Appendix A

Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions

1.

Increase Benefits in all areas a. Do you have loops not running in the highest design mode (e.g., auto, cascade, supervisory) because of oscillations, poor control, upsets? Look for improvement by the use of auto tuners, gain scheduling, fast reproducible measurements, better loop designs, and negligible valve stick-slip. b. Do you have upsets (bumps) on critical process parameters from process interactions? Look for model predictive control to decouple and anticipate upsets. c. Do you have upsets from cycling back and forth across a split range point? Look for ways to eliminate split range or make transitions smoother with model predictive control. d. Do you have a tool to define correlations and interactions in systems? Install a performance monitoring-system and advanced data-analysis tools. e. Do you have bad measurements that you can't rely on? Improve measurements by using advanced technologies. Calculate batch averages and alert on deviations. (e.g., Don't rely on pH for endpoint detection if curve is different from previous good batches.) f. Do you have areas you can't control because they are hard to measure? Calculate property estimators from other measurements and design new control schemes.

g. On continuous processes, do you have ratios installed on related flow loops or is everything set individually based on max feed rates? Ratio control can be installed on wastewater409

b. utilities. waste waters and big motors switched off on temporary shutdowns? Implement systems that will shut off these systems automatically on temporary and other shutdowns.)? Compare plant systems to the lab (theoretical) and look for differences. b. generate fewer byproducts.410 Advanced Control Unleashed to-feed rate. 2. Do you have manually set purge or vent flows? Look for ways to control them and ratio them to product flows. anti foam)-to-filter or column-feed rate. improve quality and yield. heat-up or cooling rates)? If so. Reduce energy and utilities a. does it take a long time for the variable to really start to move and once moving does it go into an overshoot (or undershoot)? Use a headstart by putting the valve fully open or closed in the beginning and bring only into control when coming close to the desired set point. In the areas where byproducts are made.. Are steam. Do you run your recovery systems just high enough to recover products at the strengths you need to reuse them? Higher purity will require more energy and create more effluent. Improve yields a. can you look for other sequences. On set point changes. or reduce cycle time? d. don't try to control the variable itself but use a RATE calculation for the loop PV and SP to control the rate of rise. Calculate and control minimum required purge or vent rates. 3. Are you interested in controlling rate of change of a variable (e. Do you run dryer temperatures just high enough with good controls or do you run always well above critical "wet" . Would more accurate endpoint detection improve yield or quality? Consider rate-of-change indication of one or more measurements after a designated batch time or feed total as an endpoint indicator.g. additives (soap. agitation. etc. other parameters (temperatures. Redesign plant system to match lab situation as close as possible. Do you have sequential batch loads in your reactors? Would parallel feed additions or ratio control improve reaction. The new loop can be used as an override controller where a signal selector chooses the safest controller output. hold times. h. steam-to-column or reactor-feed rate. c. oil. i. e.

6. b.)? Automate startup procedures and best operating practices for equipment. replacing or cleaning equipment? . Do you blow rupture discs and activate relief valves due to manual disoperation or bad control systems? Use better control and automate to reduce safety risk and possible down time.g. Can you re-schedule your operations better in time so you can send people to other departments or use operators to help on maintenance during shutdown periods? c.. c.g. overloaded. c. overpressures etc. Can you automate fieldwork to reduce the manpower needed to operate your plant? b. compressor pressure. refrigeration unit temperature. Are critical quality and economic variables calculated.. bad mixing) and adjust controls to reduce byproducts? 5.. hot spots on heating coils. Can you reuse second waste waters as first waste water for filtering your products? When byproducts are created can you think about the cause (e. Could you reduce energy sources (e. d. energy consumption and production rates. Do you have maintenance costs due to poor operation (e. Did you think about reusing your waste streams back into your process? Hot water and condensate can be reused for heating purposes or as reactor ingredients. Reduce operating cost a.Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions 411 temperature? Install better controls (feedforward from feed) and adjust set points for lower energy usages.g.Appendix A . b. Can you downsize over-designed pumps and motors? Can you eliminate flow valves with variable-frequency drives for motors? 4. analyzed. poor agitation. and indicated online? Give operator information on yields. Could smoother control (reduced thermal and pressure shocks) or tighter control (less byproduct and contamination) increase time between repairing. pumps cavitating. etc. Reduce effluent a. rework amounts. Reduce maintenance cost a. Make operator aware to keep operating costs under control. boiler pressure) until user valves reach maximum controllable position? Consider a valve-position controller to optimize use.

g. rate-of-change control. Improve product quality a. etc. valve constraint controllers. don't want "Low Flow" alarm when pump is stopped). . feed rates. Can you install in-line analyzers and control to reduce the number of lab analyses? It will also reduce cycle time if you don't have to wait for lab results. Does the operator have easy access to information when something goes wrong? Can he do his troubleshooting when things fail? Provide help displays with dynamic information and instructions on what to do to correct. Can you measure or calculate constraints from existing measurements? Once measurable. Use override controls. Do you have too many or too few alarms? Is the operator alerted in advance and is he not confused by too many alarms? Make alarms smart (e. Reduce shutdowns and upsets a. 10. it is controllable. 8. Do you produce rework because the operator sometimes makes human mistakes? Look for automation in the areas where most mistakes are being made. up-to-date and easily accessible? Use unique process parameter descriptions and units to avoid confusing the operator at any time.)? Use advanced control to run closer to or "ride" constraints. 9. Use advanced alarm handling and logging. b. Reduce rework a. b. c.. dead-time compensators. Can you reduce the number of lab analyses by improved endpoint detections and automation resulting in more consistency? Analyze lab results using SPC and adjust frequency. How close are you running to constraints (critical reaction temperatures.412 Advanced Control Unleashed 7. Do you automatically capture product parameter settings when quality is good? Use last-run data on startups to compare and find ideal settings for each product. feedforward. and model predictive control to improve quality and capacity without violating constraints. Are all your operating instructions clear. Reduce lab cost a. b. Switch off reset into constraint direction to run closer. b. pressures.

and incidents due to bypassing of interlocks? Use interlock-bypass procedures and indications (forms). Do you have interlocks shutting you down? Is it easy to track what exactly happened? Put all the interlocks (soft wired and copy hardwired) into an automation system and provide alarms and dynamic-interlock help displays for all interlock conditions. e. Reduce cycle time a.. Do you have buffer tanks in between batch and continuous processes? Smart level control can be used to prevent shutdowns in continuous process by looking at batch cycle times and smoothing continuous feed on batch problems (see Appendix B).. combining hold periods with cooling.Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions 413 c. cleaning. d. Can you prepare premixes in separate tanks in parallel with other sequences. Can you eliminate concurrent actions that slow down your process (e. upsets. and valves? . Color display access numbers to reflect mode changes and interlock condition status.g. etc.)? b. Look for methods to reduce transition times and set operating parameters for every product. Do you have a system set up to track every problem and fault that generates upsets. blowing cold air in a tank for mixing purposes while heating it up)? c. Can you reduce batch cycle times by eliminating unnecessary waits and introducing parallel sequences (e. Can product changeover (transition) time be reduced? Automate changeover operations (emptying. and use bigger pumps.Appendix A . better insulation. feed lines.g. Does automation level define IF-THEN actions to be performed by software when something goes wrong? Do not just stop and give control to the operator. g. using head starts. h. f. and washing). 11. Use problem reports.)? d. Do you have shutdowns. Display interlock and bypass status on control system. rework or shutdowns? Learn from mistakes and set actions to prevent their happening again. starting heating before loading. better agitation. Can you speed up heating times and cooling times by using energy more efficiently (colder water. improved burner performances etc.

h. Coriolis mass flow is more accurate than load cells and can reduce batch load times and cycle times dramatically. Can automation and the associated improvement in consistency of operation reduce the risk for disoperation that causes spills and technical incidents? . Could you detect endpoints sooner? Consider rate of change or sustained change detection. if the variable doesn't move toward that condition (anymore)? If not the system would wait forever and the operator will find out too late. Avoid costs for other investments a. Could automation of existing adjustments eliminate the need for a blend or adjustment tank? b. f. 12. temperature and pressure measurements. g. Configure multiple dynamic waits. Is the operator informed and warned when a system is waiting for a variable to reach a condition.414 Advanced Control Unleashed e. Can you redesign process parameters and interlock settings based on experience from the past? Adapt settings to process evolution. Can you replace weighing systems with mass-flow meters? Mass flow can also be calculated for raw materials from flow.