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Network Planning

1.1 Introduction to Network Planning


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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 2
Objectives
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1-1- 3

To be able to describe concepts such as:


•Polarization
•Frequency plans
•Antenna parameters
•Free space loss

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 4
Table of Contents
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1-1- 5

Page
Switch to notes view!
1 Electromagnetic waves 7
Electromagnetic waves 8
Exercise 9
Blank Page 10
2 Polarization 11
Polarization 12
Exercise 13
Blank Page 14
3 Electromagnetic spectrum 15
Electromagnetic spectrum 16
4 Radio spectrum 17
Radio spectrum 18
5 Use of the spectrum 19
Use of the spectrum 21
Blank Page 22
6 General characteristics on the ITU-R recommended frequency plans 23
General characteristics on the ITU-R recommended frequency plans 26
7 Antenna System 27
Antenna System 36
Exercise 37
Blank Page 38
8 Field strength and related parameters 39
Field strength and related parameters 41
Blank Page 42
9 Free space loss 43
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Free space loss 44
Exercise 45
Blank Page 46
10 Radio Network Design procedure 47
Radio Network Design procedure 48
Radio Network Design procedure 49
End of Module 50

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Table of Contents [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1-1-6

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 6
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1-1-7

1 Electromagnetic waves

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 7
1 Electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1-1-8

TEM Wave

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Electromagnetic Waves
An electromagnetic wave is a simultaneous interaction between an electrostatic (E) field and a magnetic (H)
field.
Radiated energy from an antenna, once a distance from the source, forms E and H fields, which are
perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation and are hence referred to as Transverse
Electro-Magnetic (TEM) waves.

Frequency, Wavelength and Velocity


Wavelength is the distance in meters between any two “similar” points on the wave. This portion of
the wave is referred to as one complete cycle.
Wavelength is given symbol “ ”.
Frequency “f” is the number of complete cycles passing a fixed point in one second.
If one cycle passes a fixed point in one second this corresponds to a frequency of 1 Hertz (Hz).
In free space the velocity of an EM wave is approximately 3 x 108 ms-1. This is the speed of light
(since light is an EM wave) and is usually given symbol “c”.
The relationship between “c” (velocity), “f” (frequency) and “ ” (wavelength) of an EM wave is given by
the equation:
c=f
where c = velocity of propagation in ms-1 (3 x 108 ms-1)
f = Frequency in Hertz (Hz)
= Wavelength in meters (m)

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 8
1 Electromagnetic waves
Exercise
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1-1-9

Exercise - Wavelenght

Calculate the wavelength of a 10 GHz signal.

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 10
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 11

2 Polarization

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 11
2 Polarization
Polarization
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 12

Vertical Polarization

H
EARTH

Horizontal Polarization

E
EARTH

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The plane of polarization is defined in terms of the orientation of the E field with respect to the earth. Vertical
polarization and horizontal polarization are common forms of plane polarization.

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 12
2 Polarization
Exercise
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 13

In the vertical polarization is:


field E vertical to the ground?
field M vertical to the ground?

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 14
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 15

3 Electromagnetic spectrum

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 15
3 Electromagnetic spectrum
Electromagnetic spectrum
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 16

Visible
Light

X-rays

Radio Systems Infra-red Ultra-violet

10 0 10 3 10 6 10 9 10 12 10 15 10 18

300 000km 300km 300m 0.3m 300µm 0.3 µm 300pm

c= f x

Where c = 3 x 108 ms

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The Figure illustrates the electromagnetic spectrum and indicates the portion occupied by radio systems.

Radio systems are identified by their frequency or wavelength of operation.

The Figure shows the relationship between frequency and wavelength


(Example: f = 10 GHz =3 cm.)

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Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 17

4 Radio spectrum

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 17
4 Radio spectrum
Radio spectrum
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 18

Band Frequency Typical Use


VLF up to 30 kHz Navigation systems
LF 30 – 300 kHz Long-range broadcast, navigation systems
MF 300 – 3000 kHz Medium wave broadcast and communications
HF 3 – 30 MHz Long-range commercial and military communications
VHF 30 – 300 MHz Mobile communications
UHF 300 – 3000 MHz Mobile communications
SHF 3 – 30 GHz Point-to-point microwave links, including satellite
communications
EHF >30 GHz Point-to-point microwave links (Experimental systems)

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The radio spectrum is sub-divided into a number of bands. The Figure lists these bands and the typical use of
each band.
Factors influencing the use of a particular frequency band for a given application include:
Propagation mechanism - choice of Surface, Sky or Space wave depending on desired range.
Antenna size - consideration of particular antenna construction for given applications.
Capacity - ability of a small carrier deviation to deliver the required bandwidth and hence bit rate.

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Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 19

5 Use of the spectrum

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 19
5 Use of the spectrum
Use of the spectrum [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 20

Radio frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems in frequency bands below about 17 GHz

Band Frequency range Rec. ITU-R Channel spacing Band Frequency range Rec. ITU-R Channel spacing
(GHz) (GHz) F-Series (MHz) (GHz) (GHz) F-Series (MHz)
1.4 1.35 – 1.53 Rec. [Doc. 9/12] 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 3.5 8 8.2 – 8.5 386 11.662
7.725 – 8.275 386, Annex 1 29.65
7.725 – 8.275 386, Annex 2 40.74
8.275 – 8.5 386, Annex 3 14; 7
2 1.427 – 2.69 701 0.5 (pattern) 10 10.3 – 10.68 746, Annex 3 20; 5; 2
1.7 – 2.1; 1.9 – 2.3 382 29 10.5 – 10.68 747, Annex 1 7; 3.5 (patterns)
1.7 – 2.3 283 14 10.55 – 10.68 747, Annex 2 5; 2.5; 1.25 (pattern)
1.9 – 2.3 1098 3.5; 2.5 (patterns) 11 10.7 – 11.7 387, Annex 1 and 2 40
1.9 – 2.3 1098, Annexes 1 and 2 14 10.7 – 11.7 387, Annex 3 67
1.9 – 2.3 1098, Annex 3 10 10.7 – 11.7 387, Annex 4 60
2.3 – 2.5 746, Annex 1 1; 2; 4; 14; 28 10.7 – 11.7 387, Annex 5 80
2.29 – 2.26 Rec. [Doc. 9/13] 0.25; 0.5; 1; 1.75; 2; 3.5; 12 11.7 - 12.5 746, Annex 4, § 3 19.18
7; 14; 2.5 (pattern) 12.2 – 12.7 746, Annex 4, § 2 20 (pattern)
2.5 – 2.7 283 14
4 3.8 – 4.2 382 29 13 12.75 – 13.25 497 28; 7; 3.5
3.6 – 4.2 635 10 (pattern) 12.75 – 13.25 497, Annex 1 35
3.6 – 4.2 635, Annex 1 90; 80; 60; 40 12.7 – 13.25 746, Annex 4, § 1 25; 12.5
5 4.4 – 5.0 746, Annex 2 28 14 14.25 – 14.5 746, Annex 5 28; 14; 7; 3.5
4.4 – 5.0 1099 10 (pattern) 14.25 – 14.5 746, Annex 6 20
4.4 – 5.0 1099, Annex 1 40; 60; 80
4.54 – 4.9 1099, Annex 2 40; 20
6L 5.925 – 6.425 383 29.65 15 14.4 – 15.35 636 28; 14; 7; 3.5
5.85 – 6.425 383, Annex 1 90; 80; 60 14.5 – 15.35 636, Annex 1 2.5 (pattern)
14.5 – 15.35 636, Annex 2 2.5
6U 6.425 – 7.11 384 40; 20
6.425 – 7.11 384, Annex 1 80
7 7.425 – 7.725 385 7
7.425 – 7.725 385, Annex 1 28
7.435 – 7.75 385, Annex 2 5
7.11 – 7.75 385, Annex 3 28

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5 Use of the spectrum
Use of the spectrum
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 21

Radio frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems in frequency bands


above about 17 GHz

Band Frequency range Rec. ITU-R Channel spacing


(GHz) (GHz) F-Series (MHz)
18 17.7 – 19.7 595 220; 110; 55: 27.5
17.7 – 21.2 595, Annex 1 160
17.7 – 19.7 595, Annex 2 220; 80; 40; 20; 10; 6
17.7 – 19.7 595, Annex 3 3.5
17.7 – 19.7 595, Annex 4 13.75; 27.5
23 21.2 – 23.6 637 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)
21.2 – 23.6 637, Annex 1 112 to 3.5
21.2 – 23.6 637, Annex 2 28; 3.5
21.2 – 23.6 637, Annex 3 28; 14; 7; 3.5
21.2 – 23.6 637, Annex 4 50
21.2 – 23.6 637, Annex 5 112 to 3.5
22.0 – 23.6 637, Annex 1 112 to 3.5
27 24.25 – 25.25 748 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)
24.25 – 25.25 748, Annex 3 56; 28
25.25 – 27.5 748 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)
25.25 – 27.5 748, Annex 1 112 to 3.5
27.5 – 29.5 748 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)
27.5 – 29.5 748, Annex 2 112 to 3.5
27.5 – 29.5 748, Annex 3 112; 56; 28
31 31.0 – 31.3 746, Annex 7 25; 50
38 36.0 – 40.5 749 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)
36.0 – 37.0 749, Annex 3 112 to 3.5
55 54.25 – 58.2 1100 3.5; 2.5 (patterns)
54.25 – 57.2 1100, Annex 1 140; 56; 28; 14
57.2 – 58.2 1100, Annex 2 100

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 22
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 23

6 General characteristics on the ITU-R recommended


frequency plans

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 23
6 General characteristics on the ITU-R recommended frequency plans
General characteristics on the ITU-R recommended frequency plans [cont.]

Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 24

Separate sub-bands for Tx and Rx channels, with a central guard


band.

Constant channel spacing between co-polarized channels.

Two types of channel arrangements: Interleaved


Co-Channel

Criteria followed by ITU- R:

Below 12 GHz: Compatibility of channel arrangements in the transition


from Analog to Digital systems.

Above 12 GHz: Channel arrangements optimized for Digital systems.

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 24
6 General characteristics on the ITU-R recommended frequency plans
General characteristics on the ITU-R recommended frequency plans [cont.]

Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 25

INTERLEAVED CHANNEL ARRANGEMENT

GO CHANNELS RETURN CHANNELS


Pol. x
1 3 N-1 1’ 3’ N-1’
H(V)
... ... F
V(H)

2 4 N 2’ 4’ N’
z y
x/2 x/2 z

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x = Co-polar channel spacing


y = Central guard band
z = Edge guard band

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6 General characteristics on the ITU-R recommended frequency plans
General characteristics on the ITU-R recommended frequency plans

Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 26

CO-CHANNEL ARRANGEMENT

GO CHANNELS RETURN CHANNELS


Pol. z x y z
1 3 1’ 3’
H(V)
... ... F
V(H)

2 4 N 2’ 4’ N’

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x = Co-polar channel spacing


y = Central guard band
z = Edge guard band

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 26
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 27

7 Antenna System

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 27
7 Antenna System
Antenna System [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 28

Ideal
Isotropic
Radiator
Theoretical
Half-Wave
Dipole
Pratical
Antenna
Main Lobe

RX

Boresight

2.15 dBi
Practical 0 dBi
Antenna
Side Lobes
Antenna Gain dBi

Antenna Gain

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Isotropic radiator
An isotropic radiator radiates the energy evenly in all directions. Its radiation diagram is thus circular in both
vertical and horizontal planes. Though a truly isotropic source is unrealizable it is easy to describe mathematically
and is a useful reference.

Antenna gain
Antenna gain is the result of the focusing action of a practical antenna, radiating more energy in one direction
and less in others. The axis along which maximum energy or field strength is radiated is termed the boresight and
may be readily identified from a polar diagram of field strength in a given plane (see the next figure).
The antenna gain is the ratio of the field strength along the boresight compared to that which be produced by an
isotropic radiator radiating the same total power.
Gain = 10 log (F antenna /F iso) dBi
Note: dBi means the use of the isotropic antenna as reference
The dipole is only loosely directional perpendicular to the plane containing its axis and, due to symmetry, not
directional in the other plane (this property is called omni-directional).
The dipole is also easy to analyze mathematically. Its gain compared to an isotropic source is 2.15 dBi.

EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power)


EIRP of an antenna is:
Input power to the transmission line feed – feeder losses + antenna gain in dBi

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7 Antenna System
Antenna System [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 29

Max. gain
Antenna lobe
-3 dB
(Main)

Beam width
to half Boresight
Power point 3dB (Max. gain)

Antenna

Max. gain
-3 dB

Beamwidth

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Antenna beamwidth
Antenna beamwidth is the angular distance between the half power (-3 dB points) on the polar diagram (see the
next Figure).
Though this is the angle normally used to asses what an antenna will “see”, radiation and reception does occur
outside of the beamwidth in the mean beam and in the sidelobes, when present as this a potential source of
interference.

Antenna bandwidth
Most antennas are designed at some center frequency. As the operating frequency is moved away from this the
dimensions of the antenna in terms of wavelength will vary and will be consequential changes in radiation pattern
(gain and beamwidth), antenna impedance and hence VSWR in the antenna feed, etc. Any of this parameters
could be a practical limit on the range of frequencies used for a given antenna.

Front to Back ratio


The Front to Back ratio is a measure of how well the antenna discriminates from a signal entering along the
boresight compared to the reverse direction and is a factor in reducing interference

Cross-Polar Discrimination
Antennas (or their feed arrangements) are designed to operate in one plane of polarization. This is useful for
frequency re-use as it is possible to have two links operating at the same frequency, but with different
polarization. To prevent mutual interference between the two systems their antennas should not receive the
incorrect polarization.
Cross-polar discrimination is the measure of how successful this is and the ratio of the wanted to unwanted
signals received in dB.

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7 Antenna System
Antenna System [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 30

1 1
2
2 3
3

2
2
3

1
1

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Radiation Patterns determine an antenna’s ability to perform under conditions of radio congestion and also
limit the route capacity. Radiation patterns are dependent on antenna series and size. An RPE comparison of
various antenna series is illustrated below.

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 30
7 Antenna System
Antenna System [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 31

HH
VV

VH
HV

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Parallel and cross-polar response are represented for both horizontal an vertical polarizations. The curves are
identified as follows:
HH - Response of a horizontally polarized port to a horizontally polarized signal
HV - Response of a horizontally polarized port to a vertically polarized signal
VV - Response of a vertically polarized port to a vertically polarized signal
VH - Response of a vertically polarized port to a horizontally polarized signal

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 31
7 Antenna System
Antenna System [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 32

Wavefront

X
Z
A

B X

The Parabolic antenna surface focuses the


arriving plane on the antenna.
Antenna
ie RAX = RBX

Parabolic antenna

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Parabolic antenna

This antenna consists of a large reflecting surface (geometry is parabolic), this creates a focal point from which
energy can be fed to illuminate the dish: when receiving signals the parabolic dish concentrates the energy onto
the focal point.

The next figure illustrates the importance of the antenna geometry, energy illuminating the reflector from the focal
point will create a parallel wavefront in front of the dish.

The parabolic antenna is highly directional with a gain typically of 40-50 dBi. The gain is related to the
dimensions of the reflector relative to the signal wavelength.

The antenna concentrates most radiation into the main lobe, which typically has a 3 dB beamwidth of a few
degrees.
The antenna does produce a number of undesired side lobes which are in the order of 25 dB down on the main
lobe.

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7 Antenna System
Antenna System [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 33

Antenna gain
2
D
The gain of a parabolic antenna is: G=

where: D = antenna diameter (m)


= signal wavelength (m)
= antenna efficiency (usually is from 0.55 to 0.65)
The efficiency is related to the irregularities in the antenna and illumination.

Another approximation of gain is:

G (dBi) = 20 log F + 20 log D + 18.2 + 0.5 (depending on )

where: F = signal frequency (GHz)


D = antenna diameter (m)

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 33
7 Antenna System
Antenna System [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 34

Antenna beamwidth

70
The 3 dB beamwidth of a parabolic antenna is: Beamwidth (3 dB) = (degrees)
D

where: = wavelength (m)


D = antenna diameter (m)

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 34
7 Antenna System
Antenna System [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 35

(a) Parabolic Dish (b) Offset Horn

Typical Microwave Antennas

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Feeder

The parabolic antenna can be fed in different ways, as shown in the Figure.
Center fed antennas can cause blocking of the aperture and reduced efficiency. This may be overcome by
offsetting the feed, but the feed point needs rigid support and such antennas, although more efficient, are bulkier.

A single feed point may be orientated to produce the desired polarization.


Twin feeds may be used to produce a dual polarization from a single dish.

Note: With circular waveguide it is possible to have V and H polarization in same feeder.
With elliptical waveguide it is possible only one polarization (Elliptical cross section is really
rectangular).

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7 Antenna System
Antenna System
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 36

a) f/D ratio b) Antenna Shrouds

D f Antenna
Focal Point

Shroud
Overspill Radiation

c) Tapered Illumination

Parabolic
Reflector

Illumination Intensity
Controlling Front-to-back Ratio

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Front to Back ratio


The parabolic antenna has a relatively high front to back ratio (30 to 40 dB approx.). However some energy from
the focal point feed overspills the reflector (as shown in Figure a). With diffraction effects the overspill can produce
significant radiation at the rear side of the antenna.
This is especially true of antennas with a small aperture diameter (D) compared to focal length (f), i.e. a large f/D
ratio.
Decreasing f/D ratio by making the dish deeper reduces spillover, but degrades the radiation pattern, as the
illumination is more uneven. The antenna is also larger and heavier.
If front-to-back ratio is critical, another option is to use a conducting shroud (as shown in Figure b) attached to
the front of the antenna to eliminate the overspill, but this again may have an adverse effect on the gain and
radiation pattern.
Very often shrouds can be confused with antenna radomes.
A radome offers physical protection to the antenna from the effects of the environment and is made from material
transparent to microwaves.
An alternative techniques is to concentrate the illumination of energy at the center of the reflector and decrease
the illumination at the periphery. This tapered illumination is shown in Figure c. Amplitude tapering reduces the
gain and increase the beamwidth, as the full aperture is not being fully used.

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7 Antenna System
Exercise
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 37

Exercise 1 - Front to back ratio


What is the front to back ratio in a parabolic antenna?
Exercise 2 - Antenna gain
Calculate the gain of a 1 m parabolic antenna at 6 GHz.
Exercise 3 - Antenna gain
Calculate the gain of a 1 m parabolic antenna at 24 GHz.
Exercise 4 - Antenna beamwidth
Calculate the 3 dB beamwidth of a 2 m parabolic antenna at 10 GHz.

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 38
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 39

8 Field strength and related parameters

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 39
A model which can be used to approximate the propagation loss between two points is the Free Space model. As
its name implies here should be no significant obstructions or surfaces adjacent to the path. It also assumes
isotropic characteristics at the transmitter and receiver and that propagation is through a vacuum.

Isotropic Radiation

If a transmit power, Pt (Watts), is fed into an isotropic source, then the power will radiate evenly in all directions
causing an even Power Flux, Fiso, measured in Wm-2.
As the power is evenly distributed over the surface of an expanding sphere the power flux is given by:

where Pt = Power transmitted in Watts


d = range of measurement in metres
as shown in next Figure power Flux thus falls according to the square of distance - the inverse square law.

8 Field strength and related parameters


Field strength and related parameters [cont.]
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 40

Pt
Fiso =
4 d2

Pt
Isotropic
Radiator
1m

Fiso =
Pt
4 d2
(Wm ) 2
Power
Flux
per square
1m meter
at distance d

Isotropic Radiator

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 40
8 Field strength and related parameters
Field strength and related parameters
ISOTROPIC RECEIVER
The abilityPlanning
Network of a receiving antenna
- Introduction to Planning
to Network receive power from an incident power flux is determined by its apparent or
1 - 1 - 41
effective aperture, (Ae) in m2. This is a function of the antennas construction and for an isotropic antenna is
given by: 2
Pt Pt
Pr = 2
x Ae = x
4 d 4 d2 4
where = wavelength in meters

Power Received
Power received may be expressed
Pt by:
Isotropic
Radiator
Pr
Ae

Free-space Propagation Loss Effective


Aperture
Free-space Propagation loss may be expressed as: in m2

Isotropic Receiver

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2
Ae = (m ) 2

Pr =
Pt
4 d2
x
4
2

4
(Watts)

2 2
Pt 4 d 4 df
A fsl = = =
Pr c

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9 Free space loss

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 43
9 Free space loss
Free space loss
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 44

The free space loss, expressed in dB, is a function of distance and frequency.

The free space loss equation may then be expressed as:

2
4 d (km) x 103 x F(GHz) x 109
A fsl (dB) = 10 log
3 x 108

i.e. Afsl (dB) = 92.4 + 20 log F (GHz) + 20 log d (km)

where F = frequency in GHz


d = distance in km

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 44
9 Free space loss
Exercise
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 45

Exercise - Free-space loss attenuation

Calculate the free-space loss attenuation of a


50 km link operating at 8 GHz.

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10 Radio Network Design procedure

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10 Radio Network Design procedure
Radio Network Design procedure
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 48

Step 1: By starting with the simplest (low cost) configuration (1+0),


calculate the PRx nom level by using the Power link budget
formula (Section 1, Module 2, Chapter 1)
Step 2: Calculate the clearance of the hop (Section 1, Module 2,
Chapter 2 & 3)
Step 3: Calculate the PRx threshold (Section 1, Module 2, Chapter 4)
Step 4: Calculate the FM=PRx nom – PRx threshold
Step 5: By using the FM of Step 4 calculate the outage probability
due to the rain (Section 1, Module 2, Chapter 5)
Step 6: Calculate the outage probability due to the fading (Section 1,
Module 2, Chapter 6)
Step 7: Calculate the objectives according to the ITU-T and ITU-R
reccomandations (Section 1, Module 2, Chapter 7)

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Section 1 - Module 1 - Page 48
10 Radio Network Design procedure
Radio Network Design procedure
Network Planning - Introduction to Network Planning 1 - 1 - 49

Step 8: If the outages of the link (calculated in Chapter 5 & 6) meet


the objective, go to Step 10
Step 9: Change the PRx nom level or use the Fading
countermeasures (Section 1, Module 2, Chapter 8) in order
to meet the objective
Step 10: Consider all the possible interferences (Section 1, Module
2, Chapter 9, 10 & 11) and calculate the new FM
Step 11: If, with the new FM, the objectives are always met, the radio
planning procedure is over. Otherwise go back to Step 9.

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End of Module

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