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Design and Deployment of Location-Based Service for WLANs BRKAGG-2012 BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco
Design and Deployment of Location-Based Service for WLANs BRKAGG-2012 BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco
Design and Deployment of Location-Based Service for WLANs BRKAGG-2012 BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco

Design and Deployment of Location-Based Service for WLANs

Design and Deployment of Location-Based Service for WLANs

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Abstract The Cisco Context Aware Mobility solution (which includes location-based services) is an important advanced

Abstract

The Cisco Context Aware Mobility solution (which includes location-based services) is an important advanced service that can be provided with the Cisco unified WLAN network. This session focuses on design and deployment fundamentals, as well as operational best practices to optimize the performance and accuracy when tracking wireless devices (tags and wireless clients) using the Cisco Context-Aware

Mobilit

solution

y

.

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Agenda

 

Principles of Context-Aware Mobility Solution

Cisco MSE 3350 Architecture Overview

Client Tracking—Indoor (Office Environment)

Tag Tracking—Indoor (Office Environment)

Tag Tracking—Outdoor/Outdoor-Like Environments

Design Guidelines—Best Practices

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Principles of Context- Aware Mobility Solution BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights

Principles of Context- Aware Mobility Solution

Principles of Context- Aware Mobility Solution

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Receive Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) Overview

Location calculated based on signal strength measured by either the mobile device or the receiving sensor

Following metrics are required to determine location of Wi-Fi element:

 

TX PWR : transmitter output power Loss TX : transmit-side cable and connector losses (dB) Gain TX : transmit-side antenna gain (dBi) Gain RX : receive-side antenna gain (dBi) Loss RX : receive-side cable and connector losses PL: path loss model

RX PWR = TX PWR – Loss TX + Gain TX – PL + Gain RX – Loss RX

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RSSI—Distance Calculation D= ( inv. log ((RX P W R – TXP W R +

RSSI—Distance Calculation

D= (inv. log ((RX PWR – TXP WR + Loss TX – Gain TX + PL 1meter – S + Loss RX – Gain RX )/10)) 1/n

Additional variables used to calculate distance:

S: degree of shadow fading present in the environment (dB)

PL 1meter : reference path loss when the receiver-to-transmitter distance is 1 meter (dB)

n: path loss exponent (n) is a function of frequency, environment, and obstructions. Common values:

2: open free space to values greater than

> 2: environments where obstructions are present

3.3: indoor office environment (2.4 GHz)

4.5: dense home environment (2.4 GHz)

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Receive Signal Strength Indications (RSSI) Overview

Cisco RSSI-based location tracking solution based on “network-side” RSSI measurements

Requires min. of three AP’s; optimal accuracy requires more than 3 AP’s

Best suited for indoor office-like environments (carpeted, low ceiling, i.e., < 20 feet)

Two main factors affecting accuracy:

 

AP density

AP placement

environment

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Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) Overview Location technique based on the difference in time of

Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) Overview

Location technique based on the difference in time of arrival of the transmission signal from a Wi-Fi device at different TDoA receivers

Based on principle of “hyperbolic lateration”

Hyperbola: locus of points where the difference in the distance to two fixed points (called the foci) is constant

Lateration: computes the position of an object by measuring its distance from multiple reference positions. Calculating an object’s position in two dimensions requires distance measurements from three non-collinear points

Requires min. of three time-synchronized TDoA receivers

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Hyperbolic Lateration

 
 

TDoA C-A

 

The time difference of arrival between each pair of TDOA

Calculated

i

i

l

l

d

rece vers s ca cu ate as follows:

Receiver A

.

Location

of Device

TDOA(B-A) = |TB – TA| TDOA(C-A )= |TC – TA|

TDoA

 
TDoA
TDoA
TDoA B - A Receiver C TDoA Hyperbolic plots are created using the above equations

TDoA B-A

Receiver C

TDoA
TDoA

Hyperbolic plots are created using the above equations representing all possible difference of distances of the

 

Receiver B

transmitting device from each pair of receivers

 

Intersection of two or more hyperbolas defines the position of the mobile device

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Time Difference of Arrival Overview (Cont.) Each TDOA installation must have at least one synchronization

Time Difference of Arrival Overview (Cont.)

Each TDOA installation must have at least one synchronization source

Depending on the size of the site, may require more than one synchronization source

TDoA receiver can act a synchronization source as well as a TDOA receiver for locating transmitting devices

Physical placement of TDoA receivers must be non-colinear

Operates well in multipath and high-ceiling environments

Possible to achieve high accuracy (3–5m) even in difficult, industrial environments

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11 Cisco MSE 3350 Architecture Overview BRKAGG-2012

Cisco MSE 3350 Architecture Overview

Cisco MSE 3350 Architecture Overview

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New Acronyms and Definitions MSE (Mobility Services Engine)—Cisco hardware appliance for running multiple services.

New Acronyms and Definitions

MSE (Mobility Services Engine)—Cisco hardware appliance for running multiple services. Context Aware Mobility is one of the services supported on this platform.

Context Aware Software— software running on the MSE platform for tracking Wi-Fi devices (clients and tags).

Context-Aware En ine for Clients—Cisco location engine for tracking client devices

Context-Aware Engine for Tags—partner location engine for tracking tags

g

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MSE Hardware Details

 

1-RU server sold as Cisco SKU (AIR-MSE-3350-K9)

Redundant hard drives and AC power supplies

Will host multiple software services

 

In software release 5.1, hosting only CAMS In subsequent software releases, option to host other services

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Product Specifications Form Factor 1U Rack Form Factor 1.75 Inches (4.45 cm) Width, 27.75 Inches

Product Specifications

Form Factor

1U Rack Form Factor 1.75 Inches (4.45 cm) Width, 27.75 Inches (70.5 cm) Depth

Processor

Two Quad-Core Intel Xeon Processor (2.33 GHz)

Memory

8 GB PC2-5300 (4 x 2 GB)

Hard Drive

Hot Plug SAS drives: 2 x 146 GB (10K RPM)

Connectivity

Network: Two Embedded Multifunction Gigabit Network Adapters with TCP/IP Offload Engine

Power Supplies

Two Redundant 120/240V AC (Hot Swappable)

Network

Cisco WCS Location v5.1 or Greater Running Internet Explorer 6.0/Service Pack 1 or Later

Management

Network Devices

Cisco 2100, 4400 Series Wireless LAN Controllers; Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Wireless Services Module, Cisco Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller, Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Module (WLCM and WLCM-E) for Integrated Services Routers; Cisco Aironet Lightweight Access Points

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Context Aware Mobility Engines

 

MSE supports:

 
 

Context-aware engine for clients (Cisco)

 

Context-aware engine for tags (partner)

Environments supported:

 

Indoor (e.g., offices)

Indoor high ceiling (e.g. manufacturing facilities, airplane hangars)

 

Outdoor

Default software on MSE is

 
 

Cisco mobility services infrastructure software

Context-aware mobility services module

Context-aware engine for clients

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Context Aware Software Architecture Business Application SOAP/XML API MSE Context-Aware Software Context Aware

Context Aware Software Architecture

Business Application

SOAP/XML API MSE Context-Aware Software Context Aware Engine for Clients Context Aware Engine for Tags
SOAP/XML
API
MSE
Context-Aware
Software
Context Aware
Engine for Clients
Context Aware
Engine for Tags
SiSi
SiSi
RSSI
RSSI / TDOA
Mobile User
Voice over
802.11 Smart
Phone
802.11 CCX Tags
802.11 Clients
Indoor Environment
Indoor & Outdoor
Environments
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Use Case Scenarios
INDOOR + Clients (RSSI)
INDOOR + Clients + Tags (RSSI)
HIGH CEILING + Clients + Tags
OUTDOOR + Tags (TDOA)
(RSSI & TDOA)
BASELINE ASSUMPTIONS:
–Pervasive Cisco Unified Wireless Network
–Controller Based Architecture
–WCS Software
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Deployment Environments Wi-FI Clients ACTIVE Wi-FI RFID Tags INDOOR Office Environment, Hospitals, University

Deployment Environments

Wi-FI Clients ACTIVE Wi-FI RFID Tags INDOOR Office Environment, Hospitals, University Classrooms… INDOOR HIGH
Wi-FI Clients
ACTIVE Wi-FI RFID
Tags
INDOOR
Office Environment, Hospitals, University
Classrooms…
INDOOR HIGH CEILING
Manufacturing Warehouse
(Is it here?)
OUTDOOR
Parking Lots / Yards
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Open Mobility Services Architecture
Centralize Mobility Services to Scale
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Cisco Context Aware Mobility Solution Moving from Cisco 2710 to Cisco MSE Platform Cisco 2700

Cisco Context Aware Mobility Solution

Moving from Cisco 2710 to Cisco MSE Platform

Cisco 2700 Series Wireless Location Appliance

MSE Platform Cisco 2700 Series Wireless Location Appliance Cisco 3300 Series Mobility Services Engine New Indoor

Cisco 3300 Series Mobility Services Engine

New
New
Appliance Cisco 3300 Series Mobility Services Engine New Indoor only 2500 tags and clients RSSI only

Indoor only

2500 tags and clients

RSSI only

Industry’s first location solution integrated into the WLAN infrastructure

Location only

Open API

WCS management

infrastructure Location only Open API WCS management Indoor, outdoor, high ceilings 18,000 tags and clients

Indoor, outdoor, high ceilings

18,000 tags and clients

Next-generation Open API

WCS management

Robust architecture for adding other technologies (UWB, passive)

Shared platform for other mobility services (incl. future)

RSSI and TDOA

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21 Cisco Context Aware Mobility Solution Tracking Tags and

Cisco Context Aware Mobility Solution

Tracking Tags and Clients

Tracking tags (indoor and outdoor/outdoor-like)

Context-aware engine for tags (partner engine)

Utilizes:

LWAPP infrastructure for indoor environments

Wi-Fi TDOA receivers for outdoor and outdoor-like environments

Partner HW/SW managed by System Manager (partner) and Cisco WCS

Tracking clients (indoor)

Context aware engine for clients (Cisco engine)

Utilizes LWAPP infrastructure

Managed by Cisco WCS

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Applicatio and Networkn ment Tag and Manage Devices Cisco 3350 Cisco Wireless Mobility Control System
Applicatio
and Networkn
ment
Tag and
Manage
Devices
Cisco 3350
Cisco Wireless
Mobility
Control System
Services
(WCS)
Engine
Context
Context
Aware
Aware
Engine
Engine
for Tags
for Clients
Context Aware Software
SiSi
Wi-Fi TDOA
Receiver
Chokepoint 125 kHz
AeroScout

22

Context Aware Solution: SKUs & Pricing   Cisco Part # Description List Price MSE AIR-MSE-3350-K9

Context Aware Solution: SKUs & Pricing

 

Cisco Part #

Description

List Price

MSE

AIR-MSE-3350-K9

Mobility Services Engine

$19.995

 

AIR-CAS-3KC-K9

Context Aware Engine for Clients License for 3K Clients

$6,000

Context Aware Engine for Client Licenses

AIR-CAS-6KC-K9

Context Aware Engine for Clients License for 6K Clients

$11,000

AIR-CAS-12KC-K9

Context Aware Engine for Clients License for 12K Clients

$19,000

 

AIR-CAS-3KT-K9

Context Aware Engine for Tags License for 3K Tags

$15,000

Context Aware Engine for Tags Licenses

AIR-CAS-6KT-K9

Context Aware Engine for Tags License for 6K Tags

$28,000

AIR-CAS-12KT-K9

Context Aware Engine for Tags License for 12K Tags

$55,000

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Context Aware Solution: SKUs & Pricing

 

(Cont.)

 
   

Cisco Part #

Description

List Price

 
 

ASCT-INDR-LR-A

Indoor Wi-Fi TDOA Receiver For US And Canada

$2,000

ASCT-INDR-LR-E

Indoor Wi-Fi TDOA Receiver For Europe

$2,000

ASCT-INDR-LR-J

Indoor Wi-Fi TDOA Receiver For Ja an

$2 000

p

,

ASCT-LP-A-K9

Outdoor Wi-Fi TDOA Point - Wired Config For US And Canada

$5,400

Wi-Fi TDOA

ASCT-LP-E-K9

Outdoor Wi-Fi TDOA Point - Wired Config For Europe

$5,400

Receivers

ASCT-LP-J-K9

Outdoor Wi-Fi TDOA Point - Wired Config For Japan

$5,400

ASCT-LPB-A-K9

Outdoor Wi-Fi TDOA Point - Wireless Config For US And Canada

$5,400

ASCT-LPB-E-K9

Outdoor Wi-Fi TDOA Point - Wireless Config For Europe

$5,400

ASCT-LPB-J-K9

Outdoor Wi-Fi TDOA Point - Wireless Config For Japan

$5,400

ASCT-LR-LIC

License for Wi-Fi TDOA Receiver

$2,400

 

ASCT-EX3200

Compact Exciter

$850

Chokepoints

ASCT-EX2000

Exciter

$1,200

(Exciters)

ASCT-EXCMGR

Exciter Manager Software

$4,000

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Client Tracking— Indoor Environments BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights

Client Tracking— Indoor Environments

Client Tracking— Indoor Environments

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25 Cisco Context Aware Mobility— Client Tracking (Indoor

Cisco Context Aware Mobility— Client Tracking (Indoor Environments)

Aware Mobility— Client Tracking (Indoor Environments) Building Wi-Fi (RSSI, Chokepoint) Access Points Use Case

Building

Wi-Fi (RSSI,

Chokepoint)

Access Points

Building Wi-Fi (RSSI, Chokepoint) Access Points Use Case Wi-Fi Devices (Wireless Phones La to s Handheld
Use Case Wi-Fi Devices (Wireless Phones La to s Handheld Devices) , p p ,
Use Case
Wi-Fi Devices
(Wireless Phones La to s
Handheld Devices)
,
p
p
,
Room and Floor Level Tracking
of High Value or High Utility
Items Indoor
Calculation Method
Received Signal Strength Indication
Chokepoint for Zone Level Location

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Cisco Context Aware Mobility Solution— Client Tracking (Indoor Environments) Cisco Mobility Cisco Wireless Services

Cisco Context Aware Mobility Solution— Client Tracking (Indoor Environments)

Cisco Mobility

Cisco Wireless

Services Engine Control System SiSiSiSiSiSi SiSi WLC Cisco Cisco Aironet Aironet TDoA Access Access Point
Services Engine
Control System
SiSiSiSiSiSi
SiSi
WLC
Cisco
Cisco
Aironet
Aironet
TDoA
Access
Access
Point
Point
Chokepoint 125 kHz
CCX Tags
CCX Tags
CCX Tags
Wi-Fi Devices

Wi-Fi TDOA

Receiver

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Overview

 

Same location solution as prior software releases, i.e. uses Cisco engine

 

Uses Cisco calibration mechanism (as per prior software releases for Cisco 2710)

Existing calibration models can be used with MSE running “Context-Aware engine for Clients”

Key differences/changes:

 

New hardware higher element count (18,000 vs. 2,500)

New location features in Cisco 2710 software versions 3.1 and 4.0 (and associated WLC/WCS versions)

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Deploying Context Aware Engine for Clients Context Aware Engine for Client s ships by default

Deploying Context Aware Engine for Clients

Context Aware Engine for Clients ships by default on all MSE 3350 appliances

Requires Cisco WCS

manage MSE

client tracking on floor maps

calibration

i

accuracy testing

l

ocat

i

l

on read ness too

In addition to purchasing MSE, customers need to purchase licenses for client tracking

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29 Tag Tracking— Indoor Environments BRKAGG-2012

Tag Tracking— Indoor Environments

Tag Tracking— Indoor Environments

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Cisco Context Aware Mobility— Tag Tracking (Indoor Environments) Building Access Points and/or Chokepoints Wi-Fi (RSSI,

Cisco Context Aware Mobility— Tag Tracking (Indoor Environments)

Building

Mobility— Tag Tracking (Indoor Environments) Building Access Points and/or Chokepoints Wi-Fi (RSSI, Chokepoint)

Access Points and/or Chokepoints

Wi-Fi (RSSI,

Chokepoint)

Access Points and/or Chokepoints Wi-Fi (RSSI, Chokepoint) Use Case Wi-Fi Devices or Active Tags Room and
Access Points and/or Chokepoints Wi-Fi (RSSI, Chokepoint) Use Case Wi-Fi Devices or Active Tags Room and
Use Case Wi-Fi Devices or Active Tags Room and Floor Level Tracking of High Value
Use Case
Wi-Fi Devices or Active Tags
Room and Floor Level Tracking
of High Value or High Utility
Items Indoor
(Battery Powered)
Price Between $50–$80
Telemetry and Sensor Capabilities
Calculation Method
Received Signal Strength
Indication Chokepoint for
Zone Level Location
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Cisco Context Aware Mobility Solution—
Tag Tracking (Indoor)
Cisco Mobility
Cisco Wireless
Services Engine
Control System
SiSiSiSiSiSi
SiSi
WLC
Cisco
Cisco
Wi-Fi TDOA
Aironet
Aironet
Receiver
TDoA
Access
Access
Point
Point
Chokepoint 125 kHz
CCX Tags
CCX Tags
CCX Tags
Wi-Fi Devices
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Overview Tag tracking based on Context Aware Engine for Tags from partner Separate engine that

Overview

Tag tracking based on Context Aware Engine for Tags from partner Separate engine that needs to be purchased, downloaded from partner and installed Requires Cisco WCS and AeroScout System Manager and Analyzer

Cisco WCS: manages MSE, displays floor maps AeroScout System Manager: configuring Wi-Fi TDOA receivers and exciters, calibration, displaying tags on floor maps AeroScout Analyzer: coverage, accuracy, synchronization analysis and system performance diagnostics

Need to use AeroScout calibration mechanism—cannot reuse calibration models from Cisco Context Aware Engine for Clients Uses Cisco unified wireless infrastructure (Cisco AP’s) for connectivity and collecting data from tags

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AeroScout System Manager
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AeroScout Analyzer AeroScout Analyzer enables analysis of information recorded by the Context Aware Engine for

AeroScout Analyzer

AeroScout Analyzer enables analysis of information recorded by the Context Aware Engine for Tags:

Assess the coverage and accuracy of the location system Optimize the location calculation by creating calibration mesh files Alert on problems in the configuration or the site Advanced analysis of the location-related traffic

AeroScout Analyzer modules:

Coverage Analysis - indicates the coverage of the devices in terms of the signal strength received by the TDOA Receivers and/or Access Points Accuracy Analysis - provides information on the accuracy of tag positioning data. The analysis results indicate the deviation between the actual location of the tag and the measured location. Mesh Creation – builds a calibration file for optimal location determination Diagnostics tool - analyzes the configuration and recorded data, alerts on problematic findings and provides better visibility of abnormalities Playback Parser - allows to view, filter and analyze specific problems of exchanges between tags/devices and the Location Engine.

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Installing/Starting Partner Engine

 

Install Context Aware Engine for Tags via CLI using RPM

 

[root@mse ~]#rpm -Uvh <partner rpm file>

Start partner engine

 
 

[root@mse ~]#service aeroscout-engine-wd start

 

Verify that partner engine is running

 

[root@mse ~]#service aeroscout-engine status

Response from MSE should be:

“AeroScout Positioning Engine is running”

Verify that partner WatchDog service is running

 

[root@mse ~]#service aeroscout-engine-wd status

Response from MSE should be:

AeroScout Positioning Engine WatchDog is running <process number>

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Tag Tracking— Outdoor/Outdoor-Like Environments BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All

Tag Tracking— Outdoor/Outdoor-Like Environments

Tag Tracking— Outdoor/Outdoor-Like Environments

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37 Cisco Context Aware Mobility— Tags (Outdoor/Outdoor-Like)

Cisco Context Aware Mobility— Tags (Outdoor/Outdoor-Like)

Campus Wi-Fi (TDOA, Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers and/or Chokepoints Chokepoint) Use Case Wi-Fi Devices or Active
Campus
Wi-Fi (TDOA,
Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers
and/or Chokepoints
Chokepoint)
Use Case
Wi-Fi Devices or Active Tags
Room and Floor Level Tracking of
High Value or High Utility Items
Outdoor or RF Challenging
Environments
(Battery Powered)
Price Between $50–$80
Telemetry and Sensor Capabilities
Calculation Method
Time Difference of Arrival
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Cisco Context Aware Mobility Solution— Tag Tracking (Outdoor/Outdoor-Like) Cisco Mobility Cisco Wireless Services

Cisco Context Aware Mobility Solution— Tag Tracking (Outdoor/Outdoor-Like)

Cisco Mobility

Cisco Wireless

Services Engine Control System SiSiSiSiSiSi SiSi WLC Cisco Wi-Fi TDOA Aironet Receiver TDoA Access Point
Services Engine
Control System
SiSiSiSiSiSi
SiSi
WLC
Cisco
Wi-Fi TDOA
Aironet
Receiver
TDoA
Access
Point
Chokepoint 125 kHz
CCX Tags

CCX Tags

CCX Tags

Point Chokepoint 125 kHz CCX Tags CCX Tags CCX Tags Wi-Fi Devices Cisco Aironet Access Point

Wi-Fi Devices

Cisco

Aironet

Access

Point

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Overview

 

For customers that need to track tags in outdoor or “outdoor-like” locations (e.g., indoor facilities with high ceilings)

Context Aware Engine for Tags (TDoA) hosted in MSE

License for Context Aware Engine for Tags purchased through Cisco and downloaded from AeroScout

Could be used in conjunction with Cisco unified wireless infrastructure (Cisco AP’s, wireless controllers) for connectivity

 

Uses Wi-Fi TDOA receivers vs. AP’s (term used in WCS is “location sensors”)

Location receivers/sensors do not connect via wireless controller; connect directly to Ethernet switch or bridge AP’s (Cisco AP1242)

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Overview (Cont.) Four Separate Managem ent Tools Used to Manage This Solution Cisco WCS :

Overview (Cont.)

Four Separate Management Tools Used to Manage This Solution Cisco WCS: used to manage placement of location sensors on map

AeroScout System Manager: used to configure location receivers/sensors, calibration (AeroScout)

AeroScout MobileView: used to collect location data from TDOA engine running on MSE and display location information on map

AeroScout Analyzer: coverage, accuracy, synchronization analysis and system performance diagnostics

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Installing/Starting Partner Engine

 

Install Context Aware Engine for Tags via CLI using RPM

 

[root@mse ~]#rpm -Uvh <partner rpm file>

Start partner engine

 
 

[root@mse ~]#service aeroscout-engine-wd start

 

Verify that partner engine is running

 

[root@mse ~]#service aeroscout-engine status

Response from MSE should be:

“AeroScout Positioning Engine is running”

Verify that partner WatchDog service is running

 

[root@mse ~]#service aeroscout-engine-wd status

Response from MSE should be:

AeroScout Positioning Engine WatchDog is running (<process number>)”

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Add MSE to WCS Change in WCS Menu from “Location/Location Servers” to “Mobility”/“Mobility Service Engine”

Add MSE to WCS

Add MSE to WCS Change in WCS Menu from “Location/Location Servers” to “Mobility”/“Mobility Service Engine”

Change in WCS Menu from “Location/Location Servers” to “Mobility”/“Mobility Service Engine”

Cisco Public

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 43 Separate Menu Items for “Location Server” and
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 43 Separate Menu Items for “Location Server” and

Separate Menu Items for “Location Server” and “Mobility Service Engine”

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Place Location Sensors Using WCS Map Editor BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All

Place Location Sensors Using WCS Map Editor

Place Location Sensors Using WCS Map Editor BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights

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Best Practices

 
Best Practices  

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Cisco Wireless Deployment with CAMS Location Client WCS Client Browser Cisco WCS HTTPS Location API

Cisco Wireless Deployment with CAMS

Location

Client

WCS Client

Browser

Cisco WCS

with CAMS Location Client WCS Client Browser Cisco WCS HTTPS Location API via SOAP/XML over HTTPS
HTTPS
HTTPS

Location API via SOAP/XML over HTTPS

Cisco Wireless LAN Controller

NMSP Access Point
NMSP
Access
Point

Cisco

Mobility Services

Engine (MSE)

NMSP – Network Mobility Services Protocol

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WCS—Ports Used

 
 

Name

Port Number

 

Database

1315

FTP

21

TFTP

69

HTTP

80

HTTPS

443

HTTP Connector

8456

HTTP Connector Redirect

8457

NTP

123

RMI

1299

Trap

169

Web Container

8009

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MSE—Ports Used Name Port Number NMSP 16113 FTP 21 SSH 22 HTTP 80 HTTPS 443

MSE—Ports Used

Name

Port Number

NMSP

16113

FTP

21

SSH

22

HTTP

80

HTTPS

443

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TDOA—Receiver Placement Guidelines

Minimum of three receivers are required, but four receivers will yield better accuracy results

General rules for TDOA receiver density:

 

Outdoors—average density should be one TDOA receiver for every 20,000-50,000 sq ft.

Large indoor areas—average density should be one TDOA receiver every 5000–14,000 sq ft.

May need to divide large areas into subareas (e.g., in case where large warehouse is section off by wall may need to be designed as two subareas

Best results when line of sight is maintained between synchronization source and the TDOA receivers

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TDOA Receiver Placement x x TDOA receivers must be places along the outside i d

TDOA Receiver Placement

x x
x
x

TDOA receivers must be places along the outside i

d

l

per meter an

even y space

d

Additional TDOA receivers may be needed within the boundary of the perimeter receivers depending on the size of the area

TDOA receivers should be evenly spaced, forming equilateral triangle (when three TDOA receivers are used), or squares (four or more TDOA receivers)

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TDOA—Receiver Antenna Placement

 

Must use diversity antennas to address multipath issues

TDOA receiver along perimeter of the covered area should include directional antennas in order to concentrate the reception in the covered area only

 

The corner of a perimeter, use 90-degree directional antenna

Along the perimeter, use 180-degree directional antenna

With omnidirectional antennas with TDOA receivers located within the perimeter

Receiver antennas should point both to the synchronization source (most preferably line of sight) and to the area in question

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TDOA—Receiver Antenna Placement (Cont.) Antennas should be placed in areas where they are not obstructed

TDOA—Receiver Antenna Placement (Cont.)

Antennas should be placed in areas where they are not obstructed by obstacles as concrete walls, large metallic objects, or densely covered tree areas

Should be installed with a good line of sight (as much as possible) to the covered area

Preferred mounting height 3–5 meters above the tracked asset surface

When this is not possible due to the environment does not permit to do so, then the coverage pattern (i.e., elevation pattern; typical antennas have an elevation of approximately 35 degrees) must be taken into consideration

Along perimeter, antennas at high placements should be tilted towards the coverage area (up to 30 degrees down to compensate for the elevation

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RSSI—AP Placement Guidelines

 

Maximum effective distance between a tag and access point:

 

In most sites: 150 ft. (46m) Sites with thick concrete walls: 100 ft. (30.5m)

Optimal accuracy is normally received with more than 3 AP’s

In quadrilateral area, min. of four AP’s should be installed at the four corners of the area

Factors affecting accuracy: AP placement, wall materials, large moving objects, RF interference

May need to floor space into sub-areas and design sub- areas independently to account for large barriers that obstructs RF signals

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RSSI—AP Density   Ideal Normal Harsh Expected Accuracy E nv i ronmen t E nv

RSSI—AP Density

 

Ideal

Normal

Harsh

Expected Accuracy

Environment

Environment

Environment

12

ft. (4m)

3,500 ft 2 (320m 2 )

2,000 ft 2 (184m 2 )

N/A

20

ft. (6m)

6,500 ft 2 (595m 2 )

3,500 ft 2 (320m 2 )

2,000 ft 2 (184m 2 )

 

10,000 ft 2

6,500 ft 2

3,500 ft 2 (320m 2 )

30

ft. (9m)

(915m 2 )

(595m 2 )

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RSSI—General Deployment Guidelines

 

APs should preferably be positioned along and within the perimeter of an enclosed area

APs should be distributed evenly, i.e., APs should be relatively equa-distant from each other

Physical placement of APs should be non-colinear— even when placed at equal distances from each other

Geometric shapes formed by the distribution of APs affect accuracy

 

Equilateral triangles placement will yield better accuracy than APs that form an obtuse triangle

Square deployment placement yields better results than APs that form rectangles

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Use Location Readiness Tool Use prior to calibration to gauge AP p l acemen t

Use Location Readiness Tool

Use prior to calibration to gauge AP placement and coverage holes

A point on map is location-ready if:

– min. of 4 AP’s are deployed

– min. of 3 AP s are within 70 ft

– At least 1 AP placed in each of at least 3 surrounding quadrants.

1 AP placed in each of at least 3 surrounding quadrants. BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco

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Location Optimized Monitor Mode

 

Before 5.0 release (wireless controller and WCS)

 

Regular AP (local mode) + monitor mode AP (rogue, IPS)

With 5.0 release (wireless controller and WCS)

 

Same as above + LOMM AP’s

Only for tags (not clients) with Edgewood release

Good for periphery of buildings to improve location accuracy without adding extra traffic that may impact voice or client services

Ensure that channels on LOMM AP’s are configured to be the same as the local mode AP’s

 

Controller CLI for changing monitor mode channels

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Location Optimized Monitor Mode— Supported Platforms Controllers: WLC mo dul e for Cisco ISR platf

Location Optimized Monitor Mode— Supported Platforms

Controllers:

WLC module for Cisco ISR platforms Cisco 2106 series wireless LAN controllers Cisco 4400 series wireless LAN controllers Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Wireless Services Module (WiSM)

Access points:

All IOS-based lightweight APs Not supported in Cisco 1000 Series or mesh APs

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Design Criteria—Voice and Location

 

Balance AP placement to optimize for voice coverage and location accuracy

For location, three APs placed oriented in >=3 out of 4 quadrants within 40–70 ft. of all locations within the convex hull of APs to meet 90%/10m accuracy without detailed calibration

Local-mode APs: place APs evenly spaced on

 

erimeter (5070 ft s acin ) deployment within perimeter

p

.

p

g , q

uadrant-based

 

Shuffle APs to even out perimeter and inside APs spacing

 

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Design Criteria— Voice and Location (Cont.) Local + LOMM (Location Optimized Monitor Mode): quadrant-based deployment

Design Criteria— Voice and Location (Cont.)

Local + LOMM (Location Optimized Monitor Mode):

quadrant-based deployment inside like for voice/ location coverage plus APs evenly placed around the perimeter (110 ft. spacing)

Leverage new location deployment tools introduced in location appliance 4.0 software release :

Location optimized monitor mode

t

Location accuracy tool

Sit

e survey an

d i

t

n erpo a e

l

t

d h

ea maps

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 61 Cisco WCS: Configuration and Administration BRKAGG-2012

Cisco WCS: Configuration and Administration

Cisco WCS: Configuration and Administration

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Site Survey and Calibration More data points are generated internally System obtaining more information from

Site Survey and Calibration

More data points are generated internally

System obtaining more information from the network

Point calibration: client at fixed location

Linear calibration: data collected between two different points (straight line)

Requires CCX v2 compatible client

Calibration with non-CCX clients will not be supported from Edgewood onwards

Old method of calibration will not be supported starting with Edgewood

Faster calibration process vs. previous calibration mechanism

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Following features can be used in the following scenarios:

 
 

MSE with Context Aware Engine for Clients Cisco 2710 for tracking clients and/or tags

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Calibration—Point Mode BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco

Calibration—Point Mode

Calibration—Point Mode BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 65 Point Mode—Calibration Results BRKAGG-2012

Point Mode—Calibration Results

Cisco Public 65 Point Mode—Calibration Results BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems,

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Calibration—Linear Mode BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco

Calibration—Linear Mode

Calibration—Linear Mode BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco

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Rails and Regions

 

Provides mechanism for network administrator to define inclusion/exclusion areas for location services

Allows for certain regions in map to be defined as within our outside the scope of valid location area

Three types of regions can be specified

 

Location inclusion region: tracked device cannot be outside of this polygon (examples: outside of building outer walls)

Location exclusion region: tracked device cannot be inside of this polygon (examples: open atrium)

Rails: tracked device must be within defined area with narrow band. Typically used within exclusion region (examples: conveyor belt).

Regions defined in WCS and pushed (via synchronization process to location appliance

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Rails and Regions - Configuration Step 1: Create Rails and Regions Using Map Editor Step

Rails and Regions - Configuration

Rails and Regions - Configuration Step 1: Create Rails and Regions Using Map Editor Step 2:

Step 1:

Create Rails and Regions Using Map Editor

Step 1: Create Rails and Regions Using Map Editor Step 2: S nchronize (Pass Rails y

Step 2:

S nchronize (Pass Rails

y

and Regions Points to Location Appliance)

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 69 Example of: Inclusion Region Exclusion Region Rail (Will
Example of: Inclusion Region Exclusion Region Rail (Will Be Prompted to Specify Exclusion Region Around
Example of:
Inclusion Region
Exclusion Region
Rail
(Will Be Prompted
to Specify Exclusion
Region Around Line)
For Adding Location
Inclusion Region
For Adding Location
Exclusion Region
For Adding Rails

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Viewing Regions and Rails on Floor Map BRKAGG-2012 71 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Viewing Regions and Rails on Floor Map

BRKAGG-2012 71 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Location Accuracy
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Location Accuracy Tool
Before WCS 5.0 release: difficult for customer to know what
accuracy they were getting
Accuracy not quantifiable using WCS/WLC/LBS
With WCS 5.0 release
Display tags as a reference, give real position to location server
Systems tells network administrator what level of accuracy they
are getting
Generates detailed report with different levels of accuracy and error
distribution over time and space
Two forms of accuracy testing
Scheduled accuracy
On-demand accuracy
User can choose any of the above methods after selecting
the floor to run the accuracy test.
All these tests on the same floor
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Scheduled Accuracy Run on active environment (live network) Preposition clients and tags and schedule the

Scheduled Accuracy

Run on active environment (live network)

Preposition clients and tags and schedule the test

Uses “actual” location of an element vs. “measured” location

User can modify the test by:

Adding/deleting elements

Changing positions

Changing the schedules

Test can be run as a scheduled task and generate alarms if falls below certain range of accuracy

Should be retested periodically as RF environment may change, impacting location accuracy

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 73 Scheduled Accuracy Test BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1

Scheduled Accuracy Test

reserved. Cisco Public 73 Scheduled Accuracy Test BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems,

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On-Demand Accuracy To be run when a user does not have any active client/tag deployments

On-Demand Accuracy

To be run when a user does not have any active client/tag deployments yet and is interested in measuring accuracy

Can be run when a floor does not have prepositioned tags/clients

Conducted similar to pre-Edgewood accuracy test with single client

User places client at a particular location and indicates that location on the map by dragging the test point and dropping it

User clicks on ‘start’ and waits for few minutes for RSSI collection and clicks on ‘stop’ button and can continue to move to the next point

When user has collected all the points, they can choose to run the test by clicking on ‘analyze results’ button. This will produce the accuracy result in a report.

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Key Takeaways

 

For optimal location accuracy, proper AP and Wi-Fi TDOA receiver placement is required

 

Both AP/receiver placement and density are critical

Need to design for voice, data and location

leverage location feature enhancements and tools:

 

WCS location readiness tool

AP deployment/design: location optimized monitor mode t

New calibration methods (point and linear)

AP’

f

s ( or

ags)

Quantify accuracy using accuracy testing mechanisms in WCS

Rails and regions (define location inclusion and exclusion regions)

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Q and A BRKAGG-2012 14604_05_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

Q and A

Q and A

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Recommended Reading

 

Wi-Fi Location-Based Services 4.1 Design Guide

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/solutions/Enterprise/ Mobility/lbswifig_external.pdf

AeroScout Indoor Deployment Guide for Wi-Fi Access Points

AeroScout TDOA Deployment Guide

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Recommended Reading Continue your Cisco Live learning experience with further reading from Cisco Press Check

Recommended Reading

Continue your Cisco Live learning experience with further reading from Cisco Press

Check the Recommended Reading flyer for suggested books

Check the Recommended Reading flyer for suggested books Available Onsite at the Cisco Company Store BRKAGG-2012

Available Onsite at the Cisco Company Store

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Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 79 Complete Your Online Session Evaluation Don’t forget to

Complete Your Online Session Evaluation

Don’t forget to activate your Cisco Live virtual account for access to all session material on-demand and return for our live virtual event in October 2008.

Go to the Collaboration Zone in World of Solutions or visit www.cisco-live.com.

Give us your feedback and you could win fabulous prizes. Winners announced daily.

Receive 20 Passport points for each session evaluation you complete.

Complete your session evaluation online now (open a browser through our wireless network to access our portal) or visit one of the Internet stations throughout the Convention Center.

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