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Nature of Light:Light is a form of energy which is transmitted in the form of waves and which causes in us sensation of vision. But in the past, different scientists had different opinions about light. Before Newton, it was believed that some particles were emitted out of the eyes of human beings and these particles when reflected back from the object entered the eyes and then the person was able to see the objects around. Newton rejected this concept and proposed that no such particles emitted from the eyes, but the source of light emit some particles called corpuscles. These particles after striking the surface when reflected back to the eyes cause sensation and hence, enable the person to see the things around. This theory was called Newtons Corpuscles Theory of Light. This theory could prove some phenomenon of light such as reflection and refraction, but could not prove other phenomenon such as diffraction and interference. However, this phenomenon could be proved by Hygene by giving his Wave Theory of Light. So it was then concluded that light has got dual nature that is particle as well as wave nature. This observation was given by Debroglie. Optics: - Optics is a branch of Science which deals with the light and its various properties. Light: - Light is a form of energy which produces in us the sensation of vision and is associated with electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other. It activates the sense of sight and enables an observer to see various things around. Kinds of light sources: - There are two main kinds of light sources viz. 1. Natural sources: - These include all those sources which are natural and have their own light e.g., sun, firefly, stars etc. 2. Artificial Sources: - These include all those sources which are man made, but have the ability of emitting light e.g., candle, moon, electric lamp etc. Ray: - Ray is a straight line path followed by light. Ray Beam: - A bunch of rays is called a beam. Beam

Optical Medium:- Anything through which light energy can pass partially or wholly is called optical medium. Homogeneous Medium:- An optical medium which has uniform composition throughout is called Homogeneous Medium e.g., glass, diamond, distilled water, pure alcohol etc. Heterogeneous Medium:- An optical medium which has different composition at different points is called Heterogeneous Medium e.g., air, muddy water, mist, fog etc. Q#1 What do you understand by reflection and refraction? Give the laws of reflection and refraction. Ans. Reflection: - The phenomenon of bouncing back the light rays when they fall on the surface of the object is called reflection of light. It is also defined as the change in the direction of light rays when they strike any surface. Laws of Reflection The laws of reflection are as follows: 1. The incident ray, the normal at the point of incidence and the reflected ray all lie in the same plane. 2. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection i.e., i = r in case of regular surfaces and is unequal in case of irregular surfaces. Refraction: - The phenomenon of bending of light as it goes from one medium to another and results in a change in the path of light is called refraction. When a ray of light passes from an optically rarer medium to a denser medium, it bends towards the normal and when it travels from a denser medium to a rarer medium, it bends away from the normal. 1

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Cause of Refraction of Light:- The speed of light depends on the nature of the medium in which it travels. The speed of light increases when it enters from denser to rarer medium and its speed decreases when it travels from rarer medium to denser medium. Thus, the change of speed of light as it travels from one medium to another is the cause of refraction. Laws of Refraction The two laws of refraction of light are: 1. The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane. 2. The ratio of the sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is constant for a given pair of media. It is called Snells law. 3. The light ray which passes from an optically rearer medium to a denser medium bends towards normal and when it travels from denser medium to a rearer medium it bends away from normal. Sin i Thus --------- = constant = Sin r Q#2 What is refractive index? Ans. The refractive index of any optical medium is defined as the ratio between the velocity of light in air or vacuum to the velocity of light in that medium. It is denoted by Therefore, = Velocity of light in Vacuum ----------------------------------Velocity of light in medium C = -------V where C = 3 x 108 m/s

Refractive index of a medium is a pure number and has no units. Refractive indices of various substances related to vacuum with light are given below: Substance Diamond Quartz Glass (Crown) Glass(Flint) Ice Refractive Index 2.42 1.46 1.52 1.66 1.31 Substance Water Ethyl Alcohol Glycerine Benzene Carbon di- sulphide Refractive Index 1.33 1.36 1.47 1.50 1.63

Experimentally, it has been seen that the refractive index of any material decreases with the increase in the wave length of light. In visible spectrum, the wave length decrease as we go from red to violet. Therefore, the refractive index of a material for violet light is greater than that of red light. Snells Law :- It is defined as the ratio of sine angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction. OR It is also defined that ratio sine i by sine r is always constant and that constant is called refractive index. i.e. Sini -------- = Constant Sin r Or Sin i --------- = Sin r Where is called refractive Index.

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Q#3 Ans.

What is lateral displacement? The perpendicular distance of separation between the emergent ray and original path of the incident ray is called lateral displacement. Lateral displacement increases with a) an increase in the thickness of the medium. b) An increase in the angle of incidence. c) An increase in the refractive index of the medium. d) A decrease in the wave length of light. What is a mirror? What are the characteristics of an image formed by a plane mirror? Mirror: - A mirror is a piece of glass having one polished surface and a reflecting surface. Characteristics of an Image formed by a plane mirror. It is virtual in nature and cannot be obtained on the screen. It is of the same size as that of the object. The image formed is erect. The image formed is laterally inverted. Image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front of it.

Q#4 Ans. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Q#5 Ans.

What are spherical mirrors? Name two different kinds of spherical mirrors. A spherical mirror is a part of a hollow sphere, whose one side is reflecting and the other side is opaque. Spherical Mirrors are of two types: 1. Concave Spherical Mirror: It is that type of spherical mirror, which has outer bulged surface silvered and the inner surface is polished from where the reflection of light takes place. The rays of light incident to its surface converge at a point. Therefore, it is also called as converging mirror. 2. Convex Spherical Mirror: - It is the type of spherical mirror which has inner surface silvered and the outer bulged surface polished from where the reflection of light takes place. Since it diverges the ray of light, therefore, it is also called as diverging mirror. Define the centre of curvature, Radius of curvature, Pole, Principal Axis, Aperture, Principal Focus and Focal Length. Centre of Curvature:- The centre of the hollow sphere of which the mirror is a part is called the centre of curvature. It is represented by C. However, in a concave mirror it lies in front and in a convex mirror it lies behind it. Radius of Curvature:- The radius of the holow sphere of which the mirror is a part is called the radius of curvature. It is denoted by R. In figure PC = R Pole: - The centre of the spherical mirror is called its pole. It is represented by P. Principal Axis: - The line joining the pole and the centre of curvature of the mirror is called its principal axis. In figure PC extended both ways, representing principal axis. Aperture: - It is the maximum effective width of a spherical mirror on which process of reflection takes place. It can also be regarded as a diametre of a mirror. Principal Focus: - It is the point on the principal axis of the mirror at which all the rays which are parallel and close to the P-axis actually meet (in case of concave mirror) or appears to meet (in case of convex mirror) after reflection of the mirror. It is denoted by F. Focal Length: - The distance between the pole and the principal focus of the mirror is called the 3

Q#6 Ans.

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Q#7 Ans. 1. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6. 7. Q#8 Ans. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

focal length of the mirror. It is denoted by F. The distance PF represents the focal length. Explain new Cartesian sign Conventions. The sign conventions of mirrors are given below: All the distances are measured from the pole of the mirror. The distances measured in the same direction as that of incident light are taken as +ve, while the distances measured against the direction of incident light are taken as ve i.e., the distances of real images are taken as ve, while that of virtual images are taken as +ve. The focal length and radius of curvature of a concave spherical mirror are taken as ve, while those of convex mirrors are taken as +ve. Heights measured upward and perpendicular to the principal axis are taken as +ve, while those measured in downward direction are taken as negative i.e., Heights of all real and inverted images are taken as ve, while those of virtual and upright images are taken as positive. When images formed is virtual (i.e., erect) magnification is +ve. When image formed is real (i.e., inverted), magnification is negative. Magnification of a concave mirror can be ve as well as +ve. Magnification of a convex mirror can be positive only. What are the types of images formed by mirrors? The images formed by the spherical mirrors are of the following types: Real image:- Those images which can be obtained on a screen are called real images. Virtual images:- Those images which can be seen only by looking into a mirror, but cannot be obtained on a screen are called as virtual images. Erect images:- Those images, which are formed above the principal axis are called erect images. Inverted images:- Those images which are formed below the principal axis are called inverted images. Magnified images:- Those images which are larger in size than the size of the object are called magnified images. Diminished images:- Those images which are smaller in size than the size of the object are called as diminished images. Rules for image formation of a concave mirror: Following are the rules employed for obtaining images on a concave mirror:A ray of light parallel to the p-axis of a concave mirror passes through its principal focus after reflection from the mirror. A ray of light passing through the focus of a mirror becomes parallel to the p-axis after reflection from the mirror. A ray of light passing through the centre of curvature of a concave mirror is reflected back along the same path. With the help of diagram, discuss the position, size and nature of the image formed by concave mirror as an object is brought from infinity towards the mirror. When an object is placed at different position in front of a concave mirror, various types of images are formed and can be understood by the following cases: 1. When an object lies at infinity: - When the object is placed at infinity, the image will be formed at focus and will be real, inverted and point in size.

1. 2. 3.

Q#9 Ans.

2. When object lies beyond C: - The image will be formed between F and C and will be real, inverted and smaller in size. 4

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3. When object lies at C:- The image will be formed at C and will be real, inverted and equal in size.

4. When object lies between F and C. The image will be formed beyond C and will be real, inverted and larger in size.

5. When object lies at F. The image will be formed at infinity and will be real, inverted and highly magnified.

6. When object lies between P and F The image will be formed behind the mirror and will be virtual, erect and magnified.

Image formed by a Convex Mirror. When an object is placed between pole and infinity, the image is always formed behind the mirror between the pole and the focus and is virtual, erect and smaller in size. Also when the object is placed at infinity, the image is formed at the focus and is virtual, erect and point in size. 5

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Q#10 Define linear magnification produced by mirrors. Ans. The ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object placed is called linear magnification. It is denoted by m. Size of image m = -----------------Size of object Or = m = I / O ------ (i) For a virtual image m is +ve and for a real image m is always ve. Also linear magnification is also defined as the ratio of the image distance to the object distance with a minus sign. i.e., m = = -v / u ---------- (ii) where v = Image distance and u = object distance Q#11 How can you distinguish between a real and virtual image in case of mirrors? Ans. Real Image: - (1) It can be obtained on a screen. (2) It is always inverted. (3) It is obtained on the same side of mirrors as the object (4) Incident or reflected rays meet at a point. (5) Its size varies from small to big depending on the position of the object. Virtual Image: - (1) It cannot be obtained on the screen. (2) It is always erect. (3) It is obtained behind the mirror. (4) Incident or reflected rays do not meet at a point. They appear to meet at a point. (5) The size of the image is smaller, larger or equal depending upon the mirror being convex, concave or plane. Q#12 Ans. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Give the uses of Concave mirrors. The various uses of concave mirror are as under: They are used as shaving and dressing mirrors. They are used in torches, search lights and in the headlights of the cars and other vehicles. They are used for converging the suns rays in solar cookers. They are used in reflecting type astronomical telescopes. They are used as reflectors in cinema projectors. They are used in opthalmoscope for reflecting light on the retina of the eye. Uses of Convex mirrors. 1. It is used as a reflector in street lamps. As a result, the light from the lamp diverges over a large area. 2. They are often used as rear back view mirror in automobiles to have a clear view of the traffic behind. 3. A combination of concave and convex mirrors are often used in fairs for showing strange looking images of the persons strange looking images of the persons who stand in front of them.

Q#13 What is a lens? Distinguish between a convex and a concave lens. Ans. Lens:- A lens is a piece of transparent glass bounded by one or two spherical surfaces. There are two types of lenses. 1. Convex Lens: - When a lens is thicker in the middle than at the edges, it is called a convex or 6

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converging lens. In this lens both the surfaces are bulged outwards. There are three types of convex lens: (1) Double convex (2) Plane Convex (3) Concave Convex. 2. Concave Lens: - When a lens is thinner in the middle than at the edges, it is called concave or diverging lens. There are three types of concave lens viz. Double Concave, Plane Concave and Convex concave lens

Lens are used in spectacles, cameras, microscopes, telescopes and in many other optical instruments. Q#14 Explain the following terms related to lenses. Ans. The various terms associated with the lenses are: 1. Optical Centre: - It is the point in the lens where rays of light pass un-deviated. It is the central point of the lens and is denoted by O. 2. Principal Axis: - It is defined as a straight line passing through the centres of curvatures of two surfaces of a lens. 3. Centre of Curvature: - The centre of the sphere of which the surface of a lens is apart is known as centre of curvature. C1 and C2 are the two centres of curvature. 4. Radius of curvature: - The distance between the centre of curvature and the surface of the lens is known as radius of curvature. R1 and R2 are the radius of curvature. Principal Focus and Focal Length Principal focus:- It is a point on the principal axis to which light rays parallel to p-axis converge after passing through the lens (in case of convex lens) or appear to diverge (in case of concave lens) from a point on the p-axis. This point F is known as the principal focus of the lens.

Focal Length: - The distance between the focus and the optical centre is called focal length. Of = f is the focal length of the lens. Aperture: - The diameter of the boundary of the spherical surface of a lens is called aperture. Q#15 Distinguish between a convex and a concave lens. Explain with the help of a diagram why the former is called converging and the latter is called a diverging lens? Ans. Convex Concave

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1. 2. 3. 4.

It is thicker at the centre than at the edges. 1. It is thicker at the edges than at the centre. It forms real as well as virtual image. 2. It forms only a virtual image. It is converging in nature. 3. It is diverging in nature. It forms magnified as well as smaller images 4. It always forms smaller images. of the objects. 5. It has a real focus. 5. It has a virtual focus. A convex lens is analogous to prisms places with their bases on the two opposites faces of a slab. The light passing through the prisms bends towards its base. This arrangement is capable of converging the light. Therefore, it is also called the converging lens as shown in fig (i) A concave lens is analogous to prisms placed with their vertices on the two opposite faces of a glass slab. This arrangement is capable of diverging the light. Therefore, it is also called a diverging lens as shown in figure (ii)

Q#16 What are the rules for images formed by a convex lens? Ans. The various rules employed for obtaining images on a convex lens are listed as under:1. An incident ray of light passing through the optical centre of a convex lens emerges undeviated after refraction through the lens. 2. An incident ray of light parallel to the principal axis of a convex lens passes through the focus after refraction. 3. An incident ray of light passing through the focus of a convex lens becomes parallel to the paxis after refraction. Q#17 With the help of diagrams, discuss the position, size and nature of images formed, when an object is moved towards or away from it. Ans. The various positions involved are:1. When object lies at infinity:- When object is placed at infinity, the image will be formed at focus and the image will be real, inverted and point in size.

2.

When the object lies beyond 2F or C: - The image will be formed between F and 2 F and it will be real, inverted and smaller in size.

3. When object lies at 2F, the image will be formed at 2F and it will be real, inverted and equal in size. 8

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4. When object lies between F and 2F, the image will be formed beyond 2F and it will be real, inverted and larger in size.

5. When object lies at F, the image will be formed at infinity and it will be real, inverted and highly magnified.

6. When the object lies between F and O, the image will be formed on the same side as the object and it will be virtual, erect and magnified.

Image Formed by a Concave Lens When an extended object is placed at any point on the p-axis of the lens, the image is formed on the same side as the object between F and O. Further, it is always erect, virtual and smaller in size. Also, when an object is placed at infinity, the image will be formed at focus and will be virtual, erect and pointed in size. Q#17 What is power of lens? Ans. The power of lens may be defined as the reciprocal of focal length expressed in meters. 1 p = --f Since p is inversely proportional to f, therefore a lens of short focal length has more power and vice versa. If f = 1 meter 9

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P = 1 --1m = 1m-1 = 1 dioptre (D)

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The power of a lens is said to be one dioptre, if its focal length is 1 meter. The power for convex lens is positive and for concave lens is negative. Q#18 Define linear magnification produced by a lens. Ans. It is defined as the ratio of the size of the image (I) to the size of the object (O). It is denoted by m. Size of image I Thus, magnification = ----------------or m = --Size of object O Also, magnification is defined as the ratio of image distance to the object distance. v m = --U Q#19 Discuss about the sign conventions for lenses. Ans. The various sign conventions are:1. All distances are measured from the optical centre of the lens. 2. The distances measured in the same direction as that of incident light are taken as +ve. While the distances measured against the direction of incident light are taken as negative i.e., the distances of real objects and real images are taken as +ve, while those of virtual objects and virtual images are taken as negative. 3. The focal length focal length of a convex lens is taken as +ve, while as that of concave lens is taken as ve. 4. Height measured upward and perpendiculars to p-axis are taken as +ve while those measured in downward direction are taken as negative. 5. When image is virtual (erect), magnification is +ve and when it is real, magnification is ve. 6. Magnification of a concave lens is always +ve, but for convex, it can be ve. or +ve. 7. The magnification may be greater than, equal to, or less than unity i.e., when m < 1, image is smaller, when m = 1, image is equal and when m > 1, image is greater. Lens formula for lenses:The lens formula in case of lenses is given below: 1 1 1 --- - ---- = --v u f where v = Image distance u = object distance f = focal length Q#20 Give the structure and working of the human eye. Ans. The eyes are sense organs that give human beings and most other animals the most and detailed information about their surroundings. Our eye is the most important optical instrument. The main parts of the human eye are: 1. Cornea: - The front bulging part of the eye is called cornea. It is transparent in nature. Its function is to act as a window to the world i.e., to allow the light to enter in the eye ball. Its refractive index is 1.336. 2. Optic nerve: - It is a bundle of approximately 70,000 nerves originating from brain and entering eye ball. Its function is to carry optical messages (visual messages) to brain. 3. Ciliary muscles: - It is a ring of muscles. It has a rich automatic nerve supply. Its function is to alter the focal length of the crystalline lens. 10

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4. Iris: - Beyond th ciliary body, there is a circular shelf-like diaphragm suspended in front of crystalline lens is called Iris. It has a hole in the middle called as pupil. The Iris adjusts the size of the pupil according to the intensity of light received by the eye. This is done by increasing or decreasing the diameter of the pupil. 5. Crystalline lens: - It is a double convex lens made up of a gelatinous transparent substance. It is held in position with the help of ciliary muscles. The focal length of the lens can be changed by the action of ciliary muscles. 6. Vitreous Humour: - It is a dense jelly like fluid, filling the part of eye between lens and the retina. Its function is (i) to prevent eye ball from collapsing due to atmospheric pressure. (ii) In focussing rays clearly on retina. 7. Aqeous Humour:- It is a watery, saline fluid, filling the part of eye between cornea and lens. Its function is (i) to prevent from part of the eye from collapsing due to change in atmospheric pressure. (ii) to keep the cornea moist. 8. Retina or Neuro-sensory tunic:This is the innermost, thinnest and softest, but most complicated tunic of an eye ball. It is behind the eye lens and at the dark part of the eye. The retina has a large number of light sensitive cell, which get activated upon illumination and produces electrical signals which are sent to the brain through optic nerves. 9. Blind spot:- The region where the optic nerves enter the eye is called blind spot. This region does not have light sensitive cells and hence image formed on this spot is not visible. 10. Yellow spot:- The most sensitive part of the retina opposite to pupil is called yellow spot which has the maximum concentration of the light sensitive cells. It is slightly yellow in colour and its function is to form a very clear image by sending a large number of optical pulses to brain. 11. Working of the eye:- When light rays reflected back by an object fall upon an eye, these pass through cornea, aqeous humour, lens and vitreous humour before entering the retina. Being transparent, all these parts of an eye function as its transparent refractory media for refracting the light rays. The greatest refraction is done by cornea and next by the lens. The eye lens is a convex lens, so it converges the light rays and produces a real and inverted image of the object on the retina. The sensation of the image formed on the retina is carried to the brain by fibres of optic nerve system. The nerve centres of sight analyze and co-ordinate these impulses and translate the inverted image into the erect one. Thus it is the brain and not the eye that is responsible for seeing. Q#21 What is accommodation of an eye? Ans. The ability of an eye to focus the distant objects as well as nearby objects on the retina by changing the focal length of the lens with the help of cilaiary muscles is called accomodation of any eye. When the eye is looking at a distant object, the ciliary muscles contract and the eye lens becomes thin due to which Its focal length increases and it can form the image of the distant object on the retina. The eye is said to be unaccomodated or at rest. On the other hand, when eye is looking nearby objects, the ciliary muscles are then fully strained and the eye lens becomes thick due to which its focal length decreases and it can focus the nearby objects on the retina. The eye is said to be fully accomodated. Q#22 What is far off point and least distance of distinct vision? Ans. Far off point:- The maximum distance at which an object can be seen clearly is k own as the far point of the eye. The far point of a normal eye is at infinity. Least distance of distinct Vision:- The minimum distance at which an object is seen in great details is called the least distance of distinct vision and it is about 25cm from a normal eye. Q#23 State the points of similarities and dissimilarities of the eye and the camera. Ans. The points of similarities: The eye The camera 1. The image is formed by a convex lens 1. The image is formed by a convex made of a transparent and flexible lens made of glass. substance. 2. The image is formed on the 11

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2. The image is formed on the retina which photographic which is real and inverted. is real and inverted. 3. The diaphragm controls the amount of 3. The pupil in the Iris of the eye controls light in a camera. the amount of light in an eye. 4. The time of exposure is controlled 4. The time of exposure can be controlled by a shutter. by the eye lids. The points of differences: The eye 1. The focal length of the eye lens can be changed by the action of c-muscles. 2. The focusing is done by changing the focal length of the eye lens. 3. The image formed on the retina is not permanent. 4. Retina is used again and again for forming the image.

The camera 1. The focal length of a camera is fixed. 2. The focussing is done by changing the distance between the lens and the film. 3. The image formed on the film is permanent. 4. A film can be used only once for forming the image.

Q#24 Name the defects of vision. Why d o these defects arise? How are these defects corrected? Ans. The various defects of vision are:1. Myopia or short sightedness 4. Hypermetropia or long sightedness 2. Presbyopia 5. Astigmatism. 3. Phoris 6. Colour blindness Generally, the rays from the object are incident on the eye and the focal length is so adjusted that the image of the object is formed at the retina of the eye and the image is visible. But when the image is not formed on the retina, the eye is said to be defective. These defects can be corrected by using suitable lenses or spectacles. However, it is now possible to fix suitably designed lenses called contact lenses directly on the eye ball. 1. Short sightedness or Myopia:- It is that defect of an eye due to which an eye cannot see the distant objects clearly because image of distant object is focussed in front of the retina. In an eye suffering from myopia, the ciliary muscles attached to the eye lens do not relax sufficiently to make the eye lens thin to reduce its converging power. Sometimes eye ball gets elongated and therefore the image of distant object is formed in front of retina. Myopia is corrected by using spectacles containing concave lens of suitable focal length. The concave lens first diverge the rays coming from distant object and then converge by eye lens and hence image is formed on the retina of the eye.

Long sightedness or Hypermetropia: - It is that defect of an eye due to which an eye cannot see the nearby objects clearly because image is formed behind the retina. Due to some disease or age, the ciliary muscles becomes stiff and hence do not relax, due to which eye lens becomes thin and hence decreases its converging power. 12

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Hypermetropia is corrected by using spectacles containing convex lens of suitable focal length. The rays coming from the object are first converged by the convex lens L and then by the eye lens and hence image is formed on the retina.

Astignatism:- it is that defect of the eye due to which an image of a distant point of source of light is formed not as a point but as a vertical line or horizontal line. A strain is thus imposed on the eye, when viewing an object. In an eye suffering from astigmatism the cornea has widely varying curvatures in different planes. It can be corrected by using a cylindrical lens of proper power. Colour blindness:- It is that defect in the eye due to which a person is unable to differentiate between certain colours. It is a genetic disorder occuring as the result of failure of certain retinal cones or rods to respond to its respective colour. If the blue retinal cone fails to respond, he will be blind for the colour but he will be able to distinguish red or green colours. However, if a person is unable to distinguish between primary colours of red, blue and green, this defect is referred as Daltonism. Phoris:- Sometimes there is lack of balance among the muscles which hold the two eyes in their position. This lack of balance causes headache and eye strain. This defect can be removed by using prismatic lens. These are so adjusted so that the line of sight from the distant object is deflected along the optic axis of the eye in normal adjustment. Q#25 What is a microscope? Give the construction and working of a simple microscope. Ans. Microscope is an optical instrument by which we can see very small objects which cannot be seen distinctly with naked eyes. There are two types of microscope viz. (i) Simple microscope or magnifying glass or reading glass (ii) Compound microscope 1. Simple microscope:- It consists of convex length of small focal length enclosed in a frame with a suitable handle. The lens is held close to the eye and the distance of the object is adjusted, till a virtual, erect and magnified image is formed at the least distance of distinct vision from the eye, that is why a simple microscope is also called a magnifying glass. Working: - Let the object AB to be magnified is placed within the focal length of the lens, then the lens produces a virtual, erect and magnified image A1 B1 on the same side of the object . If the distance of the lens from the object is suitably adjusted so that the image A1 B1 is formed at the near point of the eye (i.e., at 25 cm). The magnified image will be focussed clearly on the eye.

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Magnification of a simple microscope:I Since magnification produced by a lens is given by m = I---, where I = Image distance O= O = object distance Now, using the lens formula, we have 1 1 1 --- - --- = --v u f Substituting +d (least distance of distinct vision) for v in the lens. 1 1 1 --- - --- = --- Multiplying throughout by d d u f d d or 1 - --- = --u f d or --u d = 1 - --f v d m = --- = --u u

because magnification

d Therefore m = 1 - --f - 25 ---f

In case of normal eye d = 25 m

Therefore m = 1 -

25 = 1 + ---f

Therefore

m =

1 + 25 -----------f

Uses of Simple Microscope:1. It is used by Jewellers and watch makers. 2. It is used in reading very small letters. 3. It is used in the study of finger prints. 4. It is used to record Vernier scales. 5. It is used in the study of small plants and insects in the laboratory. Q#26 Give the principle, construction and working of a compound microscope. Ans. If the object under examination is too small to be magnified sufficiently by a simple microscope, then we required for proper vision, a compound microscope which is more powerful than simple microscope. Construction: - It is a combination of two lenses which are fitted co-axially in a tube in such a way that they can easily slide in one another. The lens O nearer the object under examination is called the objective which is of short focal length and short aperture. The other lens E which is towards our eye is called eye piece which is of short focal length but large aperture. The distance of the object lens from the object can be adjusted by rack and pinion arrangement.

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Working: - Let a well illuminated tiny object AB is placed between F and 2F of objective lens which forms a real, inverted and magnified image. A1B1 acts as object for the eye piece. Now the eye lens is moved with the help of focussing screw and it is placed in such a position that the image A1B1 falls within its focal length. This gives rise to a divergent beam and the eye piece produces an enlarged and virtual image A2B2. The final image A2B2 is seen by the eye held close to the eye lens E. The adjustment is so made that the final image A2B2 is formed at the least distance of distinct vision of 25 cm from the eye. Magnifying power of a microscope:- In a compound microscope there are two magnification first by objective (m1), then by eye piece (m2). Thus the total magnification, m = m1 x m2. The magnifying power of a microscope is the ratio of the final image seen through a microscope to the size of the object by D L M = --------Fo.fe where d = least distance of distinct vision L = Length of the tube Fo = Focal length of objective Fe = Focal length of eye piece Q#27 Give the uses of a compound microscope. Ans. It is used: 1. By pathologists in examining blood, urine and stool of a patient. 2. By Botanists in the study of structure of plants. 3. By the Geologists in the study of structure of rocks and minerals. 4. By Zoologists in the examination of different parts of human beings. Q#28 What do you understand by dispersion? Explain how the colours obtained in spectrum can be recombined to give back white light. Ans. In 1665, Sir Issac Newton discovered that if a beam of white light is passed through a prism, the white light splits to form a ban of seven colours in a white screen. The order of colours is violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and re and can be recollected by the word VIBGYOR. The phenomenon of decomposition of white light into the constituent colours is called dispersion of light and the band of seven colours obtained on the screen is called spectrum. Cause of dispersion:- Different constituent colours of white light are due to different wave lengths of light waves, when the wavelengths travel through a prism, their velocities are decreased by different amounts and hence suffers different amounts of deviation and hence they are separated to form a spectrum. The red colour is deviated least while the violet colour is deviated the maximum.

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Recombination of Spectrum colours give white light:- When the spectrum produced by the prism ABC is allowed to fall on the second prism PQR, then the prism PQR recombined, then into original white beam of light and fall on the screen S.

Q#29 What is spherical aberration? Ans. The inability of a convex lens to converge all the incidental rays of a wide beam of light to a single point is called spherical aberration. It can be corrected by the following two ways: 1. By using specially made miniscus lenses 2. By using anastigmatic lenses Q#30 What are rods and cones? Rods:- These are rod shaped and respond to the intensity i.e., these cells respond to brightness of light. Cones:- These are cone shaped and respond to colours and makes us able to distinguish between colours. Q#31 What are primary and secondary colours? Ans. Primary Colours:- Red, green and blue are called primary colours or basic colours. Secondary Colours:- All the colours which can be obtained by mixing of primary colours are called secondary colours. Red + blue Magenta Blue + green Peacock blue Red + green yellow Newtons Colour Disc: Newton experimentally proved by his famous Newtons disc method that seven colours recombine to give white colour. He took a circular cardboard and divided it into seven segments each coated with different colour (Fig 1). When the dixc was rotatedat a high speed, it appeared white. This shows that white light consists of seven colours.

Text Book Questions


Ans 1: i) ii) iii) Between mirror and its focus. At twice the focal length. Retina iv) Yellow v) Ciliary Muscles

Q#32 How is the amount of light entering the eye controlled? What change is made in the eye to 16

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enable it to focus on objects situated at different distances? The amount of light admitted into the eye is controlled by the pupil, which is a hole in the middle of iris. The size of the pupil is controlled by iris. If the amount if light is more then pupil contracts the eye. On the other hand, when light is dim, then pupil expands and more light enters the eye. The ciliary muscles enable the eye to focus objects at different distances from it. When the eye is looking at a distant object, the ciliary muscles are then completely relaxed and then the eye lens becomes thin and its focal length increases. On the other hand, when the eye is looking nearby objects, the ciliary muscles are then fully strained and the eye lens becomes thick due to which its focal length and it can focus the nearby objects on the retina.

Q#33 Why does it take some time to see objects in a dim room when you enter the room from bright sunlight outside and vice versa? Ans. The amount of light entering our eye is controlled by the pupil. Its size is adjusted according to the intensity of light received by the eye. So when we enter the dim room, very little light enters our eye and we cannot see properly. After a short time, the pupil of the eye expands and becomes large. More light then enters our eye and we can see properly. On the other hand if we go from a darkroom into the bright light, then we feel glare in our eyes because a large amount of light enters our eyes. Gradually, the pupil of the eye contracts. Less light then enters our eye and we can see clearly. Q34 Ans Q35 Ans: Q36 Ans: Name the part of the camera where image is formed. Image is formed on the photographic film inside the camera. Where is image formed in case of human eye? Image is formed on the retina in case of human eye. In order to take photographs of close objects, what changes must take place in a camera? In order to take photographs of a n object, the camera is directed towards the object. To focus the distant object in the film, we have to decrease the distance between the camera lens and the film by folding the bellows. On the other hand, to focus nearby objects, we have to expand the bellows. Having focused the object, we adjust the diameter of the aperture of the diaphragm according to the illumination of the object to be photographed. Finally the button is pressed by which the shutter is opened for a fraction of a second and then closed again. To keep image in sharp focus, what changes must take place in human eye? Done in Q2 How do we control the amount of light entering our eyes? Done same in Q2. Give two points of similarity and dissimilarities of eye and camera. Done. A man sitting on a distant hill appears small than a bird sitting nearby. Why? The size of the image formed on the retina of the eye depends on the angle subtended at the eye by the object. This angle is known as visual angle. The smaller is the visual angle, the smaller is thee apparent size of the object. For the distant object, the visual angle is very small and hence the man sitting on a distant hill appears small than a bird.

Q37 Ans Q38 Ans Q39 Ans Q40 Ans:

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