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Prof. Dr.-Ing. R.

Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Introduction to Aluminium and its Alloys
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rdiger Schubert
Hochschule Bremen (Uni versity of Applied Sciences)
Designation of Material
Introduction how to Increase Strength
Short Overview on Al-Alloys
Aspects on Welding of Aluminium-Alloys
Gdansk, June 2012
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Aluminium materials
Schematic structure of aluminium alloys
(Aluminium-Taschenbuch u. VAW)
Castalloys Wroughtalloys
N
o
n
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h
e
a
t
t
r
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a
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a
b
l
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A
l
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o
y
s
H
e
a
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a
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a
b
l
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A
l
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o
y
s
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Extract from a list of light weight metals
3.1325
2017 A
2024
AlMg3 H19
AlMg3 W19
EN-AW AlMgSi W
AA 6060 T351
AlMgSi 0,5
3.3206.51
2219 T851
3.7164.7
Ti 6Al 4V STA
Ti Al6 V4
IMI 834
Ti-15-3-3-3
Ti 1100
Beta C
Super Alpha 2
Ti Al14 Nb20 V3,2 Mo2
Materials-Designation
AlMgSi1 F28
EN-AW 6082 T6
EN-AW AlSi1MgMn T6
AZ5G
Al99,99
Anticorodal 50
Supral 5000
EN-AC 42100
S-AlMg5
GK-AlMg5Si
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Pure Aluminium
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
other
not used
Alternative naming in accordance with EN 573-2 :
EN-AW 6082 = EN-AW AlSi1MgMn
Additional Temper designations in accordance with EN 515
Wrought alloys are named with four digits in EN 573-1; the first digit indicates
the alloy group:
Aluminium materials
Designation of aluminium materials in the EN-system
EN-AC XXXXX Cast alloys EN 1780
EN-AW XXXX Wrought materials EN 573-1
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Al-Wrought-Alloys
Designation of Heat Treatment with Al-Wrought-Alloys according to EN 515
F = as produced ( some examples)
O = mill annealed W = solution heat treated, quenched
H = cold worked H1x only cold worked,
H2x cold worked + recovery heat treatment
Hx3 hard in between -0 and Hx8
Hx8 complete hard, hardest compared to -0
T1 = quenched after warm forming and then cold aged
T3 = solution heat treated, quenched, cold worked and cold aged
T4 = solution heat treated, quenched and cold aged
T6 = solution heat treated, quenched and fully warm aged
T651 stretched before aging for stress reduction
T7 = solution heat treated and overaged to stabilised condtion
T8 = solution heat treated, quenched, cold worked and cold aged
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Al-Cast-Alloys
Designation of Al-Cast-Alloys according to DIN EN 1780
1xxxx unalloyed Aluminium
2xxxx Al-Cu-Alloy
4xxxx Al-Si-Alloy
5xxxx Al-Mg-Alloy
7xxxx Al-Zn-Alloy
8xxxx Al-Sn-Alloy
9xxxx Other
2. digit = spec. Group of Alloy, i.e.:
41xxx AlSiMgTi
42xxx AlSi7Mg
43xxx AlSi10Mg
44xxx AlSi
45xxx AlSi5Cu
71xxx AlZnMg
3. digit = Count.No. In Group; 4.Ziffer mostly 0; 5.Ziffer 0 Alloy of CEN, 0 for Alloy of AECMA
Example: EN AC 42100 = EN AC AlSi7Mg0,3 = (old) G-AlSi7Mg
EN AC 51300 = EN AC AlMg5 = (old) G-AlMg5
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Al-Cast-Alloys
Designation of Heat Treatment with Al-Cast-Alloys
according to actual european specifications
F = as casted
O = mill annealed
T1 = controlled cooling after casting and cold aged
T4 = solution heat treated, quenched and cold aged
T5 = controlled cooling after casting and warm aged or overaged
T6 = solution heat treated, quenched and fully warm aged
T64 = as T6, but not fully warm aged
T7 = solution heat treated and overaged to stabilised condtion
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Material-Numbers classified acc. Alloy-Elements in Al-Alloys
according to DIN 17007 and WL
(WL = Werkstoffleistungbltter der deutschen Luft- und Raumfahrt)
(WL 3.3206 3.32xx AlMgSi (06 = xx = only counting No.) )
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Materials-Designation
Examples for Translation of Designations
(acc. Aluminium-Taschenbuch)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Mechanisms to Increase Strength
in Aluminium-Alloys
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Strength Increasing Mechanisms
Mechanism Caused by
Formation of mixed crystals
Work hardening
Fine grain hardening
Precipitation hardening
Transformation hardening
Alloying
Deformation
Heat treatment
Heat treatment
Heat treatment
Aim: To prevent or hinder deformation (= dislocation motion)
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Aluminium-Alloys
-In most cases deformation is due to
dislocation motion
-The number of dislocations increases
with amount of deformation
-Each dislocation causes a local
distortion of the crystal lattice
-Crystal lattice distortions make
dislocation motion more difficult
-Dislocations mutually hinder each
other due to their stress fields
-Increasing number of dislocations
hinders dislocation motion to such an
extent that macroscopically measurable
hardening takes place
Inhomogeneous dislocation structure
after plastic deformation of a single
crystal
Work hardening
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Work hardening
Hardening behaviour during cold work: (rolling) of AlSi1MgMn - 0
B
r
i
n
e
l
l
h
a
r
d
n
e
s
s
E
l
o
n
g
a
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o
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a
t

f
r
a
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t
u
r
e
0
.
2
%

p
r
o
o
f
s
t
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s
s
T
e
n
s
i
l
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
(
R

m
)
State:
soft annealed
Degree of cold rolling
( from:F.Ostermann, Anwendungstechnologie Aluminium )
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Precipitation hardening
Schematic representation of coherent, partially coherent and
incoherent secondary precipitation in aluminium alloys
(Source: Ostermann: Anwendungstechnologie Aluminium)
Homogenous alloyed crystal Coherent precipitation Partially coherent precipitation Incoherent precipitation
Small
Coherent
Cuttable
big, incoherent
Scematic View of Precipitations
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Precipitation Hardening
Interaction of Dislocations and Precipitations (experimental result)
A) Cutting of fine distributed coherent precipitations (NiCr-Alloy)
B) Bowing of dislocations between precipitations (fine grained high strength steel)
( from W.Bergmann: Werkstofftechnik)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Figures a to c:
Migration of a dislocation line through a crystal with
particles having different degrees of dispersion
(schematic). I = average distance between the
particles; r = radius of curvature which the dislocation
line can assume under the influence of the internal
stress that is present; arrow = direction dislocation
migration.
(Source - Altenpohl: Aluminium
von innen)
Mechanism of hindered dislocation migration
- Due to the abundance of foreign elements, intermetallic
phases (particles) precipitate in the mixed crystal
- Stress fields at phase boundaries and altered lattice
parameters hinder dislocation migration
- On marked increase in the stress, dislocations cut or form
rings around the particles (Orowan mechanism)
- The finer the particles, the smaller the distances between the
particles and hence the more effective the hindrance

1
/
D
D distance between the particles
- Very fine coherent particels will be cut
Precipitation hardening
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Warm Age
Cold Age
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Aging
Intermediate
storage
Quenching
Solution
annealing
Precipitation hardening
Precipitation of particles
and their distribution (a)
Solution annealing
Annealing at sufficiently high temperature for maximum uptake of the
alloy elements to form a homogenous mixed crystal
Quenching
Rapid cooling to prevent loss of homogeneity,
thermally unstable freezing of the dissolved alloying elements,
supersaturation; nevertheless, a very soft state of the alloy
Schematic representation of aheat
treatment cycleof heat-treatable Al-
Alloys
I, II, III = non critical ratefor heating and
cooling, iV = critical rate/quenching,
RT=roomtemperature
time
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Precipitation hardening
Precipitation of particles
and their distribution (b)
Time
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Warm Age
Cold Age
Aging
Intermediate
storage
Quenching
Solution
annealing
time
Incubation time
Intermediate storage time between the quenching and the self-initiation
of precipitation processes in the mixed crystal
(start of cold precipitation hardening)
Precipitation annealing (cold, hot)
Time and temperature dependent precipitation of coherent, partially
coherent and incoherent particles from a supersaturated solid state
(nuclei formation and diffusion processes)
time
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Influence of Aging Temperature on the
Time dependent Increase of Strength of
an AlCuSiMn-Alloy
( aus: Aluminium Taschenbuch )
Precipitation Hardening
Increase of Yield Strength of AlZnMg1
with warm and cold age
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Precipitation Hardening
Quenching of Precipitation Hardening Al-Alloys
( acc. Altenpohl: Aluminium von innen )
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
( acc. Altenpohl: Aluminium von innen )
Strength of Precipitation Hardening Al-Alloys
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Processing Strength by Work Hardening and Recovery
- Pure Aluminium
- Non-hardenable Al-Alloys
2 Ways of processing to produce semi hard material
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Aluminium-Alloys
Influence of Temperature on the Strength of Al-Alloys
Low-Temperature-Strength High-Temperature-Strenth Creep-Strength
AlMgSi1
AlMg4,5Mn F28
( acc. Altenpohl: Aluminium von innen )
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Strength and Stiffness
- Some Kind of Strength :
Tensile Strength R
m
Yield Strength (0,2%) R
p0,2
Fracture Strain A
from Tension-Test
Endurance Limit
Fatigue Limit, Fracture Life
from Fatigue-Testing
Creep Strength
from Creep-Test
- Separate Stiffness from Strength
Take elastic, reversable Energy
(Spring-Compression)
Different elastic
bending of beam
made of steel or
Al-alloy with
same load
Stiffness is dependent on Youngs-modulus
( E
alu
~ 1/3 E
stahl
).
Yuongs-modulus has no direct correlation to
mechanical-technological values of strength.

Lel

Stahl

Alu

Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Load and Amount of Bending of Beams under Constant Load
Made of Different Metals
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
26
Comparison with beams of same stiffnes made of Steel and Aluminium
Aus: Ostermann; Anwendungstechnologie Aluminium, 1998
Strength / Stiffness in Comparison of Aluminium - Steel
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Mass-specific Strength of
Construction Metals
( acc.: Aluminium Taschenbuch )
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Rough Overview on Aluminium-Alloys
Wrought Alloys
Al-Mn- Alloys
Al-Mg- und Al-Mg-Mn- Alloys
Al-Mg-Si- Alloys
Al-Cu- and Al-Cu-Mg- Alloys
Al-Zn-Mg Alloys
Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys
Cast Alloys
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Aluminium-Alloys
Rough Overview on Aluminium-Alloys
Wrought Alloys
Al-Mn- Alloys
No precipitation hardening; Mn increases strength and increases necessary
temperature for recrystallisation
Al-Mg- und Al-Mg-Mn- Alloys
No precipitation hardening; Mn increases strength in addition to effect of Mg,
if Mn >0,6% => no recrystallisation; no coarse grain with extruding profiles or
with mill annealing
Al-Mg-Si- Alloys
Cold- and warm age with forming Mg
2
Si; weldable; good cold workable (-O; -W);
aircooling after extrusion possible, therefore no further solution heat treatment
after extruding;
standard material group in automotive and civil engineering
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Rough Overview on Aluminium-Alloys
Wrought Alloys
Al-Cu- and Al-Cu-Mg- Alloys
Cold- and warm age with forming CuAl
2
und Al
2
CuMg-precipitations; very quick
cooling after solution annealing necessary, very short incubation time;
Increase of incubation time up to 6 days with storage at -20C; cold age to
maximum strength within 8 days (normally used); most alloys bad weldable
Al-Zn-Mg Alloys
Cold- and warm age with forming MgZn
2
; large range for solution annealing;
warm working/extruding and quench is one process because aircooling is quick
enough;
good weldable, full reaging at RT in the HAZ after 3 month, at 120C after 24
hours; best conditions for effective and quick warm age;
overage increases resistance against stress-crack-corrosion
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Rough Overview on Aluminium-Alloys
Wrought Alloys
Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys
Cold and warm age as AlZnMg, also warm age in different temperature steps to
get highest strength and best stress-crack-corrosion resistance;
highest strength of all Al-alloys possible;
Cu-addition increases weld crack susceptibility;
Industrial hydraulics, mine stanchions, etc.
Cast Alloys
Si up to 12 % increases casting properties;
Mg- and ZnMg-additions are good for decorative anodising processes;
Cu-additions give best strength
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Thank you
very much
for your attention !
Do you have any more questions ?
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Literature:
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies (TALAT); CD-ROM by European Aluminium
Association EAA, Brussels, 1999; talat@eaa.be
H.J. Bargel, G. Schulze: Werkstoffkunde, 7. Auflage, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000
F. Ostermann: Anwendungstechnologie Aluminium, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998
Aluminium -Taschenbuch Bd. 1-3, Hrsg: Aluminium-Zentrale Dsseldorf, Bd.1 Grdlg.u.Werkst.,
Bd. 2: Umformen, Gieen, Oberflchen, Bd. 3: Weiterverarbeitg. und Anwendg.,
15. Auflage, Aluminium-Verlag, Dsseldorf, 1995-97
D. Altenpohl: Aluminium von innen, Aluminium-Verlag, Dsseldorf, 1994
W. Schatt, H.Worch: Werkstoffwissenschaft, Deutscher Verlag fr Grundstoffindustrie, 1991
W. Bergmann: Werkstofftechnik, Bd. 1 u. 2, Carl Hanser Verlag Mnchen 2000
U. Dilthey: Schweitechnische Fertigungsverfahren, Bd.2 (Werkstoffe),
VDI-Verlag, Dsseldorf 1995
Aluminium-Schlssel, ber Aluminium-Verlag, Dsseldorf (Hilfe zum Vergleich und Umschlsseln)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Erholung
Abbau von Eigenspannungen
Umlagerung von Versetzungen
in energiermeren Zustand
Polygonisation
Ausheilen von Leerstellen
Temperatur unterhalb der
Rekristallisationsschwelle
(also kein Umkristallisieren)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
(Source: Altenpohl: Aluminium von innen)
Nuclei formation and crystallite growth during recrystallisation
(schematic). a-d depict the progress of the annealing reaction at constant
temperature. Four nuclei have formed in the deformed microstructure
(shortly after reaching the recrystallisation temperature). Further nuclei
form, whilst the first nuclei grow. The nuclei grow further. Some grains
impact each other and this impedes their further growth. The primary
recrystallisation is complete. A recrystallised microstructure results.
Recrystallisation
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
a and b: Tensile strength and elongation as a function of the annealing temperature and annealing
time. Starting material: rolled sheet of pure aluminium. Figure a: At 250C it takes several hours
until recrystallisation is complete (the tensile test gives an average of the strength of the
recrystallised and not yet recrystallised regions. From an atomic point of view the recrystallisation is
a continuous process). Figure b: The annealing time in each case was 5 minutes. Due to the
relatively short annealing time the relaxation was not marked. The recrystallisation threshold can
clearly be seen and lies at ca. 250C. It is clear that above ca. 400C the primary recrystallisation is
complete.
(Source: Altenpohl: Aluminium von innen)
Recrystallisation
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Recrystallisation
Deep-drawn component made of
AlMg 3; recrystallisation after
intermediate annealing
(according to Altenpohl: Aluminium von
innen )
Recrystallisation grain size as a
function of the degree of cold
deformation
(Numbers = degree of cold work before soft
annealing)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
9a
Recrystallisation
Recrystallisation threshold
depends on
Temperature and annealing time
Low temperature Slower process Long time
High temperature More energy for diffusion
and point defect motion,
lattice vibrations larger Short time
Alloyed elements
e.g. in Aluminum Mn (and to some extent Fe) shift the recrystallisation to
higher temperatures
Degree of cold work
The higher the degree of cold work,
- the lower the threshold (temp. and annealing time decrease)
- the finer the grain size
Many defects high stress stored in lattice deformation
high driving forces
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
Sheet of AIMn which was hot-rolled
too cold or with too small reduction per
pass. Only a thin surface zone is
recrystallised, whilst in the middle of
the sheet the grains were stretched
and do not recrystallise,
meaning that a cold-rolling type
structure is present there.
Hot-rolling
(T = 400500C)
Surface
2 mm depth
4 mm depth
(middle of sheet)
Recrystallisation of an 8 mm sheet of aluminium during hot-rolling
Widely differing grain size in a sheet of
AIMgSi fully recrystallised during hot-
rolling. In the vicinity of the surface the
degree of deformation was higher and
the temperature lower. Both these
factors cause decreasing
recrystallisation grain size in the
direction of the sheet surface.
A sheet which due to an
adequately high hot-rolling
temperature and high
reduction per pass has
recrystallised very evenly
with a fine to medium grain
size.
Schubert
Metallic materials
Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Schubert
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Aluminium-Alloys
40
Fertigungsverfahren bei Al-Werkstoffen - Walzen
Flieen im Walzspalt Geschwindigkeiten im Walzspalt
v
x
= v
nderung der Korngestalt
Gefahr:
Kleben an der
Fliescheide,
danach schuppen-
frmiges Aufreien
Aus: Ostermann; Anwendungstechnologie Aluminium, 1998