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1.

0 ABSTRACT
Marcet boiler is a bench top unit designed to demonstrate the thermodynamics basic principal of boiling phenomenon and this experiment was carried out to determine the relationship between the pressure and the temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium.Besides that,this experiment was also done to demonstrate the vapor pressure curve.The marcet boiler was used for this experiment.When the pressure increases,the temperature also increases.Therefore,the relationship of pressure and temperature is directly proportional.The derived formula and the data were used to calculate the slope.The dT/dP measured was compared with data in the steam table.Theoretically,the values measured should be almost the same with the predicted values however there are small deviation which range from 0.50 % to 0.73% and this might be occurred due to the errors in reading accuracy,room temperature and pressure.The result from this experiment is validating to the theory of the experiment.Moreover,the experiment was successful conducted.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

Marcet Boiler is one of the application that involving the studying the thermodynamic.The study of thermodynamic related to the transfer of heat and work between a system and surrounding.The process occurs causing the change in the properties of system.This experiment showed the relationship between pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium with water and data obtained will be compared with theoretical data in steam table. This experiment is simple compared to other experiments.The recorded data for this experiment is the temperature of steam that boiled starting at atmospheric pressure until 10kPa.The water is heated by a heater in an insulated pressure vessel(boiler) until reach the boiling point.For every increment of 0.5 kPa in pressure,the temperature of steam was recorded.As the pressure reached 10 kPa,the heater is switch off and the temperature for every decrement of 0.5 kPa was also recorded. The steam is an ideal gas which is the ideal gas always obey the equation of state that relating the pressure,specific volume/density and absolute temperature with mass of molecules and gas constant,R (Frederick A.Bettelheim and William Henry Brown,2007)

PV = nRT
Where P = Pressure V = volume n = Moles of gas R = ideal gas law constant T = Temperature

(Eq 1.0)

By comparing the real gas with the ideal gas,the ideal gas at low temperature absolutely no obeys the equation of state as it continues to undergo discontinues change of volume and become liquids.A few changes have to be ceated from the original ideal gas equation of state in order to allowing its application in the properties of real gas.

(p+ n2a/v2) (V- nb) = nRT


2 2

(Eq 2.0)

The Van der Waalss equation is the correction from the ideal gas equation. Another two parameters are added into the ideal gas equation .The first is (n a/v ) for attractive

intermolecular force that reduces the outside in order to gathering the gas together.The second is (nb) to taking the finite molecular volume together in accounting as the real gas cannot be compressed (Per Freiesleben Hansen,2009).

7.0 RESULTS
Data(experimental) Pressure,P(bar) Absolute (abs) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 198.06 297.09 396.12 495.15 594.18 693.21 792.24 891.27 990.30 Temperature,T (o C) Increase Decrease Average Average(K) 100.3 109.7 119.0 126.4 132.7 138.2 143.0 147.4 151.4 100.3 111.2 120.2 127.8 134.1 139.6 144.4 148.7 152.7 156.2 159.6 162.6 165.7 168.5 171.3 173.9 176.4 178.9 179.8 100.30 110.45 119.60 127.10 133.40 138.90 143.70 148.05 152.05 155.65 159.05 162.15 165.2 168.05 170.80 173.35 175.85 178.25 179.80 373.45 383.6 392.75 400.25 406.15 412.05 416.85 421.20 425.20 428.80 432.20 435.30 438.35 441.20 443.95 446.50 449.00 451.40 452.95 Result Measured Slope, (dT) (dP) (dT/dP)sat -

10.15 99.03 0.102 9.15 7.50 5.90 5.90 4.80 4.35 4.00 3.60 3.40 3.10 3.05 2.85 2.75 2.55 2.50 2.40 99.03 0.092 99.03 0.076 99.03 0.060 99.03 0.060 99.03 0.048 99.03 0.044 99.03 0.040 99.03 0.036 99.03 0.034 99.03 0.031 99.03 0.031 99.03 0.029 99.03 0.028 99.03 0.026 99.03 0.025 99.03 0.024 -

1089.33 155.1 1188.36 158.5 1287.39 161.7 1386.42 164.7 1485.45 167.6 1584.48 170.3 1683.51 172.8 1782.54 175.3 1881.57 177.6 1980.61 179.8

Data(steam table)

Result Calculated slope Error of Percentage (%)

Absolute

Steam Enthalpy of specific evaporation volume,vg hfg (kJ/kg) (m3 /kg) 1.6491 1.1594 0.8856 0.7187 0.6057 0.5242 0.4623 0.4139 0.3748 0.3426 0.3156 0.2926 0.2728 0.2555 0.3156 0.2269 0.2149 2258 2226 2202 2181 2163 2148 2133 2120 2108 2097 2086 2076 2066 2056 2048 2038 2031

TVfg

hfg

(TVfg / hfg )

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0

156.9 131.9 162.9 87.1 82.6 72.2 66.6 61.0 56.7 52.6 49.8 47.2 44.7 42.7 40.8 39.0 37.4

2248.6 2228.5 2202.1 2181.0 2162.8 2147.2 2114.1 2119.3 2107.0 2094.0 2084.6 2074.3 2065.2 2055.4 2045.9 2036.8 2028.7

0.07 0.06 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.70 0.56 0.69 0.67 0.73 0.67 0.63 0.57 0.50 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.60 0.60

9.5 10.0

0.2041 0.1944

2022 2015

36.0 34.9

2020.3 2014.0

0.02 0.02

0.50 -

12.0 REFERENCES
1. Frederick A.Bettelheim,William Henry Brown:Introduction to General,Organic and Biochemistry;Cengage Learning,Eight Edition;2007;Chapter 6;Gases,Liquids and Solid;page 167 2. Per Freiesleben Hansen : The Science of Construction Materials;Springer;2009;Chapter 1:System of Matter 3. Onkar Singh:Applied Thermodynamics;New Age International;Second Edition;1 January 2006;Chapter 6;Availability and General Thermodynamics Relations;page 202