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Beckmann thermometer A Beckmann thermometer is a device used to measure small differences of temperature, but not absolute temperature values.

It was invented by Ernst Otto Beckmann (1 !" # 1$%"&, a 'erman chemist, for his measurements of colli(ative properties in 1$)!.*1+. Beckmann ,oday its use has lar(ely been superseded by electronic measurin( devices. A Beckmann thermometer-s len(th is usually .) # !) cm. ,he temperature scale typically covers about ! o/ and it is divided into hundredths of a de(ree. 0ith a ma(nifier it is possible to estimate temperature chan(es to ).))1 o/. ,he peculiarity of Beckmann-s thermometer desi(n is a reservoir 1 at the upper end of the tube (see picture at ri(ht&, by means of which the 2uantity of mercury in the bulb can be increased or diminished so that the instrument can be set to measure temperature differences at either hi(h or low temperature values. In contrast, the ran(e of a typical mercury3in3(lass thermometer is fi4ed, bein( set by the calibration marks etched on the (lass or the marks on the printed scale. Setting the thermometer In settin( the thermometer, a sufficient amount of mercury must be left in the bulb and stem to (ive readin(s between the re2uired temperatures. 5irst, the thermometer is inverted and (ently tapped so that the mercury in the reservoir lod(es in the bend B at the end of the stem. 6e4t, the bulb is heated until the mercury in the stem 7oins the mercury in the reservoir. ,he thermometer then is placed in a bath one or two de(rees above the upper limit of temperatures to be measured. If now the upper end of the tube is (ently tapped with the fin(er, or the entire instrument (ently tapped on the palm of the hand, the mercury suspended in the upper part of the reservoir will be 7arred down, thus separatin( it from the thread at the bend B. ,he thermometer will then be set for readin(s between the re2uired temperatures. Bimetallic strip thermometer A bimetallic strip is used to convert a temperature chan(e into mechanical displacement. ,he strip consists of two strips of different metals which e4pand at different rates as they are heated, usually steel and copper, or in some cases brass instead of copper. ,he strips are 7oined to(ether throu(hout their len(th by rivetin(, bra8in( or weldin(. ,he different e4pansions force the flat strip to bend one way if heated, and in the opposite direction if cooled below its initial temperature. ,he metal with the hi(her coefficient of thermal e4pansion is on the outer side of the curve when the strip is heated and on the inner side when cooled. ,he sideways displacement of the strip is much lar(er than the small len(thways e4pansion in either of the two metals. ,his effect is used in a ran(e of mechanical and electrical devices. In some applications the bimetal strip is used in the flat form. In others, it is wrapped into a coil for compactness. ,he (reater len(th of the coiled version (ives improved sensitivity. Applications Thermometers A direct indicatin( dial thermometer (such as a patio thermometer or a meat thermometer& uses a bimetallic strip wrapped into a coil. One end of the coil is fi4ed to the housin( of the device and the other drives an indicatin( needle. A bimetallic strip is also used in a recordin( thermometer. Calculations /urvature of a Bimetallic Beam9

0here E1 and h1 are the :oun(-s ;odulus and hei(ht of ;aterial One and E% and h% are the :oun(-s ;odulus and hei(ht of ;aterial ,wo. < is the misfit strain, calculated by9

0here =1 is the /oefficient of ,hermal E4pansion of ;aterial One and =% is the /oefficient of ,hermal E4pansion of ;aterial ,wo. >, is the current temperature minus the reference temperature (the temperature where the beam has no fle4ure& Coulomb blockade thermometer In physics, a Coulomb blockade (abbreviated ?B&, named after /harles3Au(ustin de /oulomb, is the increased resistance at small bias volta(es of an electronic device comprisin( at least one low3capacitance tunnel 7unction. Because of the ?B, the resistances of devices are not constant at low bias volta(es, but increase to infinity for 8ero bias (i.e. no current flows&. A typical /oulomb Blockade ,hermometer (/B,& is made from an array of metallic islands, connected to each other throu(h a thin insulatin( layer. A tunnel 7unction forms between the islands, and as volta(e is applied, electrons may tunnel across this 7unction. ,he tunnelin( rates and hence the conductance vary accordin( to the char(in( ener(y of the islands as well as the thermal ener(y of the system. /oulomb Blockade ,hermometer is a primary thermometer based on electric conductance characteristics of tunnel 7unction arrays. ,he parameter @AB!.."$6kB,Ce, the full width at half minimum of the measured differential conductance dip over an array of 6 7unctions to(ether with the physical constants provide the absolute temperature. Reversing thermometer Dnlike most conventional mercury thermometers, a reversing thermometer is able to record a (iven temperature to be viewed at a later time. If the thermometer is flipped upside down, the current temperature will be shown until it is turned upri(ht a(ain. ,his was the primary device used by oceano(raphers to determine water temperatures below the surface of the ocean from around 1$)) to 1$E). It consists of a conventional bulb connected to a capillary in which a constriction is placed so that upon reversal the mercury column breaks off in a reproducible manner. ,he mercury runs down into a smaller bulb at the other end of the capillary, which is (raduated to read temperature. A "F)G turn in a locally widened portion of the capillary serves as a trap to prevent further addition of mercury if the thermometer is warmed and the mercury e4pands past the break3off point. ,he remote3readin( potentialities of reversin( thermometers make them particularly suitable for use in measurin( subsea temperature as a function of pressure. In this application, both protected thermometers and unprotected thermometers are used, each of which is provided with an au4iliary thermometer. ,hey are (enerally used in pairs in 6ansen bottles. ,hey are usually read to ).)1G/, and after the proper corrections have been applied, their readin(s are considered reliable to ).)%G/.