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1.

1 Brick Properties

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 1.1 Brick Properties

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Section 1.1 relates to the properties of bricks made to meet the requirements of Australian Standard AS4455 Part 1 Masonry Units. This information is provided as a guide only to the properties of interest to a masonry designer or builder.

Brick Dimensions
The work size of a standard brick is: 76 mm high x 230 mm long x 110 mm wide. Some bricks are made with different work sizes. For example brick heights of 119 mm and 162 mm to match 1.5 and 2 standard size brick heights, including mortar joint, respectively. 50 mm and 90 mm high bricks, 90 mm wide bricks and 290 mm long bricks are made for different structural and aesthetic effect. Larger bricks are often used for more economical laying and as a design feature either on their own or combined with smaller bricks. In cyclonic areas larger (140 mm wide x 90 mm high x 290 mm long) hollow bricks are used to allow for reinforcement and grouting in the wall. Wider (150 mm wide) bricks can also be used in walls requiring lower sound transmission, higher re resistance levels and higher load bearing capacity depending on the specic brick properties. Clay brick sizes may vary after they are red but size variation between units averages out when blended properly during laying. Brick dimensions are measured by dry stacking 20 units, measuring the total length, width and height and comparing that measurement to 20 times the work size. Bricks are classied according to how much 20 bricks together deviate from 20 times the work size. For standard bricks, Dimensional Category DW1 means the height and width will differ by less than plus or minus 50 mm from 20 times the work size, and the length will differ less than plus or minus 90 mm. For standard bricks, Dimensional Category DW2 means the height and width will differ by less than plus or minus 40 mm from 20 times the work size, and the length will differ less than plus or minus 60 mm. Dimensional Category, DW0 means there are no requirements. This is usually reserved for non-standard shaped bricks and bricks that have been rumbled or otherwise distorted during the manufacturing process for aesthetic reasons.

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Brick Strength
Brick strength is dened as resistance to load per unit area and is expressed in mega Pascals (MPa).

Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc)


The characteristic unconned compressive strength is used by engineers in the design of masonry to calculate the strength of a wall. Bricks in any one batch have a range of strengths that would usually follow a normal distribution. In a wall the different strength bricks contribute to the strength of the whole and the weakest brick does not determine the strength of the wall. For safety, engineering practice has been to use characteristic unconned compressive strength. This is the strength 95% of the bricks will exceed and is typically 0.86 times the lowest unconned compressive strength found when measuring the compressive strengths of 10 samples. Boral bricks usually have characteristic unconned compressive strengths in the range 15 to 35 MPa.

Unconned Compressive Strength


The unconned compressive strength is a calculated number based on the compressive strength. To measure the compressive strength of a brick, steel platens are used above and below. This constrains the surface and where all other factors are equal, a shorter brick will have a higher compressive strength than a taller brick. To remove this test effect, the compressive strength is multiplied by a factor, which varies with the height of the brick. The resulting number is called the unconned compressive strength and reects the performance of the brick in a wall. Theoretically, bricks which are identical except for their height should produce the same unconned compressive strength. This gure is not now used in masonry design, but is used to calculate Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength.

Compressive Strength of Bricks


Brick strength is measured according to AS4456.4 Determining Compressive Strength of Masonry Units. Individually crushing 10 bricks gives the compressive strength of each brick and the mean compressive strength of the lot. These gures are not used in masonry design, but are used to calculate Unconned Compressive Strength.

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Section 1.1 Brick Properties

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Water Absorption
Cold Water Absorption
The amount of water that a brick can absorb is measured by the cold water absorption test. There is no distinct relationship between water absorption and the water-tightness of walls. The results of water absorption tests are used by the brick manufacturer for quality assurance.

Initial Rate of Absorption


The initial rate of absorption (IRA) is the amount of water absorbed in one minute through the bed face of the brick. It is a measure of the bricks suction and can be used as a factor in the design of mortars that will bond strongly with units. As mortars other than the deemed to comply mortars are rarely used, the impact of the IRA is primarily on the bricklayer. Bricklayers, through practical experience, adjust the mortar, the height of a wall built in a day and the length of time before ironing the joints, according to the suction. The bond between the masonry unit and mortar is largely inuenced by the capacity of the brick to absorb water and the ability of the mortar to retain the water that is needed for the proper hydration of cement. If the brick sucks the water too quickly from the mortar, the next course may not be properly bedded. If the mortar retains too much water, the units tend to oat on the mortar bed, making it difcult to lay plumb walls at a reasonable rate. In either case there will be poor bond. The optimum value of IRA is considered to be between 0.5 and 1.5 kg/m2/min. However, IRAs can exceed these limits. The mortars water retentivity should be matched to the brick type where good bond strength is critical.

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Durability
Salt attack is the most common durability problem affecting bricks. In the form of a solution, salt can be absorbed into masonry. As the water evaporates, the salt is drawn towards the outside face. The evaporating water leaves the solution super-saturated so salt crystals begin to form. The salt crystals grow in the pores just below the surface and depending on the texture of the brick, the amount of salt, the rate of drying and the temperature, the salt may ll the pores, exerting very high pressures on the matrix. The energy in the constrained salt crystal increases and if sufcient pops a piece of the outer surface off and salt attack has begun. Bricks are assessed and classed into three grades according to AS/NZS4456.10 Resistance to Salt Attack. In summary the three grades of brick that can be used are as follows: Protected Grade (PRO) Suitable for use in elements above the damp-proof course in non-marine exterior environments. Elements above the damp-proof course in all exterior environments, with a waterproof coating, properly ashed junctions with other building elements and a top covering (roof or coping) protecting the masonry. General Purpose Grade (GP) Suitable for use in an external wall, excluding walls in severe marine environments or in contact with aggressive soils and environments (see AS3700 Appendix E). General purpose grade bricks can also be used in PRO applications. Exposure Grade (EXP) Suitable for use in external walls exposed to severe marine environments, i.e. up to one kilometre from a surf coast or up to 100 metres from a non-surf coast or in contact with aggressive soils and environments. The distances are specied from mean high water mark. Exposure grade bricks can also be used in PRO and GP applications. Boral bricks are classied as either EXP or GP.

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Moisture Expansion
Clay products expand over time as they absorb water into their structure. This is well known and documented and must be consider when designing brickwork. The expansion is not uniform (it is logarithmic) over time. In the rst six months one quarter of the expansion occurs, one half in the rst two years and three quarters in the rst 5 years. The Characteristic Expansion is estimated from an accelerated test and expressed as a coefcient of expansion (em) that for Boral bricks is usually between 0.8 and 1.2 mm/m/15 years.

Eforescence
Bricks may contain soluble salts that come to the surface when the brick dries. The source of these soluble salts is the raw materials used in the brick production process. Brick eforescence should not be confused with the eforescence that is seen on masonry walls after construction. This form of eforescence is caused mainly from the raw materials and water used in the wall construction process (eg. Mortar). Brick eforescence is usually white but there is a special form of eforescence (known as vanadium staining) that is coloured yellow, green or reddish-brown and is therefore particularly visible on light coloured bricks. All eforescence is more or less visible depending on the colour and surface texture of the brick. Boral bricks have a nil to slight eforescence.

Pitting due to Lime


If brickmaking raw materials contain particles of calcium carbonate, these will be converted into quicklime in the kiln. Water subsequently combines with the quicklime to form hydrated lime and in the process expands. If lime particles are sufciently large and sufciently near the surface they pop off a piece of the brick, leaving a generally circular pit. Boral Bricks rarely show lime pitting.

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1.2 Brick Masonry Design

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Section 1.2. Brick Masonry Design

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The following design information is based on Australian Standard AS3700: 2001 Masonry Structures. Reference to Clauses and Formulae are those used in AS3700. This information is provided as a guide only to the processes involved in designing masonry. All masonry should be designed by a suitably qualied structural engineer.

Robustness
AS3700, Clause 4.6.1 requires walls to have an adequate degree of Robustness. Robustness is a minimum design requirement, and may be overridden by re, wind, snow, earthquake or live and dead load requirements. In robustness calculations (AS3700 Clause 4.6.2), there are height, length, and panel action formulae. By reworking the standard formulae and inserting known data, it is possible to determine whether a chosen design and Boral brick will provide adequate robustness, as in the tables below and the charts on pages 1.202 to 1.204.
Table 1. Maximum Height of Isolated Piers
Pier Thickness (mm) 230 x 230 350 x 350 Maximum Height (m) 3.105 4.725

Table 2. Maximum Height of Walls with Free Ends


Maximum Wall Height (m) Wall Thickness (mm) 90 110 150 230 No Lateral Support at Top 0.54 0.66 0.90 1.38 Lateral Support at Top 2.43 2.97 4.05 6.21 Concrete Slab on Top 3.24 3.96 5.40 8.28

Table 3. Maximum Wall Length where One or Both Ends are Laterally Restrained
Maximum Wall Length (m) Wall Thickness (mm) 90 110 150 230 Lateral Support One End 1.08 1.32 1.80 2.76 Lateral Support Both Ends 3.24 3.96 5.40 8.28

In the situation depicted in Table 3 above, height is not limited although length is. This typically applies to lift shafts and stairwells. Control joints and openings greater than one fth of the wall height are treated as free ends unless specic measures are taken to provide adequate lateral support. Where wall lengths exceed those in Table 3 above, AS 3700 Equation 4.6.2 (4) must be used to determine the maximum height for a wall of the required length. Should the initial choice of product not provide a suitable solution, then a thicker Boral brick or increased masonry width or extra restraints should be evaluated. t

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Robustness (continued)
How to Use the Boral Robustness Graphs
These charts determine the minimum brick thickness for a known wall height, length and restraint criteria.

Laterally supported one end and top laterally supported by other than concrete slab
8 7 6 5 4 3 2

1. Select the graph for the chosen wall restraint


F

(support) criteria. In this example there is support on one side and the top is supported by other than a concrete slab. Typically this would
230mm

be a wall supporting roof frames, joined into another wall at one end and with a door at the
150mm 110x110mm 90x90mm 110mm 90mm

HEIGHT

(m)

other end. 2. Plot the intersection of the design Wall Height and the Wall Length on the graph. (For this

WALL

1 0

example 3 m height x 5 m length).


1 2 3 4 5
(m)

WAL L

L ENGTH

3. The lines ABOVE the intersection point indicate wall thickness that are acceptable. In this example, the intersection point is just below the line for 110 mm bricks. Therefore a single leaf of 110 mm bricks would be suitable and the most economical.

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R S

Robustness Limits

Laterally supported both ends and top laterally supported by a concrete slab
8 7 6

Laterally supported both ends and top laterally supported by other than concrete slab
150mm 110x110mm 8 7

150mm
(m)

90x90mm 5 4 3 2 1 0 110mm 90mm

(m)

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

110x110mm

H E IGH T

H E IGH T

90x90mm 110mm 90mm

WALL

5
(m)

WALL

5
(m)

WAL L

L ENGTH

WALL

LENGTH

Laterally supported both ends and top unsupported


8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

F R R

Laterally supported one end and top unsupported


8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

F R F

(m)

H E IGH T

WAL L

110x110mm 90x90mm 110mm 90mm

WAL L

150mm

H E IGH T

(m)

230mm 150mm 110x110mm 90x90mm 110mm 90mm 1 2 3 4 5


(m)

5
(m)

WAL L

L ENGTH

WALL

LENGTH

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S R

Robustness Limits

Laterally supported one end and top laterally supported R by other than a concrete slab
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Laterally supported one end and top laterally supported by a concrete slab
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

230mm
(m)

(m)

150mm 110x110mm 90x90mm 110mm 90mm

H E IGH T

WALL

5
(m)

WALL

150mm 110x110mm 90x90mm 110mm 90mm

H E IGH T

5
(m)

WAL L

L ENGTH

WALL

LENGTH

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Masonry Strength
Masonry Strength is dened as resistance to load per unit area. It must be remembered that thicker masonry will support more load than thinner masonry of the same strength.

Characteristic Compressive Strength of Masonry fm


fm = km kh fuc km is a mortar strength factor and kh is a factor for the amount of mortar joints. km is 1.4 for M3 mortar and 1.5 for the stronger M4 mortar (see AS 3700 Table 3.1 for a full list of factors). kh is 1 for 76 mm high units with 10 mm mortar beds and is 1.24 for 162 mm high bricks with 10 mm mortar beds (see AS 3700 Table 3.2 to derive factors for other unit and joint heights). In other words, a wall of double height bricks is more than 20% stronger than a wall of 76 mm high bricks of the same fuc. fuc is the characteristic unconned compressive strength of bricks.

Characteristic Flexural Tensile Strength of Masonry fmt


In exing, the top of the arc is in tension and the bottom of the arc is in compression. Masonry is good in compression but poor in tension. Flexural strength depends on the mortar/brick bond and for design purposes is generally taken to be zero. Using up to 0.2 MPa is permitted when designing for transient loads such as wind, earthquake, etc. Higher bending forces may be used for design but these require site testing to verify construction meets the stated values.

Characteristic Shear Strength of Masonry fms


Shear strength, like exural strength, is related to the mortar/brick bond. For design purposes, at the damp course, it is taken to be zero unless testing shows another value. Elsewhere, mortar joints have fms values of between 0.15 and 0.35 MPa.

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Durability of Masonry
AS3700 requires masonry to be designed to continue functioning satisfactorily throughout its design life without undue maintenance. That is, all masonry materials, including bricks, mortar and all built-in components, must be sufciently durable for the exposure classication of the site (see AS3700 Appendix E). Masonry designed to meet the requirements of AS3700 Section 5, is deemed to comply with the durability requirements and Table 5.1 denes the durability requirements for bricks, built-in components and mortar in different environments. Salt attack is the most common durability problem. In the form of a solution, salt can be absorbed into masonry. As the water evaporates, the salt is drawn towards the outside face. The evaporating water leaves the solution super-saturated so salt crystals begin to form. The salt crystals grow in the pores just below the surface and depending on the texture of the brick, the amount of salt, the rate of drying and the temperature, the salt may ll the pores, exerting very high pressures on the matrix. The energy in the constrained salt crystal increases and if sufcient pops a piece of the outer surface off and salt attack has begun. Boral bricks graded General Purpose (GP) are suitable for use in all walls, excluding external walls in severe marine environments or in all walls in contact with aggressive soils and environments. Boral bricks graded Exposure Grade (EXP) are suitable for use in all walls including external walls exposed to severe marine environments, i.e. up to 1 km from a surf coast or up to 100 m from a non surf coast or walls in contact with aggressive soils and environments. The distances are specied from mean high water mark. Walls below damp proof course often require greater durability, even if they are well away from the coast, as they may be subjected to saline, acidic or alkaline soils. If unsure of the corrosive nature of the site, an inexpensive total soluble salt content test for soil is available in most areas. Remember it is the designers responsibility to specify the appropriate durability grade of bricks, mortar and built-in components and it is the builders responsibility to order bricks, etc. of appropriate durability grade specied by the designer. Brick manufacturers cannot take any responsibility in this decision as they are not aware of the design requirements of each site. t

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Durability of Masonry (continued)


Refer to Section 1.4 Property Tables for tabulated properties of individual brick types for their salt attack resistance category. Mortar mix requirements for durability are referred in Table 11, page 1.301 of this manual and are detailed in AS3700 Table 10.1. M4 mortars are required and mortar joints must be tooled in all situations requiring exposure grade materials. Concrete oors, paths and steps are a source of sulfate salts that if dissolved in water may enter the brickwork and cause salt attack. Exposed slabs supported on external brickwork should clear the brickwork by 50 mm and incorporate a drip groove to prevent the run-off from the slab running down the brickwork. A damp proof course (usually a double layer) is also used under the slab on top of the bricks to prevent water passing through the slab into the bricks and as a slip joint to prevent a build up of forces as the concrete shrinks and the bricks expand over time. Landscaping and gardening practices are also possible sources of salt attack. Care must be taken to not bridge the damp proof course when landscaping at the base of walls. Watering gardens and lawns, against walls, may cause salts (fertilisers) to splash up on to the wall where they are absorbed and may cause salt attack.

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Brick Ties
In brick veneer construction, ties are used to pass all the lateral out-of-plane loads and forces (such as from wind) to the structural backing. In cavity brick construction ties either pass the lateral out-of-plane loads and forces to the stronger leaf or share them between the leaves. The design of ties in masonry for structural purposes must comply with AS3700 Clause 7.7 for veneer or Clause 7.8 for cavity construction. For small buildings the tie requirements are covered in AS3700 Clause 12.3.4 for brick veneer construction and Clause 12.3.3.2 for cavity brick construction. Type A ties are those that have no specic seismic design characteristics. It is difcult to nd brick ties other than Type A in Australia. Ties are available in heavy, medium and light duty in galvanised steel, stainless steel and plastic. Plastic ties are usually reserved for acoustic applications. Stainless steel ties are used in situations requiring exposure grade materials or very long life. Galvanised steel ties are those most commonly used. The Newcastle (NSW) earthquake which occurred in 1989 showed masonry survived well except where the ties were decient. Problems found included: galvanised ties rusted through; ties only built into one leaf during construction; loose ties; absent ties; and, incorrect duty ties used.

Ties are required to meet the durability requirement of the site for the design life of the building. Should the design life of the building be exceeded and the ties begin to fail, they can be replaced with remedial ties but this is a very expensive process and as ties are hidden it is unlikely they will be seen until a catastrophic failure occurs. As sustainability considerations become more important, the life of buildings is likely to be extended. Properly maintained, brick buildings may last for centuries. It should be remembered that stainless steel brick ties offer a longer service life and, although more expensive as a proportion of the overall building cost, the difference is trivial.

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Movement in Masonry Walls


To allow for movements in masonry (expansion and contraction and footing movement) control joints are required. These can usually be constructed so that the expansion joint and the articulation joint are one and the same.

Expansion Joints
Expansion and contraction must be allowed for in masonry design by inserting control joints at spacings designed to suit the magnitude of the movement. Clay products expand permanently over time. This is the opposite of cement-based products, which permanently shrink. For this reason it is unwise to use clay and concrete units in the same band in a wall. If clay bricks are used in concrete framed buildings, control joint spacing and workmanship are critical, as the bricks will expand as the concrete frame shrinks. The magnitude of thermal changes varies from brick to brick depending on the many factors, however, allowing 0.008 mm/m/C is usually recommended. Expansion and contraction from wetting and drying of clay bricks is less than for concrete and calcium silicate products and usually can be ignored in brick masonry design. AS3700, Clause 4.8 requires expansion joints to be spaced to limit panel movement so that movement from both sides closes joints by less than 15 mm and joints are at least 5 mm wide when closed. This means the gap, when constructed, should be 20-25 mm. However, in most buildings articulation joints are used and these are closer than required for expansion making separate expansion joints unnecessary.

Articulation Joints
Articulation joints are vertical gaps that allow for minor footing movements, to prevent distress or signicant wall cracking. Articulation joints provide the exibility needed when building on reactive clay soils and usually are not required for masonry on stable sites (classied according to AS2870). Spacing of articulation joints depends on the site classication and the slab or footing design, but where used must be placed no closer than 0.5 metres and no further than 3 metres from all corners. The width of articulation joints depends on the height of the masonry: 10 mm for masonry up to 3 metres and 15 mm for masonry up to 6 metres high. t

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Movement in Masonry Walls (continued)


Control Joints (General)
Control joints should be used beside large openings, where wall thickness changes (except where this is for support eg. engaged piers), where wall height changes by more than 20%, at changes of level in footings and at other points of potential cracking. Control joints must not continue through bond beams. Ideally, control joints are located near a corner and concealed behind a down pipe. The bricklayer and renderer must keep the control joint clean, otherwise, bridging mortar or render will induce cracks as the masonry moves. External control joints should be nished with a soft exible sealant to prevent moisture penetration. The design and construction of control gaps in the external leaf of a full brick wall is identical to that in brick veneer. In internal masonry, control gaps are not usually required, except at re-entrant angles in long walls. However, where an internal control joint is required the design is as for external leaves but the thermal component may be ignored in calculations. Internal control joints can usually be located at a full-height opening such as a door or window. Ties are required on both sides of a control joint, but where it is not possible to use them masonry exible anchors (MFAs) must be used across the joint. Where MFAs are used in walls over 3 metres or in walls exposed to high winds, MFAs must be built in at half height and every seventh course (600 mm) above. MFAs are ties that are of a type that only allows movement in one plane. Unless ties are used, control joints create a free end in terms of Robustness and Fire Resistance Level calculations for structural adequacy, so their positioning is critical to the overall design of the structure. In portal frame construction, the control joint is positioned at a column so that both ends can be tied to the columns anges. The principles of control joint
Dividing wall with articulation joint and MFA's at intersection with cavity wall Articulation joint Articulation joints with compressible backing and mastic sealant

construction are illustrated in the adjacent gure.

Brick ties on each side of articulation joint

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Thermal Properties
As at 2004, the Building Code of Australia (BCA) requires energy efciency performance for housing (BCA Vol 2). Australia is divided into 8 climatic zones. (Sydney and Perth are in Zone 5, Adelaide and Melbourne are in Zone 6, Brisbane is in Zone 2 and Canberra is in Zone 7). The zones and Local Government boundaries are detailed on a map, which is available from the Australian Building Codes Board (www.abcb.gov.au) but the Local Council should be able to provide the information where there is any doubt. The BCA set the minimum energy efciency requirement of 3.5 stars for Zones 1-3 and 4 stars for Zones 4-8. While the BCA sets these minimum requirements, State governments may adopt these minimums or may opt for different requirements. Local authorities may adopt higher star ratings but may not opt for lower ratings than the State adopts. The ABCB has indicated they are considering requiring 5 stars in line with Victoria and ACT. Victoria requires a 5 star rating on the building fabric from July 2005 using FirstRate or NatHERS software. Pre-July 2004, the requirement was 4 stars on the building fabric. Post July 2004, the requirement is either 5 stars on the building fabric; or 4 stars on the building fabric plus water saving measures and a solar hot water system; or 4 stars on the building fabric plus water saving measures and a rain water tank. ACT requires 5 stars from ACTHERS software. South Australia requires 4 stars from NatHERS or FirstRate software. The NSW situation is complex. From 1 July 2004 in the Sydney Metropolitan area and 1 July 2005 eleswhere in the State all new housing, dual occupancies and small (under 300 m2) hostel type accommodation will be required to have a BASIX rating. From 1 February 2005 in the Sydney Metropolitan area and 1 October 2005 elsewhere in the state this will apply to all new residential developments. From 1 July 2005 these measures apply to alterations to residences in Sydney and from 1 October 2005 elsewhere in the State. BASIX is a comprehensive sustainability rating software, incorporating energy and water efciency initially with the intention of including stormwater, transport, site ecology, waste and recycling and materials at a later date. It is a web-based system in which you enter data about the development in boxes and the whole has to meet targets to get Development Application approval. BASIX is aimed at achieving energy reductions of 25% (going up to 40% in July 2006) and potable water savings of 40%. Different star rating software can produce different ratings. To overcome this, the Australian Building Codes Board has developed a protocol to ensure all star rating software, as nearly as practical, produces the same rating for the same design. t

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Thermal Properties (continued)


The requirements to meet a star rating are complex because the rating is based on the total building design for a given site. It is important to remember that roof insulation, shading, orientation and window size and placement have a much greater impact on energy efciency than the walls. Heat enters and leaves buildings more readily through the windows and roof and greater insulation in the roof space is usually the most cost-effective measure to increase star ratings. Although there is not an exact relationship, to meet the star ratings walls generally have to meet the following requirements:
Table 4. Wall Insulation Requirements
Zones 1, 2, 3 & 5 Qld Zones 1, 2 & 3 4&6 7 8 Wall insulation value R1.4 R1.0 R1.7 R1.9 R2.8

The BCA states that brick veneer construction made with a single leaf of 110 mm wide bricks has an R value of 0.54 and must incorporate insulation to produce the values above. Cavity clay masonry is treated differently and is deemed to satisfy wall insulation requirements if it achieves a mass of 220 kg per square metre of wall in Zones 5 and 6 and in the ACT. In Zone 6 the masonry must be constructed on a concrete slab in contact with the ground. In the ACT the masonry must be constructed on a concrete slab in contact with the ground or having an insulated timber oor. Cavity clay masonry is deemed to satisfy because heavy mass walling has a high thermal inertia (thermal lag). Heat is slowly absorbed during the day and slowly lost during the cool night. Most thermal requirements focus on thermal insulation, denoted as R value. When dealing with heavy mass walling and typical non-tropical diurnal temperature cycles, R value is misleading as it assumes a steady state (constant temperature difference across the wall) which is not the case because of the day-night temperature cycle. Cavity brick houses are well known to have a lower temperature uctuation than lighter weight construction and the deemed-to-satisfy provision is in recognition of this fact. In February 2004 the ABCB released a proposal to impose energy efciency requirements in the BCA Volume 1 for Class 2, 3 & 4 buildings, (residential buildings other than houses). ACT currently has requirements on these classes of building and Victoria has requirements on these classes and on Class 9c buildings. The requirements are essentially the same as for Class 1 buildings.

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Masonry Design for Fire Resistance


Fire Resistance Levels (FRL)
FRLs come from the Building Code of Australias (BCA) Volume 1 tables for Type A, B or C construction. The Type of construction depends on the Class of building and the number of stories or oors. FRLs for housing come from BCA Volume 2. There are three gures in the Fire Resistance Level. Eg: FRL 120/60/90 means that the wall must achieve Structural Adequacy for 120 minutes / Integrity for 60 minutes / Insulation for 90 minutes.

Structural Adequacy
This governs the walls height, length, thickness and restraints. Brick suppliers do not control the wall height, length or restraints so therefore do not control Structural Adequacy.

Integrity
This is the resistance to the passage of ame or gas. To provide integrity, walls must be structurally adequate and they must maintain insulation. Extensive re testing of masonry has shown integrity to be closely related to structural adequacy or insulation. AS 3700 therefore allows Integrity to be equal to the lesser of the Structural Adequacy or the Insulation periods.

Insulation
This is resistance to the passage of heat through the wall. Insulation is a function of the thickness of the brick as shown in Table 5, page 1.222 of this manual.

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Masonry Design for Structural Adequacy FRL


Structural Adequacy is a minimum provision and may be overridden by design for robustness, wind, live or earthquake loads. A re on one side of a wall will heat that side, making it expand and lean towards the re. When the lean or bow reaches half the thickness of the original wall, the wall becomes structurally inadequate. The formulae in AS3700, Clause 6.3.2.2 limits the panel size, depending on its restraints and thickness. The Slenderness ratio (Srf) of a proposed wall is calculated according to AS 3700 Clause 6.3.2.2. If this value is less than the maximum Srf in Table 6.1 of the Standard [or the Srf calculated from Fire Tests and AS 3700 Clause 6.3.3(b)(ii)], then the wall complies. If the Srf of the wall is greater than the maximum permissible, it must be recalculated for an increased thickness and/or extra restraints. There are 3 formulae for calculating Srf. AS 3700 Formula 6.3.2.2 (1) and (2) are the formulae for vertically spanning walls (with no support along either vertical edge). Formula (1) and (2) always govern where there is no end restraint, and often govern where walls are long, relative to their height. Projects with multiple wall lengths (eg: home units) can use this formula as a one size ts all method of calculating the wall thickness. AS 3700 Formula 6.3.2.2 (3) allows a wall to exceed the height given by formula (1) and (2) provided the top and at least one end is supported. AS 3700 Formula 6.3.2.2 (4) allows a wall to exceed the height given in formula (3) where walls are short, relative to their height (eg: a lift well or vent shaft). Short walls with no top restraint often occur in situations like portal frame factories. For cavity walls where both leaves are equally loaded (within 10 per cent of each other, including where there is no load on either leaf) the thickness is equal to two-thirds of the sum of the thicknesses of both leaves and the edge restraint condition is that for the leaf not exposed to the re. Where one leaf is more heavily loaded than the other, the thickness and edge restraint condition is that of the more heavily loaded leaf. Where cavity walls are constructed with leaves of different masonry unit types, the structural adequacy is based on the less re resistant material. t

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Masonry Design for Structural Adequacy FRL (continued)


Refer to the Structural Adequacy Graphs on the following pages for maximum height and length values for walls of different thicknesses and restraint conditions. An appropriately qualied engineer should check all calculations. Other loads may supersede Structural Adequacy requirements.

How to Use the Boral Structural Adequacy FRL Graphs


1.
S

Laterally supported on all sides


15 14 13
(m)

Select the graph with Structural Adequacy for the required minutes. (240 minutes for this example).

2.

Select the graph for the chosen wall restraint (support) criteria. (Support on both vertical edges, top and bottom for this example).

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

SUPPORTS

3.

Plot the intersection of the design Wall Height and the Wall Length on the graph. (For this example 3 m height x 5 m length).

BETWEEN

230mm

HEIGHT

4.
150mm 110mm 90mm

The line ABOVE the intersection indicates the minimum brick thickness required for the wall. In this example, 150 mm bricks would be

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

suitable and the most economical.

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S S

Structural Adequacy for 60 Minutes FRL

Laterally supported on all sides


15 14 13
(m)

Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported


15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 110mm 90mm 150mm 230mm

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

230mm

HEIGHT

110mm 90mm

HEIGHT

150mm

BE T WE E N

SUPPORT S

12

10

11
(m)

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported


15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

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S S

Structural Adequacy for 90 Minutes FRL

Laterally supported on all sides


15 14 13
(m)

Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported


15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 230mm 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 230mm 6 5 4 3 2 1 150m m 110m m 90mm

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

HEIGHT

150mm 110mm 90mm

HEIGH T

BE T WE E N

SUP OP RT S

12

10

11

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

(m)

Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported


15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

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S S

Structural Adequacy for 120 Minutes FRL

Laterally supported on all sides


15 14 13
(m)

Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported


15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 150mm 110mm 90mm 230mm

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

230mm

HEIGHT

150mm 110mm 90mm

HEIGHT

BE T WE E N

SUPPORT S

12

10

11
(m)

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported


15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12


LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

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S S

Structural Adequacy for 180 Minutes FRL

Laterally supported on all sides


15 14 13
(m)

Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported


15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 230mm 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 230mm 5 4 3 2 1 150mm 110mm 90mm

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

HEIGHT

150mm 110mm 90mm

HEIGHT

BE T WE E N

SUPPORT S

12

10

11
(m)

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported


15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12


LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12


LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

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S S

Structural Adequacy for 240 Minutes FRL

Laterally supported on all sides


15 14 13
(m)

Laterally supported on three sides, one end unsupported


15 14 13
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 150mm 110mm 90mm 230mm

SUPPORT S

BE T WE E N

230mm

HEIGHT

150mm 110mm 90mm

HEIGHT

BE T WE E N

SUPPORT S

12

10

11
(m)

12

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

LENGTH

BETWEEN

SUPPORTS

Laterally supported on three sides, top unsupported


15 14 13
( m )

F S S

Laterally supported one end and bottom, one end and top unsupported
15 14 13
( m )

F S F

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(m)

S UP P ORT S

B ET W EE N

H EI GH T

H EI GH T

B ET W EE N

S UP P ORT S

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12


LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

230mm 150mm 110mm 90mm 12


LENGTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

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Structural Adequacy for Panels with Unsupported Ends

This gure shows the situation where there is support top and bottom but none on the sides. This applies where there are control joints, large openings, long walls, etc. To use this graph select the desired FRL in minutes and the height of the wall. The line above the intersection shows the brick thickness required.
Maximum Wall Heights for Structural Adequacy for any Wall Length
S

Top and bottom supported, ends not supported.

(m)

6 230mm

HEIGHT WALL

4 150mm 3 110mm 90mm

MAXIMUM

0
FRL

60
F OR

90

120

180

240

STRUC TURAL (minut e s)

ADEQUAC Y

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Masonry Design for Integrity FRL


It is impractical to provide test results for all possible wall designs, and therefore Integrity must be proved in some other way. The most practical way to prove Integrity is to prove Structural Adequacy and Insulation equal to or better than the Integrity requirement. Logically, if the wall is designed to minimise bowing it will not crack and therefore resist the passage of ame and gas for the specied time. This method is also the best way to prove Integrity even when a wall may not be required to comply with a Structural Adequacy FRL value, such as is the case with non-load bearing walls. Eg. If the BCA requires an FRL of -/90/90, the wall has no actual Structural Adequacy requirement, but to prove Integrity of 90 minutes, the wall must be structurally adequate for at least 90 minutes.

Masonry Design for Insulation FRL


Insulation is the one FRL component that a brick manufacturer does control. It is governed by the type of material and material thickness. Material thickness (t) is dened in AS3700, Clause 6.5.2 as the overall thickness for bricks with cores not more than 30% of the bricks overall volume. For cavity walls, t = the sum of material thicknesses in both leaves.
Table 5. Insulation periods for standard bricks (minutes)
Wall thickness (mm) Insulation period (minutes) 90 60 110 140 or 150 90 120 160 (150 plus 10 mm 180 230 render on both sides) (90/90 cavity) 180 240 240 220 (110/110 cavity) 240

Note: Wall thickness excludes render on side of wall exposed to re.

Effect of Recesses for Services on FRLs


Recesses that are less than half of the masonry thickness and are less than 10,000 mm2 (0.01 m2) for both sides within any 5 m2 of the wall area do not have an effect on re ratings. If these limits are exceeded, the masonry design thickness must be reduced by the depth of the recess.

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Effect of Chases on Fire Rated Masonry


Structural Adequacy FRL
To assess the effect of chases on Structural Adequacy FRLs, the direction in which the wall spans must be taken into account. Walls spanning vertically may be chased vertically to full height but horizontal chases are limited in length to 4 times the walls thickness. Walls spanning vertically and horizontally may be chased either horizontally up to half the walls length or vertically up to half the walls height. If these limits are exceeded, the masonry design thickness must be reduced by the depth of the chase or, in the case of vertical chases, designed as 2 walls with unsupported ends at the chase. Horizontal chases in all walls should be kept to a bare minimum. Note: Chases affect the sound reduction capacity of walls. See Acoustic Design page 1.225 of this manual.

Integrity and Insulation FRLs


AS3700 limits the maximum depth of chase to 30 mm and the maximum area of chase to 1,000 mm2. The maximum total area of chases on both sides of any 5 m2 of wall is limited to 100,000 mm2 (0.1 m2). If these limits are exceeded, the masonry design thickness must be reduced by the depth of the chase.

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Options for Increasing FRLs


Structural Adequacy FRLs can be increased by adding wall stiffeners, by increasing the overall thickness, by adding reinforcement or by protecting the wall, e.g. with Boral Plasterboards FireStop board, xed to furring channels (on both sides of the wall if a re rating is required from both sides). Note: Be careful of the effect of plasterboard on sound reduction in party walls. See Acoustic Design page 1.225 of this manual. Integrity FRLs are increased by increasing the other two FRL values to the required Integrity FRL. Insulation FRLs can be increased by adding another leaf of masonry, by rendering both sides of the wall if the re can come from either side. Note: Only ONE thickness of render is added to the material thickness and that must be on the cold side because the render on the exposed face will drop off early in a re.

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ACOUSTIC DESIGN Acoustic Performance Rating


The BCA requirements for Class 1, 2, 3 and 9c buildings changed in May 2004 with the issue of Amendment 14. Amendment 14 has been adopted by all jurisdictions other than Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia where Amendment 13 continues in force. It must be remembered that the BCA requirements are the minimum requirements and some Local Authorities may require better performance. Check with Local Councils for specic requirements above the BCA minimums. Note: Incremental improvements in sound insulation come at an ever-increasing cost. The BCA Amendment 14 requirements are met by: 1. Testing a sample of constructed walls to verify that they meet the Weighted Standardised Level Difference (Dnt,w explained further in Acoustic Performance On-Site on page 1.231 of this manual) requirements; or 2. Constructing walls using the same materials and techniques as walls that have been constructed and tested in a laboratory and shown to meet the Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) requirements; or, 3. Constructing walls using the materials and techniques in the Acceptable Construction Practice section of the BCA; and, 4. 5. Where impact sound reduction is required, it is to be achieved by discontinuous construction; and, Except where the requirements are veried by on-site testing, chasing of services into masonry walls is not allowed and electrical outlets on either side of the wall must be offset by no less than 100 mm. t

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Acoustic Performance Rating (continued)


Table 6. BCA Volume 2 Amendment 14 Requirements for walls separating two or more Class 1 Buildings
Wall Separating Sole occupancy unit all areas Sole occupancy unit bathroom, sanitary compartment, laundry or kitchen Sole occupancy unit all areas except those below Sole occupancy unit habitable room except a kitchen Wall Rating Rw+Ctr50 Rw+Ctr50 and discontinuous construction

Table 7. BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Requirements for walls separating sole occupancy units from other parts of the building in Class 2&3 Buildings.
Wall Separating Sole occupancy unit all areas except those below Sole occupancy unit bathroom, sanitary compartment, laundry or kitchen Sole occupancy unit all areas Sole occupancy unit all areas except those below Sole occupancy unit habitable room except a kitchen Plant room or lift shaft Wall Rating Rw+Ctr50 Rw+Ctr50 and discontinuous construction Rw+Ctr50 and discontinuous construction Rw50

Sole occupancy unit all areas

Stairway, public corridor, public lobby or areas of different classication

Table 8. BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Requirements for walls separating sole occupancy units from other parts of the building in Class 9c Buildings (aged care facilities).
Wall Separating Sole occupancy unit all areas Sole occupancy unit all areas Sole occupancy unit all areas except those below Laundry, kitchen Wall Rating Rw45 Rw45 and discontinuous construction or No less resistant to impact noise than a deemed-tosatisfy wall Rw45

Sole occupancy unit all areas

Bathroom, sanitary compartment (but not an associated ensuite), plant room, utilities room

Table 9. BCA Amendment 14 Service separation* in Class 1, 2, 3 & 9c buildings.


Building service A duct, soil, waste, water supply or stormwater pipe passing through a separating wall Adjacent room Sole occupancy unit habitable room other than a kitchen Sole occupancy unit kitchen or non habitable room Barrier rating Rw 40 Rw 25

* In Class 1 buildings the requirements apply to those services that pass through more than one building. In Class 2, 3 & 9c requirements apply to all stormwater pipes and other services that pass through more than one sole occupancy unit.

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Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw)


Rw is a single-number rating of the sound reduction through a wall or other building element. Since the sound reduction may be different at different frequencies, test measurements are subjected to a standard procedure that yields a single number that is about equal to the average sound reduction in the middle of the human hearing range. Two spectral corrections can be applied to Rw: C and Ctr. C compensates for medium to high frequency noise and Ctr compensates for low frequency noise. C and Ctr are both negative numbers.

Impact Sound Resistance


The BCA Amendment 14 says there is no appropriate test for impact sound reduction in walls. However, in the case of Class 9c buildings the BCA allows impact sound reduction to be demonstrated by showing a wall performs no worse than a deemed-to-satisfy wall. To achieve impact sound resistance, the BCA requires walls consist of two leaves with at least a 20 mm cavity between them and if ties are needed in masonry walls they must be of the resilient type. Except for the resilient ties in masonry walls there are to be no mechanical linkages between the walls, except at the periphery (i.e. through walls, oors and ceilings).

BCA Deemed-to-Satisfy Walls


BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Specication F5.2 Table 2 gives deemed-to-satisfy walls for sound insulation for walls separating sole occupancy units. BCA Volume 2 Amendment 14 Table 3.8.6.2 gives deemed-to-satisfy walls for sound insulation for walls separating two or more Class 1 Buildings. These walls are the same as those in Volume 1 except only walls achieving Rw+Ctr 50 are allowed. Deemed-to-satisfy clay brick walls are detailed on the following pages. t

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BCA Deemed-to-Satisfy Walls (continued)


Table 10. BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Deemed-to-Satisfy Brick Walls
Construction Rating

Two leaves of 110 mm clay brick masonry with: (a) A cavity not less than 50 mm between leaves; and (b) 50 mm thick glass wool insulation with a density of 11 kg/m3 or 50 mm thick polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 in the cavity. Rw+Ctr50

Two leaves of 110 mm clay brick masonry with: (a) A cavity not less than 50 mm between leaves; and (b) 13 mm cement render on each outside face. Rw+Ctr50

Single leaf of 110 mm clay brick masonry with: (a) A row of 70 mm x 35 mm timber studs or 64 mm steel studs at 600 mm centres, spaced 20 mm from the masonry wall; and (b) 50 mm thick mineral insulation or glass wool insulation with a density of 11 kg/m3 positioned between studs; and, (c) one layer of 13 mm plasterboard xed to outside face of studs and outside face of masonry.

Rw+Ctr50

Single leaf of 90 mm clay brick masonry with: (a) A row of 70 mm x 35 mm timber studs or 64 mm steels studs at 600 mm centres, spaced 20 mm from each face of the masonry wall; and (b) 50 mm thick mineral insulation or glass wool insulation with a density of 11 kg/m3 positioned between studs in each row; and (c) one layer of 13 mm plasterboard xed to studs on each outside face. Rw+Ctr50

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BCA Deemed-to-Satisfy Walls (continued)


Table 10. BCA Volume 1 Amendment 14 Deemed-to-Satisfy Brick Walls (continued)
Construction Rating

Single leaf of 150 mm brick masonry with 13 mm cement render on each face.

Rw50

Single leaf of 220 mm brick masonry with 13 mm cement render on each face.

Rw50

Single leaf of 110 mm brick masonry with 13 mm cement render on each face.

Rw45

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Solid v. Cavity Walls


Acoustic performance with single leaf masonry follows the Mass Law. The acoustic performance of these walls depends on their mass. More mass gives better performance, however, the relationship is logarithmic: If a 110 mm wall gives Rw = 45, a 230 mm wall of the same brick may give Rw = 57. Cavity walls behave differently because sound waves can resonate in cavities. The narrower the cavity becomes, the more resonance occurs. Insulation in the cavity helps absorb resonating sound and narrow cavities should have bond breaker board, to prevent mortar from providing a bridge for sound to travel between the leaves.

Brick Walls with Render


Render on one side of a brick wall adds 2 or 3 to the walls Rw but adding render to the second side only adds 1 to the walls Rw. The render appears to ll defects in the wall surface reducing the sound transmission, but this is a one-off benet.

Brick Walls with Plasterboard


Cornice cement daubs, used to x plasterboard directly to brick walls, create a small cavity in which resonance occurs. Brick walls with daub xed plasterboard on both sides stop less noise than the same walls, bare. Adding extra daubs (halving spacing) gives lower performances, presumably due to extra bridges through the daubs. Plasterboard on furring channel is marginally better than daub xed. A bigger cavity between the wall and the plasterboard makes it harder for resonating energy to build up pressure on the board. When standard furring channel clips are used, this system transfers vibrations to the plasterboard via the channels and clips. Boral Impact Clips (BICs) have a rubber shank on their masonry anchor that isolates the vibrations from the masonry. The use of BIC mounts can add 3 or 4 dB to the walls Rw. Polyester and glass wool in the cavity helps prevent resonance and further decreases the sound transmission. Denser grades of plasterboard and additional layers of plasterboard (xed with grab screws and leaving no cavities) also decrease sound transmission.

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Points to Consider When Designing Walls for Acoustic Performance


The BCA species minimum levels for sound isolation but experience shows that achieving the minimum standards is not always sufcient to satisfy occupants. In view of this it is recommended that architects, developers, builders, etc., consider a higher level of sound insulation, commensurate with the expectations of the end user. End user expectations are frequently related to the cost of occupying the unit. Wall design is a balance between acoustical performance, thickness, weight and cost. Frequently it is not possible to optimise one factor without seriously compromising the others.

Acoustic Performance On-Site


The Rw ratings on walling systems are obtained from tests carried out in accredited laboratories, under controlled conditions. When identical partitions in buildings are tested in-situ, it is often found that the actual result obtained, called the Weighted Standardised Level Difference (Dnt,w), is lower than the laboratory Rw. This reduction in performance can be due to rooms being too small, varying size of the element being tested, anking paths (noise passing through other parts of the building) or background noise. The allowance in the BCA for a difference of 5 between the laboratory test and the eld test is not to allow for poor construction practice. To repeat the performance in the eld, attention to detail in the design and construction of the partition and its adjoining oor/ceiling and associated structure is of prime importance. Even the most basic elements, if ignored, can seriously downgrade the sound insulation performance. The most common eld faults include bricklayers not completely lling all mortar joints, poor sealing between walls and other building elements, electrical power outlets being placed back to back, chasing masonry and concrete walls, leaving gaps in insulation, screwing into insulation and winding it around the screw when attaching sheet materials, not staggering joints in sheet materials and poor sealing of penetrations. Boral Bricks cannot guarantee that eld performance ratings will match laboratory performance. However, with careful attention during construction of the wall, correct installation to specication and proper caulking/sealing, the assembly should produce a eld performance close to and comparable with tested values. The following items can also affect the acoustic performance on site.

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Perimeter Acoustical Sealing


As the Rw of a wall increases, the control of anking paths becomes more critical. Consequently, the perimeter sealing requirements for a low sound rating wall, such as Rw = 45, are much less than for a high sound rating wall, such as Rw = 60. Note: it is neither necessary, nor is it cost effective, to provide very high perimeter acoustic sealing for a low Rw wall. Effective sealants have the following properties: Good exibility, (elastic set); Low hardness; Excellent adhesion, usually to concrete, timber, plaster and galvanised steel; Minimal shrinkage (less than 5%); Moderate density (greater than 800 kg/m3); and are, Fire rated where required (All walls required by the BCA to be sound rated also have re ratings).

All of the above properties must be maintained over the useful life of the building, that is, greater than 20 years. Note: Use of expanding foam sealants is not acceptable. Refer to the manufacturer to ensure the particular type or grade of sealant is suitable for the purpose.

Doors
Hollow, cored and even solid doors generally provide unsatisfactory sound insulation. Doors can provide direct air leaks between rooms lowering the overall Rw of the wall in which they are inserted. Where sound insulation is important, specialised heavyweight doors or, preferably, two doors separated by an absorbent lined airspace or lobby should be used.

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Lightweight Panels Above Doors


Panels are often incorporated for aesthetic reasons, however, they should not be used unless they have an Rw equal to or better than the walls requirement.

Air Paths Through Gaps, Cracks or Holes


Seal all gaps, cracks or openings, however small, with an acoustic sealant. Holes readily conduct airborne sounds and can considerably reduce the Rw of a wall.

Appliances
Noise producing xtures or appliances such as water closets, cisterns, water storage tanks, sluices, dishwashers, washing machines and pumps should be isolated from the structure with resilient mountings and exible service leads and connections.

Electrical Outlets & Service Pipes


Penetrations of all sorts should be avoided but if unavoidable, seal around them effectively. If possible introduce a discontinuity in pipe work between ttings, such as a exible connection within or on the line of a partition. Use acoustically rated boxes for all general power outlets, light switches, telephone connections, television outlets, etc. Seal the sides of electrical boxes and the perimeter of all penetrations with acoustic sealant. Offset all power outlets on either side of a wall by at least 100 mm.

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The following information relates to the construction of brick walls to meet AS3700, the design and aesthetic requirements.

Mortar
AS3700: 2001, Table 10.1 gives the options for mortar mixes classied as M1 to M4. M1 mortars are for restoration applications. M2 mortars are for use in interior walls above dampcourse or in exterior walls above dampcourse if more than one km from a body of salt water and 10 km from a surf coast and the wall has protection from water ingress above. M3 and M4 mortars are those most commonly used in construction. Table 11 gives the proportions of the most commonly used mortars. Other deemed-to-satisfy compositions are given in AS3700. Special mortars that are tested and shown to meet requirements are allowed with verication on site. Note: Proportions are by volume and should be measured with a bucket or gauge box, NOT A SHOVEL.
Table 11. Typical Mortar Mixes
Mortar Type M1 M2 M3 M3 M4 M4 Durability Class PRO PRO GP GP EXP EXP Mix proportions by volume Portland or Hydrated Blended Cement Lime Sand 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0
1

Water Thickener* No No No Yes No Yes

3 9 6 5 412 4

Refer to page 1.104 for description of Durability Class. *Methylcellulose type, not air entrainers such as detergent.

Where masonry strength is crucial, trial walls should be constructed with the bricks and mortar to be used on the job, then tested before construction commences. Masonry bond strength is related to the suction of the bricks, the particle size distribution of the sand, cement content, additive contents, etc. For many jobs these panels can also be used as physical samples of the required quality of the bricklaying and cleaning. Note: AS 3700 allows the use of: Cements complying with AS 3972 or AS 1316 Lime complying with AS 1672.1 Sand that is free of any deleterious materials Water that is free from deleterious materials and Admixtures including plasticisers, air entraining agents and set retarders complying with AS1478.1, cellulose-type water thickeners, colouring pigments complying with BS EN 12878 and bonding polymers. t

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1.302

Mortar (continued)
No other material may be used until tests on masonry constructed with the mortar, made with the material or admixture shows the masonry complies with the standards requirements for compressive strength, exural strength and durability. Deleterious materials are those reducing the strength or durability of the masonry and including anything that attacks the built-in components. This means the use of re clay, detergent, sugar, soft drink, etc., are banned. Most of these materials severely reduce mortar strength and durability. Water thickener must be used only according to the manufacturers directions because overuse severely reduces mortar strength.

Mortar Estimator
Table 12. Estimated Material Requirements to Lay 1,000 Standard Bricks
Mix M3 M3 M4 M4 Composition (C:L:S) 1:1:6 1:0:5 1:0:4 1 : 12 : 412 40 kg bags of cement 4 4 6.5 5.3 25 kg bags of lime 2.4 0 0 1.6 Cubic metres of sand 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 Tonnes of damp sand 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

This table assumes partial lling of cores and typical site wastage. Only make sufcient mortar for immediate use. If mortar starts to set, it may be re-tempered once only. Where bricklaying is interrupted, the mortar should be covered to prevent evaporation and mixed with the trowel before continuing. t

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.303

Mortar (continued)
Mortar Colour
The mortar colour can dramatically affect the overall look. The colour of mortar is inuenced by the colour of the cement and the aggregates (sand). Many pigments are also available ranging in colour through red, yellow, brown, green, blue and black (mainly oxides but carbon black can be used to give black mortar). The cheapest way of colouring mortar is to use coloured sand. White and yellow sands are commonly available but red and brown sands are also available. Sands are normally natural materials which vary considerably even in the one deposit. To ensure colour consistency, sufcient sand from the one batch should be set aside for the whole job. Where colour is crucial to the look of the masonry, before accepting the sand, a trial wall should be built (4 bricks x 10 courses). After the mortar dries assess the colour. Where oxides or carbon black are used as colours never use more than 10% by weight of the cement content. Colours are additive in their effect and it is possible to get different shades and tones of mortar using different combinations of cement, sands and oxides.
Table 13: Typical Coloured Mortar Components
Mortar Colour Red Yellow Cream Tan Black Cement Grey Off-white or Grey Off-white Grey Grey Sand White or Yellow or Red Yellow Yellow White or Yellow Yellow Oxide Red Yellow & Brown None Brown Black

Note: The colour of mortar can be severely degraded by incorrect or poor brick cleaning.

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.304

Joint Types
The type of joint can dramatically affect the overall look of brick masonry. Joints can be used to create a casual, rustic or formal look to brickwork. There are many different joints; the most common ones used in Australia are shown below.
Flush Joint Raked Joint Ironed Joint Struck Joint Weathered Joint

Terminology and joint preference differs in different countries and within Australia. Where there is any confusion, always use a drawing or physical sample to avoid misunderstandings. Shallow ironed joints are recommended in areas requiring exposure grade bricks and mortar. Tooling the joint to produce ironed and struck joints is equivalent to steel trowelling concrete and produces a dense smooth surface which sheds water and dirt better than other types of joint. Ironed and struck joints should always be used for bricks with straight sharp edges such as Smooth Face and Velour bricks. Raked joints may be used with any type of brick but they tend to retain dirt and may lead to streaks down the masonry in dirty environments. Raking must not come closer than 5 mm to any core. This usually limits raking to less than 10 mm, however it is best to check the bricks that are being used before raking. AS3700 species that joints in walls in marine, severe marine or aggressive environments or on aggressive soils must be tooled to a dense smooth surface. This precludes raking and in practice ironed joints are the only ones that consistently meet the requirement. Flush joints may be used with any type of brick. However, ush joints are particularly effective with rumbled bricks as ush joints make the joints look to be of variable thickness that gives a pleasing rustic look.

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.305

Joint Sizes
Mortar bed joints are required to be less than 10 mm unless the design species another thickness. A different thickness may only be specied after the designer considers the effect on compressive and exural strength of the masonry. During construction mortar bed joints are allowed to deviate by 3mm. Because of poor practice or lack of proper direction some slabs and footings are nished at the wrong height. Mortar joints up to 50 mm thick have been used to get the correct coursing, however, this is not allowed under AS3700. Perpends are to have a minimum design thickness of 5 mm. In structural brickwork perpends may be up to 10 mm thicker than the specied thickness but no thinner. In face brickwork perpends may deviate by 5 mm from the average width but in any one wall the maximum difference allowable between any two perpends is 8 mm. The preceding tolerances do not apply in the case of thin bed mortars and perpend tolerances do not apply where perpends are not lled with mortar.

Weepholes
Weepholes are to allow moisture that collects in the cavity to escape. Weepholes should be spaced at less than 1200 mm centres wherever ashing is built into the masonry to shed water from the cavity. Weepholes are usually empty perpends (10 mm wide) but proprietary products are available to prevent the entry of insects. In high wind areas it has been known for water to be blown up the cavity onto the inner wall and as this is very undesirable, more, narrower weepholes are usually built into the wall. It is essential that weepholes remain open and render and other applied coatings, where used, must be raked out of the joint.

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Brick Estimator
Brickwork is based on the 600 mm unit, (seven courses high and two and a half bricks long). This unit ts in with doors, windows and other building materials. The number of bricks required for a wall can be determined from the Brick Coursing Height and Brick Gauge tables on pages 1.310-1.312 of this manual. Select the height of the wall and from the following page for the brick height chosen determine the number of courses. From the next page for 230 mm long bricks or the one after for 290 mm bricks, determine the number of bricks for the length of your wall. A half brick should be calculated as 1 whole brick, due to site wastage. Multiply the number of bricks by the number of courses to give the number of bricks for the wall. Saw cutting bricks may mean getting two halves from a brick but this is not usual practice because of the cost of cutting.

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.307

Brick bonds and other decorative effects


A bond is the pattern in which bricks are laid. The most common bond is Stretcher Bond which consists of courses of full bricks where every course is offset half a brick from the course below. When following the mortar joint, stretcher bond has the longest vertical pathway and therefore the best bend strength. Stretcher bond is used in walls one brick wide. Where walls are two or more bricks wide then stretcher bond needs ties to hold the leaves together to give it a monolithic action. To avoid the use of ties traditional practice has been to lay some of the bricks sideways. This has usually been either full courses of headers with full courses of stretcher (English) or courses of alternating header and stretcher (Flemish). A variation of Flemish Bond is Garden Wall Bond where courses are made of a header and three stretchers alternating. Corner treatment can be different in these bonds. English corners end in full stretchers or full headers, and any part brick required to make up the course is set inside the corner. Dutch corners end in the part bricks. Variations on these bonds are common in particular a header course every three or six courses with stretcher courses between. Although these bonds have traditionally been developed for thick walls, they can be used in single leaf walls as a decorative effect using cut bricks for the headers. Such walls are usually non-load bearing. Cutting costs are high but not excessive as the headers have the cut side turned in and the bricks can be bolstered. Other decorative bonds may be used in non-load bearing applications, particularly in the form of panels. The limitations are strengths lower than Stretcher Bond and the cost of cutting and slower brick laying. The decorative effect of bonds is highlighted by using a mortar in a contrasting colour to the brick. Other bonds include: Stack Bond Bricks laid horizontally in vertical columns so all vertical joints align. Soldier Stack Bond Bricks laid vertically in vertical columns so all vertical joints align. 1/3 Bond Every course is offset by 1/3 of a brick. Zigzag Bond, Vertical Zigzag Bond, 45 Stretcher Bond, Chevron Bond, Basket Weave Bond, 45 Basket Weave Bond and virtually any pattern that tessellates. t

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.308

Brick bonds and other decorative effects (continued)


Other decorative effects are available such as: Laying bands of bricks of the same colour with different textures eg smooth faced and rock faced; Laying bands of bricks with different (contrasting or complimentary) colours; Corbelling (bricks set out from the wall); Racking (bricks set back into the wall); Quoining (corner bricks in different colours or set out from the wall); Soldiers above openings or as a single course; Copings on piers and parapet walls; Sills in different colours or textures, using sill bricks, etc.; or,

In the late 1800s bricks of contrasting colours were laid in patterns such as diamonds or crosses. A more subtle effect can be made by laying bricks with different textures or corbelling the bricks in these patterns. Combinations of the above effects can be used. Eg. An American Architect specied a corbelled course with the course below to be laid in the darkest bricks selected from the packs delivered. The darker band accentuated the shadowing effect from the corbelled course. t

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Common Bond (Full Headers every 6th Course)

Brick bonds and other decorative effects (continued)


Stretcher Bond

Flemish Bond

Common Bond (Flemish every 6th Course)

English Cross or Dutch Bond

Garden Wall Bond

Stack Bond

Soldier Course (With Stretcher Bond)

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.310
50 49 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 48 17 47 46 45 44 43 42 15 41 40 39 14 38 37 36 13 35 34 33 12 32 31 11 30 29 28 27 26 25 9 24 23 22 8 21 20 19 7 18 17 16 6 15 14 13 5 12 11 10 9 8

Brick Coursing Height


3000
36 24 35 34 33 23 18

3000mm

2700

22 32 31 30 20 21 16

2700mm

2400

29 28 27 18 26 19

2400mm

2100

25 24

17

2100mm

16 23

1800

22 21

15

1800mm

14 20 19 13 10

1500

18 12 17 16 11

1500mm

1200

15 10 14 13 12 9

1200mm

900

8 11 10 9 6 7

900mm

600

8 7 6 4 5 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 5 4

600mm

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

300

4 3

300mm

76mm

119mm

162mm

50mm

90mm

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.311

Brick Gauge
230 mm Long Bricks
No. of Bricks Length Opening (mm) (mm) No. of Bricks Length Opening (mm) (mm) No. of Bricks Length Opening (mm) (mm) No. of Bricks Length (mm)

1 112 2 2 2
1

230 350 470 590 710 830 950 1070 1190 1310 1430 1550 1670 1790 1910 2030 2150 2270 2390 2510 2630 2750 2870 2990 3110

250 370 490 610 730 850 970 1090 1210 1330 1450 1570 1690 1810 1930 2050 2170 2290 2410 2530 2650 2770 2890 3010 3130

1312 14 14 2
1

3230 3350 3470 3590 3710 3830 3950 4070 4190 4310 4430 4550 4670 4790 4910 5030 5150 5270 5390 5510 5630 5750 5870 5990 6110

3250 3370 3490 3610 3730 3850 3970 4090 4210 4330 4450 4570 4690 4810 4930 5050 5170 5290 5410 5530 5650 5770 5890 6010 6130

26 2612 27 27 2
1

6230 6350 6470 6590 6710 6830 6950 7070 7190 7310 7430 7550 7670 7790 7910 8030 8150 8270 8390 8510 8630 8750 8870 8990 9110

6250 6370 6490 6610 6730 6850 6970 7090 7210 7330 7450 7570 7690 7810 7930 8050 8170 8290 8410 8530 8650 8770 8890 9010 9130

3812 39 39 2
1

9230 9350 9470 9590 9710 9830 9950 10070 10190 10310 10430 10550 10670 10790 10910 11030 11150 11270 11390 11510 11630 11750 11870 11990 23990

15 1512 16 16 2
1

40 4012 41 41 2
1

3 312 4 4 2
1

28 2812 29 29 2
1

17 1712 18 18 2
1

42 4212 43 43 2
1

5 512 6 6 2
1

30 3012 31 31 2
1

19 1912 20 20 2
1

44 4412 45 45 2
1

7 712 8 8 2
1

32 3212 33 33 2
1

21 2112 22 22 2
1

46 4612 47 47 2
1

9 9 2
1

34 34 2
1

10 10 2
1

35 35 2
1

23 2312 24 24 2
1

48 4812 49 49 2
1

11 11 2
1

36 36 2
1

12 12 2
1

37 37 2
1

25 2512

50 100

13

38

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.312

Brick Gauge
290 mm Long Bricks
No. of Bricks 1 113 1 3
2

Length Opening (mm) (mm) 290 390 490 590 690 790 890 990 1090 1190 1290 1390 1490 1590 1690 1790 1890 1990 2090 2190 2290 2390 2490 2590 2690 2790 2890 2990 3090 3190 3290 3390 3490 3590 3690 3790 3890 3990 310 410 510 610 710 810 910 1010 1110 1210 1310 1410 1510 1610 1710 1810 1910 2010 2110 2210 2310 2410 2510 2610 2710 2810 2910 3010 3110 3210 3310 3410 3510 3610 3710 3810 3910 4010

No. of Bricks 1323 14 14 3


1

Length Opening (mm) (mm) 4090 4190 4290 4390 4490 4590 4690 4790 4890 4990 5090 5190 5290 5390 5490 5590 5690 5790 5890 5990 6090 6190 6290 6390 6490 6590 6690 6790 6890 6990 7090 7190 7290 7390 7490 7590 7690 7790 4110 4210 4310 4410 4510 4610 4710 4810 4910 5010 5110 5210 5310 5410 5510 5610 5710 5810 5910 6010 6110 6210 6310 6410 6510 6610 6710 6810 6910 7010 7110 7210 7310 7410 7510 7610 7710 7810

No. of Bricks 2613 2623 27 27 3


1

Length (mm) 7890 7990 8090 8190 8290 8390 8490 8590 8690 8790 8890 8990 9090 9190 9290 9390 9490 9590 9690 9790 9890 9990 10090 10190 10290 10390 10490 10590 10690 10790 10890 10990 11090 11190 11290 11390 11490 11590

No. of Bricks 39 3913 39 3


2

Length (mm) 11690 11790 11890 11990 12090 12190 12290 12390 12490 12590 12690 12790 12890 12990 13090 13190 13290 13390 13490 13590 13690 13790 13890 13990 14090 14190 14290 14390 14490 14590 14690 14790 14890 14990 29990

2 213 223 3 3 3
1

14 3
2

40 4013 4023 41 41 3
1

15 1513 15 3
2

2723 28 28 3
1

16 1613 1623 17 17 3
1

28 3
2

323 4 4 3
1

29 2913 29 3
2

4123 42 42 3
1

4 3
2

30 3013 3023 31 31 3
1

42 3
2

5 513 5 3
2

1723 18 18 3
1

43 4313 43 3
2

6 613 623 7 7 3
1

18 3
2

44 4413 4423 45 45 3
1

19 1913 19 3
2

3123 32 32 3
1

20 2013 2023 21 21 3
1

32 3
2

723 8 8 3
1

33 3313 33 3
2

4523 46 46 3
1

8 3
2

34 3413 3423 35 35 3
1

46 3
2

9 913 9 3
2

2123 22 22 3
1

47 4713 47 3
2

10 1013 1023 11 11 3
1

22 3
2

48 4813 4823 49 49 3
1

23 2313 23 3
2

3523 36 36 3
1

24 2413 2423 25 25 3
1

36 3
2

1123 12 12 3
1

37 3713 37 3
2

4923 50 100

12 3
2

38 3813 3823

13 1313

2523 26

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.313

Blending
Raw materials for brick making are from natural sources and these vary in colour within any one deposit. Brick makers blend materials to moderate the colour variation but it still occurs. Colour variation may be caused by different conditions across the kiln. No matter how well made, bricks delivered to site will have some degree of colour variation. Poorly blended bricks may show unwanted patches, streaks and bands of colour in the nished masonry. To avoid this: All bricks required for the project, or as many packs as will t, should be delivered at one time and stored on site; and, Bricks should be drawn from at least four packs simultaneously, working down from the corners of each pack.

Brick Storage
Bricks stored on site should be covered and kept off the ground. Bricks may absorb ground water containing salts or coloured minerals creating subsequent problems with staining. Bricks when laid saturated usually produce excessive eforescence as the masonry dries. Saturated bricks may also adversely affect the mortar bond strength. Moving bricks around the site may cause chipping and excessive movement of packs should be avoided.

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.314

Laying Practices
The following practices are recommended: Mortar, extruded from tapping the brick down to the string line, should be cut off with an upward stroke of the trowel. In this manner, a clean cut is made, without smearing the face of the brick. Joints should be tooled progressively as the bricks are laid, when the mortar is rm to thumb pressure. High suction bricks require joints to be tooled more frequently than low suction bricks. Tooling too late produces a burned joint, where the surface may not be smooth and dense. After allowing the mortar to undergo initial set, within a day, dry brush mortar smears, to remove any dags, and then wet brush any remaining mortar stains. Mortar that is allowed to set on the masonry face may require high-pressure water jet cleaning or more costly, risky methods of cleaning. Cavities should be kept as clear as possible from mortar droppings. Flushing out the cavity removes inadvertently dropped mortar and ensures ties are clean and ashing and damp proof courses are not bridged. It is poor practice and usually ineffective to ush large quantities of dropped mortar from cavities. Usual practice is for the bricklayer to leave out one or more bricks at the base of the wall above a ashing or the damp proof course for the washings to come out. Washings can cause serious staining where they run down over lower brickwork and should be rinsed off thoroughly each day. Scaffolding should be kept at least 150 mm from the face of the brickwork to prevent a build up of mortar droppings against the masonry. When bricklaying is interrupted by rain or rain is expected overnight, masonry should be protected by covering it. Saturated masonry will produce excessive eforescence and may lead to staining with some bricks. Face bricks are supplied with one face and one header suitable for exposing (i.e. to be seen after laying). Face bricks with unwanted marks, chips or cracks on a header should be laid with that header inside a mortared joint. Face bricks with unwanted marks, chips or cracks on the face should be set aside by the bricklayer (or labourer) for use as commons. Boral will not be responsible for replacing bricks with unwanted marks, chips or cracks that have been laid.

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.315

Control Joints
Control joints must not be bridged by mortar or render. After laying the bricks or rendering, the joint must be cleaned. Lumps of mortar or render can transfer forces across the closing joint and will cause the bricks to crack (or spall). Control joints are usually constructed with a highly compressible material (in the form of a sheet or rod) inserted to keep dirt and moisture from penetrating to the cavity. For aesthetic reasons a compressible caulking material, matched to the mortar colour, is usually applied on the outside. As the joint closes, compressible caulking compounds may be extruded from the joint but incompressible ones may damage the bricks. If extruded caulking compound is considered unsightly, it can be cut out and replaced or the compound can be recessed during construction. Care must be taken when choosing a caulking compound to ensure it is a highly compressible type that will survive for the design life of the building and not discolour signicantly. There are numerous suitable materials available and manufacturers recommendations should be sought. Where a control joint has exible masonry ties built in, a piece of the compressible material must be removed to accommodate the tie.

Damp Courses and Flashing


Membrane type damp proof courses (DPC) must be laid across the full width of the wall or leaf and must project through the mortar on either side and be completely visible after laying and cleaning is complete. Recessing DPC below the edge of the brickwork so that the mortar bridges the DPC invalidates its use and is therefore entirely unacceptable. Bridged DPC may lead to rising damp, salt attack and or accelerated corrosion of the built-in components that may lead to structural failure. Recessing ashing below the mortar although common is not good practice as it allows the water that should be shed to soak into the wall below the ashing. DPC and ashing at the base of a wall may be combined. Lengths should be as long as possible but where not continuous, two adjacent pieces should overlap by at least 150 mm and if possible be sealed together. If a termite shield is used in the same joint as the DPC, the DPC material must be compatible with the termite shield or corrosion may destroy the DPC. General practice has been to recommend that ashings and DPCs be sandwiched between the mortar. There is some evidence that the common practice of laying ashings and DPC directly on the lower course of bricks and placing the mortar on top may be superior in some instances.

ADV03797

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.316

Cleaning of Clay Masonry


The Basics of Brick Cleaning
The cleaner the bricklayer leaves the wall, the easier will be the cleaning task. The majority of the mortar residues and smears should be cleaned before they set hard. However, in most cases some additional cleaning will be required to completely remove the mortar residue. Cleaning techniques may involve high-pressure water jet equipment or hand methods. Whatever technique is used, the following requirements must be observed to ensure additional staining problems are avoided.

Test Areas
Testing in one or more small areas is the safest way to determine the correct technique and chemical solution to remove mortar residues. This must occur well before nal cleaning, as it will usually not be possible to assess the effectiveness of the test clean until the masonry dries.

Clean Soluble Salt Deposits First


Eforescence, a white uffy deposit, cannot be removed by water or acid. Dry brushing to remove the eforescence before washing is recommended. If eforescence is wetted, the salts go into solution and are drawn back into the brickwork and will reappear as the masonry dries. Eforescence will eventually disappear through natural weathering. Vanadium salts produce a green or yellow eforescence or stain (mainly seen on cream and light coloured clay bricks). Hydrochloric acid will make these stains much worse and may make them impossible to clean. Mild vanadium stains may be treated with sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). Spray or brush on dry brickwork and leave until the stain disappears, then rinse off. Proprietary mould cleaners containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide can be used as above and have been found very effective. Proprietary brick cleaners may also be effective and should be used only according to the manufacturers instructions. Proprietary cleaners usually contain acids that must be neutralised after use with a solution of 15 grams of washing soda per litre of water. More than one chemical application may be required and the walls should be rinsed thoroughly after each treatment. t

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Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.317

Cleaning of Clay Masonry (continued)


High Pressure Cleaning
High-pressure water washing is now common for cleaning brickwork. If used the pressure must be kept below 1000 psi (7000 kPa), the nozzle must be kept 500 mm from the brick face and the nozzle must be a wide fan jet type with an angle of 15 degrees. The following practices must be observed: Cleaning should not start until the mortar has hardened. Hard lumps or persistent smears should be removed by hand. Mask adjacent materials. Do not apply the acid with the high-pressure sprayer. Use a low-pressure spray or broom it on. Clean from top to bottom in small sections. Work in the shade, ahead of the sun, if possible. DO NOT USE EXCESSIVE PRESSURE OR GET TOO CLOSE, as this will damage the face of the brick and the mortar joint. Mortar joints that are no longer smooth with sharp edges is a clear sign of excessive pressure. Excessive pressure is used to make cleaning faster; it does not do a better job of cleaning. t

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Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.318

Cleaning of Clay Masonry (continued)


Saturate the Wall Surface
Failure to completely saturate the surface of the wall is in itself a major cause of cleaning stains. Cleaning solutions containing dissolved mortar particles and acids will be drawn into a dry masonry wall, causing staining. Furthermore, saturating the surface of the wall keeps the acid solution on the face of the masonry where the mortar smears are present. It is not true that face saturation weakens the acid and slows the cleaning. Water should be trained on the wall until the brick suction is exhausted. The area to be cleaned must be saturated as well as all brickwork areas below. If the wall appears to be drying on the surface, reapply water until ready to apply the cleaning solution. Recommended acid strengths are based on application to a surface saturated wall. Note: This point must be strictly adhered to for bricks manufactured in Queensland. Their raw materials contain large amounts of iron oxide and failure to saturate the surface of the wall allows acid solutions to react with the iron oxide and create severe iron oxide staining. Failure to saturate the surface of the bricks manufactured in other parts of Australia can also lead to the acid reacting with iron oxide but to a much lesser degree. This form of staining is known as acid burn and is particularly visible on light coloured bricks. Acid absorption into bricks can also lead to vanadium and manganese staining. t

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Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.319

Cleaning of Clay Masonry (continued)


Acids The Basics
The traditional masonry-cleaning chemical is hydrochloric acid, (also known as muriatic acid or spirits of salts). Its main function is to dissolve the cement in the mortar mix. It has few other uses and in many stain situations should not be used. Hydrochloric acid is a corrosive S6 poison and care must be taken when using it. If acid is splashed onto the skin it should be immediately swabbed with clean water, or more effectively, with a solution of bicarbonate of soda in water, which will neutralise the acid. The recommended acid strength for light coloured clay bricks is 1 part acid to 20 parts water and for other bricks is 1 part acid to 10 parts water. Acid takes time to dissolve the cement and should be left on for 4-6 minutes (or longer if needed) before washing off. After washing a solution of 15 g per litre of washing soda or 24 g per litre of sodium bicarbonate should be sprayed on to neutralise any remaining acid. Excess hydrochloric acid will eventually evaporate from the brickwork, however, it is likely to cause staining of the bricks and damage to built-in components. Other acids such as sulfuric acid or nitric acid will not evaporate and are not used in brick cleaning. Note: The recommended strength must be strictly adhered to. Bricks manufactured in Queensland may contain large amounts of iron oxide and the use of acid solutions stronger than 1 part acid to 20 parts water can dissolve these particles and create iron oxide staining. For light coloured bricks manufactured elsewhere the use of solutions stronger than 1 part acid to 20 parts water can lead to acid burn. Proprietary masonry cleaning solutions containing a mixture of acids are available. If used, the manufacturers recommendations must be strictly adhered to. Excessive and incorrect use of some proprietary cleaning solutions has in the past, produced very bad staining. t

ADV03801

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 1.3. Brick Masonry Construction

1.320

Cleaning of Clay Masonry (continued)


Safety Precautions
All masonry-cleaning acids are dangerous. Acids that do not dissolve cement as quickly as hydrochloric acid are not necessarily safer and can be very much more dangerous to human health. To avoid personal injury: Wear goggles, gloves and protective clothing. Always pour acids into water this avoids splashes of highly concentrated acid onto the operator. If splashed onto the body, wash with clean water and if possible, neutralise with a mixture of bicarbonate of soda and water. The manufacturers instructions and safety precautions must be strictly adhered to if proprietary cleaning products are used.

ADV03802

1.4 Property Tables

Escura Smooth Face


Terracotta Choc Tan Cinnamon Flame Red Jute Melbourne Nevada Red Cream Pearl Grey Salmon Pink Victorian Pink
DW1 <30 3.0 49 190 >22 >15 >15 >15 >15 >22 >15 190 190 190 190 210 190 190 >15 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.4 2.9 2.9 <30 <30 <30 <30 <30 <30 <30 <30 2.9 49 190 >15 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 <30 3.4 49 210 >22

Brown

Cream

Frost

Red

Taupe

Work size (mm)

230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76

Dimensional Category

DW1

DW1

DW1

DW1

DW1

Perforation (%)

<30

<30

<30

<30

<30

Ave unit weight (kg)

2.9

2.9

3.0

2.9

3.0

Approx number per m

49

49

49

49

49

Wall surface density (kg/m2)

190

190

190

190

190

Characteristics unconfined compressive strength of the unit (fuc) MPa

>22

>22

>22

>22

>22

Strength of masonry (MPa) - Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M3* mortar (GP) - Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M3* mortar (EXP) >6.6 >7.0 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil to slight 45 90 400 1200 925 340 340 925 90 90 45 45 45 90 340 925 Nil Nil Nil Nil to slight Nil to slight EXP GP EXP GP Nil 45 90 340 1020 <1.1 <1.1 <1.1 <1.1 >5.8 >5.8 >5.8 >5.8 >9.0 <1.4 EXP Nil 45 90 272 950 >5.4 >5.4 >5.4 >5.4 >8.5

>6.6

>6.6

>6.6

>6.6

>6.6

>5.4 >5.8 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil 45 90 340 925

>5.4 >5.8 <1.1 GP Nil 45 90 340 925

>5.4 >5.8 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil 45 90 340 925

>8.5 >9.0 <1.4 EXP Nil to slight Nil 45 90 272 950

>7.0

>7.0

>7.0

>7.0

>7.0

Co-efficient of growth em (mm/m/15yrs)

<1.1

<1.1

<1.1

<1.1

<1.1

Salt attack resistence category

EXP

GP

GP

EXP

GP

Liability to effloresce

Nil to slight Nil to slight

Nil to slight Nil to slight

Nil to slight

Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil to slight

Lime pitting

Nil to slight Nil to slight

Nil to slight Nil to slight

Nil to slight

Weighted Sound Reduction Index - Unrendered

45

45

45

45

45

Fire rating (FRL) minutes - Insulated unrendered

90

90

90

90

90

No per pack

400

400

400

400

400

Pack weight (kg)

1200

1200

1200

1200

1200

Pack dimensions (mm)

1150x920x775 1150x920x775 1150x920x775 1150x920x775 1150x920x775 1150x920x775 1150x770x684 1150x770x684 1150x770x684 1150x770x684 865x710x935 1150x770x684 1150x770x684 1150x770x684 865x710x935

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35.

This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Escura Smooth Face 50mm


Cream
230x110x50 230x110x50 230x110x50 230x110x50 DW1 30 2 70 200 >22 >22 >22 >22 200 200 200 70 70 70 2 2 2 30 30 30 DW1 DW1 DW1

Frost

Red

Brown

Work size (mm)

Dimensional Category

Perforation (%)

Ave unit weight (kg)

Approx number per m2

Wall surface density (kg/m2)

Characteristics unconfined compressive strength of the unit (fuc) MPa

Strength of masonry (MPa) - Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M3* mortar (GP) - Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M3* mortar (EXP) >6.6 >7.0 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil to slight 45 90 510 1100 1100 510 90 90 510 1100 45 45 Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil to slight 45 90 510 1100 Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil to slight GP EXP EXP <1.1 <1.1 <1.1 >7.0 >7.0 >7.0 >6.6 >6.6 >6.6

Co-efficient of growth em (mm/m/15yrs)

Salt attack resistence category

Liability to effloresce

Lime pitting

Weighted Sound Reduction Index - Unrendered

Fire rating (FRL) minutes - Insulated unrendered

No per pack

Pack weight (kg)

Pack dimensions (mm)

1150x920x690 1150x920x690 1150x920x690 1150x920x690

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35.

This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Escura Velour
Red Oyster Grey
230x110x76 DW1 <30 2.9 49 190 >22 >22 >10 >15 >15 >15 190 185 190 190 190 49 49 49 49 49 49 190 >15 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 <30 <30 <30 <30 <30 <30 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 DW1 <30 3.4 49 210 >22 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76 230x110x76

Cream

Terracotta

Brown

Blue Rio

Nevada Cream

Salmon Pink

Pearl Grey

Flame Red

Victorian Blue

Work size (mm) DW1 <30 2.9 49 190 >22 >22 190 49 2.9 <30 DW1

230x110x76

230x110x76

230x110x76

Dimensional category

DW1

Perforation (%)

<30

Ave unit weight (kg)

2.9

Approx number per m

49

Brickwork load/m2 (kg/m2)

190

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 1.4 Clay Brick Property Tables

Characteristic unconned compressive strength of the unit (fuc) MPa

>22

Strengths of masonry (MPa) >6.6 >7.0 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil to slight 45 90 400 1200 1200 1200 400 400 90 90 90 380 1080 45 45 45 Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil 45 90 340 925 Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil to slight GP GP GP EXP GP <1.1 <1.1 <1.1 <1.0 <1.1 >7.0 >7.0 >7.0 >4.7 >5.8 >5.8 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil 45 90 340 925 >6.6 >6.6 >6.6 >4.4 >5.4 >5.4 >5.4 >5.8 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil 45 90 340 925 >5.4 >5.8 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil 45 90 340 925 >6.6 >7.0 <1.4 EXP Nil to slight Nil 45 90 272 950 865x710x935

Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M3* mortar (GP)

>6.6

Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M4* mortar (EXP)

>7.0

Co-efcient of growth em (mm/m/15yrs)

<1.1

Salt attack resistance category

GP

Liability to eforesce

Nil to slight

Nil to slight

Lime pitting 45 90 400 1200

Nil to slight

Nil to slight

STC rating Unrendered

45

Fire rating (FRL) minutes Insulation unrendered

90

No per pack

400

Pack weight (kg)

1200

Pack dimensions (mm)

1150x920x775 1150x920x775 1150x920x775 1150x920x775 1150x920x775 1000x860x930 1150x770x684 1150x770x684 1150x770x684 1150x770x684

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35.

1.402

This technical information is subject to change without notice.

ADV03804

Escura Pressed
Cream
230x110x76 DW1 Frog 4.1 49 240 >22

Red

Work size (mm)

230x110x76

Typical data for all other Boral face bricks can be found using the Reference Guides on the following pages. Look up your required product by Brick Name (page 1.404) or Range Name (page 1.405), and match the code to the corresponding Property Table Legend on page 1.406.

Dimensional category

DW1

Perforation (%)

Frog

Ave unit weight (kg)

4.1

For typical data relating to Boral clay pavers, refer to Section 2.4 Paver Property Tables, Pages 2.401 2.402.

Approx number per m2

49

Brickwork load/m2 (kg/m2)

240

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 1.4 Clay Brick Property Tables

Characteristic unconned compressive strength of the unit (fuc) MPa

>22

Strengths of masonry (MPa) >6.6 >7.0 <1.4 EXP Nil to slight Nil 45 90 272 1200 890x725x940

Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M3* mortar (GP)

>6.6

Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M4* mortar (EXP)

>7.0

Co-efcient of growth em (mm/m/15yrs)

<1.4

Salt attack resistance category

EXP

Liability to eforesce

Nil to slight

Lime pitting

Nil

STC rating Unrendered

45

Fire rating (FRL) minutes Insulation unrendered

90

No per pack

272

Pack weight (kg)

1200

Pack dimensions (mm)

890x725x940

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35.

1.403

This technical information is subject to change without notice.

ADV03805

LEGEND - Products Listed Alphabeticaly by Brick Name


Brick Name Code Range Name Brick Name Code Range Name Brick Name Code

Range Name

Brick Name

Code

Range Name

HORIZON NSW Alabaster Desert Sage Drysdale Duchess Ember Glow Eureka Flintstone Florentine Limestone Fresco Girraween Golden Harvest Grey Nuance Gypsy Rose Hendra Heritage Hillview Hobart Ironbark Jarrah Kimberley Kingsley Kingsley Double Height La Mesa ELAN ELAN Labassa Labassa 50mm Latrobe Latrobe Double Height K L I E C B L WOODSTOCK K WOODSTOCK C WOODSTOCK A HORIZON NSW Phillip Port Phillip Potters Gold Potters Gold Double Height Raheen Rattan HORIZON NSW Red Cove REVIVE REVIVE ELAN Red Texture No Arris Red Texture Smooth Arris Ripponlea A HORIZON NSW Pewter Sands F ELAN Peachy Isle M HORIZON VIC Old Woodville F HORIZON VIC Old Russet K HORIZON VIC Old Maple C HORIZON VIC Old Golden C C C C B M J F K L C B H M M C B NUVO Nelson Bay J M HORIZON NSW Murray River H K WOODSTOCK Mowbray Double Height L M WOODSTOCK Mowbray K WOODSTOCK N HORIZON VIC Mocha C WOODSTOCK M ELAN Madeira B WOODSTOCK F HORIZON QLD Longreach K HORIZON VIC Sandalwood Sandhurst Sandstone Gold Sandstone Gold Double Height C NUVO Linden M ELAN Rouge B HORIZON NSW Lindeman J WOODSTOCK M NUVO Limestone Hue J WOODSTOCK Rose Gold Rose Gold Double Height J WOODSTOCK Lexington Gold Double Height L NUVO Rose Bay

HORIZON NSW Delta Sands

WOODSTOCK

Lexington Gold

NUVO

Riverclay

K J K L A B M K L H

NUVO

Albion

NUVO

NUVO

Alpine

WOODSTOCK

ELAN

Amber Blaze

ELAN

ELAN

Amber Blaze 50mm

HORIZON VIC

HORIZON NSW Antique Cream

WOODSTOCK

HORIZON NSW Antique Grey

WOODSTOCK

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

HORIZON NSW Antique Natural

ELAN

HORIZON NSW Antique Pink

WOODSTOCK

HORIZON NSW Arnhem Sands

HORIZON QLD

HORIZON NSW Sandy Bay WOODSTOCK ELAN WOODSTOCK ELAN WOODSTOCK NUVO HORIZON QLD Scarborough Scarlet Settler Soft Gold Sorbet Sorrell St George HORIZON NSW Summer Gold NUVO WOODSTOCK ELAN NUVO HORIZON QLD HORIZON VIC WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK Sunset Haze Sydney Town Tanami Tuscana Windorah Windsor Winter Gold Winter Gold Double Height

NUVO

Ascot

WOODSTOCK

M B F B M K K J J F C O K A K L

NUVO

Bantry Bay

ELAN

HORIZON VIC

Beaumonde

HORIZON VIC

Section 1.4 Clay Brick Property Tables Reference Guide

WOODSTOCK

Bentley

NUVO

WOODSTOCK

Bentley Double Height

WOODSTOCK

HORIZON VIC

Berwick Rustic

WOODSTOCK

NUVO

Bianca

WOODSTOCK

NUVO

Cameo

HORIZON VIC

WOODSTOCK

Canyon

HORIZON VIC

NUVO

Classic Limestone Hue

ELAN

ELAN

Cleveland

WOODSTOCK

ELAN

Cleveland 50mm

WOODSTOCK

WOODSTOCK

Colonial

ELAN

NUVO

Coral Mist

ELAN

HORIZON NSW Coral Sands

ELAN

REVIVE

Cream Rockface

WOODSTOCK

REVIVE

Cream Texture

WOODSTOCK

1.404

WOODSTOCK

Crestwood

HORIZON NSW Leura

ADV03806

LEGEND - Products Listed Alphabeticaly by Range Name


Brick Name Code Range Name Brick Name Code Range Name Brick Name Code

Range Name

Brick Name

Code

Range Name

ELAN J H M J H H J K K K K B C C C A A C C C C C B A M K K WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK REVIVE REVIVE REVIVE Cream Texture Red Texture No Arris Red Texture Smooth Arris Bentley Bentley Double Height Canyon Colonial Crestwood Drysdale Eureka Flintstone Fresco REVIVE Cream Rockface NUVO Tuscana NUVO Sunset Haze NUVO Sorrell K J O F F M M K L M F M M F M M NUVO Rose Bay J NUVO Riverclay K NUVO Nelson Bay J NUVO Linden M WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK WOODSTOCK NUVO Limestone Hue J WOODSTOCK NUVO Hendra K WOODSTOCK Latrobe Latrobe Double Height Lexington Gold Lexington Gold Double Height Mowbray Mowbray Double Height Port Phillip Potters Gold Potters Gold Double Height Rose Gold Rose Gold Double Height Sandhurst Sandstone Gold Sandstone Gold Double Height Scarborough Settler Sorbet Sydney Town Winter Gold Winter Gold Double Height NUVO Desert Sage J WOODSTOCK NUVO Coral Mist J WOODSTOCK Kingsley Kingsley Double Height NUVO Classic Limestone Hue J WOODSTOCK Hobart NUVO Cameo J WOODSTOCK Hillview NUVO Bianca K WOODSTOCK Heritage

Amber Blaze

HORIZON NSW Leura

NUVO

Bantry Bay

WOODSTOCK

Golden Harvest

M F M F K L K L K L K L F K L K L M K L M F M F K L

ELAN

Amber Blaze 50mm

HORIZON NSW Lindeman

ELAN

Cleveland

HORIZON NSW Murray River

ELAN

Cleveland 50mm

HORIZON NSW Pewter Sands

ELAN

Duchess

HORIZON NSW Phillip

ELAN

Florentine Limestone

HORIZON NSW Red Cove

ELAN

Grey Nuance

HORIZON NSW Sandy Bay

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

ELAN Girraween Longreach St George Windorah Beaumonde Berwick Rustic Ember Glow Gypsy Rose Ironbark Jarrah Mocha Old Golden Old Maple Old Russet Old Woodville Sandalwood Windsor Albion Alpine Ascot

Kimberley

HORIZON NSW Summer Gold

ELAN

La Mesa

HORIZON QLD

ELAN

Labassa

HORIZON QLD

ELAN

Labassa 50mm

HORIZON QLD

ELAN

Madeira

HORIZON QLD

ELAN

Peachy Isle

HORIZON VIC

Section 1.4 Clay Brick Property Tables Reference Guide

ELAN

Raheen

HORIZON VIC

ELAN

Rattan

HORIZON VIC

ELAN

Ripponlea

HORIZON VIC

ELAN

Rouge

HORIZON VIC

ELAN

Scarlet

HORIZON VIC

ELAN

Soft Gold

HORIZON VIC

ELAN

Tanami

HORIZON VIC

HORIZON NSW Alabaster

HORIZON VIC

HORIZON NSW Antique Cream

HORIZON VIC

HORIZON NSW Antique Grey

HORIZON VIC

HORIZON NSW Antique Natural

HORIZON VIC

HORIZON NSW Antique Pink

HORIZON VIC

HORIZON NSW Arnhem Sands

NUVO

HORIZON NSW Coral Sands

NUVO

1.405

HORIZON NSW Delta Sands

NUVO

ADV03807

Legend
A
230x110x76 DW1 <30 3.3 49 205 >22 >6.6 >7.0 <1.4 EXP Nil Nil 460 1518 1150x912x880 >6.6 >7.0 <1.4 GP Nil Nil 460 1472 1150x912x880 >8.5 >9.0 <1.4 EXP Nil to slight Nil 272 950 865x710x935 >8.5 >9.0 <1.4 EXP Nil to slight Nil 272 1200 890x725x940 >5.1 >5.4 <1.4 EXP Nil to slight Nil 424 1000 865x730x935 >5.4 >5.8 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil 340 925 1150x770x684 >5.4 >5.8 <1.1 EXP Nil to slight Nil 340 925 1150x770x684 230x110x76 DW1 <30 3.2 49 200 >22 230x110x76 DW1 <30 3.4 49 210 >22 230x110x76 DW1 Frog 4.1 49 240 >22 230x110x50 DW1 <30 2.3 70 210 >22 230x110x76 DW1 <30 2.9 49 190 >15 230x110x76 DW1 <30 2.9 49 190 >15 230x110x76 DW1 <30 2.9 49 190 >22 >6.6 >7.0 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil to slight 400 1200 1150x920x775

For the product and range name properties on the preceding pages, refer to the following legend. B C D E F G H

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 1.4 Clay Brick Property Tables

Work size (mm) Dimensional category Perforation (%) Ave unit weight (kg) Approx number per m2 Brickwork load/m2 (kg/m2) Characteristic unconned compressive strength of the unit (fuc) MPa Strengths of masonry (MPa) Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M3* mortar (GP) Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M4* mortar (EXP) Co-efcient of growth em (mm/m/15yrs) Salt attack resistance category Liability to eforesce Lime pitting No per pack Pack weight (kg) Pack dimensions (mm)

I
230x110x76 DW1 <30 2.9 49 190 >22 >6.6 >7.0 <1.1 EXP Nil to slight Nil to slight 400 1200 1150x770x685 >6.6 >7.0 <1.1 GP Nil to slight Nil to slight 288 836 920x920x880 >4.4 >4.7 <1.0 EXP Nil to slight Nil to slight 380 1080 1000x860x930 >5.5 >5.9 <1.0 EXP Nil to slight Nil to slight 172 1050 1000x820x930 230x110x76 DW1 <30 2.9 49 190 >22 230x110x76 DW1 <30 2.7 49 185 >10 230x110x162 DW1 <30 5.8 24.5 190 >10

M
230x110x76 DW1 <30 2.9 49 190 >22 >7.5 >8.0 <1.0 EXP Nil to slight Nil to slight 400 1200 1150x912x770

N
290x90x162 DW1 <30 5.4 19.5 160 >10 >5.4 >5.8 <0.8 GP Slight Nil 132 713 980x770x870

O
230x110x76 DW1 <32 2.8 49 190 >12 >4.8 >5.1 <0.8 GP Slight Nil 264 739 940x880x700

Work size (mm) Dimensional category Perforation (%) Ave unit weight (kg) Approx number per m2 Brickwork load/m2 (kg/m2) Characteristic unconned compressive strength of the unit (fuc) MPa Strengths of masonry (MPa) Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M3* mortar (GP) Characteristic compressive strength (fm) M4* mortar (EXP) Co-efcient of growth em (mm/m/15yrs) Salt attack resistance category Liability to eforesce Lime pitting No per pack Pack weight (kg) Pack dimensions (mm)

1.406

ADV03808

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 1.4 Clay Brick Property Tables

1.407
Ratio 50% / 50% 40% / 40% / 20% 60% / 40% 40% / 40% / 20% 60% / 40% 40% / 40% / 20% 50% / 50% 66% / 33% 50% / 25% / 25% 25% / 25% 25% / 25% 66% / 33% 33% / 33% / 33% 50% / 50% 50% / 50% 50% / 25% / 25% 75% / 25% 83% / 17% 75% / 25% 33% / 33% / 33% 33% / 33% / 33% 50% / 50% 75% / 25% 50% / 50% 85% / 15% 70% / 30% 85% / 15% 75% / 25% 66% / 33% 70% / 20% / 10% 25% / 25% 25% / 25% 33% / 33% / 33% 33% / 66% 40% / 40% / 20% 85% / 15% 80% / 20% 50% / 50% 33% / 33% / 33% 33% / 33% / 33% 85% / 15% 50% / 50% 85% / 15% 50% / 50% 66% / 33% 33% / 33% / 33% 40% / 40% / 20% 85% / 15% 25% / 25% / 50% 50% / 50% 33% / 33% / 33%

Brick Blends
Brand Elan Elan Elan Elan Elan Elan Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Horizon Nuvo Nuvo Nuvo Nuvo Nuvo Nuvo Nuvo Nuvo Nuvo Nuvo Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Blend Name Brighton Camelot Cashmere Rhapsody Sussex Toorak 50mm Brighton Sands Capes Lagoon Carrington Castlemaine Copeland Echo Point Georges Basin Hawkesbury Hunter Manning Outback Patterson Reef Barclay Bendemeer Double Bay Grange Rafa Sandstone Blush Tambo Taylors Bay Watsons Bay Yowie Bay Aspley Bakehouse Gold Barweave Brindle Brunswick Carbrook Daintree Denison Diggers Gold Dustwood Glenayr Highland Homestead Gold Marigold Mountview Mt Cotton Rywood Stockmans Wickham Woodland Blend Mix 1Amber Blaze/1Cleveland 2Madeira/2Peachy Isle/1Grey Nuance 3La Mesa/2Peachy Isle 2Madeira/2Peachy Isle/1Rattan 3Madeira/2Peachy Isle 2Amber Blaze 50mm /2Cleveland 50mm /1Labassa 50mm 1Coral Sands/1Delta Sands 2Sandy Bay/1Murray River 2Pink/1Cream/1Natural 1Pink/1Cream/1Natural/1Grey 2Cream/1Grey 1Sandy Bay/1Red Cove/1Murray River 1Sandy Bay/1Red Cove 1Pink/1Cream 2Pink/1Cream/1Grey 3Pink/1Natural 5Windorah/1St George 3Cream/1Natural 1Coral Sands/1Pewter Sands/1Delta 1Sorrell/1Alpine/1Riverclay 1Linden/1Albion 3Bantry Bay/1Nelson Bay 1Hendra/1Ascot 5Sorrell/1Alpine 5Cameo/2Limestone Hue 5Alpine/1Sorrell 3Nelson Bay/1Bantry Bay 2Bantry Bay/1Rose Bay 7Nelson Bay/2Bantry Bay/1Rose Bay 1Sandhurst/1Drysdale/1Hillview/1Crestwood 1Lexington Gold/1Potters Gold/1Sandstone Gold 1 Lexington /2 Mowbray 2Sorbet/2Canyon/1Golden Harvest 5Mowbray/1Kingsley 4Bentley/1Kingsley 1Sandhurst/1Crestwood 1Sandhurst/1Drysdale/1Flintstone 1Potters Gold/1Sandstone Gold/1Winter Gold 5 Lexington Gold /1Potters Gold 1Sandhurst/1Drysdale 5 Sandstone Gold/1 Winter Gold 1Potters Gold/1Sandstone Gold 2Sorbet/1Golden Harvest 1Sandhurst/1Drysdale/1Bellara 2Bentley/2Mowbray/1Kingsley 5 Winter Gold /1 Sandstone Gold 1Sandhurst/1Crestwood/2Hillview 1Bentley/1Mowbray 1Sandhurst/1Drysdale/1Crestwood

ADV03809

2.4 Property Tables

Clay Pavers
Coffee 228x113x40 DPA1 2.0 38 <0.9 >5.0 <6.0 W No EXP Yes Nil to slight Nil 608 1216 920x920x791 920x920x791 920x920x791 920x920x791 1216 1216 1216 1216 920x920x791 608 608 608 608 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil to slight Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Nil to slight Nil 608 1216 920x920x791 EXP EXP EXP EXP EXP No No No No No W W W W W <6.0 <5.0 <4.5 <6.0 <7.0 <6.0 W No EXP Yes Nil to slight Nil 608 1216 920x920x791 >4.5 >5.0 >3.5 >3.5 >6.5 >5.0 <0.9 <0.9 <0.9 <0.9 <0.9 <0.9 38 38 38 38 38 38 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 DPA1 DPA1 DPA1 DPA1 DPA1 DPA1 DPA1 2.0 38 <0.9 >4.0 <8.0 W No EXP Yes Nil to slight Nil 608 1216 920x920x791 228x113x40 228x113x40 228x113x40 228x113x40 228x113x40 228x113x40 228x113x40 Merino Tan Autumn Cream Zircon Garnet Onyx Opal

PAVESCAPE

SUMMERSET

Morocco

Work size (mm)

228x113x40

Dimensional category

DPA1

Ave unit weight (kg)

2.0

Approx number per m2

38

Co-efcient of growth em (mm/m/15yrs)

<0.9

Minimum breaking load (kN)

>5.5

Mean Abrasion Index (cm3)

<4.5

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Slip resistance classication

Section 2.4 Clay Paver Property Tables

Freeze thaw resistance

No

Salt attack resistance category

EXP

Salt safe

Yes

Liability to eforesce

Nil to slight

Lime pitting

Nil

No per pack#

608

Pack weight (kg)#

1216

Pack dimensions (mm)#

920x920x791

Notes: Physical property testing is carried out in accordance with AS/NZS 4456:1997, AS/NZS 4586:1999, ASTM C67. #Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35.

2.401

ADV03810

Clay Pavers
Terracotta 230x113x50 DPA2 2.8 37 <1.0 >9.0 <2.0 V No GP No Slight Nil 510 1428 1150x904x600 1150x904x600 1150x900x678 1150x900x678 1428 1428 1428 1428 1150x900x678 510 510 510 510 Nil Nil Nil Nil Slight Nil to slight Nil to slight Nil to slight No No Yes Yes Yes Slight Nil 510 1428 1150x904x600 GP GP EXP EXP EXP No No Yes Yes Yes V V V V V <2.5 <2.0 <2.0 <2.0 <2.0 <2.0 V No EXP Yes Slight Nil 510 1428 1150x904x600 >7.0 >6.5 >7.0 >7.5 >10 >10 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 37 37 37 37 37 37 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 DPA2 DPA2 DPA2 DPA2 DPA2 DPA2 DPA2 2.8 37 <1.0 >10 <2.0 V No EXP Yes Slight Nil 510 1428 1150x904x600 230x113x50 230x113x50 230x113x50 230x113x50 230x113x50 230x113x50 230x113x50 Brown Resort Cream Resort Terracotta Resort Ironstone Almond Ash Ochre

BRINGELLY Standard

BRINGELLY Salt Safe

Cream

Work size (mm)

230x113x50

Dimensional category

DPA2

Ave unit weight (kg)

2.8

Approx number per m2

37

Co-efcient of growth em (mm/m/15yrs)

<1.0

Minimum breaking load (kN)

>6.5

Mean Abrasion Index (cm3)

<2.5

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Slip resistance classication

Section 2.4 Clay Paver Property Tables

Freeze thaw resistance

No

Salt attack resistance category

GP

Salt safe

No

Liability to eforesce

Slight

Lime pitting

Nil

No per pack #

510

Pack weight (kg) #

1428

Pack dimensions (mm) #

1150x904x600

Notes: Physical property testing is carried out in accordance with AS/NZS 4456:1997, AS/NZS 4586:1999, ASTM C67. #Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35.

2.402

ADV03811

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Standard Commercial Common


TYPICAL PROPERTIES Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) Dimensional Category Perforations (%) Average Unit Weight (kg) Approximate number per m2 Lime Pitting No. per pack # Pack Weight (kg) # Pack Dimensions (LxWxH mm) # Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) Transverse Strength (MPa) Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) Salt Attack Resistance Category Liability to Eforesce Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered Rendered (one side) Rendered (both sides) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered Rendered Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 230x110x76 DW1 <30 3.0 49 Nil to Slight 400 1200 1150x770x912 182 >22 >2.5 <1.1 GP Nil to slight 46 (-2, -5) 48 (-2, -5) 50 (-2, -5) 90 120 90/90/90

288 900 920x920x880

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. Pack size of 288 cannot be handled by a forklift with tines, however will be placed on pallets on request. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 3.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Standard Commercial Common


FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.
110mm

S
FRL for Insulation 90 minutes 90/90/90

FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

S
FRL for Insulation FRL for Integrity is the lower of the FRLs for Insulation or Structural Adequacy 240 minutes

110mm 110mm

For both leaves equally loaded (10%) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 3.3 metres wall height up to 4.1 metres

240 minutes 90 minutes

S S

For both leaves unequally loaded (i.e. >10% variance) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 2.5 metres 240 minutes wall height up to 3.0 metres 90 minutes Sound reduction of a wall consisting of two leaves 110mm brick with a 50mm cavity Rendered both sides Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm glass wool insulation with Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation a density of 11 kg/m3 Unrendered with 50mm polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03813

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Jumbo Common
TYPICAL PROPERTIES Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) Dimensional Category Perforations (%) Average Unit Weight (kg) Approximate number per m2 Lime Pitting No. per pack # Pack Weight (kg) # Pack Dimensions (LxWxH mm) # Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) Transverse Strength (MPa) Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) Salt Attack Resistance Category Liability to Eforesce Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered Rendered (one side) Rendered (both sides) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered Rendered Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 230x110x119 DW2 <30 4.5 32.5 Nil to slight 245 1152 1150x770x833 181 >22 >2.0 <1.1 GP Nil to slight 46 (-2, -5) 48 (-2, -5) 50 (-2, -5) 90 120 90/90/90

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 3.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Jumbo Common
FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.
110mm

S
FRL for Insulation 90 minutes 90/90/90

FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

S
FRL for Insulation FRL for Integrity is the lower of the FRLs for Insulation or Structural Adequacy
110mm

240 minutes

110mm

For both leaves equally loaded (10%) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 3.3 metres wall height up to 4.1 metres

240 minutes 90 minutes

S S

For both leaves unequally loaded (i.e. >10% variance) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 2.5 metres 240 minutes wall height up to 3.0 metres 90 minutes Sound reduction of a wall consisting of two leaves 110mm brick with a 50mm cavity Rendered both sides Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm glass wool insulation with Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation a density of 11 kg/m3 Unrendered with 50mm polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03815

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Double Height Common


TYPICAL PROPERTIES Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) Dimensional Category Perforations (%) Average Unit Weight (kg) Approximate number per m2 Lime Pitting No. per pack # Pack Weight (kg) # Pack Dimensions (LxWxH mm) # Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) Transverse Strength (MPa) Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) Salt Attack Resistance Category Liability to Eforesce Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered Rendered (one side) Rendered (both sides) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered Rendered Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 230x110x162 DW1 <30 6.0 24.5 Nil to slight 172 1100 935x830x995 180 >22 >1.0 <1.1 GP Nil to slight 46 (-2, -5) 48 (-2, -5) 50 (-2, -5) 90 120 90/90/90

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 3.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Double Height Common


FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.
110mm

S
FRL for Insulation 90 minutes 90/90/90

FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

S
FRL for Insulation FRL for Integrity is the lower of the FRLs for Insulation or Structural Adequacy
110mm

240 minutes

110mm

For both leaves equally loaded (10%) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 3.3 metres wall height up to 4.1 metres

240 minutes 90 minutes

S S

For both leaves unequally loaded (i.e. >10% variance) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 2.5 metres 240 minutes wall height up to 3.0 metres 90 minutes Sound reduction of a wall consisting of two leaves 110mm brick with a 50mm cavity Rendered both sides Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm glass wool insulation with Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation a density of 11 kg/m3 Unrendered with 50mm polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03817

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

PartyWall Brick
TYPICAL PROPERTIES PW76 Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) 230x150x76 Dimensional Category DW2 Perforations (%) <30 Average Unit Weight (kg) 4.0 2 Approximate number per m 49 Lime Pitting Nil to slight No. per pack # 280 Pack Weight (kg) # 1120 Pack Dimensions (LxWxH mm) # 1450x1080x810 Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) 240 Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) >22 Transverse Strength (MPa) >3.0 Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) <1.1 Salt Attack Resistance Category GP Liability to Eforesce Nil to slight Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered 49 (-1, -5) Rendered (one side) 53 (-1, -5) Rendered (both sides) 57 (-1, -5) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered 120 Rendered 180 Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 120/120/120 PW119 230x150x119 DW2 <30 6.0 32.5 Nil to slight 180 1080 1150x750x952 240 >22 >3.0 <1.1 GP Nil to slight 49 (-1, -5) 53 (-1, -5) 57 (-1, -5) 120 180 120/120/120

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 4.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

PartyWall Brick
FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.

PartyWall PW76
150mm

S S

FRL for Insulation FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

120 minutes 120/120/120

PartyWall PW119
150mm

S S

FRL for Insulation FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

120 minutes 120/120/120

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03819

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Special Paint Grade Brick


TYPICAL PROPERTIES Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) Dimensional Category Perforations (%) Average Unit Weight (kg) Approximate number per m2 Lime Pitting No. per pack # Pack Weight (kg) # Pack Dimensions (LxWxH mm) # Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) Transverse Strength (MPa) Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) Salt Attack Resistance Category Liability to Eforesce Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered Rendered (one side) Rendered (both sides) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered Rendered Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 230x110x76 DW2 <30 3.0 49.0 Nil to slight 400 1240 1150x770x912 182 >22 >2.5 <1.1 GP Nil to slight 46 (-2, -5) 48 (-2, -5) 49 (-2, -5) 90 120 90/90/90

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 3.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Special Paint Grade Brick


FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.
110mm

S
FRL for Insulation 90 minutes 90/90/90

FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

S
FRL for Insulation FRL for Integrity is the lower of the FRLs for Insulation or Structural Adequacy 240 minutes

110mm 110mm

For both leaves equally loaded (10%) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 3.3 metres wall height up to 4.1 metres

240 minutes 90 minutes

S S

For both leaves unequally loaded (i.e. >10% variance) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 2.5 metres 240 minutes wall height up to 3.0 metres 90 minutes Sound reduction of a wall consisting of two leaves 110mm brick with a 50mm cavity Rendered both sides Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm glass wool insulation with Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation a density of 11 kg/m3 Unrendered with 50mm polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03821

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Coastal Common
TYPICAL PROPERTIES Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) Dimensional Category Perforations (%) Average Unit Weight (kg) Approximate number per m2 Lime Pitting No. per pack # Pack Weight (kg) # Pack Dimensions (LxWxH mm) # Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) Transverse Strength (MPa) Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) Salt Attack Resistance Category Liability to Eforesce Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered Rendered (one side) Rendered (both sides) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered Rendered Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 230x110x76 DW1 <30 2.9 49 Nil to slight 400 1200 1150x912x770 180 >22 >1.0 <1.0 EXP Nil to slight 46 (-2, -5) 48 (-2, -5) 49 (-2, -5) 90 120 90/90/90

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 3.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Coastal Common
FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.
110mm

S
FRL for Insulation 90 minutes 90/90/90

FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

S
FRL for Insulation FRL for Integrity is the lower of the FRLs for Insulation or Structural Adequacy 240 minutes

110mm 110mm

For both leaves equally loaded (10%) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 3.3 metres wall height up to 4.1 metres

240 minutes 90 minutes

S S

For both leaves unequally loaded (i.e. >10% variance) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 2.5 metres 240 minutes wall height up to 3.0 metres 90 minutes Sound reduction of a wall consisting of two leaves 110mm brick with a 50mm cavity Rendered both sides Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm glass wool insulation with Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation a density of 11 kg/m3 Unrendered with 50mm polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03823

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Coastal Jumbo Common


TYPICAL PROPERTIES Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) Dimensional Category Perforations (%) Average Unit Weight (kg) Approximate number per m2 Lime Pitting No. per pack # Pack Weight (kg) # Pack Dimensions (LxWxH mm) # Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) Transverse Strength (MPa) Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) Salt Attack Resistance Category Liability to Eforesce Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered Rendered (one side) Rendered (both sides) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered Rendered Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 230x110x119 DW1 <30 4.5 32.5 Nil to slight 235 1100 1150x833x770 180 >22 >1.0 <1.0 EXP Nil to slight 46 (-2, -5) 48 (-2, -5) 49 (-2, -5) 90 120 90/90/90

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 3.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Coastal Jumbo Common


FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.
110mm

S
FRL for Insulation 90 minutes 90/90/90

FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

S
FRL for Insulation FRL for Integrity is the lower of the FRLs for Insulation or Structural Adequacy
110mm

240 minutes

110mm

For both leaves equally loaded (10%) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 3.3 metres wall height up to 4.1 metres

240 minutes 90 minutes

S S

For both leaves unequally loaded (i.e. >10% variance) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 2.5 metres 240 minutes wall height up to 3.0 metres 90 minutes Sound reduction of a wall consisting of two leaves 110mm brick with a 50mm cavity Rendered both sides Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm glass wool insulation with Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation a density of 11 kg/m3 Unrendered with 50mm polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03825

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Coastal Double Height Common


TYPICAL PROPERTIES Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) Dimensional Category Perforations (%) Average Unit Weight (kg) Approximate number per m2 Lime Pitting No. per pack # Pack Weight (kg) # Pack Dimensions (LxWxH mm) # Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) Transverse Strength (MPa) Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) Salt Attack Resistance Category Liability to Eforesce Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered Rendered (one side) Rendered (both sides) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered Rendered Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 230x110x162 DW1 <30 5.8 24.5 Nil to slight 172 1050 930x820x1000 170 >10 >1.0 <1.0 EXP Nil to slight 46 (-2, -5) 48 (-2, -5) 49 (-2, -5) 90 120 90/90/90

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 3.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Coastal Double Height Common


FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.
110mm

S
FRL for Insulation 90 minutes 90/90/90

FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

S
FRL for Insulation FRL for Integrity is the lower of the FRLs for Insulation or Structural Adequacy
110mm

240 minutes

110mm

For both leaves equally loaded (10%) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 3.3 metres wall height up to 4.1 metres

240 minutes 90 minutes

S S

For both leaves unequally loaded (i.e. >10% variance) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 2.5 metres 240 minutes wall height up to 3.0 metres 90 minutes Sound reduction of a wall consisting of two leaves 110mm brick with a 50mm cavity Rendered both sides Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm glass wool insulation with Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation a density of 11 kg/m3 Unrendered with 50mm polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03827

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Standard Commercial Common


TYPICAL PROPERTIES Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) Dimensional Category Perforations (%) Average Unit Weight (kg) Approximate number per m2 Lime Pitting No. per pack # Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) Transverse Strength (MPa) Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) Salt Attack Resistance Category Liability to Eforesce Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered Rendered (one side) Rendered (both sides) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered Rendered Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 230x110x76 DW1 <30 3.0 49 Nil to Slight 272 / 340 / 460 182 >22 >2.5 <1.1 GP Nil to slight 46 (-2, -5) 48 (-2, -5) 50 (-2, -5) 90 120 90/90/90

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 3.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Standard Commercial Common


FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.
110mm

S
FRL for Insulation 90 minutes 90/90/90

FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

S
FRL for Insulation FRL for Integrity is the lower of the FRLs for Insulation or Structural Adequacy 240 minutes

110mm 110mm

For both leaves equally loaded (10%) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 3.3 metres wall height up to 4.1 metres

240 minutes 90 minutes

S S

For both leaves unequally loaded (i.e. >10% variance) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 2.5 metres 240 minutes wall height up to 3.0 metres 90 minutes Sound reduction of a wall consisting of two leaves 110mm brick with a 50mm cavity Rendered both sides Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm glass wool insulation with a density of 11 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03812VIC

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Jumbo Common
TYPICAL PROPERTIES Dimensions Work Size (LxWxH mm) Dimensional Category Perforations (%) Average Unit Weight (kg) Approximate number per m2 Lime Pitting No. per pack # Wall Surface Density (kg/m2) Characteristic Unconned Compressive Strength (fuc MPa) Transverse Strength (MPa) Coefcient of Expansion (mm/m/15 years) Salt Attack Resistance Category Liability to Eforesce Weighted Sound Reduction Index Rw (C,Ctr) Unrendered Rendered (one side) Rendered (both sides) Fire Resistance Level Insulation (minutes) Unrendered Rendered Unrendered (Structural Adequacy/Integrity/Insulation)^ 230x110x119 DW2 <30 4.5 32.5 Nil to slight 230 / 305 181 >22 >2.0 <1.1 GP Nil to slight 46 (-2, -5) 48 (-2, -5) 50 (-2, -5) 90 120 90/90/90

Physical testing is carried out to Australian Standard 4456:2003 requirements. # Properties can change. Contact your Boral Bricks representative for conrmation or call 13 30 35. ^ Assumes FRL for fully supported single skin wall up to 3.0m height. This technical information is subject to change without notice.

Bricks & Pavers Technical Manual

Section 4. Product Data Sheet

Jumbo Common
FIRE RESISTANCE & SOUND TRANSMISSION FOR TYPICAL WALL APPLICATIONS
Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) The Building Code (BCA) Section C denes the type and class of buildings and designates three re resistance levels. These levels are structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, and are written in the form 60/60/60. Information on how to calculate these is provided in the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) publication, Manual 5: Fire Resistance Levels for Clay Brick Walls available at www.brickbydesign.com The gures below provide typical wall examples. Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) The Rw has two reduction gures to account for high range noise (C) and low range noise (Ctr). The reduction gures are added to the Rw and are written Rw (C,Ctr). Note: S = Supported. Indicating moment is passed to a transverse structure such as a concrete slab, braced roong trusses, a perpendicular wall, etc.
110mm

S
FRL for Insulation 90 minutes 90/90/90

FRL for wall height up to 3.0 metres

S
FRL for Insulation FRL for Integrity is the lower of the FRLs for Insulation or Structural Adequacy
110mm

240 minutes

110mm

For both leaves equally loaded (10%) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 3.3 metres wall height up to 4.1 metres

240 minutes 90 minutes

S S

For both leaves unequally loaded (i.e. >10% variance) FRL for Structural Adequacy wall height up to 2.5 metres 240 minutes wall height up to 3.0 metres 90 minutes Sound reduction of a wall consisting of two leaves 110mm brick with a 50mm cavity Rendered both sides Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm glass wool insulation with a density of 11 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation Unrendered with 50mm polyester insulation with a density of 20 kg/m3 Rw + Ctr 50 & impact attenuation

All masonry walls should be designed by a qualied structural engineer. Variation in colour, texture and size is a natural characteristic of clay products. Copyright Boral Bricks Pty Ltd all rights reserved 2004. Boral Bricks Pty Ltd ABN 66 082 448 342.

Boral Clay Bricks and Pavers


Phone 13 30 35 Fax 1300 363 035 Email bricks@boral.com.au www.boral.com.au

ADV03814VIC