Appendix A

Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions

1.

Increase Benefits in all areas a. Do you have loops not running in the highest design mode (e.g., auto, cascade, supervisory) because of oscillations, poor control, upsets? Look for improvement by the use of auto tuners, gain scheduling, fast reproducible measurements, better loop designs, and negligible valve stick-slip. b. Do you have upsets (bumps) on critical process parameters from process interactions? Look for model predictive control to decouple and anticipate upsets. c. Do you have upsets from cycling back and forth across a split range point? Look for ways to eliminate split range or make transitions smoother with model predictive control. d. Do you have a tool to define correlations and interactions in systems? Install a performance monitoring-system and advanced data-analysis tools. e. Do you have bad measurements that you can't rely on? Improve measurements by using advanced technologies. Calculate batch averages and alert on deviations. (e.g., Don't rely on pH for endpoint detection if curve is different from previous good batches.) f. Do you have areas you can't control because they are hard to measure? Calculate property estimators from other measurements and design new control schemes.

g. On continuous processes, do you have ratios installed on related flow loops or is everything set individually based on max feed rates? Ratio control can be installed on wastewater409

Do you run your recovery systems just high enough to recover products at the strengths you need to reuse them? Higher purity will require more energy and create more effluent. Reduce energy and utilities a. heat-up or cooling rates)? If so. Do you have manually set purge or vent flows? Look for ways to control them and ratio them to product flows. c. utilities. steam-to-column or reactor-feed rate. Calculate and control minimum required purge or vent rates. hold times.g. agitation.410 Advanced Control Unleashed to-feed rate. Improve yields a. Are you interested in controlling rate of change of a variable (e. Do you have sequential batch loads in your reactors? Would parallel feed additions or ratio control improve reaction. e. b. Do you run dryer temperatures just high enough with good controls or do you run always well above critical "wet" . improve quality and yield. oil. Are steam. b. i. The new loop can be used as an override controller where a signal selector chooses the safest controller output. other parameters (temperatures. In the areas where byproducts are made. etc. On set point changes. or reduce cycle time? d. can you look for other sequences. Would more accurate endpoint detection improve yield or quality? Consider rate-of-change indication of one or more measurements after a designated batch time or feed total as an endpoint indicator. does it take a long time for the variable to really start to move and once moving does it go into an overshoot (or undershoot)? Use a headstart by putting the valve fully open or closed in the beginning and bring only into control when coming close to the desired set point. anti foam)-to-filter or column-feed rate.)? Compare plant systems to the lab (theoretical) and look for differences. h. additives (soap. 3. 2. generate fewer byproducts. Redesign plant system to match lab situation as close as possible. waste waters and big motors switched off on temporary shutdowns? Implement systems that will shut off these systems automatically on temporary and other shutdowns. don't try to control the variable itself but use a RATE calculation for the loop PV and SP to control the rate of rise..

b. pumps cavitating.. Can you automate fieldwork to reduce the manpower needed to operate your plant? b. Reduce maintenance cost a. analyzed. and indicated online? Give operator information on yields. refrigeration unit temperature. poor agitation. Can you downsize over-designed pumps and motors? Can you eliminate flow valves with variable-frequency drives for motors? 4. c. overloaded.Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions 411 temperature? Install better controls (feedforward from feed) and adjust set points for lower energy usages. Do you blow rupture discs and activate relief valves due to manual disoperation or bad control systems? Use better control and automate to reduce safety risk and possible down time. hot spots on heating coils. replacing or cleaning equipment? .g..Appendix A . Do you have maintenance costs due to poor operation (e. Can you reuse second waste waters as first waste water for filtering your products? When byproducts are created can you think about the cause (e. boiler pressure) until user valves reach maximum controllable position? Consider a valve-position controller to optimize use.)? Automate startup procedures and best operating practices for equipment. Can you re-schedule your operations better in time so you can send people to other departments or use operators to help on maintenance during shutdown periods? c. energy consumption and production rates. Did you think about reusing your waste streams back into your process? Hot water and condensate can be reused for heating purposes or as reactor ingredients. d. etc. Could you reduce energy sources (e. rework amounts. Make operator aware to keep operating costs under control. overpressures etc.g.. Could smoother control (reduced thermal and pressure shocks) or tighter control (less byproduct and contamination) increase time between repairing. b. c.g. Reduce operating cost a. bad mixing) and adjust controls to reduce byproducts? 5. compressor pressure. Are critical quality and economic variables calculated. 6. Reduce effluent a.

)? Use advanced control to run closer to or "ride" constraints. 8. valve constraint controllers. rate-of-change control. Reduce lab cost a. . Does the operator have easy access to information when something goes wrong? Can he do his troubleshooting when things fail? Provide help displays with dynamic information and instructions on what to do to correct. etc. c. 9.g. pressures. How close are you running to constraints (critical reaction temperatures. Use override controls. b. Do you have too many or too few alarms? Is the operator alerted in advance and is he not confused by too many alarms? Make alarms smart (e. Use advanced alarm handling and logging. feed rates. Reduce shutdowns and upsets a. b. don't want "Low Flow" alarm when pump is stopped). Do you produce rework because the operator sometimes makes human mistakes? Look for automation in the areas where most mistakes are being made. it is controllable. 10. dead-time compensators. Can you reduce the number of lab analyses by improved endpoint detections and automation resulting in more consistency? Analyze lab results using SPC and adjust frequency.. Can you measure or calculate constraints from existing measurements? Once measurable. b. Can you install in-line analyzers and control to reduce the number of lab analyses? It will also reduce cycle time if you don't have to wait for lab results. feedforward. b. Are all your operating instructions clear. Switch off reset into constraint direction to run closer. up-to-date and easily accessible? Use unique process parameter descriptions and units to avoid confusing the operator at any time. Do you automatically capture product parameter settings when quality is good? Use last-run data on startups to compare and find ideal settings for each product. Reduce rework a. Improve product quality a. and model predictive control to improve quality and capacity without violating constraints.412 Advanced Control Unleashed 7.

Can product changeover (transition) time be reduced? Automate changeover operations (emptying. etc. and washing). Use problem reports. Color display access numbers to reflect mode changes and interlock condition status. starting heating before loading. Does automation level define IF-THEN actions to be performed by software when something goes wrong? Do not just stop and give control to the operator. feed lines. Do you have shutdowns. Can you reduce batch cycle times by eliminating unnecessary waits and introducing parallel sequences (e.Appendix A .)? b.. improved burner performances etc. and use bigger pumps. Can you prepare premixes in separate tanks in parallel with other sequences. Reduce cycle time a. d. f. 11.Additional Opportunity Assessment Questions 413 c.g. combining hold periods with cooling. better agitation. Can you eliminate concurrent actions that slow down your process (e. blowing cold air in a tank for mixing purposes while heating it up)? c. rework or shutdowns? Learn from mistakes and set actions to prevent their happening again. Display interlock and bypass status on control system. and incidents due to bypassing of interlocks? Use interlock-bypass procedures and indications (forms).. Do you have buffer tanks in between batch and continuous processes? Smart level control can be used to prevent shutdowns in continuous process by looking at batch cycle times and smoothing continuous feed on batch problems (see Appendix B). and valves? . e. better insulation. using head starts. Look for methods to reduce transition times and set operating parameters for every product. Do you have a system set up to track every problem and fault that generates upsets. g.)? d. Can you speed up heating times and cooling times by using energy more efficiently (colder water. Do you have interlocks shutting you down? Is it easy to track what exactly happened? Put all the interlocks (soft wired and copy hardwired) into an automation system and provide alarms and dynamic-interlock help displays for all interlock conditions. cleaning.g. h. upsets.

Configure multiple dynamic waits. temperature and pressure measurements. Is the operator informed and warned when a system is waiting for a variable to reach a condition. Can you redesign process parameters and interlock settings based on experience from the past? Adapt settings to process evolution. Avoid costs for other investments a. if the variable doesn't move toward that condition (anymore)? If not the system would wait forever and the operator will find out too late. f. Could automation of existing adjustments eliminate the need for a blend or adjustment tank? b.414 Advanced Control Unleashed e. Can you replace weighing systems with mass-flow meters? Mass flow can also be calculated for raw materials from flow. Coriolis mass flow is more accurate than load cells and can reduce batch load times and cycle times dramatically. 12. Could you detect endpoints sooner? Consider rate of change or sustained change detection. Can automation and the associated improvement in consistency of operation reduce the risk for disoperation that causes spills and technical incidents? . h. g.

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