( ) become

relativistic = . Therefore, now on with the relativistic mass! Similarly, we can define a relativistic energy: Energy conserving means that its kinetic energy plus and its rest mass are conserved. So, E = m +

In high energy we define the Vierer impulse p = (E, ), where the scalar quantity p2 = E2 is the invariant rest mass in Minkowski-space. In this sense, the energy E2 = + m2 or E = classical sense the kinetic energy 10.6 Relativistic Forces = m v2.

in non relativistic. So, in the

Firstly, in one dimension we derive the relativistic force of Newtonian F = ma using p = mv and E= m . F = dp/dt = d( So, F = mav2 ) = mv + m + m a = ma( . Now, = -1/2 (-2v /c2)(1-v2/c2) ) = ma =

v2/c2 + ) = ma (1+

which stands for the

relativistic force in the term of classical Newtonian force F = ma. We also verify that the force F = dE/dx = ( = In two dimension: , mv )/dx = m d( )/dx = ma = dp/dt mv /dx

/dt dt/dx = (

), initially vy = 0.


So, In S (t =

( . So, (



). But the length contraction(x = x/ ) and time dilation

t) yield ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ).

Say we have a force acting on a particle in its instantaneous inertial rest frame (it can only be instantaneous since the particle is accelerating due to the force on it) F'. Say F' is moving with speed v along the x -direction relative to another frame F . As we see Fx = Fx and Fy = Fy/ . The transverse force is a factor of larger in the particle's frame. 10.7 Electromagnetic field as a relativistic effect Test charge q(x,y,z) in S. Q at the origin in S which is moving = (v,0,0) relative to S. At t=0 the origin of S overlaps with the origin of S. So, x = (x-vt), y = y, z = z, and t = (t-vx/c2). Thus, r = (x2+y2+z2)1/2 and = q is the only force in S. = . Therefore, Fx = Fx = , Fy = Fy = = ( x +y +z ) ( ) =
2 2 2 2 1/2

, and Fz = Fz =

. Because of x =

x, y = y, and z = z. So, r

. Finally, we get

= q (

) = q

( ( )


Now, consider the case that two charges q(0,y,z,t=0) and Q(0,0,0,t=0) in S with velocity =(vx,0,0) moving parallel each other with distance r = velocity toward S. An O measures the Coulomb force Fx = 0, Fy = Fz = . , and . S is moving with the same

We transform the force into S. So, Fx = Fx = 0, Fy = = , and Fz = = . , and Fz = . So, = (0,y,z)

If q would be at rest in S, Fx = 0, Fy =

If the description in both inertial system should give the same results, then the difference should = be corresponding to the magnetic force = ( ) (0,y,z)




) =

) (0,y,z). Consequently,

10.8 Doppler effect a) is perpendicular to the observing line t= . So, = = =

b) is parallel ( away from the source) T=t+ = ( )= . So, f = 1/T =

c) is anti-parallel ( approaching to the source) T=t= ( )= . So, f = 1/T =

The spectral lines of distant galaxies of stars are all shifted toward the low-frequency (red) end of the spectrum from us and from one another. The speeds of recession are observed to be proportional to distance, which suggests that the entire universe is expanding. This proportionality is called Hubbles law. Appendix Special cases of Charge distribution (Potential is continuous)

a) A charged empty sphere is q = Outside ( r > R ) = E The potential = q/ = ====== ===== || =

( )

Inside ( r R ) q inside of a Guassian surface: q = 0 = 0 ===== So, inside) ===== ( should be continuous.

b) A charged massive sphere is q = Outside ( r > R ) = E The potential Inside ( r R) = q/ = ====== ===== || =
( )

q inside a Gaussian surface : q = = ===== = =



+ c; Continuity at r = R results c =

. Then,

c) A charged infinite rod Suppose a coaxial cylinder as the Gaussian surface( L is large, so that the end-surface effects are negligible) q = . Outside ( r > R ) = E The potential Inside ( r q= R) = q/ + c. Then, has a zero for some 0 < r < . With this we get ===== = +c= . Ansatz: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . for r > R and for r R. = = ===== . = q/ = ===== = =

< 0 for r > R

= E So, =

Therefore, Then, c =

Otherwise wouldnt be continuous. d) Coaxialcable A conducting wire with radius Ri is coverd by a thin conducting cylinder with radius Ro along in the same coaxial. Say the charge density . For r > Ro, = 0. So, E = 0 for outside. For Ri r Ro, =