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INTRODUCTION Modern life is full of stress. As organization become more complex, the potential for stress increases.

Urbanization, industrialization and increase in scale of operation are some of the reasons for rising stress. Stress is an inevitable consequence of socioeconomic complexity and, to some extent, its stimulant as well. People experience stress, as they can no longer have complete control over what happens in their lives. The telephone goes out of order, power is shut down, the water supply is disrupted, an expected promotion is denied, children perform poorly at school, prices of essential commodities increase disproportionately to income, etc. we feel frustrated, and then stressed. There being no escape from stress in modern life. We need to find ways of using stress productively, and reducing dysfunctional stress. Several terms that are synonymous with stress, or similar in meaning, have been used. In order to avoid confusion we will use the following terms: stress for stimuli that induce stress; stress for the affective (emotional) part in the experience of incongruence; symptoms for the physiological, behavioral and conceptual responses or changes: and coping for any behavior that deals with the emotional component in the experience of incongruence, e.g. stress. The term stress will be used here to refer to such terms and concepts as strain, pressure, etc. As already stated, role can be defined as a set of functions, which an individual performs in response to the expectations of the significant members of a social system, and his own expectations about the position that he occupies in it. The concept of role and the two role systems (role space and role set) have a builtin potential for conflict and stress. Stress is normal. Everyone feels stress related to work, family, decisions, your future, and more. Stress is both physical and mental. It is caused by major life events such as illness, the death of a loved one, a change in responsibilities or expectations at work, and job promotions, loss, or changes. Smaller, daily events also cause stress. This stress is not as apparent to us, but the constant and cumulative impact of the small stressors adds up to big impact. In response to these daily stresses, your body automatically increases blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, metabolism, and blood flow to your muscles. This stress response is intended to help your body react quickly and effectively to any high-pressure situation. However, when you are constantly reacting to small or large stressful situations, without making physical, mental, and emotional adjustments to counter their effect, you can experience stress that can hurt your health and well-being. It is essential that you understand both your external and internal stress-causing events, no matter how you perceive those events.

Stress can also be positive. You need a certain amount of stress to perform your best at work. The key to stress management is to determine the right amount of stress that will give you energy, ambition, and enthusiasm versus the wrong amount which can harm your health and well-being. Important Stress Causing Issues, Characteristics and Traits While each person is different and has different events and issues that cause stress, there are some issues that almost universally affect people. These are the stressors you most want to understand and take measures to prevent. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Feeling out of control Feeling direction-less Guilt over procrastination or failing to keep commitments More commitments than time Change, especially changes you didnt initiate or institute Uncertainty, an High expectations of self

Some of the Stress Management Strategies which are very useful :

A. INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES 1. Time Management: An understanding and utilization of basic time management principles can help individuals better cope with job demands. Physical Exercise: Noncompetitive physical exercise such as aerobics, race walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bicycle have long been recommended by physicians as a way to deal with excessive stress levels. Relaxation Training: Individuals can teach themselves to relax through techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback. The objective is to reach a state of deep relaxation, where one feels physically relaxed, somewhat detached from the immediate environment, and detached from body sensations. Social Support: Having friends, family, or work colleagues to talk to provides an outlet when stress levels become excessive. Expanding your social support network, therefore, can be a means for tension reduction. B. ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES

Selection & Placement : Individuals with little experience or an external locus of control tend to be more stress-prone. Selection and placement decisions should take these facts into consideration. Goal Setting: The use of goals can reduce stress as well as provide motivation. Specific goals that are perceived as attainable clarify performance expectations. Additionally, goal feedback reduces uncertainties as to actual job performance. The result is less employee frustration, role ambiguity, and stress. Job Redesigning: Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress, because these factors give the employee greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others. Participative Decision Making: By giving these employees a voice in decisions that directly affect their job performances, management can increase employee control and reduce this role stress. Organizational Commitment: Given the importance that perceptions play in moderating the stress-response relationship, management can also use effective communications as a means to shape employee perceptions. Wellness Programmes: These programs focus on the employees total physical and mental condition. For example, they typically provide workshops to help people quit smoking, control alcohol use, lose weight, eat better, and develop a regular exercise program.