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## Microsoft Excel 2007 Sorting, Subtotals and Outlines (Level 3)

Contents
Introduction ..............................................................................................................1 Sorting Data in Excel ...............................................................................................1
Sorting Selected Data ................................................................................... 2 Advanced Sorts ............................................................................................... 2 Further Sort Options ..................................................................................... 3 Sorting by Colours .......................................................................................... 4

## Creating Subtotals ...................................................................................................5 Outlines .......................................................................................................................5 The Subtotal Function ...........................................................................................6

Introduction
This document covers both the simple and more advanced sorting facilities in Excel and also introduces you to subtotals and outlines.

## Sorting Data in Excel

When sorting data in Microsoft Excel, it's very important to decide whether you want just part of the data sorted or the whole dataset. To understand how sorting works, try it out on an example file: 1. Load up Excel and [Open] the file called phoenix.xls in the D:\training folder 2. Decide which column you want to sort on (eg Column B) and click on any cell in that column 3. Click on the [Sort & Filter] button in the Editing group on the right of the Home tab and choose Sort Smallest to Largest to sort the data into increasing values 4. Repeat step 3 but choose Sort Largest to Smallest to sort the data into decreasing values 5. Press <Ctrl z> (or click on the [Undo] button) twice to return the data to its original order - or, with this data, you could use [Sort & Filter] on Column A Note how all the data in the rows moved together as the sort was applied. Excel sorts blocks of data, delimited by blank rows or columns. This next exercise demonstrates this very clearly: 1. Select all the data - press <Ctrl a> 2. [Copy] the data, click on cell I1 and press <Enter> to paste in the copied cells 3. Right click on the 15 in the row numbers down the left and choose Insert to insert a blank row

4. Click on any cell with data in column J then on [Sort & Filter] and choose Sort Smallest to Largest you will find that only the section of data containing that cell is sorted 5. Press <Ctrl z> (or click on [Undo]) to return the data to its original order 6. Remove the empty row again, press <Ctrl z> (or click on [Undo])

## Sorting Selected Data

If you only want to sort part of the data, you have to select it first: 1. Click on the column heading letter B to select that column 2. Click on [Sort & Filter] and chose Sort Smallest to Largest - a warning message appears:

3. Select Continue with the current selection - press <Enter> for [Sort] You will find column B is now sorted but the rest of the data hasn't moved. This could be a disaster if the rows represented data records (as they do here - the data is now corrupted). Fortunately, the default is to sort all the columns (you had to reset this option at step 3). 4. Press <Ctrl z> (or click on [Undo]) to return the data to its original order The warning doesn't appear if cells in two or more columns are selected, as you'll see next. You can sort on more than one column in a selection, but the columns must be next to each other (ie you can't <Ctrl> select if necessary, move the columns around to get them in a suitable order) and sorting is carried out based on the left-most column: 5. Drag through the column heading letters B to E to select those columns 6. Click on [Sort & Filter] and choose Sort Smallest to Largest - all four columns are sorted, based on column B, with no warning 7. Press <Ctrl z> (or click on [Undo]) to return the data to its original order You can also sort on part of one or more columns 8. Drag through cells A2 to B15 9. Click on [Sort & Filter] and choose Sort Largest to Smallest - just those cells are sorted 10. Press <Ctrl z> (or click on [Undo]) to return the data to its original order If you wanted the sort based on column B then you have to use Custom Sort, as youll see next.

If you use Custom Sort then you have various additional options available. This command even allows you to carry out sorts within sorts: 1. Click on any cell in column A then click on [Sort & Filter] and choose Custom Sort The Sort dialog box appears:

2. Using the list arrow attached to the Sort by box, set the column for the initial sort eg Colour 3. Leave Sort On as it is but decide whether you want the Order to be A to Z or Z to A 4. Next, click on the [Add Level] button to add another sorting level 5. Set the column and order for the second sort level eg Collector, A to Z 6. Click on [Add Level] for a further sorting level 7. Set the column and order for the third sort level eg Mass (g), Largest to Smallest 8. The My data has header should already be set on, so press <Enter> for [OK] to carry out the sort The Red-Brown and Blue-Green eggs should now be separated, with each sorted first by Collector then Mass. Next, try sorting on part of the data - repeat the example at the end of the previous section but this time sort on column B: 9. Press <Ctrl z> (or click on [Undo]) to return the data to its original order 10. Drag through cells A1 to B15 11. Click on [Sort & Filter] and choose Custom Sort 12. Set the Sort by to Nest Altitude (m) 13. Press <Enter> for [OK] to carry out the sort 14. Press <Ctrl z> (or click on [Undo]) to return the data to its original state

## Further Sort Options

Custom Sort has various options which can sometimes be of interest. For example, you might not want to sort alphabetically at all but on a completely different criterion eg based on the Months of the Year or on the Days of the Week. These two examples are built into the system, but you can specify your own criterion by creating a custom list: 1. Click on any cell in the data 2. Click on the [Office Button] then on [Excel Options] at the foot of the dialog box 3. Click on [Edit Custom Lists] the Custom Lists dialog box appears 4. Click in the List entries box and type RFA, BN, FLC, CDS, BRV then click on [Add] 5. Finally, click on [OK] twice to close the Custom Lists and Excel Options windows 6. Now click on [Sort & Filter] and choose Custom Sort 7. Set Sort by to Collector and Order to Custom List 8. Select RFA, BN, FLC, CDS, BRV then click on [OK] twice to carry out the sort note the sort order in column G 9. Finally, press <Ctrl z> (or click on [Undo]) to return the data to its original order 3

Note that you can make a custom list (or indeed any sort) Case sensitive by clicking on the [Options] box. This allows you to specify that xyz and XYZ should be treated as two distinct entries in the list. Note also that if you turn case sensitive sorting on then you have to explicitly turn if off when you've finished. The [Options] box also allows you to sort from left to right instead of top to bottom (if your data happens to have been typed in that way). To demonstrate this: 1. Click on any cell containing data then press <Ctrl a> to select the surrounding data range 2. [Copy] the data then move down to cell A54 click on it to make it the active cell 3. Click on the more arrow attached to the bottom of the [Paste] button and choose Paste Special... 4. Turn on the Transpose option then press <Enter> or click on [OK] 5. Select all the data except the first column - click in B54, hold down <Ctrl> and <Shift> and press the <down arrow> key followed by <Ctrl Shift <right arrow>> 6. Click on the [Sort & Filter] button, select Custom Sort then click on the [Options] button

7. Under Orientation in the Sort Options window, select Sort left to right press <Enter> for [OK] 8. Set Sort by to Row 55 (ie Altitude) and Order to Smallest to Largest then press <Enter> for [OK] This option is also useful for moving columns of data around a worksheet (instead of cut and paste). To do this you would create a dummy row above your data (to set up the required sort order). Here: 9. Press <Ctrl Home> to move to cell A1 then press <Ctrl a> to select A1:G51 10. Click on the [Sort & Filter] button, select Custom Sort then click on [Options...] and check that Sort left to right is still set - press <Enter> for [OK] 11. Set Sort by to Row 1 and Order to A to Z then press <Enter> for [OK] You should find the columns are now sorted by the column names!

Sorting by Colours
Another sort option allows you to sort data by its colour either the colour of the cell background or the font colour. You can also sort by an icon sets. First, you need to colour your data: 1. Click on cell D2 then hold down <Ctrl> and <Shift> and press <down-arrow> to select D2:D51 2. Click on the [Conditional Formatting] button in the Styles group on the Home tab and select Colour Scales then any of the pre-set scales the cell fills will be colour coded 3. Click on any data cell to release the selection then on [Sort & Filter] and choose Custom Sort 4. Set Sort by to Mass and Sort On to Cell Colour 5. In Order, choose the colour you want to be On Top 6. Click on [OK] to carry out the sort the row(s) with that colour should be on top If you want, try using an icon set at step 3 and sort on that at step 4.

Creating Subtotals
Microsoft Excel will automatically create subtotals on data which has been previously sorted into the required order. First, select the data range to which subtotals are to be applied: 1. Press <Ctrl Home> to move to cell A1 then click on [Sort & Filter] and choose Custom Sort 2. Turn on My data has headings and check Sort by is set to Collector and Order to A to Z - click on [OK] 3. Move to the Data tab and click on [Subtotal] in the Outline group - the Subtotal window appears:

4. Using the list arrow provided, set At each change in: to Collector 5. Set Use function: to Count 6. Change Add subtotal to: to Colour (you also need to untick Sample #) 7. Press <Enter> for [OK] to calculate the subtotals You can have more than one subtotal in each row, but cannot vary the functions used in each. Count would obviously give the same result whichever column you had chosen. If you want to include different subtotal functions then you have to calculate them on separate rows: 8. On the Data tab, click on [Subtotal] 9. Using the list arrow provided, set Use function: to Sum 10. Change Add subtotal to: from Colour to Diameter, Length and Mass (tick them on) 11. Turn off Replace current subtotals 12. Press <Enter> for [OK] to calculate the subtotals 13. Press <Page Down> to see the Grand Totals in rows 62 and 63

Outlines
Whenever you calculate subtotals, Microsoft Excel automatically gives you special outline bars, which can be used to hide unwanted data. These are placed to the left of the row numbers: 1. Click on outline number 1 (to the left of Column A heading) - only the Grand Totals are displayed for that block of data 2. Click on outline number 2 - the Counts and Totals appear for each Collector 5

3. Click on outline number 3 - the Totals appear for each Collector 4. Click on outline number 4 - all the data reappears You can also use outlines to display the information for one (or more) Collectors: 5. Click on outline number 3 - only the subtotals are shown 6. Click on one of the plus signs (+) in outline 3 - the data for that Collector reappears 7. Click on another plus sign (+) in outline 3 to show data for a second Collector 8. Click on a minus sign (-) in outline 3 to again hide the data for a particular Collector 9. Redisplay all the data - click on outline number 4 Subtotals are recalculated automatically whenever a data value is changed: 10. Type a new value of 20 in cell D2 and watch how the Subtotal (and Grand Total) changes 11. Click on [Undo] to return the data to its original value Note that once subtotals have been calculated, they can be moved to other cells on the worksheet - so that a single row could contain a variety of subtotal functions (eg you could drag the Count into the Sum row). You can also calculate subtotals by using the relevant SUBTOTAL function (see below). To turn off the outlines and subtotals: 12. On the Data tab, click on [Subtotals] 13. Click on the [Remove All] button Finally, you should be aware of the facilities provided by Pivot Tables. These produce summary statistics very similar to subtotals. Follow the link provided to learn more about these.

## The Subtotal Function

Another way of obtaining subtotals is to use the Subtotal function with filters: 1. Make sure the current cell is in the block of data (press <Ctrl Home> to move to cell A1) 2. Move to the Home tab on the Ribbon then click on [Sort & Filter] and select Filter 3. Set up a filter on the Colour - click on the list arrow in cell B1 then turn off (Select All) and turn on Blue-Green click on [OK] 4. Move to cell C52 and click on the [Sum] button (next to [Sort & Filter]) 5. Press <Enter> to accept the formula which appears: =SUBTOTAL(9,C2:C51) 6. Repeat step 3 but this time choose Red-Brown - note how the subtotal is recalculated 7. Try using further filters on the Collector (cell A1) and note the new totals 8. Finally, turn off the filtering by repeating step 2 Note: Always check that all the data rows have been included in the Subtotal function - if necessary, amend the formula which appears. 9. [Close] the phoenix example file - there is no need to save the changes you have made

Trademark owned by Microsoft Corporation. Screen shot(s) reprinted by permission from Microsoft Corporation. Copyright 2008: The University of Reading Last Revised: August 2010 6