Appendix A

Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions

1.

Increase Benefits in all areas a. Do you have loops not running in the highest design mode (e.g., auto, cascade, supervisory) because of oscillations, poor control, upsets? Look for improvement by the use of auto tuners, gain scheduling, fast reproducible measurements, better loop designs, and negligible valve stick-slip. b. Do you have upsets (bumps) on critical process parameters from process interactions? Look for model predictive control to decouple and anticipate upsets. c. Do you have upsets from cycling back and forth across a split range point? Look for ways to eliminate split range or make transitions smoother with model predictive control. d. Do you have a tool to define correlations and interactions in systems? Install a performance monitoring-system and advanced data-analysis tools. e. Do you have bad measurements that you can't rely on? Improve measurements by using advanced technologies. Calculate batch averages and alert on deviations. (e.g., Don't rely on pH for endpoint detection if curve is different from previous good batches.) f. Do you have areas you can't control because they are hard to measure? Calculate property estimators from other measurements and design new control schemes.

g. On continuous processes, do you have ratios installed on related flow loops or is everything set individually based on max feed rates? Ratio control can be installed on wastewater409

does it take a long time for the variable to really start to move and once moving does it go into an overshoot (or undershoot)? Use a headstart by putting the valve fully open or closed in the beginning and bring only into control when coming close to the desired set point. b. etc. Do you have sequential batch loads in your reactors? Would parallel feed additions or ratio control improve reaction. Do you run dryer temperatures just high enough with good controls or do you run always well above critical "wet" . heat-up or cooling rates)? If so. 2.)? Compare plant systems to the lab (theoretical) and look for differences. Are steam. h. c. anti foam)-to-filter or column-feed rate. e. Do you run your recovery systems just high enough to recover products at the strengths you need to reuse them? Higher purity will require more energy and create more effluent. The new loop can be used as an override controller where a signal selector chooses the safest controller output. improve quality and yield. oil. In the areas where byproducts are made. hold times. On set point changes. or reduce cycle time? d. 3. Calculate and control minimum required purge or vent rates. agitation.g. Would more accurate endpoint detection improve yield or quality? Consider rate-of-change indication of one or more measurements after a designated batch time or feed total as an endpoint indicator. don't try to control the variable itself but use a RATE calculation for the loop PV and SP to control the rate of rise. can you look for other sequences.410 Advanced Control Unleashed to-feed rate. Reduce energy and utilities a. utilities.. steam-to-column or reactor-feed rate. Redesign plant system to match lab situation as close as possible. b. waste waters and big motors switched off on temporary shutdowns? Implement systems that will shut off these systems automatically on temporary and other shutdowns. i. additives (soap. other parameters (temperatures. Are you interested in controlling rate of change of a variable (e. generate fewer byproducts. Improve yields a. Do you have manually set purge or vent flows? Look for ways to control them and ratio them to product flows.

c. Can you reuse second waste waters as first waste water for filtering your products? When byproducts are created can you think about the cause (e.. c. energy consumption and production rates. Reduce effluent a. Could smoother control (reduced thermal and pressure shocks) or tighter control (less byproduct and contamination) increase time between repairing. b.Appendix A . Do you have maintenance costs due to poor operation (e. Could you reduce energy sources (e.)? Automate startup procedures and best operating practices for equipment. poor agitation. Are critical quality and economic variables calculated. Do you blow rupture discs and activate relief valves due to manual disoperation or bad control systems? Use better control and automate to reduce safety risk and possible down time. boiler pressure) until user valves reach maximum controllable position? Consider a valve-position controller to optimize use. Did you think about reusing your waste streams back into your process? Hot water and condensate can be reused for heating purposes or as reactor ingredients. Can you automate fieldwork to reduce the manpower needed to operate your plant? b. pumps cavitating. bad mixing) and adjust controls to reduce byproducts? 5. etc. compressor pressure. rework amounts. refrigeration unit temperature.. replacing or cleaning equipment? ..g. 6.g. Reduce operating cost a. d. hot spots on heating coils. Make operator aware to keep operating costs under control. overloaded. Reduce maintenance cost a. Can you re-schedule your operations better in time so you can send people to other departments or use operators to help on maintenance during shutdown periods? c. analyzed. b.g. overpressures etc. Can you downsize over-designed pumps and motors? Can you eliminate flow valves with variable-frequency drives for motors? 4. and indicated online? Give operator information on yields.Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions 411 temperature? Install better controls (feedforward from feed) and adjust set points for lower energy usages.

Are all your operating instructions clear. Does the operator have easy access to information when something goes wrong? Can he do his troubleshooting when things fail? Provide help displays with dynamic information and instructions on what to do to correct. and model predictive control to improve quality and capacity without violating constraints. b. b. 8.)? Use advanced control to run closer to or "ride" constraints. Can you install in-line analyzers and control to reduce the number of lab analyses? It will also reduce cycle time if you don't have to wait for lab results. . Reduce rework a. b.412 Advanced Control Unleashed 7. Do you automatically capture product parameter settings when quality is good? Use last-run data on startups to compare and find ideal settings for each product. dead-time compensators. etc. b. How close are you running to constraints (critical reaction temperatures. Use advanced alarm handling and logging. Switch off reset into constraint direction to run closer. feedforward. Can you reduce the number of lab analyses by improved endpoint detections and automation resulting in more consistency? Analyze lab results using SPC and adjust frequency. Can you measure or calculate constraints from existing measurements? Once measurable. up-to-date and easily accessible? Use unique process parameter descriptions and units to avoid confusing the operator at any time.. Improve product quality a. it is controllable.g. Do you produce rework because the operator sometimes makes human mistakes? Look for automation in the areas where most mistakes are being made. Do you have too many or too few alarms? Is the operator alerted in advance and is he not confused by too many alarms? Make alarms smart (e. 10. Use override controls. 9. rate-of-change control. pressures. feed rates. valve constraint controllers. Reduce lab cost a. don't want "Low Flow" alarm when pump is stopped). c. Reduce shutdowns and upsets a.

etc.. rework or shutdowns? Learn from mistakes and set actions to prevent their happening again. better agitation.g. Does automation level define IF-THEN actions to be performed by software when something goes wrong? Do not just stop and give control to the operator. Do you have interlocks shutting you down? Is it easy to track what exactly happened? Put all the interlocks (soft wired and copy hardwired) into an automation system and provide alarms and dynamic-interlock help displays for all interlock conditions. improved burner performances etc.)? d. Reduce cycle time a. blowing cold air in a tank for mixing purposes while heating it up)? c. using head starts. Color display access numbers to reflect mode changes and interlock condition status. Display interlock and bypass status on control system.Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions 413 c. d. Do you have shutdowns. Can you eliminate concurrent actions that slow down your process (e. and valves? . Do you have buffer tanks in between batch and continuous processes? Smart level control can be used to prevent shutdowns in continuous process by looking at batch cycle times and smoothing continuous feed on batch problems (see Appendix B). and use bigger pumps. starting heating before loading. cleaning. Can you speed up heating times and cooling times by using energy more efficiently (colder water. feed lines. Use problem reports. better insulation.. g. combining hold periods with cooling. and washing). h. f. Can you prepare premixes in separate tanks in parallel with other sequences.)? b. 11. Can product changeover (transition) time be reduced? Automate changeover operations (emptying. e. upsets. Look for methods to reduce transition times and set operating parameters for every product. and incidents due to bypassing of interlocks? Use interlock-bypass procedures and indications (forms).g.Appendix A . Do you have a system set up to track every problem and fault that generates upsets. Can you reduce batch cycle times by eliminating unnecessary waits and introducing parallel sequences (e.

f. Configure multiple dynamic waits. 12. Could you detect endpoints sooner? Consider rate of change or sustained change detection. Could automation of existing adjustments eliminate the need for a blend or adjustment tank? b. Avoid costs for other investments a. Can you replace weighing systems with mass-flow meters? Mass flow can also be calculated for raw materials from flow. Coriolis mass flow is more accurate than load cells and can reduce batch load times and cycle times dramatically. h. Is the operator informed and warned when a system is waiting for a variable to reach a condition.414 Advanced Control Unleashed e. Can automation and the associated improvement in consistency of operation reduce the risk for disoperation that causes spills and technical incidents? . Can you redesign process parameters and interlock settings based on experience from the past? Adapt settings to process evolution. temperature and pressure measurements. if the variable doesn't move toward that condition (anymore)? If not the system would wait forever and the operator will find out too late. g.

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