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INTRODUCTION Modern life is full of stress. As organization become more complex, the potential for stress increases.

Urbanization, industrialization and increase in scale of operation are some of the reasons for rising stress. Stress is an inevitable consequence of socioeconomic complexity and, to some extent, its stimulant as well. People experience stress, as they can no longer have complete control over what happens in their lives. The telephone goes out of order, power is shut down, the water supply is disrupted, an expected promotion is denied, children perform poorly at school, prices of essential commodities increase disproportionately to income, etc. we feel frustrated, and then stressed. There being no escape from stress in modern life. We need to find ways of using stress productively, and reducing dysfunctional stress. Several terms that are synonymous with stress, or similar in meaning, have been used. In order to avoid confusion we will use the following terms: stress for stimuli that induce stress; stress for the affective (emotional) part in the experience of incongruence; symptoms for the physiological, behavioral and conceptual responses or changes: and coping for any behavior that deals with the emotional component in the experience of incongruence, e.g. stress. The term stress will be used here to refer to such terms and concepts as strain, pressure, etc. As already stated, role can be defined as a set of functions, which an individual performs in response to the expectations of the significant members of a social system, and his own expectations about the position that he occupies in it. The concept of role and the two role systems (role space and role set) have a builtin potential for conflict and stress. Stress is normal. Everyone feels stress related to work, family, decisions, your future, and more. Stress is both physical and mental. It is caused by major life events such as illness, the death of a loved one, a change in responsibilities or expectations at work, and job promotions, loss, or changes. Smaller, daily events also cause stress. This stress is not as apparent to us, but the constant and cumulative impact of the small stressors adds up to big impact. In response to these daily stresses, your body automatically increases blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, metabolism, and blood flow to your muscles. This stress response is intended to help your body react quickly and effectively to any high-pressure situation. However, when you are constantly reacting to small or large stressful situations, without making physical, mental, and emotional adjustments to counter their effect, you can experience stress that can hurt your health and well-being. It is essential that you understand both your external and internal stress-causing events, no matter how you perceive those events. Stress can also be positive. You need a certain amount of stress to perform your best at work. The key to stress management is to determine the right amount of stress that will give you

energy, ambition, and enthusiasm versus the wrong amount which can harm your health and well-being. Important Stress Causing Issues, Characteristics and Traits While each person is different and has different events and issues that cause stress, there are some issues that almost universally affect people. These are the stressors you most want to understand and take measures to prevent. Feeling out of control Feeling direction-less Guilt over procrastination or failing to keep commitments More commitments than time Change, especially changes you didnt initiate or institute Uncertainty, an High expectations of self


20THcentury has been regarded as the period of incredible change inhuman history. Philosophers and scientists have been various names to this period. Peter Drucker has called it The Age of Discontinuity, John Galbraith has called it The Age of Future Shock and Hari Albrecht called it The Age of Anxiety. Stress has become the 21 century buzz word, from the high pervading corporate echelons to the bassinets of teaching infants nurseries we find this world liberally used. Stress is part of modern life. Various events in life cause stress, starting with the birth of a child and enduring with the death of a dear one. Urbanization, industrialization and the increase scale of operations in society are some of the reasons for rising stress. It is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic complexity and to some extent, its stimulant as well. People experience stress as they can no longer have complete control over what happen in their lives. The telephone goes out of order, power is shut down, water supply is disrupted, children perform poorly at school etc, we feel frustrated and then stressed. T h e w o r d s t r e s s i s d e r i v e d f r o m a L a t i n w o r d stringere, meaning to draw tight. From the view point of physical sciences, the phenomena of stress are evident in all materials when they are subjected to force, pressure, strain or strongf r o n t . E v e r y material steel, rock or wood has its own limit up to which it can withstand stresswithout being damaged. Similarly human beings can tolerate certain level of stress. Stress i shighly individualistic in nature. Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for stress and thrive very well in the face of several stressors in the environment. In fact, some individuals will not perform well unless they experience a level of stress which activates and energizes then to put forth their best results. For every individual there is an

optimum level of stress under which he or she will perform to full capacity. If the stress experience is below the optimum level, then the individual gets bored, the motivational level of work reaches a low point and it results to careless mistakes, forgetting to do things and thinking of things other than work during work hours and also leads to absenteeism which may ultimately lead to turnover. If on the other hand, stress experience is above the optimum level, it leads to too many conflicts with the supervisor or leads to increase of errors, bad decisions and the individual may experience insomnia, stomach problems, and psychosomatic illness. The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demand sat work. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individuals reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. It is an adaptive response to certain external factor or situation or what can be called environmental stimuli as reflected in an opportunity, constraint, or demand the outcome of which is uncertain but important. In short stress is a response to an external factor t h a t r e s u l t s i n p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , behavioral deviations in a person. Stress is an all pervading modern phenomenon that takes a heavy toll of human life. Different situations and circumstances in our personal life and in our job produce stress. Those can be divided into factors related to the organization and factors related to the person which include his experience and personality traits. Job related factors are work overload, time pressures, poor quality of supervision, insecure political climate, role conflict and ambiguity, difference between company values and employee values. Person related factors are death of spouse, or of a close friend, family problems, change to a different line of work, prolonged illness in the family, change in social activities, eating habits, etc., Personality traits are Type A personality. They are impatient, ambitious, competitive, aggressive, and hardworking. They set high goals and d e m a n d s o f themselves and others. And they are particularly prone to stress inducing anticipatory emotions such as anxiety.

REMEDIES TO REDUCE STRESS There are two major approaches to reduce stress. They are, Individual approaches Organizational approaches

A. INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES Time Management: An understanding and utilization of basic time management principles can help individuals better cope with job demands. Physical Exercise: Noncompetitive physical exercise such as aerobics, race walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bicycle have long been recommended by physicians as a way to deal with excessive stress levels.

Relaxation Training: Individuals can teach themselves to relax through techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback. The objective is to reach a state of deep relaxation, where one feels physically relaxed, somewhat detached from the immediate environment, and detached from body sensations. Social Support: Having friends, family, or work colleagues to talk to provides an outlet when stress levels become excessive. Expanding your social support network, therefore, can be a means for tension reduction. B. ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES Selection & Placement : Individuals with little experience or an external locus of control tend to be more stress-prone. Selection and placement decisions should take these facts into consideration. Goal Setting: The use of goals can reduce stress as well as provide motivation. Specific goals that are perceived as attainable clarify performance expectations. Additionally, goal feedback reduces uncertainties as to actual job performance. The result is less employee frustration, role ambiguity, and stress. Job Redesigning: Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress, because these factors give the employee greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others. Participative Decision Making: By giving these employees a voice in decisions that directly affect their job performances, management can increase employee control and reduce this role stress. Organizational Commitment: Given the importance that perceptions play in moderating the stress-response relationship, management can also use effective communications as a means to shape employee perceptions. Wellness Programmes: These programs focus on the employees total physical and mental condition. For example, they typically provide workshops to help people quit smoking, control alcohol use, lose weight, eat better, and develop a regular exercise program. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individuals r e a c t i o n t o a disturbing factor in the environment. Hence this study would help the organization to know the factors of stress and to reduce the stress in employees. Since it is a well known fact that healthy employee is a productive employee.


Stress in the work place has become the black plague of the present century. Much of the stress at work is caused not only by work overload and time pressure but also by lack of rewards and praise, and more importantly, by not providing individuals with the autonomy to do their work as they would like. Most of the employees were not satisfied with the grievance handling procedure of the organization which was found by the unstructured interview. Organization must begin to manage people at work differently, treating them with respect and valuing their contribution. If we enhance the psychologicalwell being and health of the employees, in the coming future the organization w ould makemore revenue as well as employee retention. Because it is said that, A Healthy Employee is a Productive Employee