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UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI PROJECT REPORT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN BSNL SUBMITTED BY Mr. Nishant R. Turekar Roll No.: 58 M.

COM PART- II (MANAGEMENT) UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: PROF. KANCHAN FULMALI PARLE TILAK VIDYALAYA ASSOCIATIONS M.L DAHANUKAR COLLEGE OF COMMERCE VILE-PARLE (EAST), MUMBAI- 400057 2013-2014

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DECLARATION
I Mr. Nishant Raghuvir Turekar of PARLE TILAK VIDYALAYA ASSOCIATIONS, M.L.DAHANUKAR COLLEGE OF COMMERCE hereby declare that I have completed this project on ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR in the academic year 2013-2014. All the facts information submitted in the project are true and original to the best of my knowledge.

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INDEX
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. OBJECTIVE OF THS STUDY MEANING OF MOTIVATION COMPANY PROFILE : BSNL HISTORY OF BSNL FACTORY BOARD OF DIRECTOR EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION HOW TO MOTIVATE STAFF SIGNIFICANCE OF MOTIVATION MOTIVATION IS THE KEY. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION TYPES OF MOTIVATION INCENTIVES METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION SCOPE FOR FUTURE RESEARCE FINDINGS SUGGESTION LIMITATION OF THE STUDY CONCLUSION BIBLIOGROPHY

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


1. 2. To study the important factors which are needed to motivate the employees. To study the effect of monetary and non-monetary benefits provided by the organization on the employees performance. 3. 4. To study the effect of job promotions on employees. To learn the employees satisfaction on the interpersonal relationship exists in the organization 5. To provide the practical suggestion for the improvement of organizations performance.

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MEANING OF MOTIVATION
Motivation has been defined in numerous ways. One of the best is motivation is the forces acting either on or within a person to initiate behaviour. In the field of psychology, human motivation has long been studied as a way to explain an individuals behaviour. In reality, motivation is inferred rather than measured. The inference is made due to behavioural changes that result from external stimuli. It is also a performance variable because changes in a persons motivation are frequently of a temporary nature, with many people, what is high priority today may become singularly unimportant tomorrow. An individuals motives can be described as primary, or basic and secondary, or learned from experience. Primary motives are not learned, but are common to animals and human beings. Some readily-definable primary motives would include hunger, sex, pain avoidance and thirst. Secondary motives include the desire to achieve, lust for power and many other conscious drives.

Motivation has two pre-requisites: the desire and the determination to achieve something not with standing any obstacles you might meet along the way. We all know people who started out committed to an idea only to abandon it in mid-stream because it was too difficult to handle. In this example, the person had the desire but lacked the necessary determination to see it through. Conversely, there are those who had the determination but lacked the true desire to achieve the objective.

In the drive reduction theory of motivation, it is postulated that people act mainly to reduce their needs and sustain a constant physiological state of being. In other words, people drink in order to lessen their need for water. However, this theory fails in select situations where individuals are not motivated by internal needs. In addition, people often continue to be motivated even when internal needs have been satisfied due to the fact that they are also being motivated by external influences.

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Psychologist Abraham Maslow had another theory. He suggested, in the 1970s, that people have a hierarchy of needs. Here, the basic level included physiological needs such as food, water, safety and security. The second level, which he postulated are not heeded until basic needs have been met, included a need for social interaction. Maslow defined the third level as the need for esteem such as respect from oneself and others and the fourth and final level as the need to realize ones own full potential. Again, this theory doesnt stand up to scrutiny in situations where higher needs motivate even when the lower levels remain unsatisfied. Maslows critics were also quick to point out that his theory also fails because people are frequently motivated by needs from several levels simultaneously.

These theories can be reduced to a simple belief that people have both innate and learned needs and that they are both influenced by cultural and sociological effects. The innate needs are fairly limited, being sustenance, drink, the need to breathe and eliminate waste products. The others, which would comprise a long list that includes the need for achievement, autonomy and power, are determined by values and perceptions of what matters in life.

The definition of motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or certain behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. Simple acts such as eating are motivated by hunger. Education is motivated by desire for knowledge. Motivators can be anything from reward to coercion.

There are two main kinds of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal. It occurs when people are compelled to do something out of pleasure, importance, or desire. Extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors compel the person to do something. However, there are many theories and labels that serve as sub tittles to the definition of motivation. For example: "I will give you a candy bar if you clean your room." This is an example of reward motivation.

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A common place that we see the need to apply motivation is in the work place. In the work force, we can see motivation play a key role in leadership success. A person unable to grasp motivation and apply it, will not become or stay a leader. It is critical that anyone seeking to lead or motivate understand "Howletts Hierarchy of Work Motivators."

Salary, benefits, working conditions, supervision, policy, safety, security, affiliation, and relationships are all externally motivated needs. These are the first three levels of "Howletts Hierarchy" When these needs are achieved, the person moves up to level four and then five. However, if levels one through three are not met, the person becomes dissatisfied with their job. When satisfaction is not found, the person becomes less productive and eventually quits or is fired. Achievement, advancement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and job nature are internal motivators. These are the last two levels of "Howletts Hierarchy." They occur when the person motivates themselves (after external motivation needs are met.) An employer or leader that meets the needs on the "Howletts Hierarchy" will see motivated employees and see productivity increase. Understanding the definition of motivation, and then applying it, is one of the most prevalent challenges facing employers and supervisors. Companies often spend thousands of dollars each year hiring outside firms just to give motivation seminars.

DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION :According to Edwin B Flippo, Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of gain or reward.

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COMPANY PROFILE : BSNL BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

BSNL Telecom Factories are located at seven places viz. Jabalpur, Richhai, Bhilai Kolkata, Gopalpur, Kharagpur, Mumbai in India. Telecom Factory, Jabalpur was established during in 1942 world war-II as a measure of dispersal of activities from Kolkata and was known as Telegraph workshop. Telegraph workshops were converted into Telecom Factory organization in 1968. Telecom Factory, Jabalpur is located in the heart of the Jabalpur. Telecom Factory, Jabalpur is engaged in production of Towers, Telephone poles, Line jack units & repairing of C-DOT exchange cards. Telecom Factory, Jabalpur has a dedicated team of Engineers, officers and workers who are willing to take up any challenge for supply of equipments & stores in the competitive scenario when BSNL ,as a company, has to compete with many private telephone service providers and provide its customers a quality service in minimum time and at minimum cost.

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HISTORY OF BSNL FACTORY


Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is state - owned telecommunication enterprise in India. BSNL is the Third largest cellular service provider, with over 66.88 million customers as of June 2010 and the largest land line telephone provider in India. BSNL further plans to increase its customer base to 160 Million by March, 2014. Its headquarters are at Bharat Sanchar Bhawan, Harish Chandra Mathur Lane, Janpath, New Delhi. It has the status of Miniratna, a status assigned to reputed Central Public Sector Enterprise in India.

BSNL is India's oldest and largest Communication Service Provider (CSP). Currently has a customer base of 90 million as of June 2008. It has footprints throughout India except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi which are managed by MTNL. As on June 30, 2010 BSNL commanded a customer base of 27.45 million Wireline, 72.69 million Wireline subscribers. BSNL's earnings for the Financial Year ending March 31, 2009 stood at INR 397.15b (US$7.03 billion) with net profit of INR 78.06b (US$ 1.90 billion). BSNL has an estimated market value of $ 100 Billion. The company is planning an IPO with in 6 months to offload 10% to public in the Rs 300-400 range valuing the company at over $100 billion.

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BOARD OF DIRECTOR : BSNL

CMD/DIRECTOR (HR) & (FINANCE)- SHRI GOPAL DAS

Shri Gopal Das has taken over as Director(HRD) in BSNL on 4th October 2007 and entrusted with the charge of the post of Chairman & Managing Director, BSNL from 01-08-2010. He is responsible for formulating and implementing policies pertaining to Establishment, personnel, industrial relations, training, restructuring and other HR related affairs.

He obtained his B.E. Degree with honors from Banaras Hindu University in the year 1972. He joined Department of Telecommunications, Government of India through Indian Telecommunications Services Group 'A' Service in June 1975. Prior to his present assignment Shri Das was Chief General Manager, (Wireless Services) in Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited at Mumbai.

He has vast experience of 32 years in Telecom Industry in the Department of Telecommunications and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited in different capacities. He has received training in Operation and Maintenance of Electronic Exchanges in France and he was also one of the members of the Special Study Group of ITU for Mobile Network relating to IMT 2000 and beyond.

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Shri Gopal Das was deputed in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as Project Director for handling the various Telecom projects in the city of Dammam during the period from 1987 to 1992. He has also worked on Deputation in Nigeria for about 3 years as Project Director and handled many Optical Fibre and transmission projects. Shri Das has visited different countries like USA, UK, France, Australia, Singapore, Korea etc. to get exposure of management of telecom systems at international level.

During his tenure in Department of Telecommunications and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited, he worked in various capacities as Area Director, General Manager and Chief General Manager and possesses wide experience in Operations, maintenance and development of telecom network including functions related to personnel, commercial, marketing and project implementations. Right from inception of GSM network in MTNL Mumbai, as General Manager, he was actively involved in planning, installation and operation of GSM network and while working as Chief General Manager (Wireless Services), he was responsible for planning installation, operation and maintenance of GSM and CDMA networks an contributed to the rapid growth of Wireless network in MTNL, Mumbai Government of India, M/o Communications and IT, D/o Telecomunications have entrusted the charge of office of Director(Finance) to the CMD.

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DIRECTOR - CONSUMER MOBILITY(CM) & (ENTERPRISE)SHRI R.K.AGARWAL

Shri Rakesh Kumar Agarwal has done his B.E. from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in 1973 and then M.Tech in Communications from IIT Delhi in 1975. Thereafter he joined Department of Telecommunications and worked in various fields of telecommunications. He did installation of C-400 Cross Bar Exchanges till 1983. He was sent to France for training for the installation of Digital Electronic Exchange of E-10B make in 1983 and thereafter worked as Deputy General Manager (Installation) for E-10B Exchanges in MTNL, Mumbai from 1983 till 1991.

He was DoT representative for the System Selection Committee set up to finalise gateway switches for VSNL. During 1990 he represented India for APT Conference in Indonesia. He was also deputed as Project Director, TCIL to Sultanate-of-Oman from 1991 to 1996 where he handled all the projects related to setting up the external plant network for copper cable and Optical Fibre Network in Sultanate-of-Oman. From 1996-98 he worked as Chief General Manager, Andaman & Nicobar Telecom Circle and thereafter handled the charge of Jaipur Telecom District, Rajasthan from 1998-99. He was posted as General Manager (Development) in Pune in 1999 and was incharge of complete planning and installation of all switching and transmission network in Pune District. He was also in-charge of computerization as well as introduction of new services in the network in Pune.

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He was closely involved with planning, evaluation of tender as well as implementation and maintenance of GSM Mobile Services in Maharashtra since 2002. As Chairman of the Validation Committee he successfully carried out the validation of mobile switch for West Zone installed at Pune. He was in-charge of all the Central Platforms for GSM Mobile Services for West Zone installed at Pune namely pre-paid platform, billing system and value added services for mobile. Later on he finalized expansion of mobile network in West Zone for 4 million lines and was involved in the commissioning and maintenance of GSM Mobile Network. He was also closely involved with the setting up of Call Centre at Pune for handling Customer Care and Marketing of Mobile Services till May, 2006.In June, 2006, he was posted as Chief General Manager, BSNL Bihar Telecom Circle. He has taken over the charge of Director (Planning & New Services) in BSNL Board w.e.f. 11thApril, 2008. Government of India, M/o Communications and IT, D/o Telecomunications have entrusted the charge of office of Director (Enterprise) to Shri R. K. Agarwal Director(CM) .

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SHRI R.N.JHA, GOVT. DIRECTOR Shri Jha, as Deputy Director General (International Relations) in the Ministry of Communications & IT is the nodal point for coordinating with the International Organizations like ITU, APT, CTO, SAARC and bilateral issues with the other individual countries. As an expert, he represented the country in APT Forum in the Seminar on Introduction and Implementation of IMT- 2000. Availed ITU, APT fellowships and participated in the Telecom Development Symposium during ITU World 2003 event in Geneva. During the course of work, he visited countries like Thailand, USA, Hong Kong, Switzerland, Turkey, Spain, Singapore, China, Tunisia, Malaysia, Portugal, South Africa, etc. He took very active part in the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference -06 held in Antalya, Turkey in 2006 and canvassed for getting India elected as Council Member of ITU and also for election of Indian nominee as one of the members of Radio Regulation Board of ITU. Shri Jha attended World Radio Conference (WRC-07), World Telecom Standardization Assembly (WTSA-08), World Telecom Policy Forum 2008 & a number of ITU Council meetings & world telecom events. Elected as Vice-Chairman of RPM for WTDC-09 and also chaired the Management & Budget Group of ITU Council in 2010. Shri Jha was instrumental in signing of an agreement between Ministry of Communications & IT, Government of India and ITU for effective cooperation between the Telecom Centre of Excellence of India and ITU. He had been a member of High level delegation led by Shri G. K. Pillai, Secretary (Commerce) to Democratic Republic of Congo in June, 2008. This delegation was the special emissary of Honble Prime Minister of India to Democratic Republic of Congo.

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SHRI ASHISH GUHA DIRECTOR Shri Ashish Guha entered upon the office of Director of the Company wef 21 st May 2010. Shri Ashish Guha joined Heidelberg Cement Group in August 2006 as the Managing Director of Heidelberg Cement India Limited. Mr.Guha consolidated Heidelberg Cements entry into India and has been instrumental in transforming the businsses of the acquired companies. Prior to joining Heidelberg Cement, Mr.Guha was an investment banker, a career spanning over two decades. He was the CEO of Lazard India and subsequently a senior partner with Amit Corporate Finance. Mr. Guha has had the distinction of varied experience in investment banking ranging from Treasury, Research, Capital Markets and Merger and Acquisitions.

He has advised large multinational corporate on their entry into India as well as acquisitions. Some of the prominent clients handled by Mr.Guha include BAT, Baxter, France Telecom, General Motors, Lafarge.

Mr.Guha has been involved with various industry forums like Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and has represented India as a delegate in many nations. He was also an active participant in the World Economic Forum at Davos in the late90s. He has been part of many Government bodies including the one on Privatization.

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E M P L OYE E M OTIVATION
An employer's desire to provide the impetus for employees to do their job as efficiently and effectively as possible and to commit to the achievement of the organizations goals and objectives.

THE STAGE:

Motivation is the degree of personal and professional satisfaction that an employee enjoys in his/her life. This is an issue of vital concern to businesses since it is well established that a motivated workforce will achieve much better results than an unmotivated one. Employee motivation and commitment is one of the major contributions that employees can make to the organization as it helps to ensure that maximum effort is employed in work activities and work outputs are to the benefit of the organization.

The techniques used to motivate staff are many and varied. The goal of using motivation techniques is usually to increase productivity but a

highly motivated workforce also often equates to other improvements such as reduced absenteeism and turnover, increased innovation, employee satisfaction, and an enhanced corporate image. These can then translate into higher quality products or services, increased customer satisfaction, and enhanced financial performance. Motivation of staff, not surprisingly, is a fundamentally important dimension of successful management.

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EXPERT OPINION:-

M any researchers and authors have defined the concept of motivation. It has been defined as: The psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995) A predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995) An internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994) The will to achieve (Bedeian, 1993).

For this Management Brief, motivation is defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals.

The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through others. A committed and motivated workforce is critical to maximizing an organizations full potential. Highly motivated

employees frequently seek to work beyond the bounds of their specific work roles and functions in order to not only improve themselves, but also to achieve the objectives of the organization. Motivated employees can be considered vital to organizational survival in our rapidly changing workplaces and work world - they help organizations survive because they are more productive.

Individuals responsible for managing staff have a variety of key responsibilities. Included in these is the ability to inspire and motivate their staff, encourage these people to strive for excellence, to promote productivity, and to ensure the continuation of work outputs even during difficult times. Motivating others can be a very challenging task.
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HOW TO MOTIVATE STAFF


Regardless of which theory of employee motivation is followed, the outcomes of research conclude that interesting work, appreciation,

pay, good working conditions, and job security are important factors in helping to motivate.

To ensure that strategies used to enhance motivation within your organization obtain the most effective results they should based be on:

An analysis of the factors that individual staff members believe are motivators for them. The performance objectives of the individual The strategic goals of the organization The values and culture of the organization.

There are some key actions that managers and leaders can take to assist in making a difference in the motivation levels of their employees. These include:

Lead by example - be passionate and energetic Show trust and respect Act as an advocate Provide competitive and realistic salaries

Employee pay strategies should be in line with current industry standards, control, be should able be to robust and simple specific to operate, explain, needs and (e.g.

accommodate

employment

expert or difficult to fill positions) and be related to performance (e.g. individual and teams).

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REWARD ACHIEVEMENTS:Rewards may be individually and/or team-based and can include such things as movie tickets, of thank you cards, in parking spaces , newsletters award and

ceremonies,

mention

achievements

company

meetings, holidays, cash bonuses, and the like. Rewards do not need to cost a lot of money in order to motivate.

J OB ENLARGEMENT AND ENRICHMENT:J ob enlargement can provide opportunities to make work more interesting performed, and by and increasing job the number can also and make variety work of more activities interesting

enrichment for

provide

opportunities mentoring and

increased for

pay

and

responsibility. on leave are

Secondments,

standing-in

colleagues

suggested methods. Enlarging and enriching jobs can add variety in the way the job is done, the tools that are used, the place where the work is carried out, and the people with whom the employee meets.

PROVIDE THE RESOURCES AND SUPPORT:The resources and support required by staff to complete their jobs to the level required by the organization should be provided. Restrictions that are preventing people from doing the best job possible should be removed. This may include modification of work-spaces, the use of mentoring and coaching, additional funding

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SIGNIFICANCE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization. The following results may be expected if the employees are properly motivated.

1.

The workforce will be better satisfied if the management provides them with opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will cooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum towards the goals of the enterprise.

2.

Workers will tend to be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills and knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will also result in increased productivity. The rates of labors turnover and absenteeism among the workers will be low.

3.

4.

There will be good human relations in the organization as friction among the workers themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease.

5.

The number of complaints and grievances will come down. Accident will also be low.

6.

There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will be less. Better quality of products will also increase the public image of the business.

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MOTIVATION IS THE KEY TO PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT


There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink; it will drink only if it's thirsty - so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the 'ivory tower' they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus.

Are they born with the self-motivation or drive? Yes and no. If no, they can be motivated, for motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed.

Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus: Job performance =f(ability)(motivation)

Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation. There are broadly seven strategies for motivation.

Positive reinforcement / high expectations Effective discipline and punishment Treating people fairly Satisfying employees needs Setting work related goals Restructuring jobs Base rewards on job performance

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THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne study results (Terpstra, 1979).Six major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are :MCCLELLANDS ACHIEVEMENT NEED THEORY BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION THEORY J.S. ADAMS EQUITY THEORY VROOMS EXPECTATION THEORY,

(i) (II)

(III) DEFICIENT THEORY OF MOTIVATION (IV) (V)

(VI) TWO FACTOR THEORY. MCCLELLANDS ACHIEVEMENT NEED THEORY :According to McClellands there are two types of needs :-

(i)

NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT :This need is the strongest and lasting motivating factor. Particularly in case of persons who satisfy the other needs. They are constantly pre occupied with a desire for improvement and lack for situation in which successful outcomes are directly correlated with their efforts. They set more difficult but achievable goals for themselves because success with easily achievable goals hardly provides a sense of achievement.

NEED FOR POWER :It is the desire to control the behavior of the other people and to manipulate the surroundings. Power motivations positive applications results in domestic leadership style, while it negative application tends autocratic style.
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(ii)

BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION THEORY :According to this theory people behavior is the outcome of favorable and unfavorable past circumstances. This theory is based on learning theory. Skinner conducted his researches among rats and school children. He found that stimulus for desirable behavior could be strengthened by rewarding it at the earliest. In the industrial situation, this relevance of this theory may be found in the installation of financial and non financial incentives. More immediate is the reward and stimulation or it motivates it. Withdrawal of reward in case of low standard work may also produce the desired result. However, researches show that it is generally more effective to reward desired behavior than to punish undesired behaviour

(iii)

DEFICIENT THEORY OF MOTIVATION :The intellectual basis for most of motivation thinking has been provided by behavioral scientists, A.H Maslow and Frederick Heizberg, whose published works are the Bible of Motivation. Although Maslow himself did not apply his theory to industrial situation, it has wide impact for beyond academic circles. Douglous Mac Gregor has used Maslows theory to interpret specific problems in personnel administration and industrial relations. The crux of Maslows theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed of five categories. The lowest level needs are physiological and the highest levels are the self actualization needs. Maslow starts with the formation that man is a wanting animal with a hierarchy of needs of which some are lower ins scale and some are in a higher scale or system of values. As the lower needs are satisfied, higher needs emerge. Higher needs cannot be satisfied unless lower needs are fulfilled. A satisfied need is not a motivator.

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Hierarchy of needs, the main needs of men are five. They are (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (a) PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS, EGO NEEDS AND SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS, PHYSIOLOGICAL OR BODY NEEDS: The individual move up the ladder responding first to the physiological needs for nourishment, clothing and shelter. These physical needs must be equated with pay rate, pay practices and to an extent with physical condition of the job.

(b)

SAFETY : The next in order of needs is safety needs, the need to be free

from danger, either from other people or from environment. The individual want to assured, once his bodily needs are satisfied, that they are secure and will continue to be satisfied for foreseeable feature. The safety needs may take the form of job security, security against disease, misfortune, old age etc as also against industrial injury. Such needs are generally met by safety laws, measure of social security, protective labor laws and collective agreements.

(C)

SOCIAL NEEDS: Going up the scale of needs the individual feels the desire to

work in a cohesive group and develop a sense of belonging and identification with a group. He feels the need to love and be loved and the need to belong and be identified with a group. In a large organization it is not easy to build up social relations. However close relationship can be built up with at least some fellow workers. Every employee wants too feel that he is wanted or accepted and that he is not an alien facing a hostile group.

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(d)

EGO OR ESTEEM NEEDS: These needs are reflected in our desire for status and recognition,

respect and prestige in the work group or work place such as is conferred by the recognition of ones merit by promotion, by participation in management and by fulfillment of workers urge for self expression. Some of the needs relate to ones esteem e.g.; need for achievement, self confidence, knowledge, competence etc. On the job, this means praise for a job but more important it means a feeling by employee that at all times he has the respect of his supervisor as a person and as a contributor to the organizational goals.

(e)

SELF REALIZATION OR ACTUALIZATION NEEDS: This upper level need is one which when satisfied provide

insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organization that are both providing and using reward/recognition programs makes the employee give up the dependence on others or on the environment. He becomes growth oriented, self oriented, directed, detached and creative. This need reflects a state defined in terms of the extent to which an individual attains his personnel goal. This is the need which totally lies within oneself and there is no demand from any external situation or person

(iv)

J.S ADAMS EQUITY THEORY :Employee compares her/his job inputs outcome ratio with that of reference. If the employee perceives inequity, she/he will act to correct the inequity: lower productivity, reduced quality, increased absenteeism, voluntary resignation.

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(v)

VROOMS EXPECTATION THEORY :Vrooms theory is based on the belief that employee effort wi ll lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Reward may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated.

(vi)

TWO FACTOR THEORY:Douglas McGregor introduced the theory with the help of two views; X assumptions are conservative in style Assumptions are modern in style. (i) X Theory Individuals inherently dislike work. People must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve the objectives. People prefer to be directed

(ii)

Y Theory People view work as being as natural as play and rest People will exercise self direction and control towards achieving objectives they are committed to People learn to accept and seek responsibility.

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TYPES OF MOTIVATION
There are two types of Motivation :1. 2. Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation

1.

INTRINSIC MOTIVATION :Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is morally significant.

2.

EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION :Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).

PROCESS OF MOTIVATION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identification of need Tension Course of action Result Positive/Negative Feed back

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INCENTIVES
An incentive is something which stimulates a person towards some goal. It activates human needs and creates the desire to work. Thus, an incentive is a means of motivation. In organizations, increase in incentive leads to better performance and vice versa. NEED FOR INCENTIVES :Man is a wanting animal. He continues to want something or other. He is never fully satisfied. If one need is satisfied, the other need need arises. In order to motivate the employees, the management should try to satisfy their needs. For this purpose, both financial and non financial incentives may be used by the management to motivate the workers. Financial incentives or motivators are those which are associated with money. They include wages and salaries, fringe benefits, bonus, retirement benefits etc. Non financial motivators are those which are not associated with monetary rewards. They include intangible incentives like ego-satisfaction, selfactualization and responsibility.

INCENTIVES

FINANCIAL INCENTIVES (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Wages and Salaries. Bonus Medical reimbursement Insurance Housing facility Retirement benefits.

NON-FINANCIAL INCENTIVES (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Competition Group recognition Job security Praise Knowledge of result Workers anticipation.

(vii) Suggestion system. (viii) Opportunities for growth

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METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION


The datas can be collected through Primary and secondary sources.

SECONDARY SOURCES. :Secondary datas are in the form of finished products as they have already been treated statistically in some form or other.

The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company websites and also discussion with the management of the organization. Secondary data was also collected from journals, magazines and books.

VARIABLES OF THE STUDY:-

The direct variable of the study is the employee motivation. Indirect variables are the incentives, interpersonal relations, career development opportunities and performance appraisal system.

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SCOPE FOR FUTURE RESEARCH


The present study on employee motivation helps to get clear picture about the factors which motivates the employees. This in turn helps the management to formulate suitable policy to motivate the employees. Hence, the motivational level of the employees may also change.

The factors that motivate the employees may change with change in time because the needs of employees too change with change in time. So continuous monitoring and close observation of factors that motivate the employees is necessary to maintain a competent work force. Only with a competent work force an organization can achieve its objective. Moreover, human resource is the most valuable asset to any organization. A further study with in dept analysis to know to what extent these factors motivate the employees is required.

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FINDINGS
The findings of the study are follows:The BSNL has a well defined organization structure.

There is a harmonious relationship is exist in the organization between employees and management.

The employees are really motivated by the management.

The employees are satisfied with the present incentive plan of the company.

Most of the workers agreed that the company is eager in recognizing and acknowledging their work.

The study reveals that there is a good relationship exists among employees.

Majority of the employees agreed that there job security to their present job.

The company is providing good safety measures for ensuring the employees safety.

From the study it is clear that most of employees agrees to the fact that performance appraisal activities and support from the coworkers in helpful to get motivated.

The incentives and other benefits will influence the performance of the employees.

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SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATION
The suggestions for the findings from the study are follows :

Most of the employees agree that the performance appraisal activities are helpful to get motivated, so the company should try to improve performance appraisal system, so that they can improve their performance.

Non financial incentive plans should also be implemented; it can improve the productivity level of the employees.

Organization should give importance to communication between employees and gain co-ordination through it.

Skills of the employees should be appreciated.

Better carrier development opportunities should be given to the employees for their improvement.

If the centralized system of management is changed to a decentralized one, then there would be active and committed participation of staff for the success of the organization.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


The limitations of the study are the following :

The data was collected through secondary sources. The responds from the respondents may not be accurate.

The study is based on secondary data available from monthly fact sheets, websites and other books, as primary data was not accessible.

Since the organization has strict control, it acts as another barrier for getting data.

Another difficulty was very limited time span of the project.

Lack of experience of Researcher.

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CONCLUSION
This project gave a lot to me. With this project we got the exposure to industrial environment. I got the opportunity to closely experience the working in the big organizations.. It is old concept used in various organizations to protect the rights of employees.

The study concludes that, the motivational program procedure in Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) is found effective but not highly effective. The study on employee motivation highlighted so many factors which will help to motivate the employees.. The study helped to findings which were related with employee motivational programs which are provided in the organization.

The performance appraisal activities really play a major role in motivating the employees of the organization. It is a major factor that makes an employee feels good in his work and results in his satisfaction too. The organization can still concentrate on specific areas which are evolved from this study in order to make the motivational programs more effective. Only if the employees are properly motivated- they work well and only if they work well the organization is going to benefit out it. Steps should be taken to improve the motivational programs procedure in the future. The suggestions of this report may help in this direction.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
WEBSITES: www.tfjbp.bsnl.co.in www.tfmumbai.bsnl.co.in www.google.com www.easytraining.com www.employeemotivationworkshop.com

BOOKS: 1. 2. 3. Strategic Human Resource Management Kenneth A Kovach Organizational Behaviour Shashi K Gupta Desire and Motivation in Indian Philosophy Christopher G Framarin

NEWSPAPER:Times of India India Today Other

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