Appendix A

Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions

1.

Increase Benefits in all areas a. Do you have loops not running in the highest design mode (e.g., auto, cascade, supervisory) because of oscillations, poor control, upsets? Look for improvement by the use of auto tuners, gain scheduling, fast reproducible measurements, better loop designs, and negligible valve stick-slip. b. Do you have upsets (bumps) on critical process parameters from process interactions? Look for model predictive control to decouple and anticipate upsets. c. Do you have upsets from cycling back and forth across a split range point? Look for ways to eliminate split range or make transitions smoother with model predictive control. d. Do you have a tool to define correlations and interactions in systems? Install a performance monitoring-system and advanced data-analysis tools. e. Do you have bad measurements that you can't rely on? Improve measurements by using advanced technologies. Calculate batch averages and alert on deviations. (e.g., Don't rely on pH for endpoint detection if curve is different from previous good batches.) f. Do you have areas you can't control because they are hard to measure? Calculate property estimators from other measurements and design new control schemes.

g. On continuous processes, do you have ratios installed on related flow loops or is everything set individually based on max feed rates? Ratio control can be installed on wastewater409

In the areas where byproducts are made. can you look for other sequences. don't try to control the variable itself but use a RATE calculation for the loop PV and SP to control the rate of rise. Do you have sequential batch loads in your reactors? Would parallel feed additions or ratio control improve reaction. i. c. Are you interested in controlling rate of change of a variable (e.)? Compare plant systems to the lab (theoretical) and look for differences. etc. Do you run your recovery systems just high enough to recover products at the strengths you need to reuse them? Higher purity will require more energy and create more effluent. waste waters and big motors switched off on temporary shutdowns? Implement systems that will shut off these systems automatically on temporary and other shutdowns. h. The new loop can be used as an override controller where a signal selector chooses the safest controller output. Do you run dryer temperatures just high enough with good controls or do you run always well above critical "wet" . improve quality and yield. oil. does it take a long time for the variable to really start to move and once moving does it go into an overshoot (or undershoot)? Use a headstart by putting the valve fully open or closed in the beginning and bring only into control when coming close to the desired set point. Calculate and control minimum required purge or vent rates. b.410 Advanced Control Unleashed to-feed rate. generate fewer byproducts. On set point changes.g.. b. 2. Redesign plant system to match lab situation as close as possible. Improve yields a. heat-up or cooling rates)? If so. or reduce cycle time? d. agitation. utilities. e. hold times. 3. Do you have manually set purge or vent flows? Look for ways to control them and ratio them to product flows. steam-to-column or reactor-feed rate. Reduce energy and utilities a. Are steam. additives (soap. anti foam)-to-filter or column-feed rate. Would more accurate endpoint detection improve yield or quality? Consider rate-of-change indication of one or more measurements after a designated batch time or feed total as an endpoint indicator. other parameters (temperatures.

d. b. boiler pressure) until user valves reach maximum controllable position? Consider a valve-position controller to optimize use. bad mixing) and adjust controls to reduce byproducts? 5.g. Reduce operating cost a. poor agitation. and indicated online? Give operator information on yields. Do you have maintenance costs due to poor operation (e. energy consumption and production rates.. rework amounts. Can you automate fieldwork to reduce the manpower needed to operate your plant? b. Are critical quality and economic variables calculated. Can you reuse second waste waters as first waste water for filtering your products? When byproducts are created can you think about the cause (e. Can you re-schedule your operations better in time so you can send people to other departments or use operators to help on maintenance during shutdown periods? c.Appendix A .g. Reduce effluent a. replacing or cleaning equipment? .. Could smoother control (reduced thermal and pressure shocks) or tighter control (less byproduct and contamination) increase time between repairing. etc. overpressures etc. Make operator aware to keep operating costs under control. Can you downsize over-designed pumps and motors? Can you eliminate flow valves with variable-frequency drives for motors? 4. analyzed. 6.. compressor pressure. hot spots on heating coils. b. overloaded.)? Automate startup procedures and best operating practices for equipment. c. Reduce maintenance cost a. Do you blow rupture discs and activate relief valves due to manual disoperation or bad control systems? Use better control and automate to reduce safety risk and possible down time. c. refrigeration unit temperature. Could you reduce energy sources (e.g. Did you think about reusing your waste streams back into your process? Hot water and condensate can be reused for heating purposes or as reactor ingredients.Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions 411 temperature? Install better controls (feedforward from feed) and adjust set points for lower energy usages. pumps cavitating.

b. don't want "Low Flow" alarm when pump is stopped).g. Can you install in-line analyzers and control to reduce the number of lab analyses? It will also reduce cycle time if you don't have to wait for lab results. Improve product quality a. b. 10. dead-time compensators. 9. Do you produce rework because the operator sometimes makes human mistakes? Look for automation in the areas where most mistakes are being made. feedforward. Reduce rework a. etc. c. Reduce lab cost a. it is controllable. Can you reduce the number of lab analyses by improved endpoint detections and automation resulting in more consistency? Analyze lab results using SPC and adjust frequency. up-to-date and easily accessible? Use unique process parameter descriptions and units to avoid confusing the operator at any time. Reduce shutdowns and upsets a.412 Advanced Control Unleashed 7.. Do you automatically capture product parameter settings when quality is good? Use last-run data on startups to compare and find ideal settings for each product. valve constraint controllers.)? Use advanced control to run closer to or "ride" constraints. . feed rates. Use advanced alarm handling and logging. How close are you running to constraints (critical reaction temperatures. Does the operator have easy access to information when something goes wrong? Can he do his troubleshooting when things fail? Provide help displays with dynamic information and instructions on what to do to correct. Can you measure or calculate constraints from existing measurements? Once measurable. pressures. Do you have too many or too few alarms? Is the operator alerted in advance and is he not confused by too many alarms? Make alarms smart (e. Use override controls. rate-of-change control. Switch off reset into constraint direction to run closer. 8. b. Are all your operating instructions clear. b. and model predictive control to improve quality and capacity without violating constraints.

improved burner performances etc. rework or shutdowns? Learn from mistakes and set actions to prevent their happening again. etc. Color display access numbers to reflect mode changes and interlock condition status. Display interlock and bypass status on control system. Use problem reports. better insulation. Do you have interlocks shutting you down? Is it easy to track what exactly happened? Put all the interlocks (soft wired and copy hardwired) into an automation system and provide alarms and dynamic-interlock help displays for all interlock conditions. upsets. Do you have shutdowns.)? b. g. 11.Appendix A . Do you have buffer tanks in between batch and continuous processes? Smart level control can be used to prevent shutdowns in continuous process by looking at batch cycle times and smoothing continuous feed on batch problems (see Appendix B). and valves? . Can you reduce batch cycle times by eliminating unnecessary waits and introducing parallel sequences (e. Do you have a system set up to track every problem and fault that generates upsets.g.. cleaning. better agitation. and use bigger pumps. e. d. Look for methods to reduce transition times and set operating parameters for every product. and incidents due to bypassing of interlocks? Use interlock-bypass procedures and indications (forms). blowing cold air in a tank for mixing purposes while heating it up)? c. f. Does automation level define IF-THEN actions to be performed by software when something goes wrong? Do not just stop and give control to the operator. Reduce cycle time a. Can you prepare premixes in separate tanks in parallel with other sequences. feed lines. using head starts. starting heating before loading. Can you eliminate concurrent actions that slow down your process (e. Can you speed up heating times and cooling times by using energy more efficiently (colder water. and washing).Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions 413 c.. h.)? d. combining hold periods with cooling. Can product changeover (transition) time be reduced? Automate changeover operations (emptying.g.

Can you redesign process parameters and interlock settings based on experience from the past? Adapt settings to process evolution. Could you detect endpoints sooner? Consider rate of change or sustained change detection. if the variable doesn't move toward that condition (anymore)? If not the system would wait forever and the operator will find out too late. Is the operator informed and warned when a system is waiting for a variable to reach a condition. Can automation and the associated improvement in consistency of operation reduce the risk for disoperation that causes spills and technical incidents? . f. Can you replace weighing systems with mass-flow meters? Mass flow can also be calculated for raw materials from flow. Could automation of existing adjustments eliminate the need for a blend or adjustment tank? b. Avoid costs for other investments a. Coriolis mass flow is more accurate than load cells and can reduce batch load times and cycle times dramatically. 12.414 Advanced Control Unleashed e. h. temperature and pressure measurements. Configure multiple dynamic waits. g.

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