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SUBMITTED BY KAVYA KHANDELWAL BBA 6th SEM ENROLLMENT NO-A7006410033 Under guidance of: Faculty Guide Komal Malik Lecturer ABS, Lucknow



I hereby declare that the study of JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN BSNL has been exclusively done by me under the able guidance of Mrs. KOMAL MALIK, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for award of degree of BACHELORS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION from Amity University, Uttar Pradesh. I also declare that the contents of this report are true to the best of my knowledge.

Signature: Kavya Khandelwal Student

Signature: Komal Malik Faculty guide

Signature: Prof. V.P. Sahi Director (ABS)


Forwarded here with a Dissertation report on JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN BSNL submitted by KAVYA KHANDELWAL Enrolment No. A7006410033, student of BBA 6th Semester (2010-2013). This project work is partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelors in Business Administration from Amity University Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh.

Mrs. Komal Malik Lectures, ABS (Faculty Guide)


Executive Summary Acknowledgement Chapter 1- INTRODUCTION Introduction Definition Objectives of the study Scope of the study Research Methodology Sampling Methodology Limitation of the study Chapter 2- PROFILE OF BSNL Telecom in India Background Company Profile Vision & Mission Product/Service Profile Product profile Services Achievements & Awards Board of Directors & HR SWOT Analysis BSNL Lucknow Chapter 3- JOB SATISFACTION AT BSNL Job Satisfaction Theories Determinants of Job Satisfaction Chapter 4- DATA ANALYSIS Findings Suggestions Conclusions Annexure & Analysis Chapter 5- BIBLIOGRAPHY References

6 7 8-16 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17-56 18 19 25 30 31 31 33 39 41 42 56 57-65 58 61 64 66-80 67 68 69 70 80-81 81


FIG 1.1 Growth FIG 1.2 Teledensity FIG 1.3 Internet Services FIG 1.4 Major Players QUESTIONNAIRE FIGURES FIG 4.1 FIG 4.2 FIG 4.3 FIG 4.4 FIG 4.5 FIG 4.6 FIG 4.7 FIG 4.8 FIG 4.9 FIG 4.10 TABLE 1.1 Organization Chart

20 21 22 24

70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 42


The project describes a project undertaken for BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LTD, Lucknow to study the Job Satisfaction of the employees in the organization. Job satisfaction in regards to ones feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of ones relationship with their supervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc. Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards job has been defined variously from time to time. towards job. Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- their evaluation may rest largely upon ones success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived combination of the job and combination towards these ends. In any organization it is important to keep a record that the employees are satisfied with their job. As if the employees are happy and satisfied with their job it would help the organization to prosper and gain success throughout. The study was done with the help of Primary as well as Secondary data. Primary was collected through questionnaire and Secondary data was collected through internet and books. The topic chosen JOB SATISFACTION was aimed for the betterment of organization in terms of quality as well as quantity. In short job satisfaction is a persons attitude


A Dissertation project is an important part of management curriculum. It helps the student to undergo the simulation test of what the student is going to face in the future job sphere and a taste of practicality. It helps the student to understand how an organization works. My Dissertation project is an experience worth sharing. The Dissertation project has enhanced my managerial skills and made me apt to face all the hurdles in my future. At the successful completion of the Dissertation Report, I wish to express my true regards to individuals who supported and directed me during the completion of the study. No book, fact or fiction is ever exclusively the product of the individual whose name appears of this title page. Likewise this project report has been possible because of the support and guidance of innumerable people. I like to give my cordial thanks to the whole staff members of BSNL, Lucknow for their cooperation during my data collection and providing me their valuable time. I would also like to express my gratitude to my faculty guide Mrs. Komal Malik, for their valuable guidance support and help. Last but not the least I am thankful to my parents for their motivation support and full and help.




Human resource is considered to be the most valuable asset in any organization. It is the sumtotal of inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills represented by the talents and aptitudes of the employed persons who comprise executives, supervisors and the rank and file employees. It may be noted here that human resource should be utilized to the maximum possible extent, in order to achieve individual and organizational goals. It is thus the employees performance, which ultimately decides, and attainme]nt of goals. However, the employee performance is to a large extent, influenced by motivation and job satisfaction.

The term relates to the total relationship between an individual and the employer for which he is paid. Satisfaction does mean the simple feeling state accompanying the attainment of any goal; the end state is feeling accompanying the attainment by an impulse of its objective. Job satisfaction does mean absence of motivation at work. Research workers differently described the factors contributing o job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.

The survey made regarding the job satisfaction in BSNL will facilitate and enables the management to know the perceptions and inner feelings regarding the job they are performing on day-to-day basis. The term job satisfaction reveals and focuses on the likes and dislikes of the employees of BSNL. In this particular study the researchers tries to identify the causes for satisfaction and dissatisfaction among the employees. So this is the most effective and selective instrument for diagnosing and peeping into the employees problems.

Job satisfaction survey can give the most valuable information the perceptions and causes. For satisfaction/dissatisfaction among the employees attitude towards job satisfaction may be either positive or negative. This positive feeling can be re-in forced and negative feelings can be rectified. This survey can be treated as the most effective and efficient way, which makes the workers to express their inner and real feelings undoubtedly.

For any future course of action/ development, which involves employees participation, is considered. The management will get a picture their employees acceptance and readiness. This survey also enables to avoid misinterpretations and helps management in solving problems effectively. It is observed during study some of the employees accepted the proposal survey research. A perfectly contentment and satisfaction motivates an employees to be confident with a high morale, it is an asset to organization as a whole.

Thus the high motivation and morale of an employee make him to remain in the organization and encourage him to face cut throat competition and gives him enough dynamism to face challenges.

Every human being possess him own unique resource, if properly channels it by supportive and supplement, ultimately for achieving organization goals.

As proper breathing and diet is necessary to healthy human being so as is contentment to the job satisfaction. This contentedness ultimately acts as a key factor to human resource development.


Job satisfaction refers to a persons feeling of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self-satisfaction, happiness or self-contentment but the satisfaction on the job.

Hoppock describes job satisfaction as any combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that cause and person truthfully to say I am satisfied with my job.

Job satisfaction is defined as the, pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job as achieving of facilitating the achievement of ones job values.



The primary objective of this study is to study the job satisfaction level with respect to Salary and other employee Benefits of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Suggest measures, which might help the organization in improving the job satisfaction level among the employees. To Study the working environment and the problems faced by the employees in BSNL. To identify the extent of job satisfaction in the BSNL employees and its impact on the job performance of the employees.



In the survey an attempt has been made to analyze the job satisfaction of employees of BSNL, Lucknow.

The Head Office of the BSNL is situated at New Delhi with as Circle Office in the Capital of Andhra Pradesh and a Divisional Office at Warangal District. The study tries to understand the level of satisfaction among the employees of BSNL. It further explains the area on which employees are mostly dissatisfied.

Job satisfaction of the employees has been analyzed on the basis of the following seventeen job related factors.

Salary and monetary benefits Job security Promotion policy Working environment Employees participation in management Freedom of expressions Nature of job Interest taken by superiors Superiors and sub-ordinate relationship Medicare Loans Conveyance L.T.C.



The study was conducted at Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Lucknow branch. In the preparation of this report, the researches of the data are done from different sources. The sources of data as follows:

Primary data: This data is gathered from first hand information sources, the data collection from employees, managers, clerks etc., by administrating the questionnaire having face to face interaction with employees of BSNL Lucknow. Secondary data : This will give the theoretical basis required for the report presentation which can be available from various sources such as magazines, office files, inter office manual and web site.

Data Processing And Analysing

Data, which is gathered by administering questionnaires, was processed in simple manner to determine the level of satisfaction among employees. Every response was assigned some score based on this overall satisfaction level was determined. Data collected is carefully tabulated and analyzed by using satisfaction methods and also various graphs are used.



Sampling Technique:
Initially, a rough draft was prepared keeping in mind the objective of the research. A pilot study was done in order to know the accuracy of the questionnaire. The final questionnaire arrived only after certain important changes were done. Thus my sampling came out to be judgmental and continent.

Sampling Unit:
The respondents who were asked to fill out questionnaires are the sampling units. These comprise of the employees of BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LTD.

Sampling Size: 20


Limitations of the Study

The study was conducted only in Lucknow branch of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.

Due to the limitation of time the study could not be made more detailed.

Due to confidentiality of some information accurate response was not revealed by some of the respondents. Some of the replies of the employees may be biased.

Respondents have marked the answers in the questionnaire which may be sociaaly incorrect irrespective of their actual feeling.




Telecom in India
Telecom in India was started by private persons in 1851 as Public Utility Service. Subsequently it was taken over by Govt. of India in 1943 as department of Telecommunication; it functions under the communication ministry headed by a Cabinet Minister. The office is situated at New Delhi, having circle offices in all states in India. The circle office is located at the capital city of the every district of all states under supervision of General Manager. It is worlds 7th largest company and Indias No.1 Telecom Company and celebrating 150 years of Telecom Services.

The BSNL is formed on 1st October 2000. The BSNL is the largest public sector, serving more than 35 million customers and with a work force of 4,50,000 offices and employees, for its maintenance and operation. With the successful launch of BSNLs WLL, Mobile and Broadband services all over the country. It has the responsibilities to improve already quality of telecom services expansion of telecom network, taking telecom services in all the villages and instilling confidence amongst its customers.

The company with a sound financial base is ready to face the impact of the upcoming competition. BSNL has received an overwhelming response to its simultaneous launch of cellular mobile Telephone Services (CMTS) across the country. The introduction of DSL technology in the access network will be another solution to meet the demand for high bandwidth considerably. Other technological innovations in the form of Managed Leased Line Networks (MLLN),LMDs DLCs AND RLC in the access network are in different phases of implementation. Commissioning of DWDM in the main routes through Sanchar Sagar Project has laid the foundation for the formation of National Information Super Highway. Introduction of Internet Telephony (WEBPHONE) has proved our commitment towards Providing Worldclass Telecom Services at a very affordable price to its valued customers.

Today , BSNL have a strong network of 100% digitalized exchanges interconnected by 100% reliable transmission media. They serve 1,05,989 landline customers through 117 exchanges. BSNL commissioned a state of the art Digital Trunk Automatic Exchange of 12,000 lines capacity exclusively for long distance traffic, introduced Intelligent Network Services (India Telephone Cards, Free Phone Services, Teleporting, etc.,) recognize digital exchanges of latest technology in the trinity so as to offer Comtrex facility all over the city.

The Indian Telecommunications network with 203 million connections is the third largest in the world and the second largest among the emerging economies of Asia. Today, it is the fastest growing market in the world. The telecommunication sector continued to register significant success during the year and has emerged as one of the key sectors responsible for Indias resurgent Indias economic growth. Telecom sector accounts for 1 percent of Indias GDP. Likely to double in 23 years. Telecom services contribute 30 percent to Indias total service tax revenue The Indian telecom sector gives direct employment to more than 4,00,000 people, compared to about 6,00,000 people in China. Not just the enabler of software, BPO and ITeS companies, it is also the lifeline of a fast growing E-commerce space. State-of-the-art telecom infrastructure has led to the rise of cities like Mysore, Mangalore, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Kochi on the software services map. This has helped spread the benefits of a booming Indian economy to beyond metros and large cities, and wealth creation is happening in tier-2 cities.


The sector, which was growing in the range of 20 to 25 per cent up to the year 2002-03, has moved to a higher growth path of an average rate of 40-45 per cent during the last two years.

Indian Telecom Subscriber Annual Growth Rate

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 15 17 18 22 22 24.7 25.2 21.9 24.7 27.7 24 21.2 29 40 42.4

FIG: 1.1

This rapid growth has been possible due to various proactive and positive decisions of the Government and contribution of both by the public and the private sector. The rapid strides in the telecom sector have been facilitated by liberal policies of the Government that provide easy market access for telecom equipment and a fair regulatory framework for offering telecom services to the Indian consumers at affordable prices.


The telecom sector has shown robust growth during the past few years. From a Teledensity of mere 0.5 per cent in the year 1989, it has grown to double digit in the year 2005.

India's Growing Teledensity

25 22 20

15 11.4


5 0.5 89-91 0.6 91-93 0.8 93-95 1.1 95-97 1.6 97-99 2.3 99-01 3.6


01-003 03-005 05-007 07-009

FIG: 1.2

Buoyed by the better-than-expected teledensity in 2005 (11.4 per cent against 8.6 per cent in 2004) due to the mobile boom in India, Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has revised the upwards the target of 22 per cent teledensity by 2007.


Internet Services

Internet services were launched in India on August 15, 1995. In November 1998 the government opened up the sector to private operators. A liberal licensing regime was put in place to increase Internet penetration across the country. Though a large number of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) has been licensed (389) to operate Internet service today, just the top 20 ISPs service 98 per cent of subscribers.

Similarly, while internet telephony is permitted to 128 ISPs, only 32 actually provide the service. The slow growth of internet and broadband will make the target of 18 million internet subscribers and 9 million broadband connections by 2007 tough to achieve.

The growth of IP telephony or grey market is also a serious concern. Government loses revenue, while unlicensed operation by certain operators violates the law and depletes licensed operators market share. New services like IP-TV and IP-Telephony are becoming popular with the demand likely to increase in coming years. The scope of services under existing ISP license conditions are unclear.


Internet Subscriber Base In Per cent

1% 2% 5% 6% 7% 9% 45% 6% BSNL MTNL Sify Bharti Airtel Reliance VSNL You Telecom 19% Hath Way Cable & Data Others

FIG: 1.3 Internet subscribers stood at 8.6 million for the quarter ending 31st December 2006, registering an increase of 6.00 per cent. The growth trend during the quarter is positive as compared with last quarter where it was 5.02 per cent. The total Internet subscribers increased from 6.7 million at the end of December 2005 to 8.6 million at the end of December 2006 registering a growth of 28.03 per cent. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) has retained its top position and reported a subscriber base of 38.12 Lakhs Internet subscribers against 3.55 million during the last quarter. Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) has retained second position with a subscribers base of 1.66 million. Sify Limited is third with a base of 8,06,000 subscriber.


Major Players
There are three types of players in telecom services: State owned companies (BSNL and MTNL) Private Indian owned companies (Reliance Infocomm, Tata Teleservices,) Foreign invested companies (Hutchison-Essar, Bharti Tele-Ventures, Escotel, Idea Cellular, BPL Mobile, Spice Communications)

Market Share of Wireless Operators

7% 8% 10% 20% Reliance Bharti Airtel BSNL Hutch 16% 21% TTSL IDEA Others 18%

FIG: 1.4


Company profile
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. formed in October, 2000, is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM Mobile, Internet, Broadband, Carrier service, MPLS-VPN, VSAT, VoIP services, IN Services etc. Within a span of five years it has become one of the largest public sector unit in India. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it, expanding the network, introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence. Today, it has about 47.3 million line basic telephone capacity, 4 million WLL capacity, 20.1 Million GSM Capacity, more than 37382 fixed exchanges, 18000 BTS, 287 Satellite Stations, 480196 R km of OFC Cable, 63730 R km of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts, 7330 cities/towns and 5.5 Lakhs villages. BSNL is the only service provider, making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai. Whether it is inaccessible areas of Siachen glacier and North-eastern region of the country. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom services. BSNL is numero uno operator of India in all services in its license area. The company offers wide ranging & most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite every customer. BSNL cellular service, CellOne, has more than 17.8 million cellular customers, garnering 24percent of all mobile users as its subscribers. That means that almost every fourth mobile user in the country has a BSNL connection. In basic services, BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals, with 35.1 million Basic Phone subscribers i.e. 85 per cent share of the subscriber base and 92 percent share in revenue terms.

BSNL has more than 2.5 million WLL subscribers and 2.5 million Internet Customers who access Internet through various modes viz. Dial-up, Leased Line, DIAS, Account Less Internet(CLI). BSNL has been adjudged as the NUMBER ONE ISP in the country. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice, data and video through the same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. At present there are 0.6 million DataOne broadbandcustomers.

The company has vast experience in Planning, Installation, network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000certified Telecom Training Institute. Scaling new heights of success, the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs.351,820million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs.99,390 million (US $ 2.26 billion)for last financial year.


The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs.630,000million (US $ 14.37 billion). BSNL plans to expand its customer base from present 47 millions lines to 125 million lines byDecember 2007 and infrastructure investment plan to the tune of Rs. 733 crores (US$ 16.67million) in the next three years. The turnover, nationwide coverage, reach, comprehensive range of telecom services and thedesire to excel has made BSNL the No. 1 Telecom Company of India.


Interesting Facts
There are 2 million BSNL mobile connections in rural India(a record, no other connection is as famous as bsnl in rural areas) .

BSNL supplies phone lines to all other network such as Airtel,Vodafone etc.

BSNL is the only network which offers broadband connections .

More than 50% of the international calls coming to India, use Reliance network.

Largest pan India coverage-over 11000 towns & 3 lakh villages. Indias No. 1 wireless service provider with more than 50 million customers.

An incredible speed of 2mbps is only offered by BSNL.

The only Mobile service available through out the country including Jammu and Kashmir and North Eastern states like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram etc.



Be the leading Telecom Service Provider in India with global presence. Create a customer focused organisation with excellence in sales, marketting and customer care.

Leverage technology to provide affordable and innovative products/services across customer segments

Provide a conducive work environment with strong focus on performance Establish efficient business processes enabled by IT


Nature of the business carried

BSNL is basically a telecom (land line) service provider. But now a days apart from these services, the operations of the company has been diversified into several arenas such as 3G,customer care,call centres, mobile services,etc.


Vision of BSNL
To become the largest telecom Service Provider in Asia.

Mission of BSNL
To provide world class State-of-art technology telecom services to its customers on demand at competitive prices.

To Provide world class telecom infrastructure in its area of operation and to contribute to the growth of the country's economy.


Products / Services Profile

1. Products of BSNL






2. Services of BSNL
When it comes to connecting the four corners of the nation, and much beyond, one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle - BSNL. A company that has gone past the number games and the quest to attain the position of a leader . It is working round the clock to take India into the future by providing world class telecom services for people of India. BSNL is India's no. 1 Telecom Service provider and most trusted Telecom brand of the Nation. Driven by the very best of telecom technology from chosen global leaders, it connects each inch of the nation to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable you to step into tomorrow.

Basic Telephone Services The Plain old, Countrywide telephone Service through 32,000 electronic exchanges. Digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) with a host of Phone Plus value additions. BSNL launched DataOne broadband service in January 2005 which shall be extended to 198 cities very shortly. The service is being provided on existing copper infrastructure on ADSL2 technology. The minimum speed offered to the customer is 256 Kbps at Rs. 250/- per month only. Subsequently, other services such as VPN, Multicasting, Video Conferencing, Video-on Demand, Broadcast etc will subsequently be added.


Internet Keeping the global network of Networks networked, the countrywide Internet Services of BSNL under the brand name includes Internet dial up/ Leased line access, CLI based access (no account is required) and DIAS service, for web browsing and E-mail applications. You can use your dialup sancharnet account from any place in India using the same access no '172233' , the facility which no other ISP has. BSNL has customer base of more than 1.7 million for sancharnet service.

BSNL also offers Web hosting and co-location services at very cheap rates.


ISDN Integrated Service Digital Network Service of BSNL utilizes a unique digital network providing high speed and high quality voice, data and image transfer over the same line. It can also facilitate both desktop video and high quality video conferencing.

Intelligent Network Intelligent Network Service (In Service) offers value-added services, such as: Free Phone Service (FPH) India Telephone Card (Prepaid card) Account Card Calling (ACC) Virtual Private Network (VPN) Tele-voting Premium Rae Service (PRM) Universal Access Number (UAN) and more.


I-Net India s x.25 based packet Switched Public Data Network is operational in 104 cities of the country. It offers x.25 x.28 leased, x.28 Dial up (PSTN) Connection) and frame relay services.

Leased Lines & Datacom:BSNL provides leased lines for voice and data communication for various application on point to point basis. It offers a choice of high, medium and low speed leased data circuits as well as dialup lines. Bandwidth is available on demand in most cities. Managed Leased Line Network (MLLN) offers flexibility of providing circuits with speeds of nx64 kbps upto 2mbps, useful for Internet leased lines and International Principle Leased Circuits (IPLCs).


Cellular Mobile Service

Postpaid and Prepaid BSNLs GSM cellular mobile service Cellone has a customer base of over 5.2 million. BSNL Mobile provides all the services like MMS, GPRS, Voice Mail, E-mail, Short Message Service (SMS) both national and international, unified messaging service (send and receive e-mails) etc. You can use BSNL Mobile in over 160 countries worldwide and in 270 cellular networks and over 1000 cities/towns across India. It has got coverage in all National and State Highways and train routes. BSNL Mobile offers all India Roaming facility to both pre-paid and post-paid customers (including Mumbai & Delhi).


Wireless in Local Loop

This is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as a substitute for conventional wires for all or part of the connection between the subscribers and the telephone exchange. Countrywide WLL is being offered in areas that are non-feasible for the normal network. Helping relieve congestion of connections in the normal cable/wire based network in urban areas. Connecting the remote and scattered rural areas. Limited mobility without any air-time charge.


Achievement and Award of BSNL

BSNL National Awards 2006 ceremony was held on the occasion of World Telecom Day on 17th May 2006 at New Delhi.

Awards were given by Honble Minister of State for Communications & IT Dr. Shakeel Ahmed. Also present on the occasion were Secretary DoT Dr. J.S Sharma, CMD BSNL Shri. A.K Sharma, Director Operations BSNL Shri. J.R Gupta and other dignitaries.

Awards such as Bharat Sanchar Doot AtiVishist Sanchar Seva Padak, Best Maintained Telecom System, Best Improved Telecom System and Telegraph Awards are given on this occasion.



Since BSNL's formation on October 1, 2000 up to September 2001, significant growth has been achieved in almost all the infrastructural parameters:

Number of exchanges has grown by 14% to 32369. Equipped capacity has grown by 21.5% to 36.43 million in one year. Direct exchange lines have grown by 21.5% to 29.4 million. TAX capacity has grown by 7.8% to 25,40,000. OFC route kms has grown by about 26.9% to 241841.


Board of Directors and Human Resources

The corporate structure of BSNL Board consists of CMD and five full time Directors. Human Resources Planning and Development, new services, operations, financial, commercial and marketing who manage the entire gamut of BSNL. There are two government nominees on the time Board of directors of the BSNL.

Chairman and M.D. Director (Finance) Director (HRD)

Mr. Gopal Das Mr. Gopal Das Mr. Gopal Das

With a corporate philosophy that human resources as the most prized assets of the organization. Its natural for BSNL to continually to plan, recruit, train, develop and apprise of the organization have build up a strong base for the conducting the business activities. In that order BSNL believes in the following:

BSNL has a vast reservoir of highly skilled and expertise work force about 4,50,000 personnel. BSNL believe that their staff is one of the best trained man owed in the telecom sector is the biggest asset of the organization. The organization believes that their future depends on our staff that provides service to valued customers and says to touch with them. To meet the technological challenges, employees are trained for technology up gradation, modernization, computerization etc. in BSNLs training centers spread across country. These centers are properly equipped with the requisite infra structure facilities such as lecture rooms, modern audio visual aids, libraries, hostels etc. Different curriculum run in these centers to import technology based training for additional change, basic education and skill development programmes etc.


Organization Chart of BSNL:

TABLE: 1.1


Company HR Policy
Company lay out Selection &Recruitment Motivation Training Wage & Salary Performance appraisal



Sources Of Recruitment
External External sources

Management consultant Advertisement Management institute Recomendentaion Deputation personnel

Selection process

Job analysis Initial screening Application bank Test Interview Reference check Medical final and job offer


The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees. To do this the manager should be able to motivate employees. But that's easier said than done. Motivation practice and theory are difficult subjects, touching on several disciplines. In spite of enormous research, basic as well as applied, the subject of motivation is not clearly understood and more often than not poorly practiced. To understand motivation one must understand human nature itself. And there lies the problem. In B.S.N.L as we all know that its a government organization so they not give such motivational package which an employee get in private organization. But without motivation package no employee give their maximum to the organization .some motivational package which B.S.N.L give there employee is:-

Free telephone facility Promotion Transfer Time to time revision of pay scale Central government facility Quarter for leaving Good working environment


Employee training is the planned effort of an organization to help employees learn the job related behaviors and skills they will need to do their job properly. It is a set of planned activities that the organization will have their employees complete in order to increase their job knowledge and skills and to have them get accustomed to the attitudes and social atmosphere of the company. It will help the employee to be familiar with the goals of the organization and the job requirements. There are typical steps that go into a training program. These are outlined below. Conduct Needs Assessment: A need is described as a "gap" between what is currently known and what will be needed now and in the future. These gaps in knowledge could be between what an organization expects to happen and what actually does, how employees are performing on the job and how the organization desires them to perform, and existing skills and desired skill level. In order to conduct an assessment there are some analyses that must be done. An organizational analyses determines the effectiveness of an organization, where training is needed and under what conditions the training will be conducted. A task analysis is used to provide data about a job or group of jobs, and the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities that are needed to achieve optimum performance. This information can come from job descriptions, task analyses, employee questionnaires and interviews, performance evaluation, and observation of the workplace. Finally - person analysis analyses how well an individual employee is doing their job and determines which specific employees need training and what kind of training. The methods of this kind of analysis include employee questionnaires and interviews, performance evaluation, skill and knowledge testing and the observation of behavior and results.


Implement Training Methods: Now that the analysis has been done, the training method needs to be chosen. The two most frequently used training methods include:

Lecture: Lecture involves one-way communication, from instructor to learner - the learner is passive in the process. On-the-job-training: This method involves such methods as apprenticeship and mentoring, where the employee is actively engaged in the type of work they will later be doing on their own.

Programmed instruction: This is a form of instruction that is pre-programmed and then delivered methodologically to an individual. This form of instruction is self-paced - the employee determines how fast they will learn and complete the steps and it is often completed more quickly than group training. It can be delivered via a computer and can be costly to prepare. Simulations: This sort of training involves an employee being placed into a simulated situation of what may occur in real on-the-job situations. Techniques include Case studies where trainees analyze a problem outlined in a report and offer solutions; role playing where simulated roles are acted out; and behavioral modeling where trainees observe proper work behavior and then role play it. Part of the implementation of the training is making sure that the training is actually teaching the employees the skills they will need - this is known as the Transfer of Training. A more technical definition is: the extent to which the knowledge, skills or attitudes learned in the training will be used or applied on the job. There are ways to increase the probability of what employees are being trained will really relate to their actual job behavior. To do this, one can maximize the similarity between the training situation and the job situation, provide a variety of examples when teaching skills and reward trained behaviors and ideas on the job.


Training Evaluation: Training evaluation is used to evaluate the reactions of the learners, measure the learning that occurred, assess on-the-job behaviors, identify business results that are due to the training and calculate if the investment in training has had any return in the gains of the company. Business results can be measured in "hard" data and "soft" data. Hard data are measures of productivity, quality, material costs, absenteeism and turnover and customer satisfaction. Soft data is items such as job satisfaction, teamwork, and organizational commitment on the part of the employees.


Performance appraisal

Performance appraisal In the BSNL performance appraisal doesnt play a great role reason behind that it is a government organization but its a important part of organization. In BSNL every employee has a service book which is written by his senior if employer not do his duty well then his senior mark in his service record book which create problem for gating promotion etc. Performance appraisal: BSNL limited follows different types of method toevaluate his employee performance and accordingly they provide incentives and perkto them as well as promotion and pay rise. ITI also get done its HR audit during periodof 2002 to 2005 which included many of its office along with head quaters.


Audit objectives : The manpower planning done by the Company was adequate to meet its Objectives. The Company ensured optimum deployment of manpower. The Company introduced new recruitment policies and practices and whether they were adequate. Well defined, fair and transparent career progression policies and practices were in Place An effective performance management system was in place. The training imparted by the Company was effective. Clearly defined and effective conduct and disciplinary rules were in place. Incentive and welfare policies and practices were effective. An adequate exit policy had been formulated and implemented by the company.

But the finding which came out was something different than the thinking of management. The committee has given emphasis on the need of regular staff training, staff norms and heavy investment to upgrade the knowledge base of employees. There were many personnel in different parts of organization who were ideal and required to be deployed to be utilized effectively. It also keeps record of its employee in form of annual confidential report(ACR) which is used to compare with the target set for them by the company. The company also follows open review system for judging the performance of individuals. In this system, the superior officer discusses the self appraisal submitted by his/her subordinate so as to make the appraisal of his/her performance totally transparent.



Wages and Salary Administration In private organization employee generally get much more than that an employee of public organization but the difference comes in benefits that public employee receives. Despite of huge profit, good public image, best among PSU it pays less to its employee than other PSU. If we compare it with other PSU in its field like BSNL, MTNL and TCIL then also its wage rate is low. According to analyst the wage rate is set in comparison with profit earned by company and wage rate of that industry. After pay revision some hard step where taken like: Minimum wage rate was fixed for its employee. Different wage rate for executive and non executive employee. Emplo yees were retained to a great ext ent. Annual incremental were fixed to 5%. There was increment in DA and CCA (city compensation allowance).



BSNL has fully integrated IP-enabled infrastructure platform thus implying application convergence, service convergence and network convergence.

It has been successful in building right alliances in the form of network alliances with Ericsson and Cisco Systems, IT alliances with HP Compaq, interconnecting alliances. Thus it can focus on its main business of marketing its service BSNL has been able to maintain a strong distribution capability. It has a selling capacity of 25 million per annum as compared to Nokias 20 million per annum.

It has 90000 handset outlets as compared to Nokias 42000. It has p r e s e n c e i n 5 0 0 0 t o w n s serviced by 1500 distributors as compared to Nokias presence in 4600 towns serviced by 250distributors/micro-distributors. It can leverage its strength in wireless connectivity in the future to offer mobile telecom services. It has wireless connectivity available in 4500 towns with a speed of 144kbps.

Backing by a healthy balance sheet of the parent company helps in investing in assets for long term growth. Also the BSNL culture focuses on financial conservatism, thus providing it with good human skills at managing capital.



The BSNL network does not deliver on the Quality of Service parameters as decided by Telecom Regulatory authority of India (TRAI). Due to this it suffers from high call dropping rates and a reduction in brand equity.

BSNL has a major presence only in C Circle. It needs to establish itself also in other circles so that it can compete with player like Bharti on a national scale.



A strong economy and a growing market: The Indian telecommunication industry is amongst the fastest growing telecom markets in the world and is poised to deliver solid growth as a result of several economic reforms that have lead to strong GDP growth pegged at approximately 9.1%for FY 2007-08. Increasing per capita income supported by increased consumption is resulting in a greater-than-proportionate impetus for telecom growth. As India still remains one of the lowest penetrated markets, it is one of the most attractive telecom markets in the world today.

New technologies and paradigms: The trend towards adoption of Next Generation Networks (NGN) is global and the discussions in India are still at a preliminary stage. Technologies like Triple Play, wherein a single cable can deliver voice, data, video on demand and IPTV provide u s w i t h a u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a n i n t e g r a t e d p l a ye r w h o i s w e l l p o s i t i o n e d t o d e l i v e r t h i s service.

Strong strategic partnerships: Strong strategic alliances with network companies may help BSNL Communication to focus on marketing its services. Alliances provide the service provider the access to technological know-how as well as best practices to enhance customer experience. It is important to leverage the strengths of our partners and benefit from their experience and know-how.

Introduction of number portability: Number portability would allow customers to retain their telephone numbers even after switching service providers or networks. Companies with better service delivery and customer care platforms stand to gain over their competitors. Extensive network coverage, coupled with aggressive pricing and innovative products and services would help in gaining a larger share of the market. Given a competitive position and focus on customer delight, BSNL may be positioned to attract subscribers presently on other networks, as and when number portability gets introduced in the market.



Regulatory decisions and changes: On the regulatory front, reduction in the entry fee and the annual license fee for National Long Distance and International Long Distance (ILD), combined with the impending implementation of Carrier Access Code (CAC) would lead to greater competition in the Long Distance Segment. The implementation of Carrier Access Code would make it easier for the customers to choose their long distance carrier, regardless of access provider. A focus on offering value-for-money services to consumers would stand to gain from the introduction of CAC.



In order to manage efficiently and better way U. P. Telecom Circle was bifurcated on 01.04.1995 into two separate Circles viz. U. P. (East) Telecom Circle with Headquarter at Lucknow and U. P. (West) Telecom Circle with Headquarter at Dehradun ( at Present Meerut).

The Circle is headed by an officer of the rank Chief General Manager and is assisted by one PGM(D) and nine General Managers for Operation, Mobile Services (03 GMs), Marketing, NC, Business Development, Land & Building, WLL, Telegraph and Finance and two Chief Engineers(Civil and Electrical) at headquarter. Apart from this there are one Principal General Manager for Lucknow , Thirteen GM in Major Telecom District and Nineteen Telecom District Managers at minor Telecom District in the field. Total around 16 thosand employees are there to manage BSNL UP East Telecom Services.


Chapter - 3



I am satisfied with the job is one way to define job satisfaction.

Limelight on job satisfaction was brought by Hop pock in 1935. He reviewed 32 studies on job satisfaction. Prior of 1933 the job satisfaction is combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that course to say truthfully that I am satisfied with my job.

The success of any organization depends on the effective utilization and motivation of human resources.

Job satisfaction is an integral of the organizational climate and importance element in management and employee relationship.

Job satisfaction is derived from the Latin words Satis and facere, which means enough and to do respectively. Job satisfaction refers to an employees general attitude towards his job. Situational Factor. Individual Characteristics. Group and social relationship outside the job.

Job satisfaction is the ultimate function of all these and many individual attitudes put together. Many thinkers consider it a collective force and not an unitary phenomenon.

Every individual has some needs and desires that need to be fulfilled. Any job, which fulfils these needs, provides satisfaction. Satisfaction is ones contentment job that induces motivation and interest in work, which creates pleasure or happiness from job. Hence satisfaction plays a vital role in every aspect of individuals life, without satisfaction in life it becomes very difficult to survive.


The term job satisfaction refers to an employees general attitude towards his job.

Job satisfaction is the favorableness or un-favorableness with which employees view their work.

In order to understand job satisfaction, perhaps the first step should be to demarcate the boundaries among such terms as attitudes motivation and morale. Job satisfaction influences ones general life

A job is an important part of life. satisfaction.

The result is that satisfaction arises from a complex set of circumstances in the same way the motivation does.


Job Satisfaction Leads To

Motivates towards high productivity. Want to remain with organization. Act effectively in crisis. Accept necessary changes without resentment or resistance. Promotes the interest of the workers in the organization.


There are vital differences among experts about the concept of job satisfaction. Basically, there are four approaches/ theories of job satisfaction.

They are: Fulfillment theory Discrepancy theory Equity theory Two-factor theory


Fulfillment theory
The main aim of this theory is to measure satisfaction in terms of rewards a person receives or the extent to which his needs are satisfied. Job satisfaction cannot be regarded merely as a function of how much a person receives from his job but it is the strength of the individuals desire of his level of aspiration in a particular area.

The main difficulty in his approach as observed by willing is that job satisfaction is not only a function of what a person receives but also what he feels he should receive, as there would be considerable difference in the actual and expectations of persons.

Discrepancy Theory

The proponents of this theory is that satisfaction is the function of what a person actually receives from his job satisfaction and what he thanks receives or expects to receive.

This approach does not make it clear whether or not over satisfaction is a part of dissatisfaction and if so, how it differs from dissatisfaction.

Equity Theory

The proponents of this theory are of the view that a persons satisfaction determined by his perceived equity which in from is determined by his input-output balance when compared to others input-output balance. Input-output balance is the perceived ratio of what a person received from his job relative to what he contributes to the job.


Two-Factor Theory

This theory was developed by Herzberg, Manusner, Paterson and Capwell who identified certain factors as satisfiers and dissatisfies.

Factors such as achievement, recognition responsibility etc., are satisfiers, the presence of which causes satisfaction but their absence does not result in dissatisfaction on the other hand the factors such as supervision salary, working conditions etc are dis-satisfiers the absence of which cause dissatisfaction however their presence does not result in job satisfaction.

This theory is considered invalid as a person can get both satisfaction and dissatisfaction at the same time.



According to Abraham A. Kumar there two types of variables, which determine the job satisfaction of an individual. These are: Organization Variables Personal Variables

Organization variables:

Occupational Level : The higher the level of the job, the greater the satisfaction of the individuals. This is because, higher level of jobs carry greater prestige and self-control. This relationship between occupational level and job satisfaction stems from social reference group theory in our society values some jobs more than others. Hence people in values like them more than those who are in non-valued jobs. The relationship may also stem from the need fulfillment theory. Job content: Greater the variation in job content and less the repetitiveness with which the tasks must be performed, the greater the satisfaction of the individuals involved. Since job content in terms of variety and nature of tasks called for is a function of occupational level. The theoretical arguments given above apply here also. Considerate Leadership: People to be treated with consideration. Hence considerate leadership results in higher job satisfaction than in considerate leadership. Pay and Promotional opportunities: All other things being equal these two variables are positively related to job satisfaction. Interaction among Employees: Here the question is, when interaction in the work group is a source of job satisfaction and when it is not.


Interaction is more satisfying when:

It results in the cognition that other persons attitudes are similar to ones own since, this permits are ready calculability of the others behavior and constitutes a validation of ones self. It results in being accepted by other and It facilitates and achievement of goals.

Personal Variables

For some people, it appears that most jobs will be dissatisfying irrespective of the organizational conditions, where for other most jobs will be satisfying personal variable for this difference. Age Educational Level Role perception Sex





Besides several other factors the economic development of a country depends upon the effective functioning of employees. In order to achieve this the superiors and the state should take necessary steps for the satisfaction of employees in their respective jobs. Almost all the employees are satisfied with the wages paid to them. 70% of the employees feel that there should be an incentive wages scheme for efficient work in the organization. Employees are satisfied with the present working conditions and feel secure about their job. 70% of the employees feel that the management is sympathetic to some extent in their problems faced at workstation, Management shares a very good relation with the workers. Employees are satisfied with the facilities provided to them and are free to express their views freely to the management. Supervisors are ready to clear the doubts and help in improving their performance. 70% of the employees feel that the company policies really protect their interests. 50% of the employees are satisfied with the present management setup. 60% of the employees feel that the company policies should be changed. Employees are satisfied with the training provided to them in improving their performance. Medical, educational and housing loans are the financial benefits provided to the employees by the organization. Expenses for the injured workers are borne by the organization. Medical compensation is also provided to the injured workers.

Overall the employees of BSNL are having a very high job satisfaction and hence they are working with great enthusiasm and zeal to achieve their organizations goal.


Management should recognize talents and encourage them to grow in the organization. Some of the policies of the company should be changed according to the employees of the company. Majority of the employees feel that there should be an incentive wage scheme for efficient work in the organization. Suggestion and interest of the employees should be considered as it motivates the employees to perform better in the future than present. The management should be more helpful and sympathetic towards the problems faced by the workers at the workstation. The company should maintain the superior-subordinate relationship. The company can organize trips, family meet and fun at work. Organization can try and increase the level of workers participation in decision making. More attention should be given for overall development of employees welfare facilities. Better communication may yield some more results.


Job satisfaction is a positive approach about ones job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. Job satisfaction represents an attitude rather than behavior. They believe that satisfied employees are more productive than unsatisfied employees. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive feelings about the job. When people speak of the employee attitudes more often than not they mean job satisfaction. It is very a tough job for HR Department to ensure job satisfaction among staff. Employees will just not be happy with pay cheque, a good position and prestige. They also want a constant feeling of well being, demand better work and family life balance and look to the organization for fulfilling even their community needs. The employees of BSNL are satisfied from their job in the following field: Salary Benefits Low work pressure Culture practices of the company Incentives Job security Leaves and opportunity to utilize skills & learn new skills.

Thus the overall job satisfaction of employees at Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd is very high. The employees of this organization have a very high regard and respect towards the company image and future of the organization.




Yes 80 (Data in Percentage)

No 20

Yes No

FIG: 4.1 Interpretation: 80 percent of the employees are satisfied with the wages paid to tem. Only 20 percent of the employees feel that there should be a hike in wages paid to them.



Yes 70 (Data in Percentage)

No 30

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

FIG: 4.2 Interpretation: 70 percent of the employees feel that there should be an incentive wage scheme for efficient work in the organization.



Yes 90 (Data in Percentage)

No 10









FIG: 4.3 Interpretation: Almost all the employees are satisfied with the present working conditions and environment.



To Some extent 70 (Data in Percentage)

To Large extent 30

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

FIG: 4.4 Interpretation: 70% of the employees feel that the management is sympathetic to some extent in their problems faced at workstation.



To Some extent 90 (Data in Percentage)

To Large extent 10

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

FIG: 4.5 Interpretation: Almost all the employees are satisfied with facilities provided with the organization.



To Some extent 70 (Data in Percentage)

To Large extent 30

80 60 40 20 0 Yes No Series1

FIG: 4.6 Interpretation: 70% of the employees feel that the management has a good relation with the workers and only 20% of them feel that the management should improve their relation with the workers.



To Some extent 60 (Data in Percentage)

To Large extent 40

Yes No

FIG: 4.7 Interpretation: 60% of the employees feel that the company policies really protect their interest. 40% of them feel that their interests are not protected.



To Some extent 50 (Data in Percentage)

To Large extent 50

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

FIG: 4.8 Interpretation: Only 50% of the employees are satisfied with the present management setup and the other 50% is not satisfied and feel that there should be change in the setup.



To Some extent 60 (Data in Percentage)

To Large extent 40

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

FIG: 4.9 Interpretation: 60% of the employees feel that the company policies should be changed and 40% of them feel that the policies of the company are up to their satisfaction.



To Some extent 90 (Data in Percentage)

To Large extent 10

Yes No

FIG: 4.10 Interpretation: Almost all the employees are satisfied with the training provided by the company to improve their performance.





BOOKS Ashwathappa.K, Human Resource Management, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publication Deith Davis, Human Relation At Work Tripathi, Personnel Management & Industrial Relations P.Subha Rao, Essentials Of Human Resource And Industrial Relations C.B Mamoria, Human Resource Management.