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III B.TECH (2013-14) II SEM




1. Explain with a neat block diagram of PCM system.
2. Obtain an expression for Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio of PCM system.
3. a) Define and explain the necessity of a Compander.
b) Explain different types of Companding techniques.
4. Explain about Uniform and Non-Uniform Quantization.
5. (a) Explain about Quantization Noise in PCM and derive the expression.
(b) In a binary PCM system, the output (S/N) ratio is to be held to a minimum of 40 dB.
(c) Determine the number of required levels and find the corresponding output (S/N) ratio.
6. Derive the relation for Signaling Rate and Transmission Bandwidth in a PCM system.
7. a) What are the advantages of Digital Communications?
b) Compare PCM with Analog Modulation.
8.(a)What is Sampling theorem and prove it for band pass signals ?
(b)What is the difference between base band transmission and band pass transmission?


1. What is Delta Modulation and compare with PCM and DPCM?
2. Explain with a neat block diagram the operation of a DM Transmitter and Receiver.
3. Obtain an expression for S/N at the output of a DM system.
4. Write short notes on:
a) Granular Noise
b) Slope Overload Distortion
5. Draw the block diagram of Adaptive Delta Modulation and explain its working.
6. Explain with a neat block diagram the operation of a DPCM Transmitter and Receiver.
7. (a) Explain about North American hierarchy.
(b) The T1 carrier system used in digital telephony multiplexes 24 voice channels based on 8-bit
PCM. Each voice signal is usually put through a low pass filter with cutoff frequency of about
3.4 KHz. The filtered voice signal is sampled at 8 KHz. In addition, a single bit is added at the
end of the frame for the purpose of synchronization. Calculate
i) the duration of each bit
ii)the resultant transmission rate and
iii)the minimum required transmission bandwidth.
8. a) Explain Hierarchy levels used in multiplexing.
b) In a single-integration DM system, the voice signal is sampled at a rate of 64 KHz. The maximum
signal amplitude is Amax=1.
a) Determine the minimum value of step size to avoid slope over load error.
b) Determine the granular noise power if the voice signals bandwidth is 3.5 KHz.
c) Determine the minimum transmission bandwidth.


1. Give the block diagram of Base Band binary data transmission system and explain the role of each
2. Explain about Power Spectrum of Digital PAM.
3. Explain the performance of base band PAM system with eye patterns are used for monitoring.
4. Derive the probability of error in base band PAM transmission?
5. Define M-ary signaling scheme? Derive an expression for error probability in M-ary signaling
6. a)What is Matched filter? Derive an expression for Matched filter?
b) Find the probability of bit error of the Matched filter receiver?
7. Explain the Properties of Matched Filter.
8. A binary PAM wave is to be transmitted over a baseband channel with an absolute maximum
bandwidth of 75 kHz. The bit duration is 10s. Find the raised cosine spectrums that satisfy these

1. With the help of a block diagram, explain the working of a correlation receiver.
2. What is the necessity of shaping the transmitted signal spectrum ?
3. Explain about Optimum filters.
4. a)What is a raised-cosine pulse? Describe with the help of diagram.
b)A certain telephone line bandwidth is 4 KHz. Calculate the data rate in bps that can be transmitted if
we use binary signaling with raised cosine pulses and a roll-off factor = 0.25.
5. (a) What is meant by Duo-binary signaling? Give the scheme of Duo-binary signaling and explain.
b) Find the duo-binary encoded sequence for the data sequence 011010. How it is detected.
6. What is meant by ISI? What is the ideal solution to obtain zero ISI and what is the advantage of this
7. Explain in detail about correlation receiver , integrate and dump receiver.
8. Design a baseband binary PAM system to transmit data at a bit rate of 3600 bits/sec., with a bit error
probability less than 10
. The channel resources is given by


f f or
f H
; 0
2400 , 10
) (
Noise power spectral density is G
(f) = 10


1. Explain about Interleaving and Hamming Distance.
2. Explain the following:
a) Forward Error Correction (FEC) systems
b) Automatic Retransmission Query (ARQ) systems
3. Explain Linear Block Codes and Hamming Codes.
4. Consider a (6, 3) generator matrix

0 1 1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 0 1

Find i. All the code vectors of this data
ii. The parity check matrix for this code
iii. The minimum weight of this code.
5. Draw the State diagram, Tree diagram and Trellis diagram for L = 3, Rate = 1/3 code generated by,
(x) = 1+X
, g
(x) = 1+X and g
(x) = 1+X+X
6. Figure shown below describes the encoder which has four states a, b, c, d corresponding to M1, M2 =
00, 01, 10, 11 respectively, draw the Tree Diagram.

7. Draw and explain Trellis diagram of Convolutional encoder shown in figure with
Rate = 1/3, L = 3.

8. Describe the following decoding algorithms for Convolution codes.
a) Viterbi decoding algorithm
b) Sequential decoding algorithm


1. Define and explain the following terms:
a) Information
b) Entropy
c) Information Rate
2. A Discrete memory less source (DMS) has an alphabet of five letters X
, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 each
occurring with probability 0.15, 0.30, 0.25, 0.15, 0.10, 0.08, 0.05, 0.05.
a) Determine the Entropy of the source and compare it with N.
b) Determine the Average number of binary digits per source code.

3. Derive the expression for the capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel.
4. Write short notes on Encoding of Binary Symmetric Channel.
5. Draw relevant diagram for model of a discrete memory less channel and explain.
6. Write short notes on the following:
a) Mutual Information
b) Self Information
c) Logarithmic measure of Information.
7. a) Explain the algorithm of Shannon-Fano Encoding technique.
b) An information source produces sequences of independent symbols having the following
1/3 1/27 1/3 1/9 1/9 1/27 1/27
Using Shannon-Fano procedure
i.)Construct a binary code.
ii.) Determine the efficiency and redundancy.
8. a) Explain the algorithm of Huffman Encoding technique.
b) Apply Huffman encoding procedure to the following set of messages having probabilities:

M1 M2 M3 M4
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
i.)construct a binary code
ii.)determine the efficiency and redundancy.


1. Explain about the Gram-Schmidt process in band pass digital transmission.
2. Explain in detail about band pass data transmission system.
3. Explain with a block diagram and derive an expression for error probability of coherent ASK system.
4. Derive a transfer function of the optimum filter and give the block diagram of correlation receiver
with detailed explanation.
5. Explain with a block diagram and derive an expression for error probability of FSK.
6. Draw the block diagram of QPSK modulator and demodulator and derive an expression for error
7. Explain with a block diagram and derive an expression for error probability of BPSK.
8. (a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of digital modulation schemes?
(b)Explain about Timing and synchronization.
1. Explain about Quadrature-Carrier systems.
2. Draw the block diagram of the operation of M-ary PSK system.
3. Explain with a neat block diagram the operation of M-ary FSK system.
4. Explain with a neat block diagram transmitter and receiver of M-ary QAM system.
5. Compare digital modulation schemes with their space/constellation diagrams.
6. Explain 8-PSK ,16-PSK Modulation system.
7. Derive an expression for probability of error for M-ary PAM system(M=4).
8. Give the comparisons of M-ary the digital modulation techniques.

Staff-Incharge HOD ECE