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HW04 energy: 7P9, 7P13, 7P16, 7P22, 7P24, 7P31, 7P37, 7P42(H), 7P44, 7P49

Chapter 7, problem 9: The only force acting on a 2.0 kg canister that is moving in an xy-plane has a magnitude of 5.0 N. The canister initially has a velocity of 4.0 m/s in the positive x-direction and some time later has a velocity of 6.0 m/s in the positive y direction. How much work is done on the canister by the 5.0 N force during this time? The final answer is insensitive to the magnitude of the force,

W

K

f

K

i

  • 1 m v

2

f

f

  • 2 1

2

m v

i

1

  • 2 (2.0

kg

)

36

  • 2 16

m

2

s

2

m

s

2

2  1 m  v 2 i 2 f 2 20  kg m ;
2
1
m
v
2
i
2
f
2
20
 kg
m
;
2
s

v

i

2

1

2

(2.0

kg

)

( 0 2  (6.0 m ) 2 ) s
(
0
2
(6.0
m
)
2
)
s

2

(

(4.0 m ) 2  0 2 ) s
(4.0
m
)
2
0
2
)
s

2

(1.1)

•• Chapter 7, problem 13: A luge and its rider, with a total mass of 85 kg, emerge from a downhill track onto a horizontal straight track with an initial speed of 37 m/s. If a force slows them to a stop at a constant rate of 2.0 m/s 2 , (a) what magnitude F is required for the force, (b) what distance d do they travel while slowing, and (c) what work W is done on them by the force? What are (d) F, (e) d, and (f) W if they, instead, slow at 4.0 m/s 2 ?

Solution: We choose +x as the direction of motion (so

readily yields

HW04 – energy : 7P9, 7P13, 7P16, 7P22, 7P24, 7P31, 7P37, 7P42(H), 7P44, 7P49 Chapter 7,

F (85kg)( 2.0m/s

  • 2 )

so that,

a

and

F are negative-valued). (a) Newton’s second law

F  F | |  1.7  10 2 N
F  F
|
|
1.7
10
2
N
  • (b) From Eq. 2-16 (with v = 0) we have,

  37m/s 2  v 2  v 2  0 2  v a
37m/s
2
 v
2
v
2
0
2
v a
2
2
  
x
solve for  x
x
0
3.4
10
2
m
0
2
a
2
2.0m/s
2
Alternate solution: this can be worked using energy-conservation 1 , as,
1
2
2
  
K
W
mv
1
mv
  
F
x
m
a
 
x
ma
x
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
v
v
0
v
37m/s
0
0
2
    
a
x
x
3.4
10
m
2
2 a
2
2
2.0m/s
 

(1.2)

;

(1.3)

(1.4)

I strongly recommend you work this problem out both ways.

 

  • (c) Since

F is opposite to the direction of motion (so the angle between

F

and d  x

is 180°) then Eq. 7-7

W  Fx  5.810
(e)
(f) W  Fx  5.810

gives the work done as

to

  • 4 J . (d) In this case, Newton’s second law yields,

  F  ma  85kg  4.0m/s  2 x ˆ  F 

F
ma
85kg
4.0m/s
2
x
ˆ
F
F
3.4
10
2
N ;
From (1.3) or (1.4), we now have,
37m/s
2
x  
1.7
10
2
m.
2
4.0m/s
2

The force

(1.5)

(1.6)

F is again opposite to the direction of motion (so the angle is again 180°) so that Eq. 7-7 leads

4

J. The fact that this agrees with the result of part (c) provides insight into the concept

of work.

1 Thus, the formula

v

2

v

0

2

2

a

x

x can be derived from

K  W mv mv F  x ma  x .

2

0

1

2

1 2

2

•• Chapter 7, problem 16: An 8.0 kg object is moving in the positive direction of an x-axis. When it passes through x = 0, a constant force directed along the axis begins to act on it. Figure 7-28 gives its kinetic energy K versus position x as it moves from x = 0 to x = 5.0 m; K 0 = 30.0 J. The force continues to act. What is v when the object moves back through x = -3.0 m?

•• Chapter 7, problem 16 : An 8.0 kg object is moving in the positive direction

Solution: The change in kinetic energy is computed to eventually compute a in the same manner as in (1.4). Note that the change in kinetic energy is NEGATIVE; i.e., the object is slowing down.

We expect, therefore, a negative acceleration (since the object was moving in the positive x-direction),

K

1

2

(

m v

2

f

v

2

i

)

1

2

m

(2

a

x

)

ma

solve for a

  

x

a

K

m

x

(

30 J)

(8.0 kg)(5.0 m)

m  0.75 ; s 2
m
 0.75
;
s
2

(1.7)

When x 5 mthe kinetic energy becomes zero, implying that the mass comes to rest momentarily. Thus,

v 2  v  ax  v  v  ax  2 2 2
v
2
 v  ax  v  v  ax 
2 2
2
2
0
2(
0.75 m/s )(5.0 m)
2
7.5 m
2
/s
2
2.7 m
0
0
s
The speed of the object when x = 3.0 m is,
v 
v
2
2
ax 
7.5 m
2
/s
2
2(
0.75 m/s )(
2
3.0 m)
12 m/s
3.5 m/s ;
0

(1.8)

(1.9)

•• Chapter 7, problem 22: A cave rescue team lifts an injured spelunker directly upward and out of a sinkhole by means of a motor-driven cable. The lift is performed in three stages, each requiring a vertical distance of 10.0 m: (a) the initially stationary spelunker is accelerated to a speed of 5.00 m/s; (b) he is then lifted at the constant speed of 5.00 m/s; (c) finally he is decelerated to zero speed. How much work is done on the 80.0 kg rescue-ee by the force lifting him during each stage? Solution: We use d to denote the magnitude of the spelunker’s displacement during each stage. The mass of the spelunker is m = 80.0 kg. The work done by the lifting force is denoted W i where i = 1, 2, 3 for the three stages. We apply the work-energy theorem, Eq. 7-15, in the form,

K K K W W U W

f

i

j

j

a

g

i

app

(

m g

)(

d ) W app i i
d
)
W
app
i
i

mgd

i

;

  • (a) For stage 1, W

1

mgd

 

K

1

  • 2 1 mv

  • 1 2 , where

v

1

5.00 m /s. This gives

W mgd

1

  • 1 2 (80.0 kg)(9.80 m/s )(10.0 m)

mv

1 2

2

1

2

(80.0 kg)(5.00 m/s)

2

8.84

10

3

J.

  • (b) For stage 2, W 2 mgd = K 2 = 0, which leads to

2

W mgd (80.0 kg)(9.80 m/s )(10.0 m) 7.8410

2

3

J.

(c) For stage 3, W

3

mgd

 

K

3

 

1

2

mv

2

1

. We obtain

(1.10)

W 3
W
3

mgd

1

2

2

mv

1

2

(80.0 kg)(9.80 m/s )(10.0 m)

1

2

(80.0 kg)(5.00 m/s)

2

6.84

10

3

J.

•• Chapter 7, problem 24: In Fig. 7-32, a

horizontal force

F

a

of magnitude 20.0 N is applied

to a m = 3.00 kg psychology book as the book slides a distance d = 0.500 m up a frictionless ramp at angle = 30.0°. (a) During the displacement, what

is the net work done on the book by

F

a

, the

gravitational force on the book, and the normal force on the book? (b) If the book has zero kinetic

energy at the start of the displacement, what is its speed at the end of the displacement?

W 3  mgd  1 2 2 mv 1  2 (80.0 kg)(9.80 m/s )(10.0
  • (a) Find the net work done on the textbook: Using notation common to many vector-capable calculators, we

have (from Eq. 7-8),

W

F

d

F d

x

x

F

a

cos

ma

sin

 20.0ˆ cos30.0 ( 9.81)(3.00)sin30.0 0.500

d

x

 

N

m

 1.31 J ;
 1.31
J
;

(1.11)

The normal force makes no contribution to the dot product, since the angle between the normal force and the displacement is 90.

(b) Eq. 7-10 (along with Eq. 7-1) then leads to

  

K

W

  • 1 2 mv

  • 2 mgd

F d

a

cos

sin

 

v

F d cos   mgd sin  a 1 m 2
F d
cos
mgd
sin
a
1
m
2

2(1.31 J ) 3.00 kg
2(1.31
J
)
3.00
kg

m 0.935 ; s
m
0.935
;
s

(1.12)

•• Chapter 7, problem 31: The only force acting on a 2.0 kg body as it moves along a positive x axis has an x

component

6

F   x

x

N

  • m , with x in meters. The velocity at x = 3.0 m is 8.0 m/s. (a) What is the velocity of the

body at x = 4.0 m? (b) At what positive value of x will the body have a velocity of 5.0 m/s?

  • (a) As the body moves along the x axis from x i = 3.0 m to x f = 4.0 m the work done by the force is

W

x

f

x

i

F

x

dx

x

f

x

i

x dx   x x  

6

3(

f

i

)

2

2

3 (4.0

2

2

3.0 )

 

21 J.

According to the work-kinetic energy theorem, this gives the change in the kinetic energy:

W

  

K

1

2

d 2

m v

f

v

2

i

i

where v i is the initial velocity (at x i ) and v f is the final velocity (at x f ). The theorem yields

v

f

2 W  v 2 m i
2
W
 v
2
m
i

2(  21 J)  (8.0 m/s) 2 2.0 kg
2(
21 J)
 (8.0 m/s)
2
2.0 kg

6.6 m/s.

  • (b) The velocity of the particle is v f = 5.0 m/s when it is at x = x f . The work-kinetic energy theorem is used to

solve for x f . The net work done on the particle is

W   3 x x

f

i

2

2

, so the theorem leads to

3

df

2

x

2

x

i

i

1

2

m

df

v

2

v

2

i

i.

Thus,

x

f

m    2 2 2 6 f i i
m
2
2
2
6
f
i
i

v

6 2.0 N/m kg  (5.0 m/s)  2  (8.0 m/s) 2  (3.0 m)
6 2.0 N/m kg
(5.0 m/s)
2
(8.0 m/s)
2
(3.0 m)
2

v x  

4.7 m.

•• chapter 7, problem 37: Figure 7-39 gives the acceleration of a 2.00 kg particle as an applied force

F

a

moves it from rest along an x-axis from x0 to x = 9.0 m. The scale of the figure’s vertical axis is set by

a

s

6.0 m

2

s

. How much work has the force done on the particle when the particle reaches (a) x = 4.0 m, (b) x =

7.0 m, and (c) x = 9.0 m? What is the particle’s speed and direction of travel when it reaches (d) x = 4.0 m, (e)

x = 7.0 m, and (f) x = 9.0 m?

(b) The velocity of the particle is v = 5.0 m/s when it is at x
  • (a) We first multiply the vertical axis by the mass, so that it becomes a graph of the applied force. Now, adding

the triangular and rectangular “areas” in the graph (for 0 x 4) gives 42 J for the work done.

  • (b) Counting the “areas” under the axis as negative contributions, we find (for 0 x 7) the work to be 30 J at x

= 7.0 m.

  • (c) And at x = 9.0 m, the work is 12 J.

  • (d) Equation 7-10 (along with Eq. 7-1) leads to speed v = 6.5 m/s at x = 4.0 m. Returning to the original graph

(where a was plotted) we note that (since it started from rest) it has received acceleration(s) (up to this point)

only in the +x direction and consequently must have a velocity vector pointing in the +x direction at x = 4.0 m.

  • (e) Now, using the result of part (b) and Eq. 7-10 (along with Eq. 7-1) we find the speed is 5.5 m/s at x = 7.0 m.

Although it has experienced some deceleration during the 0 x 7 interval, its velocity vector still points in the +x direction.

  • (f) Finally, using the result of part (c) and Eq. 7-10 (along with Eq. 7-1) we find its speed v = 3.5 m/s at x = 9.0

    • m. It certainly has experienced a significant amount of deceleration during the 0 x 9 interval; nonetheless, its velocity vector still points in the +x direction.

Chapter 7, Problem 42: The figure shows a cord attached to a cart that can slide along a frictionless horizontal rail aligned along an x axis. The left end of the cord is pulled over a pulley, of negligible mass and friction and at cord height h = 1.20 m, so the cart slides from x1 = 3.00 m to x2 = 1.00 m. During the move, the tension in the cord is a

constant 25.0 N. What is the change in the kinetic energy of the cart during the move?

(b) The velocity of the particle is v = 5.0 m/s when it is at x

The work-energy theorem is used, but one must use the identity

cos

adjacent

hypotenuse

upon

W Fd

F

The work-energy theorem is used, but one must use the identity cos  adjacent hypotenuse upon
  • d cos , and

eliminate the trig-functions in favour of the dimensions illustrated above. In fact, this should not be a 3-dot problem, since this is not a long problem, but rather one which requires a touch of ingenuity,

K

 

W a
W
a

F

  

(

x

2

x

1

)

 

F

x

  • 2 cos

  • 2 F

x

1

cos

 

1

x 2  h 2 2
x
2
h
2
2

x 2  h 2 1
x
2
h
2
1

 

(25.0

N

)

The work-energy theorem is used, but one must use the identity cos  adjacent hypotenuse upon

(1.00

m

)

2

(1.20

m

)

2

(3.00

m

)

2

(1.20

m

)

2

  

41.7

J

41.7 J
41.7 J

(1.13)

• chapter 7, problem 44: A skier is pulled by a towrope up a frictionless ski slope that makes an angle of 12° with the horizontal. The rope moves parallel to the slope with a constant speed of 1.0 m/s. The force of the rope does 900 J of work on the skier as the skier moves a distance of 8.0 m up the incline. (a) If the rope moved with a constant speed of 2.0 m/s, how much work would the force of the rope do on the skier as the skier moved a distance of 8.0 m up the incline? At what rate is the force of the rope doing work on the skier when the rope moves with a speed of (b) 1.0 m/s and (c) 2.0 m/s?

  • (a) Since constant speed implies K 0, we require W a

  W

g

, by Eq. 7-15. Since W g is the same in both

cases (same weight and same path), then

W

a

9.0

10

  • 2 J just as it was in the first case.

  • (b) Since the speed of 1.0 m/s is constant, then 8.0 meters is traveled in 8.0 seconds. Using Eq. 7-42, and noting

that average power is the power when the work is being done at a steady rate, we have

P

W

900 J

1.1

10

2

W.

 

t

8.0 s

  • (c) Since the speed of 2.0 m/s is constant, 8.0 meters is traveled in 4.0 seconds. Using Eq. 7-42, with average

power replaced by power, we have

P

W

900 J

t

4.0 s

= 225 W

2.310

2

W .

•• chapter 7, problem 49: A fully loaded, slow-moving freight elevator has a cab with a total mass of 1200 kg, which is required to travel upward 54 m in 3.0 min, starting and ending at rest. The elevator’s counterweight

has a mass of only 950 kg, and so the elevator motor must help. What average power is required of the force the motor exerts on the cab via the cable?

We have a loaded elevator moving upward at a constant speed. The forces involved are: gravitational force on the elevator, gravitational force on the counterweight, and the force by the motor via cable. The total work is the sum of the work done by gravity on the elevator, the work done by gravity on the counterweight, and the work done by the motor on the system:

W W W W

e

c

m

.

Since the elevator moves at constant velocity, its kinetic energy does not change and according to the work- kinetic energy theorem the total work done is zero, that is, W  K 0 .

The elevator moves upward through 54 m, so the work done by gravity on it is

W

e

 m gd  

(1200 kg)(9.80 m/s )(54 m) m gd

e

c

2

(950 kg)(9.80 m/s )(54 m)

2

 

6.35

10

5

J.

The counterweight moves downward the same distance, so the work done by gravity on it is

W c
W
c

5.03

10

5

J.

Since W = 0, the work done by the motor on the system is

W  W W

m

e

c

6.35

10

5

J

5.03

10

5

J

1.32

10

5

J.

This work is done in a time interval of t 3.0 min 180 s, so the power supplied by the motor to lift the elevator is

P

W t

m

1.32

10

5

J

180 s

7.4

10

2

W.