913
Referring to the discussions of Mr. Chartier and Mr. Pakala, and Mr. Perz, we can state that the equivalence between RN tests with smooth tubes and with standard conductors under rain was checked only for single cylinders of 2.3-inch diameter. Tests with tubes were used mainly for getting an idea of what bundles should be tested in the cages. With the exception of 6.6-inch diameter, all curves of Fig. 4 have been checked with, or are based on, tests with stranded conductors in the cages. Cage tests are being used exclusively at present. In answer to Mr. Nigol and Mr. Reichman, we do not have an explanation for the relatively high steepness of the 6.5-inch curve. The described approach to line RN depends essentially on a clear separation of the various effects and parameters as far as possible. The contribution of hardware mentioned by Mr. Perz is not included in this study. It is also considered negligible during heavy rain.
Full-scale test lines may be advantageous as far as long-term allweather RN statistics are concerned. If, however, the influence of the conductor type on RN has to be examined, cage tests under (artificial) rain are in the authors' opinion the fastest, cheapest, and most reliable method. A linear correlation between audible noise and the excitation function, rather than the relation reported in Fig. 12, was found with cage tests performed after the presentation of this paper. The audible noise-excitation function relation is indeed different for different numbers of subconductors, a fact covered in Fig. 9, partly because RIV is used as abscissa instead of the excitation function. Investigations on this subject, based exclusively on cage tests, are being continued. The audible noise frequency spectrum in Fig. 13 is, above 2000 Hz, affected slightly by weighting network C, which was used.
Lightning Performance
MICHAEL A. SARGENT
AND
of Double-Circuit
Transmission
Lines
MEMBER, IEEE
MAT DARVENIZA,
Abstract-This paper presents further studies of lightning outage rates on double-circuit transmission lines. Satisfactory agreement with field data has been demonstrated for calculations of total and double-circuit outage rates and for prediction of outage types on high-voltage lines. An analysis of the parameters influencing doublecircuit outage rates has enabled proposal of several line designs that should achieve a low proportion of lightning faults involving both circuits. Two configurations are of particular interest-a double-horizontal arrangement with one circuit above the other, and a double-triangular arrangement utilizing a conventional lattice tower with three crossarms.
A technique for predicting the double-circuit outage rate of transmission lines was described previously [1]. In the present paper, results of further investigations using this technique are presented, together with conclusions regarding improved doublecircuit line design. COMPARISONS
WITH
FIELD DATA
INTRODUCTION M ODERN EHV transmission developments have utilized double circuit transmission lines extensively, as indicated in Table I. These lines are generally used on the intuitive assumption that there is little possibility of an outage involving both circuits simultaneously. However, observed performances (Table II) indicate that the proportion of double-circuit outages due to lightning is much greater than might be expected, and it is not sufficient to assume that the double-circuit outage performance of a line will be acceptable. This characteristic should be estimated in design studies, particularly when such an outage causes critical conditions in the system.
Paper 69 TP 702-PWR, recommended and approved by the Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power Group for presentation at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Dallas, Tex., June 22-27, 1969. Manuscript submitted December 19, 1968; made available for printing April 14, 1969. M. A. Sargent is with the State Electricity Commission of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, on leave with the High-Voltage Laboratory, General Electric Company, Pittsfield, Mass. 01203. M. Darveniza is with the University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Australia.
The technique developed to predict double-circuit outage rates utilizes a dynamic traveling wave method to calculate lightning voltages stressing line insulation and a statistical method of manipulating the data required for calculation. A brief summary of the technique follows. The required lightning stroke and line parameters are selected by M\onte Carlo methods from the statistical distributions of these quantities. Utilizing the step-by-step procedure of the traveling wave method, the absolute magnitudes of voltages at each increment of time are calculated at significant points on the line. With these voltages, effective corona radii of conductors are calculated, and new values of conductor surge impedance, coupling factor, and reflection coefficients are estimated for use in calculations at the next increment of time. In this way an accurate estimate of voltages stressing line insulation, in which the important nonlinearities are incorporated, can be obtained for each instant of time. If the corrected sparkover voltage of the insulation is exceeded at any point at any instant of time then a flashover is considered to occur, and changes in self- and mutual surge impedance are evaluated, to be incorporated in calculations of voltages at subsequent increments of time. When determining if flashover will occur, account is taken of the magnitude and polarity of the instantaneous power frequency voltages of the phases. This iterative calculation is continued until the possibility of further insulation flashover is negligible. The type of outage to be expected for the assumed conditions is derived by
914
USAGE
OF
OUTAGE INCIDENT
Country of Origin
Australia USA Great Britain
Nominal Voltage
(kV)
110 132 220 330 220 345 275 400
Circuit Miles
1100 1390 840 20600
810
Percentage DoubleConstruction
64 62 25 3 47
2
120kA
L
STROKE TO
TOWER
o o o o
0
o
NO OUTAGE
0
0
PARAMETERS FOR CALCULATED FORM STROKE FOOTISNG CREST POWER FREGUENCY VOLTAGES Phase IC Phase CGRREN RESIST. TIME A Pha.
(kA)
(11) (jyS)
4-0
6-0
(kVp)
Circuit
120
ALL VALUES
NC OUTAGE
4lkA 0 0
0
F.d0. *'X
X
OO
SSX
-180
90
8
4-0
NO
VALUES
-156 -90
3604 1530
3500
52
6ISGA0
1o
140
0 0 -90
-/5
/56 180
156
99 100
2-0
40
180
80
180 156
90
-90
-156
34 2144),.
STROKE TO TOWER
AA
XX
0_O. 0
0EVF..\0 0
DOUBLE CIRCUIT OUTAGE 0 X
o
-90
-90
/56
10
6-0
-90 0
5SkA
X
0
2-0
180
-90
4
STROKE TO SUARTERSPAN
O. o
x
OUTAGE
x
OUTAGE
50
70-100 4-0
0
180 -90
___
-90
DOUGLE CIRCUIT
DOUBLE CIRCUIT
0 0
VALUES
______
Nominal
Utility* 132 NEA (Australia) ECNSW (Australia) 132 Com. Edison (USA) 138 161 TVA (USA) 220 SECV (Australia) 345 OVEC (USA) ECNSW (Australia) 330 Tokyo, Area (Japan) 140 250 115 Ontario-Hydro (Canada)
*
Voltage (kV)
Percentage
Outages
37 40 35 56 37 5 46 36 40 68
55kA
00
XW 0
2-0
Circuit
F.Oo
XEO
0 0
0 F0 O
55
0
12-25 40
6-0
STROKE TO
MIDSPAN
lA
DOUBLE CIRCUIT
OUTAGE
DOUBLE CIRCUIT
OUTAGE
-90 -90
0
0
X
FO. 0
XX
2-0
91
NO VALUES
180
0
90
6
STROKE TO
MIDSPAN
X/ \Xf
DOUBLE CIRCUIT
OUTAGE
/Xx
60-80 4-0
6-0
-90
-90
156
DOUBLE CIRCUIT
OUTAGE
6.3
1.3 0.73
GOOkA
7
STROKE TV MIDSPAN
0X
0
OUTAGE
o .X ES. ES ,X
~~~~~~
0 0
OUTAGE
2-0
/0 ~ ~lo
80
4-0
6-0
90 0 -90
90 -180 NO VALUES
-156
90
/56 -/56
/80
-/80
-90
DOUBLE CIRCUIT
DOUBLE CIRCUIT
NO VALUES
Abbreviations as follows: ECNSW Electricity Commission of New South Wales Northern Electrical Authority NEA Ohio Valley Electric Company OVEC State Electricity Commission of Victoria SECV Tennessee Valley Authority. TVA t Outages per 100 route miile-years.
Fig. 1. Duplication of lightning incidents on SECV 220-kV system; phasing-ABC, CBA top to bottom. Crest times and power frequency voltages treated as variables; values tabulated for each incident yield calculated outage form.
inspection of the location of phases (if any) for which the analysis has predicted flashover. The above dynamic traveling wave calculation of outage form is repeated for the previously selected stroke and line parameters until a statistically meaningful analysis of the results can be made to estimate the line outage rate. Normally, a five- to ten-year period of study is sufficient. Following development of the technique, a series of investigations was undertaken to establish the validity of the methods and data used. These studies consisted of duplication of specific
outage incidents for which detailed data were available and the prediction of lightning outage rates for lines of known performance.
If a particular stroke had caused an outage, then additional information, such as termination point of the stroke, phases involved in the outage, and footing resistances of nearby towers, was obtained where possible. Seven of the available incidents were analyzed in detail to test the accuracy of the dynamic traveling wave program. As described in [1], the only unknowns for each incident were the stroke current time to crest and the instantaneous power frequency voltages, and hence these were treated as variables. Details concerning the outage incidents analyzed and comparisons of calculated and observed outage forms are shown in Fig. 1. A tabulation of values of crest times and instantaneous power frequency voltages is included in the figure. These values, when used in the calculations for the particular incident, will result in the calculated outage form shown. Agreement between predicted and observed outage forms is noted to be satisfactory.
Duplication of Outage Incidents, SECV 220-kV Line Detailed data concerning the actual outage forms resulting from lightning strokes to a 220-kV transmission line were available as the result of an extensive field investigation by the State Electricity Commission of Victoria, Australia (SECV). An 80-mile section of line was fully instrumented with magnetic links and surge-indicating cartridges, so that the peak magnitude of current impressed on the line by a stroke could be determined.
and Monte Carlo techniques. For these systems, field data concerning both single circuit and double circuit outage rates were available, and these are given in Table IIT, together with relevant line parameters.
915
COMPARISON
OF
CALCULATED
AND
Average
Line SEAQ* 110 kV (single circuit, wood pole) Single-circuit outages SECV 220 kV Total circuit outages Double-circuit outages Percent Double Circuit OVEC 345 kV Total circuit outages Double-circuit outages Percent double circuit TVA 161 kV Total circuit outages Double-circuit outages Percent double circuit NEA 132 kV Total circuit outages Double-circuit outages Percent double circuit Ontario-Hydro 115 kV Total circuit outages Double-circuit outages Percent double circuit
Height (feet)
Observed/
Calculated
48 100
0-15 0-90
10
28
5 30
10
2 1
30 40
35
0
800 1200
1300 1240 1150 1130
0.35
3.0 1.35 45
1.3
148
0-10
1 2
1
7.2 0.35 5
4.27 2.45 55 3.0 1.1 37 9.2 6.3 68
110
0-100+
4.14 2.66 64
2.2 0.7 32
100
30
109
5-300+t
200
30
10.1 7.5 74
A-SEAQ 110kV D-TVA 161kV B-SECV 220kV E-NEA 132kV C-OVEC 345kV F-ONTARIO-HYDRO 115kV
F
1001
1lJ
w L LI CD
> 0 a
10_C
80
0
D
E B
60
w w U,
/ ONTARIOHYDRO 115kV
TVA 161 kV
"
in
10 C S /e ~
A
/ ,___._
_I
in m
NEA 132kV
20
OVEC
EV20V
0-1 / 0.1
I ,,,
,,I
345kV
100
20
AO
60
80
100
CALCULATED /o
Fig. 2. Comparison between predicted and observed outage rates (outages per 100 route mile-years).
The outage rates predicted for these lines are compared with the observed outage rates in Fig. 2 and Table III. The comparison between predicted and observed proportion of double-circuit outages is shown in Fig. 3. It is noted that the agreement achieved in these analyses is again satisfactory. In particular, the proportion of double-circuit outages predicted by the technique for the various lines is in close agreement with the proportion observed. In these calculations, the probability of shielding failures was estimated from data given in [2] or [3]. Shielding failures con-
tributed significantly to the calculated outage rates for two of the lines, viz., all the single-circuit outages for the OVEC 345-kV line and 29 percent of the single-circuit and 3 percent of the double-circuit outages for the SECV 220-kV line. Apart from these cases, the remaining outages listed in Table III were predicted to result from back flashover. For two systems (Ontario Hydro 115-kV line K4W/K5W and TVA 161-kV line Gallatin-Rockwood nos. 1 and 2), detailed information was available concerning the types of outages due to
916
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS, MAY/JUNE 1970 TABLE IV COMPARISON OF PREDICTED AND OBSERVED PERCENTAGES OF OUTAGE TYPES
Outage Type Single-Circuit Outages L-G LL-G LLL-G Double-Circuit Outages L-G both circuits LL-G on at least one circuit LLL-G on at least one circuit LLL-G both circuits
Percentage Outage Type Occurring TVA 161 kV Ontario-Hydro 115 kV Calculated Observed Calculated Observed
83 17 0
62
80 20 0 64 23 13 7
79 14 7 64 27 9 0
86 14 0 79 14 7 0
23 15 8
Effect Analyzed
Power frequency voltage Footing resistance Addition of earthwire* Addition of coupling wiret
Nominal
Voltage
(kV) 220
0 220 220 220
Normal Normal
10
Earthwires 1 1 1
2 2
* Two overhead earthwires, separation distance 26 feet. t One overhead earthwire and one coupling wire at level of bottom-phase conductors.
lightning. A comparison between predicted and observed proportions of these fault types is shown in Table IV. The satisfactory agreement indicates that the technique can be used for predicting the likelihood of multiphase faults and hence is applicable to lines equipped with single-pole reclosing breakers or with arc-suppression coils.
Discussion of Results of Comparisons The comparison between calculated results and observed data has been satisfactory in all facets of the analyses undertaken-in the form of outages observed, in the overall lightning outage rates of lines, and in the percentages of fault types observed. This correlation indicates that the data and methods [1], [4] utilized in the developed technique are adequate, and it demonstrates the validity of the technique as a method for estimating the lightning performance of transmission lines. In particular, it is concluded that outages resulting from back flashover are adequately accounted for. It is of considerable interest to note that the high outage rates of the TVA 161-kV and the Ontario Hydro 115-kV lines are demonstrated to arise entirely as a result of back flashover.
PARAMETERS INFLUENCING DOUBLE-CIRCUIT OUTAGE RATE
To investigate the effect of each of these factors, a sequence of analyses was undertaken using the SECV 220-kV system as a line of typical double-circuit construction. In each of these analyses, one of the parameters was altered in a known manner or to a known extent from the "normal" system. Any differences in predicted lightning performance between the "normal" SECV line and each "modified" line could then be ascribed to the effects of the particular parameter changed in the analysis. The sequence of analvses performed and the results obtained are summarized in Table V. It should be noted that the values shown are only indicative of the effect of the parameter involved. In other words the precise extent of the influence of a particular factor is somewhat dependent on the system being analyzed. Effect of Power Frequency Voltages and Phase Location on Tower The conductors that will be involved in the outage and the order in which they are involved depends primarily on three factors: the potentials of the crossarms of the tower, the coupling factors between the conductors and earthwire system, and the instantaneous power frequency voltages of the phases. Analyses indicated that the difference in potentials between the lower crossarm of a conventional double-circuit tower and the tower top is less than 15 percent for times greater than 2 ,us if no flashover has occurred previously, and almost negligible if flashovers have occurred. In [1] it was demonstrated that the effects of differences in crossarm potentials and coupling factors are largely self-cancelling. Therefore, it is evident that the likelihood of back flashovers to any particular conductor locations is greatly influenced by the relative magnitudes of the power frequency voltages.
Verification of the developed technique enabled investigations to proceed into the factors influencing double-circuit outage rates of transmission lines. Apart from the provision of adequate shielding, which is the subject of detailed study elsewhere [5], the factors considered to be the most important were 1) tower footing resistance, 2) number and arrangement of earthwires, 3) relative insulation level of the two circuits, and 4) the instantaneous power frequency voltages on the phases.
917
TABLE VI RESULTS OF ANALYSES-EFFECT OF POWER FREQUENCY VOLTAGES AND CONDUCTOR LocATION ON TOWER
Power Frequency Voltage or Conductor Location Voltage Highest Median Lowest Conductor Location Top Middle Bottom
Arrangement
Horizontal Vertical Horizontal Vertical
Earthwire
Ontario-Hydro 115 kV
TABLE VII
Line
SECV 220 kV
TVA 161 kV
11 12 14
17
2 15 16
Percentage Change in Outage Rate Double Total Circuit + 5 +11 -18 -42
+11 -56
+37 +37
application of differential insulation normally necessitates underinsulation of one circuit, and as illustrated in Table VII, this results in an increase in the total number of outages experienced by the line. Also, it can be demonstrated theoretically that flashover to one conductor can in some cases cause an increase in the voltage stressing the insulation of the remaining sound phases (rather than the much more usual decrease). Therefore, it can be expected that occasionally the use of underinsulation will also slightly increase the double-circuit outage rate. It is of interest that TVA recently converted a 161-kV line from the normal balanced insulation to differential insulation, with 10 disks on one circuit and 12 on the second. The results of one years' service so far indicate a substantial increase in the overall outage rate of the line with no reduction of outages on the overinsulated circuit.
Effect of Tower Footing Resistance The effect of reducing the footing resistances of the towers of the SECV 220-kV line to a value of 10 ohms was analyzed to indicate the general influence of footing resistance on doublecircuit outage rate. The results in Table V indicate that the proportion of double-circuit outages is not greatly influenced by tower footing resistances. However, both total and double-circuit outage rates are significantly reduced, and to a similar extent, by decreased resistances.
This effect was indicated in the performance analyses of specific transmission systems. For example, the data in Table VI show that the major proportion of first flashovers (excluding shielding failures) occurred on the phase with the highest power frequency voltage, whereas the effect of phase conductor location on the tower was not as pronounced. The effect that the instantaneous power frequency voltages have on the sequence in which the phases are involved in the outage was also indicated in these analyses by the prediction (considering double-circuit outages only) that, after the first flashover, the next flashover would occur on the same phase in the second circuit in 55 percent of the cases, while in 30 percent it would occur on a different phase of the second circuit. In 15 percent of the cases, the second flashover involved another phase of the same circuit as the first flashover. This general trend is also evident in the analyses of available field data for the SECV 220-kV and the TVA 161-kV lines [1, Fig. 1 and discussion].
Effect of Differential Insulation Proposals have been made to reduce the double-circuit outage rates of transmission lines by use of differential insulation. The design [6] of the differential required is based on the magnitude of the nominal line voltage, with safety margins, the prime objective being to overcome the effect that the instantaneous power frequency voltages have on the sequence in which phases are involved in flashover. Analyses of the merit of the differential insulation were undertaken for the SECV 220-kV and TVA 161-kV lines. The results of these analyses, summarized in Table VII, indicate that although differential insulation can reduce the double-circuit outage rate to some extent, the amount of differential required to eliminate completely double-circuit
outages would be unreasonable for economic tower and line design-at least for lines of these voltages and higher. Further,
APPLICATION TO LINE DESIGN The problem of designing a double-circuit line with acceptable double-circuit outage rate has assumed increasing importance in modern EHV transmission systems. The results of the analyses described previously indicate that there are only limited possi-
918
IEEE
MAY/JUNE
1970
bilities of improving the double-circuit outage rate of conventional lines without improvement of overall line outage rate by the normal techniques of lowering tower footing resistance and using additional earthwires. The limited economic usefulness of differential insulation for the conventional double-circuit tower is an inherent consequence of the vertical circuit arrangementthe flashover of one phase of one circuit normally improves the coupling factors of the remaining phases of this circuit to a greater extent than those of the phases of the second circuit. This suggests the possibility of rearranging the phasing of the circuits to reduce double circuit faults. However, detailed examinations of vertical configurations have failed to yield any phasing arrangement providing significant improvement in double-circuit outage rate. Several design studies undertaken have confirmed these conclusions and have indicated an improved double-circuit line configuration, having acceptable double-circuit performance. One study providing significant results was the design of a 132kV line that was also required to support a 22-kV circuit in an area of high soil resistivities. Two alternative designs were investigated for this line-in one, each circuit was to be mounted vertically on opposite sides of the tower, whereas the second design considered an H-frame structure with the 22-kV circuit strung below the horizontally disposed 132-kV circuit. It is noted that these lines have a large degree of differential insulation. Analyses showed, however, that with the vertical circuit arrangement, this differential was not sufficient to eliminate double-circuit outages; i.e., some outages still involved the 132-kY circuit. In contrast, for the H-frame line with horizontal circuit arrangements, double-circuit outages were eliminated. The low sparkover voltage of the 22-kV insulation resulted in a large number of flashovers on the 22-kV circuit. However, these flashovers greatly improved the coupling of all phases of the 132-kV circuit located between the 22-kV circuit and the earthwires.
Suggested Line Designs Having Low Double-Circuit Outage Rates The previous studies suggested that a double-circuit line construction using circuits disposed horizonitally, one above the other, would provide a situation in which most flashovers could be confined to one circuit. Because of smaller coupling factors, back flashovers are first expected to conductors on the lower circuit. The preferential involvement of the lower circuit can be enhanced by providing it with less insulation than the upper circuit. Once flashover occurs to one or more conductors of the lower circuit, the conductors of the upper circuit are virtually enclosed by stricken conductors (overhead earthwires and faulted lower circuit conductors). This results in relatively large coupling factors, and hence creates conditioins most favorable for avoiding the possibility of a flashover to conductors of the
Most of the above features can also be achieved with a doubletriangular configuration of circuit conductors mounted on a conventional lattice tower. In this arrangement, conductors of circuit 1 form a triangle with two conductors on the top crossarm and one on the center arm, and circuit 2 conductors are placed on the other center arm position and on the bottom crossarm. As before, the triangular arrangement promotes confinement of flashover to circuit 2, first because phasing can be arranged so that conductors of this circuit are always below circuit 1 conductors of the same phase, and second as a result of the use of differential insulation.
upper circuit.
I'9
18
87'
rt
,~ 1I
I
12
=I- INSULATION I
\ IO'5"DISCS
- 14
2'-4-12'50'
1050'
These considerations were tested by a comparative analysis of the conventional vertical arrangement and the suggested horizontal and triangular configurations. Two line classes were examined: 1) the SECV 220-kV dc line of Fig. 4, the triaingular configuration arrainged on the same towxer, and its equivalent horizontal modification as shown in Fig. 5; 2) the basic Ontario-Hydro 115-kV line of nornmal vertical configuration and the triangular and horizontal miiodifications. In both instances the calculations were petforiiied for lines fitted with two overhead earthwires. Detailed consideration was not giveni to mechanical aspects of the modified designs, but generally similar line parameters were retained (conductor sizes, sags, air clearances, etc.). The concductor phasings are shown in the caption to Fig. 6. The outage rates predicted for the three conifigurations are given in Fig. 6. It can readily be seen for both the 115-kV and the 220-kV lines that the horizontal and the trianigular configurations greatly reduce the likelihood of double-circuit outages, even in the presence of high footing resistances which result in high total outage rates. It is of particular signiificance that the reduction occurs mainly because flashovers are largely confined to the conductors of one circuit, the lower circuit. This is illustrated by an analysis of the flashover types predicted for the
OF
919
VERT.
200SI+C'POISES 8/8DISCS
} _f
f
sIc1, 1l5kV `I
z Z A~~~1
TRIANG.
20011+CPOISES
_~~~~~~/ DISCS/////g9
VR.15115
DSS
DISCSKE
10S
/////
22L S LINES
DISCS5
,,+E
recognized, however, that there are some difficulties in using this form of line (e.g., operationial nmaintenance, transpositions, novelty of tower design, etc.) that may mitigate against the superior double-circuit lightniing outage rate. Although the predicted performance of the triangular configuration is not as good, it does represent a substantial improvement over that of the conventional vertical line. Further, the triangular design has the great advantage that an existing conventional vertical line can be converted readily to the suggested configuration. The authors believe that this facility provides a ready means for confirming the validity of the foregoing predictions by service experience.
CONCLUSIONS of 1) Results further anialyses using a previously described 8 technique have confirmed its validity for predicting lightning outage rates on single- and double-circuit lines. Satisfactory Fig. 6. Predicted total and double-circuit outage rates of vertical, agreement with field data has been demonstrated for calculahorizontal, and triangular lines with two overhead earthwires. tions of total and double-circuit outage rates .of 110-345-kY Data include mean of footinig resistance distributions, number of 10- by 5-inch insulators on circuit 1/circuit 2, and conductor phas- lines, and for the prediction of outage types typically encountered ings as follows: on such lines. 2) Analyses have been iilade of the various factors that influence the double-circuit outage rate. The results of these Vertical Horizontal Triangular studies have been applied to the question of designing lines with A1A2 A, B1 At B1 C, acceptably low double-circuit outage rates, and it is concluded C1 A2 B, B2 A2 B2 C2 B2 C2 Cl C2 that the only satisfactory method of achieving the required performance with conventional lines of vertical configuration is to ensure a low total outage rate. The use of differential 115-kV lines insulated with eight disks on each circuit. For both insulation was examined in detail, and it was found that this the horizontal and triangular designs, all the single-circuit alone did not provide a practical method of reducing the proporflashovers involved circuit 2 (the lower circuit) only. When tion of double-circuit outages on lines of vertical configuration. double-circuit outages were predicted, normally two and often 3) A double-circuit line design with circuits horizontally three coniductors of the lower circuit were involved in flashovers disposed one above the other appears to provide an economical before conductors of the upper circuit became involved. As design in which double-circuit outages are minimized even for expected from purely geometrical considerations of coupling, high values of footing resistance. Because of the relative location the horizontal configuration is somewhat superior to the tri- of the circuits, differential insulation can be used with optimum angular configuration in this regard. The further improvement effect on this construction. predicted for the differential insulation (e.g., 9/8 disks on the 4) Similar improvements in double-circuit outage rate per115-kV line) is due first to enhanced confinement of flashovers formance are expected for a double-triangular configuration of to the lower circuit, and second to the increased insulation circuit conductors, as can be arranged on a conventional lattice strength of the upper circuit. tower having three crossarms. The results in Fig. 6 also demonstrate that a comparable improvemiient in the double-circuit outage rate of the vertical ACKNOWLEDGMENT configuration can only be achieved by a reduction in the total The work reported in this paper was mostly carried out in the rate-see, for example, the result for the 220-kV line having a Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Queensfooting resistance of 10 ohms. Of course the total outage rates land, and was supported by the Electrical Research Board of for the horizontal and vertical designs are also reduced to a low the Association of Australia. The authors Electricity Supply value with this footing resistance. It is to be noted that no gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley double-circuit outages were predicted for the 220-kV horizontal Authority, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, design with 10 ohms, and this result holds true for footing and the following Supply Authorities in Australia: the State resistainees up to 50 ohms. (The predicted double-circuit outages Electricity Commissions of New South Wales, and Victoria, for the footing resistance distribution having a mean of 28 ohms The authors wish to thank Mr. H. Linck of OntarioQueensland. were associated with individual towers having footing resistances Hydro for helpful discussions and for suggesting study of the greater than 50 ohms.) double-triangular configuration. These results show that the horizontal design is somewhat superior to the trianigular arrangement both in total and doubleREFERENCES circuit outage rates, and that both have markedly better doubleM. A. and M. [1] Sargent Darveniza, "The calculation of the circuit outage rate performances than the conventional vertical double-circuit outage rate of transmission lines," IEEE Trans. configuration. It is concluded, therefore, that the horizontal conPower Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-86, pp. 665-678, June 1967. figuration offers important economies to line designers in those V. Burgsdorf, "Lightniing protection of overhead lines and situations where low footing resistances are diffitult to obtain [2] V. operating experience in the USSR," CIGRE, Rept.,326, Paris, and where a low double-circuit outage rate is still required. It is 1958.
0 2
920
[3] M. V. Kostenko, I. F. Polovoie, and A. N. Rozenfeld, "Effect of lightning flashes on electrical conductors bypassing the shielding of overhead groundwire for lightning protection of EHV transmission lines" (in Russian), Etektrichestvo, vol. 81, pp. 20-26, April 1961. [4] M. A. Sargent and M. Darveniza, "Tower surge impedance," IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-88, pp. 680-687, May 1969. [5] G. W. Brown and E. R. Whitehead, "Field and analytical studies of transmission line shielding-II," and referenced papers, IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS88, pp. 617-626, May 1969. [6] M. Kawai and H. Azuma, "Design and performance of unbalanced insulation of double-circuit transmission lines," IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-84, pp. 839-846, September, 1965.
Discussion
D. H. A. Tufnell (Central Electricity Generating Board, London, England): The authors describe valuable work in assessing which electrical parameters influence the double-circuit outage rate of an overhead line. A recent survey of the lightning faults on the CEGB system gave the results shown in Table IX. It will be noted from the table that lightning performance of the CEGB system is better than those quoted in this paper. This is probably due to the low isoceraunic level in Britain (the number of thunderstorm days only exceeded 21 in very few places during 1967) and due to low tower footing resistances. It is rare for this resistance to exceed 10 ohms, and in the case of the two higher voltages, 5 ohms is a normal maximum. However, in certain mountainous areas resistances exceeding 200 ohms have been measured. TABLE IX
E. R. Whitehead (Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Ill.): This paper and its predecessor paper [1] by the same authors constitute an extremely important contribution to our quantitative knowledge of the lightning performance of transmission lines. The observation that the principal results agree with our accumulated qualitative judgment should be somewhat reassuring with respect to our deductions from more circumscribed analytical processes. The power of the computer to carry out the enormous detail of the traveling wave solutions, including variation of nonlinear parameters, is responsible for the confidence one may feel in the numerical results, but an equally important aspect of this work is the apparent adequacy of the analytical model and the resultant program. The discouraging results from the analytical prediction of lightning performance in the past resulted chiefly from the inclusion of large numbers of shielding failures in lightning tripout data. Although the estimation of the proportion of shielding failures from partially effective shielding is not now, and is really unlikely to be in the future, a very accurate process, the effort is well worthwhile as the present paper clearly demonstrates. With improved estimation of shielding failure rates, the study of "backflash" failure rates should be placed on a firm foundation so that greater resolution of the influences of grounding methods and other design variables can be confidently expected.
Year 1965-1966
1966-1967
1967-1968
Outage rate/100 miles Percentage double-circuit faults Outage rate/100 miles Percentage double-circuit faults Outage rate/100 miles
* This is represented by one double-circuit fault. It should be noted that this survey only counted the total number of simultaneous faults on a double circuit due to all causes; but it is considered that most, if not all, of these faults were caused by lightning.
It will also be noted from the table that the double-circuit outage rate improves for the higher voltages whereas the single-circuit outage rate remains disappointingly high. It would be interesting to know the lightning performance of other systems with working voltages exceeding 300 kV. The authors go on to describe two line configurations that would reduce the double-circuit fault rate. They point out the shortcomings of the twin horizontal configuration, but I think the doubletriangular configurations has serious operational safety problems. It would probably be necessary to have a double-circuit outage for maintenance on the "top" circuit unless "live line" working tech-
niques are employed. Also line galloping could cause a doublecircuit fault whereas the standard configuration only causes a singlecircuit fault.
M. Kawai (General Electric Company, Project UHV, Pittsfield, Mass.): The authors are to be congratulated on undertaking such a very interesting and comprehensive study. They have pointed out that reduction of tower footing resistance is a very effective means of improving lightning performance on transmission lines, and in this observation I think almost everyone would concur. However, data on several lines collected by this discusser both in Japan and in the United States frequently show little if any correlation between outage rate and tower footing resistance. Based on the sum of all field data and on theoretical calculations, it can be easily concluded that an improvement in footing resistance reduces the lightning outage rate, but an effective reduction is often masked by a great many other parameters. In a previous paper [7] involving a comprehensive study of transmission lines in Japan, it was noted that the yearly variation of outages was quite extreme and that flashovers were often concentrated on particular sections of the lines, thereby strongly influencing the line performance. Also, magnetic link studies made at this time and covering several geological areas suggested strongly that the probability of occurrence of given values of stroke current changed appreciably from one area to another [6], [8]. It is hard to see how these factors can be considered in the calculation of outage rates, yet nevertheless play an important role in the process. In fact, many other factors affecting lightning flashover are vague in the extreme and may not be clarified for many years to come. At this stage of knowledge, it seems to this discusser that it is extremely difficult to claim much accuracy in predicting the lightning performance of transmission lines. Therefore, this discusser does not concur with the authors' conclusion 1) in spite of the indicated good agreement. Examining Fig. 6(c), one notes a great improvement expected in the double-circuit flashover rate of the triangular circuit 3. In the calculation of the performance of phases Al and C, of the triangular circuit, the improvement in performance is about the same as that of the differential circuit 2, largely because the influences of crossarm potentials and coupling factors tend to cancel each other out (Fig. 7). Thus, it is only natural that most of the double-circuit flashover in the differential insulation system should occur on the bottom phase of the high-insulation circuit. However, investigating the performance of unbalanced (differential) insulation lines and normally insulated lines in Japan, I could find no such tendency.
1969.
921
48
I.
V ERTICAL
Al Bl CI (1 2)
2.
A2 B2 C2 (12)
d-c OUTAGE 00 %
32
LJ (0
24
0
DIFFERENTIAL
A I B I CI (14)
A2 B2 C2 (12)
O C)
16
8
d -c
U.t c..,
2z
3.
TRIANGULAR
A I (14) B B2
CI A2 C2 (12)
330/h
1957
1359
1 I I93 YEARS
(a)
24
C,, LO
se10
o
LO C_."
=..
1957
n
IJ
1959
1965
1967
195J7
1959
Y(ARS
(a)
131
1963
1935
iSS7
(b) Fig. 9. Lightning performance of unbalanced insulation lines. (a) 154-kV Hida old line. (b) 154-kV Hida new line. Notation as in Fig. 8.
REFERENCES [7] M. Kawai, N. Kodama, and S. Minemura, "Lightning performance of transmission lines in Tokyo Area," IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-87, pp. 13-23, January 1968. [81 M. Kawai, "Investigation on lightning performance of transmission lines" (in Japanese), CRIEPI, Rept. 65008, April 1965.
40
TOTAL
ui
YEARS
(b)
Fig. 8. Lightning performance of unbalanced insulation lines. (a) 154-kV Kiso line. (b) 154-kV Subara-Oi line. *-unbalanced
insulation.
age;
insulation line;
j--
normal insulation
line; solid
line-total out-
In closing, this discusser would like to present some curves showing the performance of unbalanced insulation lines with that of normal lines in Japan (Fig. 8). The design data for these circuits are presented in [6]. The differences in performance of the two lines are quite obvious. The very considerable increase in flashover rate in 1963-1964 on the reduced insulation circuit after it was installed is not due to the reduced insulation, but to the fact that all lines in those years had a much higher flashover rate due to an extremely severe lightning season. This can be seen by comparing the total records on Fig. 8 and 9.
D. C. Smith and J. A. Downey (State Electricity Commission of Victoria, Australia): The authors are to be congratulated on their analysis of a problem that can play an important part in the security of supply and the solutions they have suggested. The paper analyzes one section of a 150-mile double-circuit 220-kV line used to transmit power from Victorian hydro stations. The line passes through a mountainous region characterized by high tower footing resistance and high lightning incidence resulting in a high double-circuit outage rate. High-speed reclosure is used for both circuits. The Commission has within its system a large number of 220-kV lines of vertical construction used for both the transmission of power and the distribution of load. In general, these lines pass through areas of very low tower footing resistances and low lightning incidence. These lines have a very low lightning outage rate and they have had a total of eight single-circuit outages but no double-circuit outages. The conductor phasing is principally ABC, CBA, but on some lines the phasing is ABC, ABC, and one of the above single-circuit outages occurred on such a line. Table V shows that the double-circuit outage rate for low tower footing resistances is less than 40 percent of the total outages, and Fig. 6 shows that all outages for a 10-ohm tower footing resistance are double circuit. Could the authors comment on whether this is due to the different phase rotation and
922
whether lines with a low tower footing resistance are influenced more than high tower footing resistance lines by the positioning of the phase conductors? The horizontal line arrangement suggested by the authors has the disadvantage that tower costs will be higher and conductor maintenance on the top circuit would mean lengthy double-circuit outages that may, in some cases, be unscheduled (e.g., broken pin on an insulator). This arrangement also relies on the flashover of multiple phases of the lower circuit and this could lead to an increase in the incidence of three-phase faults in the system, which may adversely affect the stability of machines in the system (our particular system is designed for a two-phase ground fault). Could the authors give an indication of the increased incidence of a three-phase fault compared with the normal vertical configuration? The alternative triangular configuration suggested is not favored because of the critical nature of the identification of circuits for maintenance; also, conductor maintenance on the upper circuit would necessitate double-circuit outages.
A. Beloff and R. X. French (Sargent and Lundy Engineers, Chicago, Ill.): When the authors presented a method for the computation of double-circuit outage rates some two years ago [1], there were high hopes that they would continue their investigation in a manner that would satisfy the expectations of such a valuable and needed tool. Today it is most gratifying to find that the authors have further validated the method by comparing actual and predicted performance of operating double-circuit lines, and interesting conclusions have been drawn for the benefit of transmission line engineers pointing to areas of improvement in the design of double-circutit transmission lines. We would like to congratulate the authors for what appears to be a good correlation between actual performance observed on several operating double-circuit lines and the calculated douLble-circuit outage rates obtained with the analytical model. It would be interesting to know, however, whether the rather high total lightning outage rates shown in Table II are typical, as stated in the paper, or whether they are examples of particular lines with unusually high tripout rates. If today's transmission lines are designed for 1 outage per 100 mile-years or less, even a 50-percent chance of doublecircuit outage may not be of practical significance to system planning or operation. Power system reliability criteria must always consider double-circuit outages, even if their probability is low; therefore, the actual rate is not of great importance. It is, of course, always desirable to provide the lowest outage rate consistent with economy. It would be beneficial to have the authors expand on the point of the effectiveness of tower footing resistance in reducing the proportion of double-circuit outages. Table V shows a modest benefit from reducing tower footing resistance on a particular line. However, this appears inconsistent with Table III, which indicates some correlation between tower footing resistance and the percentage of double-circuLit outage, although no definite conclusions can be drawn from such a small number of cases. Footing resistance is often the crucial factor in a designer's decision; therefore, practical design guides based on the authors' new method would be a significant contribution to the industry. We would like to comment on the practicality of suggested line designs having low double-circuit outage rates. The use of doublecircuit lines using circuits of the same voltage disposed horizontally had very low appeal in the past, mainly because of maintenance problems. As we move into EHV, and specifically speaking of 345-kV lines in the USA, the trend has been toward the design of circuits that can be maintained with the use of hot line tools and with conductors supported on offset crossarms in order to minimize the effect of galloping conductors on line performance. The proposed double-triangular phasing arrangement for double-circuit lines disposed in a vertical configuration, on the other hand, should certainly merit the attention of transmission engineers since it will still retain the physical advantages of the conventional vertical line.
A question arises, whether, in the authors' opinion, a change in the double-triangular phasing, such as A,, A2, B2 top-to-bottom phases on one side of the tower and B,, Cl, C2 on the other side of the tower, would be as effective as the one suggested in the paper. We found that this phasing arrangement would lower the overall conductor surface gradient by about 9 percent on an average as comnpared to the more common vertical phase arrangement, whereas the one proposed by the authors would give slightly higher values. At this juncture, we would like to ask the authors whether they have investigated the use of double-circuit triangular configuration where each triangle occupies one side of the tower with one conductor supported oni the top arm and the two lower conductors supported on the lower arm. This arrangement is typical of a low-profile tower line with two shield wires, and it would be interesting to know whether it would provide better inherent dotuble-circuit otutage performance than the conventional tier-type tower of imiuch wider application. Finally, it would be of much interest to transmission entgineers if some type of application curves were developed for predicting double-circuit outage rates for different line configurations, much in the same way as probability curves have beein published by IEEE and more recently by others after numerous studies on lightning phenomena anid their effect on line performancee.
H. Linck, T. J. McClelland, and K. R. McClymont (The HydroElectric Power Commission of Ontario, Torotnto, Ont., Canada): Ontario Hydro is constructing two parallel 230-kV circuits as a transmission link between their East and West systems. The 1968 peak demand for the East system exceeded 9000 MW and for the West system 600 MW. This interconnection will be more than 500 miles long and will have five intermediate stations for connecting load and generation along the line. Wheni completed in 1970, it will be capable of transmitting 150 MW in each direction. Since this line will from the only direct electrical link between the two systems, it is important to minimize simultaneous outages of both circuits for those parts of the line where double-circuit construction was chosen for economical reason. The terrain traversed by the line is part of the Canadian shield and solid rock is seldom more than a few feet below the surface. Table X shows that more than 50 percent of the tower footing resistances are in excess of 100 ohms. These values were measured before counterpoise was installed. Previous experience had shown that two shield wires and two-wire counterpoise would be required for satisfactory lightning performance. The isocerauniic level for the area is 20 to 25. Although our experience with double-circuit outages on 230-kV lines of the type contemplated had been good, this experience was gained largely with lines in terrain where tower footing conditions are more favorable. In view of these considerations it was decided that an anialytical study of the lightning performance of the double-circuit section of the tie line was most desirable. In the search for a facility to carry out this work we soon discovered that only the authors of the paper were able to offer a definite proposal regarding immediate action. First, outage calculations were performed for an existing double-circuit 115-kV line located in territory similar to that of the East-West tie line. The results of this investigation are given in the paper. We were quite impressed with the close agreement between computer resuilts and service experienice and, therefore, embarked on the study of the 230-kV tie line, employing the authors' expertise and computing facilities. To avoid galloping outages on our douible-circuit 230-kV lines when conductors are ice coated, we offset the center conductors in the horizontal direction about 10 feet from the upper and lower conductors and provide an 18-foot vertical spacing. This requirement makes the type of horizontal configuration illustrated in Fig. 5 impractical for our coniditions.
1969.
PERFORMANClE'
OF
923
TABLE X GROUND RESISTANCE DISTRIBUTION FOR 285 TOWERS OF EAST-WEST TIE LINE3
Michael Sargent and Mat Darveniza: The authors wish to thank the discussers for their comments and interest. Because of the increasing need to achieve maximum utilization of transmission rights of way, double-circuit lines are being used to an increasing extent at higher voltages, and their reliability has become a matter of considerable importance. Except for areas of low lightning activity, lightning performance is usually the main parameter controlling line insulation design, and this topic was the subject of a colloquium arranged
TABLE XI SUMMARY OF ESTIMATED OUTAGIE RATES FROM LIGHTNINGEAST-WEST TIE LINE, 230-KV DOUBLE-CIRCUIT (BASED ON FIVE-YEAR SERVICE PERIOD)
years)
Double Circuit
1 .9 0.9
14
Counterpoise
14 14 10 10 12 13
0. 8
14 14 15
Computer results for a variety of conditionis, based on the use of our conventional double-circuit tower, are shown in Table XI. On the basis of these results, the use of the triangular configuration with differential insulation appeared promising. Other considerations in comparing the coniventional and the triangular configuration were: 1) With the triangular configuration, a brokeni conduictor can result in a double-circuit ouLtage. Extended outages of two circuits from this cause can be avoided by temporarily reconinecting the phases at the line terminials after the occurrence of this type of failure. 2) Since the triangular configuration is unconventional, maintenance personnel need to be warned, possibly by installing special markers on the towers. 3) Differences in current balance, radio iinterference, and communication circuit initerference between the two arrangements were not considered significant. 4) Ten insulators per string would be marginal, especially in polluted areas. It was decided that a minimum of 12, or preferably 13 units should be used in the bottom circuit. 5) The alternative of constructing both circuits with full insulation, and shorting out several units by jumpers on the lower circuit, was ruled out because of a lack of suitable hardware. After weighing these considerations, it was decided to use the triangular configuration, with 15 and 13 insulators on a 240-mile double-circuit section of the East-West tie line and also on a 120mile 230-kV line in the same area, which is not part of the interconnection but for which double-circuit outages can result in interruptions of customers' supply. A 40-mile section of the tie line, already strung with 14 insulators when the decision on the triangular circuit scheme was made, will be operated with 14 units on the top circuit and 12 units on the bottom circuit.
the colloquium by one of the authors (M. Darveniza), and this was based on the present paper suitably broadened to include data and developments from other countries. It has been suggested that the lightning outage rates shown in Table II are not representative of the performance typically achieved by double-circuit lines. We have not made an extensive surveyfurther lightning outage statistics are given in Table XII, and these indicate a wide variety in lightninig performance. As noted by Mr. Tufnell, the data suggest that both the double-circuit outage rate and the proportion of double-circuit outages decrease with increasing system voltage. A study of the available data on fault types and locations suggests that the majority of single line-ground faults may be attributed to shielding failures and that the more complex outage types such as double-circuit faults are associated with backflash events. We agree with Prof. Whitehead that improved estimation of shielding failure rates, when possible, will contribute to more accurate estimations of backflash failure rates. Similarly, advances in our knowledge of other parameters involved in the analysis of transmissioin line lightning performance, such as the correlations between meteorological and geographical conditions referred to by Mr. Kawai, will contribute to the refinement and accuracy of prediction techniques. However, until such data are available, somewhat imperfect methods based on somewhat imperfect data must be used to estimate the approximate magnitude of these effects, to provide an estimate of the linle performance. Therefore, it was concluded that the technique proposed in this and previous papers [1], [4] provides a method of estimating the lightning performance of transmission lines with an accuracy consistent with the accuracy of available data. As improved data become available, the technique is amenable to refinement, incorporating new data to improve the accuracy of estimation. Mr. Smith and Mr. 1)owney have noted differenees between the proportionis of double-circuit outages for the SECV 220-kV line with 10 ohms footing resistance as shown in Table V, and for the vertical 220-kV line in Fig. 6. The former analysis was for a line with one overhead earthwire (OHEW), whereas a two-OHEW line was analyzed in Fig. 6 and permitted nio shielding failures. The SECV experience of eight single-circuit outages on 220-kV lines with low footing resistances was of interest and further details were sought. Seven of the outages occurred on lines having one OHEW, and these can be reasonably attributed to shielding failures. However, the sinigle-circuit outage on the lines with two OHEWs might have been a back fiashover anid, if so, this was in conflict with the result of all double-circtit otutages given in Fig. 6. This prompted further studies using the same computer program, but converted to FORTRAN Iv for the University's newly acquired PDP 10 computing system. As well as greatly reducing computation time compared to the originial GE 225 system (344 seconds compared with 227 minutes for a five-year analysis), the larger memory core storage of the PDP 10 made possible the incorporation of certain refinements in the program. The stroke magnitude distribution was originally described by 250 values with the result that at the high-current end the current steps were rather larger than desirable. The number of values was increased to 1000, and a rerun of the 10-ohm 220-kV vertical case of Fig. 6 yielded one single-circuit outage for a ten-year service analysis. However, as Mr. Kawai suggests, the effect of footing resistance on line performance may be masked by other factors. Design of a line in terms of average footing resistance can lead to erroneous conclusions. Lightning outages of well-designed lines are occurrences of low probability, more dependent on extremal rather than average
924
MAY/JUNE 1970
Utility* Ontario-Hydro (Canada) NEA (Australia) ECNSW ((Australia) CEGB (Britain) Com. Edison (USA) Com. Edison (USA) Tokyo Electric Power (Japan) Tokyo Electric Power (Japan) Tokyo Electric Power (Japan) Kansai Electric Power (Japan) Kansai Electic Power (Japan) TVA (USA) SECV (Australia) Ontario-Hydro (Canada) Ontario-Hydro (Canada) Tokyo Electric Power (Japan) Kansai Electric Power (Japan) CEGB (Britain) OVEC (USA) AEP (USA) CEGB (Britain)
Voltage
(kV)
115 132 132 132 138 138 140 140 140 140 140 161 220 230 230 250 250 275 345 345 400
Earthwires
1 1 2 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1
Percentage Double-Circuit
Outages
68 37 40 25 35 0 25 44 36 38 67 63 37 35
4 41 0 12 5 0 4
* Abbreviations as follows: AEP American Electric Power Company CEGB Central Electricity Generating Board ECNSW Electricity Commission of New South Wales NEA Northern Electricity Authority OVEC Ohio Valley Electric Company SECV State Electricity Commission of Victoria TVA Tennessee Valley Authority.
TABLE XIII LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE OF LINES WITH DIFFERENTIAL INSULATION (SEE [6, TABLE XII])
of Different
Installation Insulation
Before After Before After
Years
1966-1967 1957-1962 1962-1967 1957-1962 1962-1967
1951-1954 1956-1961 1956-1961
Hida-old 140 kV
Duke Power Company Cliffside 100 kV
1025/630
7/7 11/8 18/15
Sampson 230 kV
Before After
* Insulation on circuit
values, and hence it is essential to utilize a distribution of footing resistances in calculations. Mr. Beloff and Mr. French asked that we expand on the effectiveness of tower footing resistance in improving the lightning performance of double-circuit lines. Our view is that two design approaches are available for achieving a low double-circuit outage rate. These are to design lines to ensure either, a low total outage rate, or only single-circuit outages. Lines with a low total outage rate will of necessity have a low double-circuit outage rate, and in general most designers would prefer to achieve this using the normal techniques of adequate shielding, adequate line insulation, low footing resistances, etc. In addition, the analyses given in the paper suggest some further gain because of the improved proportion of double-circuit outages; but, as shown in Table V, this additional gain is only marginal. If it is difficult or even impossible to achieve low total outage rates (e.g., due to very high resistivity soils or excessive lightning activity), it may be necessary to adopt the second approach by the
925
vertical circuit configuration, double-circuit outages are not eliminated by the use of differential insulation. Double-circuit outages have even been known to occur on double-circuit towers supporting two different voltage classes-Brown and Whitehead [5] reported a double-circuit outage on a 69/138-kV line, and in Australia, the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Authority observed a similar outage on a 66/132-kV line. With the proposed double-triangular and double-horizontal designs, however, differential insulation can be used with optimum effect, as shown in the analyses undertaken. In reply to Mr. Beloff and Mr. French, we have not performed any detailed analyses on the double-delta arrangement. It would appear that the application of differential insulation to this arrangement would give results similar to those achieved with the vertical circuit arrangement. However, because the conductors of, say, circuit 2 cannot all be at a lower height than the conductors of the same phase in circuit 1, the improvement in coupling to circuit 2 following flashovers on circuit 1 would not be as effective as that obtained with the double-horizontal and double-triangular configurations. We believe that the alternative phasing arrangement for the double-triangular configuration would be as effective as the one suggested in the paper. When considering phasing arrangements, the effect on the series reactance of the double-circuit line must also be considered. Many discussers were concerned with operational and mechanical difficulties of the proposed double-horizontal and double-triangular
designs. These problems can be overcome with prior planning, using modern operational techniques. Mr. Linck, Mr. McClelland, and Mr. McClymont have summarized the techniques used by OntarioHydro to overcome these difficulties in the application of the doubletriangular design to an important 230-kV line. The proposed double-horizontal and double-triangular designs provide improved double-circuit outage performance by restraining outages to only one circuit, normally without markedly affecting total outage rates. This means that there will be an increased number of multiphase faults on one of the lines. However, this should not adversely affect the stability of the system, except in those cases where multiphase single-circuit faults prove more onerous than single-phase or multiphase double-circuit outages. Field data for conventional lines indicate that a higher proportion of doublecircuit outages involves more than one phase of each circuit than for single-circuit outages. We believe that the double-horizontal and double-triangular configurations may find useful application in those circumstances where a low double-circuit outage rate is required in the unavoidable presence of a high total outage rate.
REFERENCES [9] R. M. Kimbrell, "Insulation differential cuts tripouts," Electron. World, vol. 159, pp. 66-67, May 1963.
Abstract-A new numerical method is described for the solution of electric field problems where the field is not bounded in space, but extends infinitely far. This method belongs to the class of boundary-relaxation techniques in which an artificial finite boundary condition is initially introduced to allow solution and then iteratively removed as the solution proceeds. The method has been implemented in extensive computer programs, which produce equipotential plots of the electric field in the neighborhood of dielectric and conductive bodies possessing rotational symmetry. Application to the analysis of suspension insulators and related devices is described, and several field plots exhibited for standard insulator types. The method permits sufficiently short computation times to allow detailed investigation of the effects of insulator contamination by conductive substances, variation of dielectric constant, or other factors.
Paper 69 TP 703-PWR, recommended and approved by the Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power Group for presentation at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Dallas, Tex., June 22-27, 1969. Manuscript submitted February 14, 1969; made available for printing April 10, 1969. This work was supported by the National Research Council of Canada. P. Silvester is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, P. Q., Canada. I. A. Cermak was with the Department of Electrical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, P. Q., Canada. He is now with Bell Telephone Laboratories, Holmdel, N. J.
INTRODUCTION T RANSMISSION voltages have risen remarkably rapidly in recent years, and there is every indication that even further substantial increases are to be expected. The very high voltage levels now becoming common have posed many difficult problems for the equipment designer, especially in connection with insulation. At the same time, extensive work has been devoted to such factors as the effect of industrial pollution. A clear need exists for new methods for analyzing the electric fields surrounding high-voltage conductors, bushings, insulators, and hardware parts, and for evaluation of the effects on performance of contamination, mechanical damage, and other factors. Two fundamental difficulties generally beset attempts to determine the electric field near a high-voltage device: the geometrical shapes involved are very complicated, and the space in which the problem is posed extends outward infinitely far. For example, Fig. 1 shows a simple insulator. Mathematically, the electric potential V is determined by solving Laplace's equation
V2V = 0
(1)
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