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Biju Patnaik University of Technology

Rourkela
PROJECT REPORT
ON
M o n i tor and C on t rol o f Gree n h ou se
E nv ir o nment
The Project GreenBee
A Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of
Bachelor of Engineering
In
Applied Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering
Submitted by:
Chinmayananda Das !egd "o#$%$&''($)*+
,nder the guid a nce o f
-rof# Subhendu Behera
Dept# of Applied Electronics . Instrumentation Engineering
Dhanes/ar !ath Institute of Engineering . Management Studies0 Cuttac1
DE-A!2ME"2 34 A--5IED E5EC2!3"ICS A"D I"S2!,ME"2A2I3" E"GI"EE!I"G
D6A"ES7A! !A26 I"S2I2,2E 34 E"GI"EE!I"G . MA"AGME"2 S2,DIES
C,22AC8

D6A"ES7A! !A26 I"S2I2,2E 34 E"GI"EE!I"G . MA"AGME"2 S2,DIES
C,22AC8
!Affiliated To "iju Patnai# $ni%ersit& of Technolo'&(
Dept# of Applied Electronics . Instrumentation
Engineering
Certificate
Certified that the project wor# entitled 9Monitor and Control of Greenhouse
Environment: is a bonafide wor# carried out b&)
Chinmayananda Das !egd "o#$%$&''($)*+
in partial fulfillment for the award of the de'ree of "achelor of En'ineerin' in Applied
Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering under "iju Pattnai# $ni%ersit& Of
Technolo'&* Rour#ela* durin' the &ear +,,-.+,,/ It is certified that all corrections0 su''estions
indicated for Internal Assessment ha%e been incorporated in the report and deposited in the
departmental librar& The project report has been appro%ed as it satisfies the academic
requirements in respect of the project wor# prescribed for the said de'ree
Signature:
Proj e ct 1 u id e ) 2O 3 3 e pt of AE 4 I) Project Inchar'e)
Name) Name) Name)
3ate) 3ate) 3ate)
Internal e5aminer) E5ternal
e5aminer) Name) Name)
AC8"375EDGEME"2
The completion of an& project brin's with it a sense of satisfaction* but it is ne%er
complete without than#in' those people who made it possible and whose constant support
has crowned our efforts with success
One cannot e%en ima'ine the power of the force that 'uides us all and neither can we
succeed without ac#nowled'in' it Our deepest 'ratitude to Almi'ht& 1od for holdin' our
hands and 'uidin' us throu'hout our li%es
I would also li#e to e5press our 'ratitude to -rof# Subhendu Behera 2ead of the
3epartment* Applied Electronics and Instrumentation 3RIE67* Cuttac# for encoura'in'
and inspirin' us to carr& out the project in the department lab
I would also li#e to than# our 'uide* Er# ;# " Mishra 3ept of Ap p l i e d Electronics
and Communication for his e5pert 'uidance* encoura'ement and %aluable su''estions at
e%er& step
8e also would li#e to than# all the staff members of AE4I dept for pro%idin' us with
the required facilities and support towards the completion of the project
8e are e5tremel& happ& to ac#nowled'e and e5press our sincere 'ratitude to our
parents for their constant support and encoura'ement and last but not the least* friends and
well wishers for their help and cooperation and solutions to problems durin' the course of
the project
Also our friends at )$%&pro<ects#net who pro%ided solutions at times when we were
a'ainst the wall in need of help
iii
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
S="3-SIS
Appropriate en%ironmental conditions are necessar& for optimum plant 'rowth* impro%ed
crop &ields* and efficient use of water and other resources Automatin' the data acquisition
process of the soil conditions and %arious climatic parameters that 'o%ern plant 'rowth allows
information to be collected at hi'h frequenc& with less labor requirements The e5istin' s&stems
emplo& PC or 767.based s&stems for #eepin' the user continuousl& informed of the conditions
inside the 'reenhouse< but are unaffordable* bul#&* difficult to maintain and less accepted b& the
technolo'icall& uns#illed wor#ers
The objecti%e of this project is to desi'n a simple* eas& to install* microcontroller.based
circuit to monitor and record the %alues of temperature* humidit&* soil moisture and sunli'ht of
the natural en%ironment that are continuousl& modified and controlled in order optimi=e them to
achie%e ma5imum plant 'rowth and &ield The controller used is a low power* cost efficient chip
manufactured b& AT6E9 ha%in' >? b&tes of on.chip flash memor& It communicates with the
%arious sensor modules in real.time in order to control the li'ht* aeration and draina'e process
efficientl& inside a 'reenhouse b& actuatin' a cooler* fo''er* dripper and li'hts respecti%el&
accordin' to the necessar& condition of the crops An inte'rated 9iquid cr&stal displa& !9C3( is
also used for real time displa& of data acquired from the %arious sensors and the status of the
%arious de%ices Also* the use of easil& a%ailable components reduces the manufacturin' and
maintenance costs The desi'n is quite fle5ible as the software can be chan'ed an& time It can
thus be tailor.made to the specific requirements of the user
This ma#es the proposed s&stem to be an economical* portable and a low maintenance
solution for 'reenhouse applications* especiall& in rural areas and for small scale a'riculturists
3EPART6ENT O: AE 4 I
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3EPART6ENT O: AE 4 I
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6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
5IS2 34 4IG,!ES
I :i'ure +@ "loc# dia'ram of the s&stemAAAAAAAAAAAAAAE
II :i'ure C+ "loc# dia'ram of photos&nthesisAAAAAAAAAAAA@+
III :i'ure C+ TranspirationAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA@D
I; :i'ure D@ 7oil moisture sensor circuitAAAAAAAAAAAAAA@F
; :i'ure D+ 9i'ht 3ependent ResistorAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA@>
;I :i'ure D+@ 7tructure of a 9i'ht 3ependent ResistorAAAAAAAA@>
;II :i'ure DC 9i'ht sensor circuitAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA@/
;III :i'ure DD 2I2.D,,,.,,@ 2umidit& sensorAAAAAAAAAAAA+,
IJ :i'ure D- 2umidit& sensor circuitAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA+@
J :i'ure DE 96C- temperature sensorAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA++
JI :i'ure DF Temperature sensor circuitAAAAAAAAAAAAAA+C
JII :i'ure D> 1ettin' data from the analo' worldAAAAAAAAAAA+D
JIII :i'ure D/ "loc# dia'ram of A3C ,>,/AAAAAAAAAAAAAA+-
JI; :i'ure D@, :lowchart e5plainin' the 7uccessi%e Appro5imation method+E
J; :i'ure D@@ Pin dia'ram of A3C ,>,/AAAAAAAAAAAAAA+E
J;I :i'ure D@+ A3C ,>,/ pin details for the s&stemAAAAAAAAAA+>
J;II :i'ure D@C Timin' dia'ram of A3C ,>,/AAAAAAAAAAAAA+/
J;III :i'ure D@D Cloc# circuitr& for the A3CAAAAAAAAAAAAAC,
JIJ :i'ure D@- The effect of usin' a 7chmitt tri''er instead of a comparatorAC,
JJ :i'ure D@E Pin dia'ram of AT>/7-+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAACC
JJI :i'ure D@F "loc# dia'ram of the microcontrollerAAAAAAAAAACD
JJII :i'ure D@> Power.on reset circuitAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACE
3EPART6ENT O: AE 4 I
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JJIII :i'ure D@/ Oscillator cloc# circuitAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC>
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JJ; :i'ure D+@ 6icrocontroller Pin 3etailsAAAAAAAAAAAAAADC
JJ;I :i'ure D++ Address locations for a +5@E line 9C3AAAAAAAAADD
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JJ;III :i'ure D+D Electrical s&mbol of a bu==erAAAAAAAAAAAAADE
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JJJIII :i'ure D+/ K-; Power suppl& circuitAAAAAAAAAAAAAA-@
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JJJ; :i'ure -@ 3rip irri'ation s&stemAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA-D
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JJJ;III :i'ure EC Project options dialo'AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAE@
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J9II :i'ure EF Pro'rammin' windowAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEE
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3EPART6ENT O: AE 4 I
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5IS2 34 2AB5ES
I Table +@ Importance of the %arious parametersAAAAAAAAAAA>
II Table D@ 7election of the input channelsAAAAAAAAAAAAA+F
III Table D+ Alternate functions of Port CAAAAAAAAAAAAAACE
I; Table DC Pin description of the 9C3AAAAAAAAAAAAAAADE
; Table >@ 7oil moisture sensor readin'sAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFD
;I Table >+ 9i'ht sensor readin'sAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAF-
;II Table >C 2umidit& sensor readin'sAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFE
;III Table >D Temperature sensor readin'sAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFF
3EPART6ENT O: AE 4 I
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INTRO3$CTION
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
I"2!3D,C2I3"
8e li%e in a world where e%er&thin' can be controlled and operated automaticall&*
but there are still a few important sectors in our countr& where automation has not been
adopted or not been put to a full.fled'ed use* perhaps because of se%eral reasons one such
reason is cost One such field is that of a'riculture A'riculture has been one of the primar&
occupations of man since earl& ci%ili=ations and e%en toda& manual inter%entions in farmin'
are ine%itable 1reenhouses form an important part of the a'riculture and horticulture sectors
in our countr& as the& can be used to 'row plants under controlled climatic conditions for
optimum produce. Automatin' a 'reenhouse en%isa'es monitorin' and controllin' of the
climatic parameters which directl& or indirectl& 'o%ern the plant 'rowth and hence their
produce Automation is process control of industrial machiner& and processes* thereb&
replacin' human operators
&#& C ,! ! E " 2 S C E " A!I3
1reenhouses in India are bein' deplo&ed in the hi'h.altitude re'ions where the sub.
=ero temperature up to .D,Q C ma#es an& #ind of plantation almost impossible and in arid
re'ions where conditions for plant 'rowth are hostile The e5istin' set.ups primaril& are)
&#&#& MA", A5 SE2 D, -:
This set.up in%ol%es %isual inspection of the plant 'rowth* manual irri'ation of plants*
turnin' ON and O:: the temperature controllers* manual spra&in' of the fertili=ers and
pesticides It is time consumin'* %ulnerable to human error and hence less accurate and
unreliable
&#&#' - A! 2 I A5 5 = A, 2 3 M A 2E D S E 2 D , - :
This set.up is a combination of manual super%ision and partial automation and is
similar to manual set.up in most respects but it reduces the labor in%ol%ed in terms of
irri'atin' the set.up
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e + +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
&#&#> 4 ,55=D A ,2 3MA 2ED :
This is a sophisticated set.up which is well equipped to react to most of the climatic
chan'es occurrin' inside the 'reenhouse It wor#s on a feedbac# s&stem which helps it to
respond to the e5ternal stimuli efficientl& Althou'h this set.up o%ercomes the problems
caused due to human errors it is not completel& automated and e5pensi%e
&#' -!3B5EM D E4I"I2I 3 "
A number of problems associated with the abo%e mentioned s&stems are enumerated
as below)
@ Comple5it& in%ol%ed in monitorin' climatic parameters li#e humidit&* soil moisture*
illumination* soil p2* temperature* etc which directl& or indirectl& 'o%ern the plant
'rowth
+ In%estment in the automation process are hi'h* as toda&Ps 'reenhouse control s&stems are
desi'ned for onl& one parameter monitorin' !as per 1?;? research center(< to control
more than one parameter simultaneousl& there will be a need to bu& more than one
s&stem
C 2i'h maintenance and need for s#illed technical labor# The modern proposed s&stems use
the mobile technolo'& as the communication schemes and wireless data acquisition
s&stems* pro%idin' 'lobal access to the information about onePs farms "ut it suffers from
%arious limitations li#e desi'n comple5it&* incon%enient repairin' and hi'h price Also
the reliabilit& of the s&stem is relati%el& low* and when there are malfunctions in local
de%ices* all local and tele data will be lost and hence the whole s&stem collapses 6ore
o%er farmers in India do not wor# under such sophisticated en%ironment and find no
necessit& of such an ad%anced s&stem* and cannot afford the same
?eepin' these issues in %iew* a microcontroller based monitorin' and control s&stem is
desi'ned to find implementation in the near future that will help Indian farmers
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e C +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
&#> -!3-3SED M3 DE5 43 ! A,23MA2I3" 34 G!EE"63,SE
The proposed s&stem is an embedded s&stem which will closel& monitor and control
the microclimatic parameters of a 'reenhouse on a re'ular basis round the cloc# for
culti%ation of crops or specific plant species which could ma5imi=e their production o%er the
whole crop 'rowth season and to eliminate the difficulties in%ol%ed in the s&stem b& reducin'
human inter%ention to the best possible e5tent The s&stem comprises of sensors* Analo' to
3i'ital Con%erter* microcontroller and actuators
8hen an& of the abo%e mentioned climatic parameters cross a safet& threshold which
has to be maintained to protect the crops* the sensors sense the chan'e and the
microcontroller reads this from the data at its input ports after bein' con%erted to a di'ital
form b& the A3C The microcontroller then performs the needed actions b& emplo&in' rela&s
until the stra&ed.out parameter has been brou'ht bac# to its optimum le%el 7ince a
microcontroller is used as the heart of the s&stem* it ma#es the set.up low.cost and effecti%e
ne%ertheless As the s&stem also emplo&s an 9C3 displa& for continuousl& alertin' the user
about the condition inside the 'reenhouse* the entire set.up becomes user friendl&
Thus* this s&stem eliminates the drawbac#s of the e5istin' set.ups mentioned in the
pre%ious section and is desi'ned as an eas& to maintain* fle5ible and low cost solution
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e D +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER +
7B7TE6 6O3E9
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e - +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
BASIC M3DE5 34 26E S=S2EM
4 ig # ' #& B lo c1 d iag ram of the system
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e E +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
'#& -A !2S 34 26E S= S2EM:
R 7ensors !3ata acquisition s&stem(
Temperature sensor !96C-(
2umidit& sensor !2I2D,,,(
9i'ht sensor !93R(
6oisture sensor
R Analo' to 3i'ital Con%erter ! A3C ,>,>0,>,/(
R 6icrocontroller !AT>/7-+(
R 9iquid Cr&stal 3ispla& !2itachiSs 23DDF>,(
R Actuators T Rela&s
R 3e%ices controlled
8ater Pump !simulated as a bulb(
7pra&er !simulated as a bulb(
Cooler !simulated as a fan(
Artificial 9i'hts !simulated as + bulbs(
R "u==er
2 ! A" S D , CE!S D a ta acEui s ition s y s tem+:
This part of the s&stem consists of %arious sensors* namel& soil moisture* humidit&*
temperature and li'ht These sensors sense %arious parameters. temperature* humidit&* soil
moisture and li'ht intensit& and are then sent to the Analo' to 3i'ital Con%erter
A "A 53G 23 DIG I2A5 C3" ?E !D E! AD C+:
The analo' parameters measured b& the sensors are then con%erted to correspondin'
di'ital %alues b& the A3C
MIC! 3 C 3"2!355E!:
The microcontroller is the heart of the proposed embedded s&stem It constantl&
monitors the di'iti=ed parameters of the %arious sensors and %erifies them with the
predefined threshold %alues and chec#s if an& correcti%e action is to be ta#en for the
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e F +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
condition at that instant of time In case such a situation arises* it acti%ates the actuators to
perform a controlled operation
A C2,A2 3! S:
An arra& of actuators can be used in the s&stem such as rela&s* contactors* and chan'e
o%er switches etc The& are used to turn on AC de%ices such as motors* coolers* pumps*
fo''in' machines* spra&ers :or the purpose of demonstration rela&s ha%e been used to dri%e
AC bulbs to simulate actuators and AC de%ices A complete wor#in' s&stem can be reali=ed
b& simpl& replacin' these simulation de%ices b& the actual de%ices
DIS - 5A= ," I 2:
A 9iquid cr&stal displa& is used to indicate the present status of parameters and the
respecti%e AC de%ises !simulated usin' bulbs( The information is displa&ed in two modes
which can be selected usin' a push button switch which to''les between the modes An&
displa& can be interfaced to the s&stem with respecti%e chan'es in dri%er circuitr& and code
'#' S2E-S 435537ED I" DESIG"I"G 26 E S=S2EM:
Three 'eneral steps can be followed to appropriatel& select the control s&stem)
Step F &: I d enti fy mea s urable variabl e s im p o r ta n t to pro d uct io n #
R It is %er& important to correctl& identif& the parameters that are 'oin' to be measured
b& the controllerPs data acquisition interface* and how the& are to be measured The
set of %ariables t&picall& used in 'reenhouse control is shown below)
Sl# "o# ?ariable to be monitored Its Importance
@ Temperature Affects all plant metabolic functions
+ 2umidit&
Affects transpiration rate and the plantSs thermal
control mechanisms
C 7oil moisture Affects salinit&* and p2 of irri'ation water
D 7olar Radiation
Affects photos&nthetic rate* responsible for most
thermal load durin' warm periods
2a ble ' #& Impo rta nce o f t he var io us pa ra me ters
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e > +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
An electronic sensor for measurin' a %ariable must readil& a%ailable* accurate* reliable
and low in cost If a sensor is not a%ailable* the %ariable cannot be incorporated into the
control s&stem* e%en if it is %er& important 6an& times %ariables that cannot be directl& or
continuousl& measured can be controlled in a limited wa& b& the s&stem :or e5ample*
fertilit& le%els in nutrient solutions for 'reenhouse production are difficult to measure
continuousl&
StepF ': Inve stig ate t he co nt ro l strateg ies#
R An important element in considerin' a control s&stem is the control strate'& that is to
be followed The simplest strate'& is to use threshold sensors that directl& affect
actuation of de%ices :or e5ample* the temperature inside a 'reenhouse can be
affected b& controllin' heaters* fans* or window openin's once it e5ceeds the
ma5imum allowable limit. The li'ht intensit& can be controlled usin' four threshold
le%els As the li'ht intensit& decreases one li'ht ma& be turned on 8ith a further
decrease in its intensit& a second li'ht would be powered* and so on< thus ensurin'
that the plants are not depri%ed of adequate sunli'ht e%en durin' the winter season or
a cloud& da&
R 6ore comple5 control strate'ies are those based not onl& on the current %alues of the
controlled %ariables* but also on the pre%ious histor& of the s&stem* includin' the rates
at which the s&stem %ariables are chan'in'
Step F>: Id e n t ify the soft/are and the hard/a r e to be use d #
R It is %er& important that control s&stem functions are specified before decidin' what
software and hardware s&stem to purchase The model chosen must ha%e the abilit&
to)
@ E5pand the number of measured %ariables !input subs&stem( and controlled
de%ices !output subs&stem( so that 'rowth and chan'in' needs of the
production operation can be satisfied in the future
+ Pro%ide a fle5ible and eas& to use interface
C It must ensure hi'h precision measurement and must ha%e the abilit& resist
noise
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e / +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
2ardware must alwa&s follow the selection of software* with the hardware required
bein' supported b& the software selected In addition to functional capabilities* the selection
of the control hardware should include factors such as reliabilit&* support* pre%ious
e5periences with the equipment !successes and failures(* and cost
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @, +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER C
"A7IC T2EORB
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
BASIC 26E3!=
>#& 5 I 4E -!3CESSES I "S I D E G!EE"63,SE:
>#&#& - 6323 S= "2 6E2IC -! 3CE SS
The two major life.processes occurrin' in plants are photos&nthesis and transpiration
Photos&nthesis is the con%ersion of li'ht ener'& into chemical ener'& b& li%in' or'anisms
The raw materials are carbon dio5ide and water< the ener'& source is sunli'ht< and the end.
products are o5&'en and !ener'& rich( carboh&drates* for e5ample sucrose* 'lucose and
starch This process is ar'uabl& the most important biochemical pathwa&* since nearl& all
life on Earth either directl& or indirectl& depends on it
4i g > #& B loc1 diag ram o f p hot osynthe sis
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @+ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A commonl& used but sli'htl& simplified equation for photos&nthesis is)
A C3
'g+
G &' 6
'
3
l+
G photons H C
A
6
&'
3
AaE#+
G A 3
'g+
G A 6
'
3
l+
I>#&+
Carbon dio5ide K water K li'ht ener'& U 'lucose K o5&'en K water
9i'ht ener'& obtained from the sun is %er& essential for photos&nthesis The photons
present in li'ht are responsible for tri''erin' the li'ht.reaction in plants Plants need an
optimum amount of e5posure to li'ht in a da& This optimum period is called its photo.
period The plant sensiti%it& cur%e for photos&nthesis has its pea# at the red side of the
spectrum This indicates that pro%idin' plants with the wa%elen'ths best suited to
photos&nthesis is most efficient with the use of artificial li'ht Tests show a mean de%iation
from the a%era'e sensiti%it& cur%e of less than -V for a wide %ariet& of plants The cur%e
shows that the ma5imum sensiti%it& for photos&nthesis lies in the far red at appro5imatel&
EF- nm The plant sensiti%it& cur%e disputes two common misconceptions The first is that an
WidealW plant 'rowin' lamp duplicates the spectral ener'& distribution of the sun 7unli'ht has
a continual spectrum* radiatin' ener'& in wa%elen'ths that contribute less to photos&nthesis*
and are therefore WwastedW on the plant :or this reason* man& lamps are more efficient than
sunli'ht for plants
Plants need dar# periods Periods of li'ht !called photo.periods( and dar# periods and
their relati%e len'ths ha%e an effect on plant maturit& The dar# period of each da& affects
flowerin' and seedin' of most plants Althou'h man& plants can 'row under continuous
li'ht* nearl& all plants prefer a dar# period each da& for normal 'rowth All plants need some
dar#ness to 'row well or to tri''er flowerin' The ideal photoperiods of plants %ar&* some
preferrin' lon' da&s and short ni'hts< others the re%erse< and some do best when the len'th of
the ni'ht and da& periods are equal
>#&#' 2!A"S- I !A2 I 3"
2ranspiration is the e%aporation of water from the aerial parts of plants* especiall&
lea%es but also stems* flowers and roots Transpiration also cools plants and enables mass
flow of mineral nutrients and water from roots to shoots 6ass flow is caused b& the decrease
in h&drostatic !water( pressure in the upper parts of the plants due to the diffusion of water
out of stomata into the atmosphere 8ater is absorbed at the roots b& osmosis* and an&
dissol%ed mineral nutrients tra%el with it throu'h the 5&lem
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @C +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
The rate of transpiration is directl& related to the de'ree of stomatal openin'* and to
the e%aporati%e demand of the atmosphere surroundin' the leaf The amount of water lost b&
a plant depends on its si=e* alon' with the surroundin' li'ht intensit&* temperature* humidit&*
and wind speed !all of which influence e%aporati%e demand( 7oil water suppl& and soil
temperature can influence stomatal openin'* and thus the transpiration rate
4 i g > #' 2 r ans p i r at io n
The moisture content in the soil is a %er& crucial factor in the process of transpiration
as the absorption of mineral salts from the soil throu'h the process of osmosis is directl&
dependent on the moisture content in the soil#
The 'reenhouse wor#s best when the temperature is not too hot and not too cold
Thou'h it sounds simple in the sprin' and autumn we can easil& ha%e a wide ran'e of
temperatures from the cold in the middle of the ni'ht to the e5cessi%e heat of the da& when
the sun is shinin' 3urin' the da& the ra&s from the sun penetrate the 'reenhouse and warm
up and li'ht up the surroundin's 9i'ht escapes throu'h the 'lass walls but the heat in form
of infra.red radiations 'ets trapped inside the 'reen house leadin' to an incubatin' effect and
the temperature inside 'raduall& increases This increased temperature leads to an increase in
the rate of transpiration which is harmful to the plants
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @D +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER D
2AR38ARE 3E7CRIPTION
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
6 A!D7A!E DESC!I-2I3"
*#& 2!A"S D , C E!S:
A transducer is a de%ice which measures a ph&sical quantit& and con%erts it into a
si'nal which can be read b& an obser%er or b& an instrument 6onitorin' and controllin' of a
'reenhouse en%ironment in%ol%es sensin' the chan'es occurrin' inside it which can
influence the rate of 'rowth in plants The parameters which are of importance are the
temperature inside the 'reenhouse which affect the photos&nthetic and transpiration
processes are humidit&* moisture content in the soil* the illumination etc 7ince all these
parameters are interlin#ed* a closed loop !feedbac#( control s&stem is emplo&ed in
monitorin' it The sensors used in this s&stem are)
@ 7oil 6oisture 7ensor!Transistor amplifier(
+ 9i'ht 7ensor ! 93R !9i'ht 3ependent Resistor( (
C 2umidit& 7ensor !2I2D,,,(
D Temperature 7ensor !96C-(
*#&#& S3I5 M3IS2,!E SE"S3!
*#&#&#& 4ea tures of the So il m o ist u re sen s or:
@ The circuit desi'ned uses a -; suppl&* fi5ed resistance of @,,X* %ariable resistance
of @,YX* two copper leads as the sensor probes* +N+++N transistor
+ It 'i%es a %olta'e output correspondin' to the conducti%it& of the soil
C The conducti%it& of soil depends upon the amount of moisture present in it It
increases with increase in the water content of the soil
D The %olta'e output is ta#en at the transmitter which is connected to a %ariable
resistance This %ariable resistance is used to adjust the sensiti%it& of the sensor
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @E +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
VCC
SENSOR LEADS
@,, X
2N222N
ADC IN 5
@, # X
4 i g# * #& S o il moistu r e s ensor
*#&#&#' 4unct io n al d e s c ript io n of S o il m oistu r e s e nso r :
The two copper leads act as the sensor probes The& are immersed into the specimen soil
whose moisture content is under test The soil is e5amined under three conditions)
CaseF&: D r y condit ionD The probes are placed in the soil under dr& conditions and are
inserted up to a fair depth of the soil As there is no conduction path between the two copper
leads the sensor circuit remains open The %olta'e output of the emitter in this case ran'es
from , to ,-;
CaseF': 3ptimum c o nditionD 8hen water is added to the soil* it percolates throu'h the
successi%e la&ers of it and spreads across the la&ers of soil due to capillar& force This water
increases the moisture content of the soil This leads to an increase in its conducti%it& which
forms a conducti%e path between the two sensor probes leadin' to a close path for the current
flowin' from the suppl& to the transistor throu'h the sensor probes The %olta'e output of the
circuit ta#en at the emitter of the transistor in the optimum case ran'es from @/ to CD;
appro5imatel&
CaseF>: E J cess /ater cond itionD 8ith the increase in water content be&ond the optimum
le%el* the conducti%it& of the soil increases drasticall& and a stead& conduction path is
established between the two sensor leads and the %olta'e output from the sensor increases no
further be&ond a certain limit The ma5imum possible %alue for it is not more than D+;
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @F +,,/.+,@,
Cadmium
Sulphide
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
*#&#' 5I G6 2 SE" S3!
5ight Dependent !esistor !93R( also #nown as photoconductor or photocell* is a
de%ice which has a resistance which %aries accordin' to the amount of li'ht fallin' on its
surface 7ince 93R is e5tremel& sensiti%e in %isible li'ht ran'e* it is well suited for the
proposed application
4 ig # * #' 5ight Depen d ent !e s i s t or
*#&#'#& 4eatures of the lig ht sensor:
R The 9i'ht 3ependent Resistor !93R( is made usin' the semiconductor Cadmium
7ulphide !Cd7(
R The li'ht fallin' on the brown =i'=a' lines on the sensor causes the resistance of
thede%ice to fall This is #nown as a ne'ati%e co.efficient There are some 93Rs that
wor# in the opposite wa& ie their resistance increases with li'ht !called positi%e co.
efficient(
R he resistance of the 93R decreases as the intensit& of the li'ht fallin' on it increases
Incident photons dri%e electrons from the %alence band into the conduction band
conduction band
Cadmium
Sulphide
track
Band gap
valence band
4 i g# * #'#& Structure of a 5ight Dependent !esistor0 s h o/ing C a d m ium Su l phide trac1
a nd a n atom to il l ust r a te ele c tr o n s i n t he va l e nce and c o nd uction b a nd s
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @> +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
*#&#'#' 4un ct io nal de script io n
R An 93R and a normal resistor are wired in series across a %olta'e* as shown in the
circuit below 3ependin' on which is tied to the -; and which to ,;* the %olta'e at
the point between them* call it the sensor node* will either rise or fall with increasin'
li'ht If the 93R is the component tied directl& to the -;* the sensor node will
increase in %olta'e with increasin' li'ht
R The 93RSs resistance can reach @, # ohms in dar# conditions and about @,, ohms in
full bri'htness
R The circuit used for sensin' li'ht in our s&stem uses a @, #X fi5ed resistor which is
tied to K-; 2ence the %olta'e %alue in this case decreases with increase in li'ht
intensit&
VCC
10K X
ADC_IN4
LDR
GND
4 i g# * #> 5ight sen s or cir c uit
R The sensor node %olta'e is compared with the threshold %olta'es for different le%els
of li'ht intensit& correspondin' to the four conditions. Optimum* dim* dar# and ni'ht
R The relationship between the resistance !
5
and li'ht intensit& 5uJ for a
t&pical 93R is)
!
5
Z -,, 0 5uJ #X A!D@(
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @/ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
R 8ith the 93R connected to -; throu'h a @,? resistor* the output %olta'e of the 93R
is )
;o Z -[R
9
0 !R
9
K@,( A!D+(
R In order to increase the sensiti%it& of the sensor we must reduce the %alue of the fi5ed
resistor in series with the sensor This ma& be done b& puttin' other resistors in
parallel with it
*#&#> 6,MIDI2= SE"S3!
The humidit& sensor 2I2D,,,* manufactured b& 2one&well is used for sensin' the
humidit& It deli%ers instrumentation qualit& R2 !Relati%e 2umidit&( sensin' performance in
a low cost* solder able 7IP !7in'le In.line Pac#a'e( Relati%e humidit& is a measure* in
percenta'e* of the %apour in the air compared to the total amount of %apour that could be held
in the air at a 'i%en temperature
4ig# * #* 6 I 6 D* $$ $ D$ $& 6umidi ty S e nsor
*#&#>#& 4 e a tu r es:
R 9inear %olta'e output %s VR2
R 9aser trimmed interchan'eabilit&
R 9ow power desi'n
R 2i'h accurac&
R :ast response time
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e +, +,,/.+,@,
1
2
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
R 7table* low drift performance
R Chemicall& resistant
R The R2 sensor is a laser trimmed* thermoset pol&mer capaciti%e sensin' element with
on.chip inte'rated si'nal conditionin' The sensin' elementSs multila&er construction
pro%ides e5cellent resistance to most application ha=ards such as wettin'* dust* dirt*
oils and common en%ironmental chemicals
VCC
&'#% 1 X
Vin
6I6*$$$ GND
Vout
3
To ADC IN6
4ig * #% 6 u midi ty s e n s or c i r c u it
*#&#>#' 4un ct io nal de script io n
R The sensor de%elops a linear %olta'e %s R2 output that is ratiometric to the suppl&
%olta'e That is* when the suppl& %olta'e %aries* the sensor output %olta'e follows in
the same proportion It can operate o%er a D.-> suppl& %olta'e ran'e At -; suppl&
%olta'e* and room temperature* the output %olta'e ran'es from ,> to C/; as the
humidit& %aries from ,V to @,,V !noncondensin'(
R The humidit& sensor functions with a resolution of up to ,-V of relati%e humidit&
!R2(
R 8ith a t&pical current draw of onl& +,, NA* the 2I2.D,,, 7eries is ideall& suited for
low drain* batter& operated s&stems
R The chan'e in the R2 of the surroundin's causes an equi%alent chan'e in the %olta'e
output The output is an analo' %olta'e proportional to the suppl& %olta'e
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e +@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
Consequentl&* con%ertin' it to relati%e humidit& !R2( requires that both the suppl&
and sensor output %olta'es be ta#en into account accordin' to the formula)
R2 Z !!;out 0 ;suppl&( T ,@E( 0,,,E+* t&pical at +-QC A!DC(
R This %olta'e is con%erted to the di'ital form b& the A3C and then sent as input to the
microcontroller which reads the data
*#&#* 2E M-E !A 2, !E SE"S 3!
National 7emiconductorPs 96C- IC has been used for sensin' the temperature It is
an inte'rated circuit sensor that can be used to measure temperature with an electrical output
proportional to the temperature !in
o
C( The temperature can be measured more accuratel&
with it than usin' a thermistor The sensor circuitr& is sealed and not subject to o5idation* etc
4 i g# * #A 5 M >% temperature sen s or
*#&#*#& 4 e a tu r es:
R Calibrated directl& in Q Celsius !Centi'rade(
R 9inear K @,, m;0QC scale factor
R ,-QC accurac& 'uaranteed !at K+-QC(
R Rated for full \--Q to K@-,QC ran'e
R 7uitable for remote applications
R 9ow cost due to wafer.le%el trimmin'
R Operates from D to C, %olts
R 9ess than E, NA current drain
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e ++ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
R 9ow self.heatin'* ,,>QC in still air
R Nonlinearit& onl& ]@^DQC t&pical

4ig# * #B 2 em pe ratu re s ensor ci rcuit
*#&#*#' 4un c t io n al d e s cr i p t ion:
R The sensor has a sensiti%it& of @,m; 0
o
C
R The output of 96C- is amplified usin' a 96C+D sin'le power suppl& !K-;( op.amp
R The op.amp is desi'ned to ha%e a 'ain of -
R The circuitr& measures temperatures with a resolution of up to ,- de'ree Celsius
R The output %olta'e is con%erted to temperature b& a simple con%ersion factor The
'eneral equation used to con%ert output %olta'e to temperature is)
Temperature !
o
C( Z !;
out
[ @,, ( 0 -
o
C A!DD(
7o if ;
out
is -;* then* Temperature Z @,,
o
C
R The output %olta'e %aries linearl& with temperature
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e +C +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
*#' A"A 5 3G 23 DIG I 2A5 C 3 " ? E ! 2E! A D C $ ) $ (+
In ph&sical world parameters such as temperature* pressure* humidit&* and %elocit&
are analo' si'nals A ph&sical quantit& is con%erted into electrical si'nals 8e need an analo'
to di'ital con%erter !A3C(* which is an electronic circuit that con%erts continuous si'nals
into discrete form so that the microcontroller can read the data Analo' to di'ital con%erters
are the most widel& used de%ices for data acquisition
Analo' world
!temperature*
pressure* etc(
Transducer
7i'nal
Conditionin'
Analo' to
3i'ital Con%erter 6icrocontroller
4 ig# * #) G e tti n g d a ta f r om the a n a log /o r l d
*#'#& DE SC !I - 2 I 3"
The A3C,>,/ data acquisition component is a monolithic C6O7 de%ice with an >.
bit analo'.to.di'ital con%erter* >.channel multiple5er and microprocessor compatible control
lo'ic The >.bit A03 con%erter uses successi%e appro5imation as the con%ersion technique
The con%erter features a hi'h impedance chopper stabili=ed comparator* a +-ER %olta'e
di%ider with analo' switch tree and a successi%e appro5imation re'ister The >.channel
multiple5er can directl& access an& of >.sin'le.ended analo' si'nals
The desi'n of the A3C,>,/ has been optimi=ed b& incorporatin' the most desirable
aspects of se%eral A03 con%ersion techniques The de%ice offers hi'h speed* hi'h accurac&*
minimal temperature dependence* e5cellent lon'.term accurac& and repeatabilit&* and
consumes minimal power These features ma#e it ideall& suited for applications from process
and machine control to consumer and automoti%e applications
*#'#' 4 EA 2 , ! ES
@ Eas& interface to all microcontrollers
+ Operates ratiometricall& or with - ;3C or analo' span adjusted %olta'e reference
C No =ero or full.scale adjust required
D >.channel multiple5er with address lo'ic
- ,; to -; input ran'e with sin'le -; power suppl&
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e +D +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
E Outputs meet TT9 %olta'e le%el specifications
F +>.pin molded chip carrier pac#a'e#
4ig # * #( B loc1 diag ram o f ADC $)$ (
*#'#> C 3 " ?E!S I 3" ME 2 6 3D ,SED
:ollowin' are the most used con%ersion methods)
3i'ital.Ramp A3C
7uccessi%e Appro5imation A3C
:lash A3C
Successive approJimation ADC is suitable for the proposed application It is much
faster than the di'ital ramp A3C because it uses di'ital lo'ic to con%er'e on the %alue closest
to the input %olta'e A comparator and a 3AC !3i'ital to Analo' Con%erter( are used in the
process A flowchart e5plainin' the wor#in' is shown below
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e +- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
4ig # *#&$ 4lo/ chart eJplaining the Successive approJimation method
*#'#* - I " DI AG! A M 34 A D C $)$)K$)$(
4ig # * #& & -in diag ram o f ADC $)$(
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e +E +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
8e use A* "* C addresses to select IN,.INF and acti%ate Address latch enable !A9E(
to latch in the address 7C is for 7tart Con%ersion EOC is for End of Con%ersion and OE is
for Output Enable The output pins 3,.3F pro%ides the di'ital output from the chip ;
ref
!.(
and ;
ref
!K( are the reference %olta'es
*#'#% S E 5EC 2 I"G A" A " A5 3 G C 6A " "E5
2ow to select the channel usin' three address pins A* "* C is shown in Table below)
7elect Analo' Channel C " A
IN, , , ,
IN@ , , @
IN+ , @ ,
INC , @ @
IND @ , ,
IN- @ , @
INE @ @ ,
INF @ @ @
2a bl e *#& Sel ection o f the input cha nnel s
The A3C ,>,D is most widel& used chip* but since it has onl& one analo' input* A3C
,>,/ is chosen as this chip allows the monitorin' of up to > different transducers usin' onl& a
sin'le chip The > analo' input channels are multiple5ed and selected accordin' to the
requirement "ut for the proposed application onl& the last D channels ie* IND* IN-* INE and
INF are used to monitor the four parameters. temperature* humidit&* soil moisture and li'ht
intensit& 2ence the address line A33_C is 'i%en to ;
cc
!K -;( as it is alwa&s hi'h in this
case ;
ref
!K( and ;
ref
!.( set the reference %olta'es If ;
ref
!.( Z1nd and ;
ref
!K( Z-;* the step
si=e is -;0+-EZ@/-C
7ince there is no self cloc#in' in this chip* the cloc# must be pro%ided from an
e5ternal source to the Cloc# !C9?( pin The >.bit output from the A3C is 'i%en to Port , of
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e +F +,,/.+,@,
3,
3@
3+
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
the microcontroller and the control si'nals A33_A* A33_"* A33_C* A9E* 7TART* OE*
EOC are 'i%en to Port @ as shown in the fi'ure below
+5V
+E
+F
+>
@
+
TE6PERAT$RE 7EN7OR
C
6OI7T$RE 7EN7OR
D
2$6I3ITB 7EN7OR
-
9I12T 7EN7OR
IN,
IN@
IN+
INC
IND
IN-
INE
INF
@@
;CC
A3C,>,/
@F
@D
@-

>
3C
@>
3D
@/
3-
+,
3E
+@
3F
PIN @, O: 6C
PIN @@ O: 6C
PIN @+ O: 6C
PIN @C O: 6C
PIN @D O: 6C
PIN @- O: 6C
PIN @E O: 6C
PIN @F O: 6C
@+
K-%
@E
;refK
A33_A
+-
PIN CD O: 6C
+D
@,
/
PIN C, O: 6C
F
PIN CC O: 6C
;ref.
C9OC?
OE
EOC
1N3
A33_"
+C
A33_C
E
7TART
++
A9E
PIN C- O: 6C
;CC
PIN C@ O: 6C
PIN CF O: 6C
@C
4i g# *#&' ADC $)$( pin details as used for this application
At a certain point of time* e%en thou'h there is no con%ersion in pro'ress the
A3C,>,/ is still internall& c&clin' throu'h > cloc# periods A start pulse can occur an& time
durin' this c&cle but the con%ersion will not actuall& be'in until the con%erter internall&
c&cles to the be'innin' of the ne5t > cloc# period sequence As lon' as the start pin is held
hi'h no con%ersion be'ins* but when the start pin is ta#en low the con%ersion will start within
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e +> +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
> cloc# periods The EOC output is tri''ered on the risin' ed'e of the start pulse It* too* is
controlled b& the > cloc# period c&cle* so it will 'o low within > cloc# periods of the risin'
ed'e of the start pulse One can see that it is entirel& possible for EOC to 'o low before the
con%ersion starts internall&* but this is not important* since the positi%e transition of EOC*
which occurs at the end of a con%ersion* is what the control lo'ic is loo#in' for Once EOC
does 'o hi'h this si'nals the interface lo'ic that the data resultin' from the con%ersion is
read& to be read The output enable !OE( is then raised hi'h
4 i g * #&> 2i m ing dia g r a m of ADC $)$(
* #> C 53 C8 C I! C, I2 != 4 3! A DC:
*#>#& 4un c t io n a l D e s cri pt io n :
The cloc# for the A3C is 'enerated usin' the IC C3D,/C* which is a +.input 7chmitt
tri''ered NAN3 'ate A 7chmitt tri''er is a comparator circuit that incorporates positi%e
feedbac#
The Control pin is pulled hi'h and the capacitor char'es and dischar'es producin'
alternate patterns of ,Ps and @* 'eneratin' a square wa%eform 8hen the input is hi'her than a
certain chosen threshold* the output is hi'h< when the input is below another !lower( chosen
threshold* the output is low< when the input is between the two* the output retains its %alue
The tri''er is so named because the output retains its %alue until the input chan'es
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e +/ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
sufficientl& to tri''er a chan'e This dual threshold action is called h&steresis* and implies
that the 7chmitt tri''er has some memor&
4ig# * #&* C lo c1 ci rcu it ry for AD C
The benefit of a 7chmitt tri''er o%er a circuit with onl& a sin'le input threshold is
'reater stabilit& !noise immunit&( 8ith onl& one input threshold* a nois& input si'nal near
that threshold could cause the output to switch rapidl& bac# and forth from noise alone A
nois& 7chmitt Tri''er input si'nal near one threshold can cause onl& one switch in output
%alue* after which it would ha%e to mo%e to the other threshold in order to cause another
switch
4ig # *#&% 2he effe ct of using a Schmitt t rigger B+ i nst ea d of a co mpa rato r A+
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e C, +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
*#* MIC!3C3 "2!355E! A2)(S%'+
*#*#& C! I 2E! I A 4 3! C633SI " G A MIC! 3C3 " 2 ! 3 5 5 E !
The basic criteria for choosin' a microcontroller suitable for the application are)
@( The first and foremost criterion is that it must meet the tas# at hand efficientl& and cost
effecti%el& In anal&=in' the needs of a microcontroller.based project* it is seen whether an >.
bit* @E.bit or C+.bit microcontroller can best handle the computin' needs of the tas# most
effecti%el& Amon' the other considerations in this cate'or& are)
!a( Speed: The hi'hest speed that the microcontroller supports
!b( - a c 1a g in g : It ma& be a D,.pin 3IP !dual inline pac#a'e( or a H:P !quad flat
pac#a'e(* or some other pac#a'in' format This is important in terms of space*
assemblin'* and protot&pin' the end product
!c( -o/er c o nsumptio n : This is especiall& critical for batter&.powered products
!d( The number of I0O pins and the timer on the chip
!f( 2ow eas& it is to up'rade to hi'her Tperformance or lower consumption %ersions
!'( C o s t per uni t ) This is important in terms of the final cost of the product in which
a microcontroller is used
+( The second criterion in choosin' a microcontroller is how eas& it is to de%elop products
around it ?e& considerations include the a%ailabilit& of an assembler* debu''er* compiler*
technical support
C( The third criterion in choosin' a microcontroller is its read& a%ailabilit& in needed
quantities both now and in the future Currentl& of the leadin' >.bit microcontrollers* the
>,-@ famil& has the lar'est number of di%ersified suppliers "& supplier is meant a producer
besides the ori'inator of the microcontroller In the case of the >,-@* this has ori'inated b&
Intel se%eral companies also currentl& producin' the >,-@
Thus the microcontroller AT>/7-+* satisf&in' the criterion necessar& for the proposed
application is chosen for the tas#
*#*#' DE SC !I - 2 I 3 " :
The >,-@ famil& of microcontrollers is based on an architecture which is hi'hl&
optimi=ed for embedded control s&stems It is used in a wide %ariet& of applications from
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e C@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
militar& equipment to automobiles to the #e&board 7econd onl& to the 6otorola E>2C@@ in
ei'ht bit processors sales* the >,-@ famil& of microcontrollers is a%ailable in a wide arra& of
%ariations from manufacturers such as Intel* Philips* and 7iemens These manufacturers ha%e
added numerous features and peripherals to the >,-@ such as I+C interfaces* analo' to di'ital
con%erters* watchdo' timers* and pulse width modulated outputs ;ariations of the >,-@ with
cloc# speeds up to D,62= and %olta'e requirements down to @- %olts are a%ailable This
wide ran'e of parts based on one core ma#es the >,-@ famil& an e5cellent choice as the base
architecture for a compan&Ss entire line of products since it can perform man& functions and
de%elopers will onl& ha%e to learn this one platform
The AT>/7-+ is a low.power* hi'h.performance C6O7 >.bit microcontroller with
>? b&tes of in.s&stem pro'rammable :lash memor& The de%ice is manufactured usin'
AtmelPs hi'h.densit& non%olatile memor& technolo'& and is compatible with the industr&.
standard >,C-@ instruction set and pinout The on.chip :lash allows the pro'ram memor& to
be repro'rammed in.s&stem or b& a con%entional non%olatile memor& pro'rammer "&
combinin' a %ersatile >.bit CP$ with in.s&stem pro'rammable :lash on a monolithic chip*
the Atmel AT>/7-+ is a powerful microcontroller which pro%ides a hi'hl&.fle5ible and cost.
effecti%e solution to man& embedded control applications In addition* the AT>/7-+ is
desi'ned with static lo'ic for operation down to =ero frequenc& and supports two software
selectable power sa%in' modes The Idle 6ode stops the CP$ while allowin' the RA6*
timer0counters* serial port* and interrupt s&stem to continue functionin' The Power.down
mode sa%es the RA6 con.tents but free=es the oscillator* disablin' all other chip functions
until the ne5t interrupt or hardware reset
*#*#> 4 EA 2 , ! ES:
The basic architecture of AT>/C-@ consists of the followin' features)
R Compatible with 6C7.-@ Products
R >? "&tes of In.7&stem Pro'rammable !I7P( :lash 6emor&
R D,; to --; Operatin' Ran'e
R :ull& 7tatic Operation) , 2= to CC 62=
R +-E 5 >.bit Internal RA6
R C+ Pro'rammable I0O 9ines
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e C+ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
R Three @E.bit Timer0Counters
R Ei'ht Interrupt 7ources
R :ull 3uple5 $ART 7erial Channel
R 9ow.power Idle and Power.down 6odes
R Interrupt Reco%er& from Power.down 6ode
R 8atchdo' Timer
R :ast Pro'rammin' Time
R :le5ible I7P Pro'rammin' !"&te and Pa'e 6ode(
*#*#* - I" C3"4I G,!A2 I3"
4ig# * #&A -in di ag ram of A2)(S%'
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e CC +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
*#*#% B 53 C8 D IA G! AM
4ig# * #&B B lo c1 di ag ram of the mic ro co ntro ller
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e CD +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
*#*#A - I " D E S C !I - 2 I 3"
R ?CC: 7uppl& %olta'e
R G"D: 1round
R -ort $: Port , is an >.bit open drain bidirectional I0O port As an output port* each pin
can sin# ei'ht TT9 inputs 8hen @s are written to port , pins* the pins can be used as
hi'h.impedance inputs Port , can also be confi'ured to be the multiple5ed low.order
address0data bus durin' accesses to e5ternal pro'ram and data memor& In this mode*
P, has internal pull.ups
R -ort &: Port @ is an >.bit bidirectional I0O port with internal pull.ups The Port @
output buffers can sin#0source four TT9 inputs 8hen @s are written to Port @ pins*
the& are pulled hi'h b& the internal pull.ups and can be used as inputs As inputs* Port
@ pins that are e5ternall& bein' pulled low will source current !II9( because of the
internal pull.ups In addition* P@, and P@@ can be confi'ured to be the timer0counter
+ e5ternal count input !P@,0T+( and the timer0counter + tri''er input !P@@0T+EJ(*
respecti%el&* as shown in the followin' table
R -ort ': Port + is an >.bit bidirectional I0O port with internal pull.ups The Port +
output buffers can sin#0source four TT9 inputs 8hen @s are written to Port + pins*
the& are pulled hi'h b& the internal pull.ups and can be used as inputs As inputs* Port
+ pins that are e5ternall& bein' pulled low will source current !II9( because of the
internal pull.ups Port + emits the hi'h.order address b&te durin' fetches from
e5ternal pro'ram memor& and durin' accesses to e5ternal data memor& that use @E.
bit addresses !6O;J ` 3PTR( In this application* Port + uses stron' internal pull.
ups when emittin' @s 3urin' accesses to e5ternal data memor& that uses >.bit
addresses !6O;J ` RI(* Port + emits the contents of the P+ 7pecial :unction
re'ister
R -ort >: Port C is an >.bit bidirectional I0O port with internal pull.ups The Port C
output buffers can sin#0source four TT9 inputs 8hen @s are written to Port C pins*
the& are pulled hi'h b& the internal pull.ups and can be used as inputs As inputs* Port
C pins that are e5ternall& bein' pulled low will source current !II9( because of the
pull.ups Port C recei%es some control si'nals for :lash pro'rammin' an %erification
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e C- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
Port C also ser%es the functions of %arious special features of the AT>/7-+* as shown in
the followin' table
Alt er nate funct io ns of -ort >:
2 a ble * #' Alt e rn a te fun c ti o ns of -ort >
R !S2: Reset input A hi'h on this pin for two machine c&cles while the oscillator
is runnin' resets the de%ice This pin dri%es hi'h for /> oscillator periods after the
watchdo' times out
*#*#A#& -o /e rD 3n ! es et ci rcuit
4ig# * #&) -o /er Don re set ci rcu it
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e CE +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
In order for the RE7ET input to be effecti%e* it must ha%e a minimum duration of two
machine c&cles
R A5EK-!3G: Address 9atch Enable !A9E( is an output pulse for latchin' the
low b&te of the address durin' accesses to e5ternal memor& This pin is also the
pro'ram pulse input !PRO1( durin' :lash pro'rammin' In normal operation*
A9E is emitted at a constant rate of @0E the oscillator frequenc& and ma& be used
for e5ternal timin' or cloc#in' purposes Note* howe%er* that one A9E pulse is
s#ipped durin' each access to e5ternal data memor& If desired* A9E operation
can be disabled b& settin' bit , of 7:R location >E2 8ith the bit set* A9E is
acti%e onl& durin' a 6O;J or 6O;C instruction Otherwise* the pin is wea#l&
pulled hi'h 7ettin' the A9E.disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in
e5ternal e5ecution mode
R -SE": Pro'ram 7tore Enable !P7EN( is the read strobe to e5ternal pro'ram
memor& 8hen the AT>/7-+ is e5ecutin' code from e5ternal pro'ram memor&*
P7EN is acti%ated twice each machine c&cle* e5cept that two P7EN acti%ations
are s#ipped durin' each access to e5ternal data memor&
R EA: E5ternal Access Enable EA must be strapped to 1N3 in order to enable the
de%ice to fetch code from e5ternal pro'ram memor& locations startin' at ,,,,2
up to ::::2 Note* howe%er* that if loc# bit @ is pro'rammed* EA will be
internall& latched on reset EA should be strapped to ;CC for internal pro'ram
e5ecutions This pin also recei%es the @+.%olt pro'rammin' enable %olta'e !;PP(
durin' :lash pro'rammin'
R C2A5&: Input to the in%ertin' oscillator amplifier and input to the internal cloc#
operatin' circuit
R C2A5': Output from the in%ertin' oscillator amplifier
*#*#A#' 2he A 2)( S%' o sci lla tor clo c1 c ir cuit
It uses a quart= cr&stal oscillator
8e can obser%e the frequenc& on the JTA9+ pin
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e CF +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2
>$p4
C1
>$p4
XTAL2
XTAL1
GN D
4ig * #&( 2 he A2)( S%' oscillator cloc1 circuit
The cr&stal frequenc& is the basic internal frequenc& of the microcontroller
The internal counters must di%ide the basic cloc# rate to &ield standard
communication bit per second !baud( rates
An @@,-/+ me'ahert= cr&stal* althou'h seemin'l& an odd %alue* &ields a cr&stal
frequenc& of /+@E #ilohert=* which can be di%ided e%enl& b& the standard
communication baud rates of @/+,,* /E,,* D>,,* +D,,* @+,,* and C,, hert=
*#*#B S- EC IA5 4 , "C 2 I 3" !E G I S2 E ! S
The 7pecial :unction Re'isters !7:Rs( contain memor& locations that are used for
special tas#s Each 7:R occupies internal RA6 from ,5>, to ,5::The& are >.bits wide
R The A !accumulator( re'ister or accumulator is used for most A9$ operations and
"oolean "it manipulations
R Re'ister " is used for multiplication 4 di%ision and can also be used for 'eneral
purpose stora'e
R P78 !Pro'ram 7tatus 8ord( is a bit addressable re'ister
R PC or pro'ram counter is a special @E.bit re'ister It is not part of 7:R Pro'ram
instruction b&tes are fetched from locations in memor& that are addressed b& the
PC
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e C> +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
R 7tac# Pointer !7P( re'ister is ei'ht bits wide It is incremented before data is
stored durin' P$72 and CA99 e5ecutions 8hile the stac# ma& reside an&where
in on.chip RA6* the 7tac# Pointer is initiali=ed to ,F2 after a reset This causes
the stac# to be'in at location ,>2
R 3PTR or data pointer is a special @E.bit re'ister that is accessible as two >. bit
re'isters) 3P9 and 3P2* which are used to used to furnish memor& addresses for
internal and e5ternal code access and e5ternal data access
R Control Re'isters) 7pecial :unction Re'isters IP* IE* T6O3* TCON* 7CON* and
PCON contain control and status bits for the interrupt s&stem* the
Timer0Counters* and the serial port
R Timer Re'isters) Re'ister pairs !T2,* T9,( and !T2@* T9@( are the @E.bit
Counter re'isters for Timer0Counters , and @* respecti%el&
*#*#) ME M3 != 3! GA"I LA2I 3"
6C7.-@ de%ices ha%e a separate address space for Pro'ram and 3ata 6emor& $p to
ED? b&tes each of e5ternal Pro'ram and 3ata 6emor& can be addressed
R - r og r am M e m o r y : If the EA pin is connected to 1N3* all pro'ram fetches are
directed to e5ternal memor& On the AT>/7-+* if EA is connected to ;CC*
pro'ram fetches to addresses ,,,,2 throu'h @:::2 are directed to internal
memor& and fetches to addresses +,,,2 throu'h ::::2 are to e5ternal memor&
R D a ta M e mo r y: The AT>/7-+ implements +-E b&tes of on.chip RA6 The upper
@+> b&tes occup& a parallel address space to the 7pecial :unction Re'isters This
means that the upper @+> b&tes ha%e the same addresses as the 7:R space but are
ph&sicall& separate from 7:R space 8hen an instruction accesses an internal
location abo%e address F:2* the address mode used in the instruction specifies
whether the CP$ accesses the upper @+> b&tes of RA6 or the 7:R space
Instructions which use direct addressin' access the 7:R space The lower @+>
b&tes of RA6 can be di%ided into three se'ments)
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e C/ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
&# ! e g i st e r B a n 1 s $ D>: locations ,,2 throu'h @:2 !C+ b&tes( The de%ice after reset
defaults to re'ister ban# , To use the other re'ister ban#s* the user must select them
in software Each re'ister ban# contains ei'ht @.b&te re'isters R,.RF Reset initiali=es
the stac# point to location ,F2* and is incremented once to start from ,>2* which is
the first re'ister of the second re'ister ban#
'# B i t Address a b l e Ar e a : @E b&tes ha%e been assi'ned for this se'ment +,2.+:2
Each one of the @+> bits of this se'ment can be directl& addressed !,.F:2( Each of
the @E b&tes in this se'ment can also be addressed as a b&te
># Sc r a tch - a d Area: C,2.F:2 are a%ailable to the user as data RA6 2owe%er* if
the data pointer has been initiali=ed to this area* enou'h b&tes should be left aside to
pre%ent 7P data destruction
4ig# * #'$ I n ter n a l m e m o ry b lo c 1
*#*#( 7A2C6D3G 2IME! 3neDtime Enabled /it h !esetDout+
The 83T is intended as a reco%er& method in situations where the CP$ ma& be
subjected to software upsets The 83T consists of a @D.bit counter and the 8atchdo' Timer
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e D, +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
Reset !83TR7T( 7:R The 83T is defaulted to disable from e5itin' reset To enable the
83T* a user must write ,@E2 and ,E@2 in sequence to the 83TR7T re'ister !7:R location
,AE2( 8hen the 83T is enabled* it will increment e%er& machine c&cle while the oscillator
is runnin' The 83T timeout period is dependent on the e5ternal cloc# frequenc& There is
no wa& to disable the 83T e5cept throu'h reset !either hardware reset or 83T o%erflow
reset( 8hen 83T o%er.flows* it will dri%e an output RE7ET 2I12 pulse at the R7T pin
*#*#&$ 2I M E !S A " D C3, " 2E ! S
6an& microcontroller applications require the countin' of e5ternal e%ents such as the
frequenc& of a pulse train* or the 'eneration of precise internal time dela&s between computer
actions "oth of these tas#s can be accomplished usin' software techniques* but software
loops for countin' or timin' #eep the processor occupied so that* other perhaps more
important* functions are not done 2ence the better option is to use interrupts 4 the two @E.
bit count. up timers The microcontroller can pro'rammed for either of the followin')
@ Count internal . actin' as timer
+ Count e5ternal . actin' as counter
All counter action is controlled b& the T6O3 !Timer 6ode( and the TCON
!Timer0Counter Control( re'isters TCON Timer control 7:R contains timer @4 + o%erflow
fla's* e5ternal interrupt fla's* timer control bits* fallin' ed'e0low le%el selector bit etc
T6O3 timer mode 7:R comprises two four.bit re'isters !timer a@* timer a,( used to specif&
the timer0counter mode and operation
The timer ma& operate in an& one of four modes that are determined b& modes bits
6@ and 6, in the T6O3 re'ister)
2IME! M 3 D E D$ : 7ettin' timer mode bits to ,,b in the T6O3 re'ister results in usin' the
T2 re'ister as an >.bit counter and T9 as a -.bit counter Therefore mode, is a @C.bit
counter
2IME! M3D E D& : 6ode.@ is similar to mode., e5cept T9 is confi'ured as a full >.bit
counter when the mode bits are set to ,@b in T6O3
2IME! M 3 DED ' : 7ettin' the mode bits to @,b in T6O3 confi'ures the timer to use onl&
the T9 counter as an >.bit counter T2 is used to hold a %alue that is loaded into T9 e%er&
time T9 o%erflows from ::h to ,,h The timer fla' is also set when T9 o%erflows
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e D@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
2IME! M3D E D> : In mode.C* timer.@ simpl& hold its count* where as timer , re'isters T9,
and T2, are used as two separate >.bit counters T9, uses the Timer., control bits T2,
counts machine c&cles and ta#es o%er the use of TR@ and T:@ from Timer.@
*#*#&& I " 2 E ! !, - 2S
A computer has onl& two wa&s to determine the conditions that e5ist in internal and
e5ternal circuits One method uses software instructions that jump to subroutines on the
states of fla's and port pins The second method responds to hardware si'nals* called
interrupts that force the pro'ram to call a subroutine
The AT>/7-+ has a total of si5 interrupt %ectors) two e5ternal interrupts !INT, and
INT@(* three timer interrupts !Timers ,* @* and +(* and the serial port interrupt Each of these
interrupt sources can be indi%iduall& enabled or disabled b& settin' or clearin' a bit in
7pecial :unction Re'ister IE IE also contains a 'lobal disable bit* EA* which disables all
interrupts at once
Each interrupt forces the processor to jump at the interrupt location in the memor&
The interrupted pro'ram must resume operation at the instruction where the interrupt too#
place Pro'ram resumption is done b& storin' the interrupted PC address on to stac#
RETI instruction at the end of I7R will restore the PC address
*#*#&' MIC!3C3" 2!3 55 E! C3"4IG ,!A2 I3" , SED I" 26E SE2D,-
The microcontroller is interfaced with the A3C in pollin' mode INT, is used for the
9C3 mode selection switch in order to switch between two modes of displa&)
@( 7ensor output displa&
+( Actuator status displa&
Port details)
R Port ,) Interfaced with the 9C3 data lines
R Port @) Interfaced with the A3C data lines
R Port +) Interfaced with the 9C3 Control lines and AC Interface control
R Port C) Interfaced with the A3C control lines
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e D+ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A3C_3,
A3C_3@
A3C_3+
A3C_3C
A3C_3D
A3C_3-
A3C_3E
A3C_3F
-&#$
-&#&
-&#'
-&#>
-&#*
-&#%
-&#A
-&#B
VCC
-$#$
-$#&
-$#'
-$#>
-$#*
-$#%
-$#A
9E3K
3",
3"@
3"+
3"C
3"D
3"-
3"E
A3C_A
A3C_"
A3C_7TART
A3C_A9E
A3C_EOC
A3C_OE
"$GGER
6O3E 7E9ECTION 78ITC2
->#*
->#%
->#&
->#B
->#>
->#$
->#A
->#'
AT>/7-+
-$#B
EA
A5E
-SE"
-'#B
-'#A
-'#%
-'#*
3"F
ENA"9E
R08 !Read08rite(
R7 !Re'ister select(
COO9ER
>$ p4
>$ p4
@,u:
>+ #
R7T
1N3
C2A5'
C2A5&
!S2
G"D
-'#>
-'#'
-'#&
-'#$
P$6P
7PRABER
9I12T @
9I12T +
4i g# *#'& Microco ntro ller pi n details
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e DC +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
*#% 5I@, I D C!= S 2A5 DIS - 5A=
A liquid cr&stal displa& !9C3( is a thin* flat displa& de%ice made up of an& number of
color or monochrome pi5els arra&ed in front of a li'ht source or reflector Each pi5el consists
of a column of liquid cr&stal molecules suspended between two transparent electrodes* and
two polari=in' filters* the a5es of polarit& of which are perpendicular to each other 8ithout
the liquid cr&stals between them* li'ht passin' throu'h one would be bloc#ed b& the other
The liquid cr&stal twists the polari=ation of li'ht enterin' one filter to allow it to pass throu'h
the other
6an& microcontroller de%ices use Ssmart 9C3S displa&s to output %isual information
9C3 displa&s desi'ned around 2itachiSs 9C3 23DDF>, module* are ine5pensi%e* eas& to
use* and it is e%en possible to produce a readout usin' the >5>, pi5els of the displa& The&
ha%e a standard A7CII set of characters and mathematical s&mbols
:or an >.bit data bus* the displa& requires a K-; suppl& plus @@ I0O lines :or a D.bit
data bus it onl& requires the suppl& lines plus se%en e5tra lines 8hen the 9C3 displa& is not
enabled* data lines are tri.state and the& do not interfere with the operation of the
microcontroller
3ata can be placed at an& location on the 9C3 :or @Eb+ 9C3* the address locations
are)
4irst line )$ )& )' )> )* )% )A through )4
Second line C$ C& C' C> C* C% CA through C4
4ig * #'' A ddr ess lo cations for a ' J&A li ne 5CD
*#%#& SIG"A5S 23 26E 5CD
The 9C3 also requires C control lines from the microcontroller)
&+ E n a b le E+
This line allows access to the displa& throu'h R08 and R7 lines 8hen this line
is low* the 9C3 is disabled and i'nores si'nals from R08 and R7 8hen !E( line is
hi'h* the 9C3 chec#s the state of the two control lines and responds accordin'l&
'+ !eadK7rite ! K7 +
This line determines the direction of data between the 9C3 and microcontroller
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e DD +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
8hen it is low* data is written to the 9C3 8hen it is hi'h* data is read from the
9C3
>+ ! e gi ster s e le ct ! S+
8ith the help of this line* the 9C3 interprets the t&pe of data on data lines 8hen it is
low* an instruction is bein' written to the 9C3 8hen it is hi'h* a character is bein' written
to the 9C3
*#%#&#& 5ogic s tatus on c o n tr o l lines:
E . , Access to 9C3 disabled
. @ Access to 9C3 enabled
R08 . , 8ritin' data to 9C3
. @ Readin' data from 9C3
R7 . , Instruction
. @ Character
*#%#&#' 7 r i ti n g a n d r e ad ing the d a ta fr om the 5 C D:
8ritin' data to the 9C3 is done in se%eral steps)
@( 7et R08 bit to low
+( 7et R7 bit to lo'ic , or @ !instruction or character(
C( 7et data to data lines !if it is writin'(
D( 7et E line to hi'h
-( 7et E line to low
Read data from data lines !if it is readin'()
@( 7et R08 bit to hi'h
+( 7et R7 bit to lo'ic , or @ !instruction or character(
C( 7et data to data lines !if it is writin'(
D( 7et E line to hi'h
-( 7et E line to low
*#%#' - I " D E S C !I - 2 I 3"
6ost 9C3s with @ controller has @D Pins and 9C3s with + controller has @E Pins
!two pins are e5tra in both for bac#.li'ht 9E3 connections(
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e D- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
4ig * #'> -in d i a g ram o f ' J &A li ne 5CD
2able * #'> - i n descri p tion o f t he 5CD
*#A A 5A !M C I! C, I2!=
B,L L E!:
A buMMer or beeper is a si'nalin' de%ice* usuall& electronic* t&picall& used in
automobiles* household appliances such as a microwa%e o%en
4ig # *#'* Elec trical symbol of a bu MMer
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e DE +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
It is connected to the control unit throu'h the transistor that acts as an electronic
switch for it 8hen the switch forms a closed path to the bu==er* it sounds a warnin' in the
form of a continuous or intermittent bu==in' or beepin' sound
The transistor acts as a normal controlled b& the base connection It switches ON
when a positi%e %olta'e from the control unit is applied to the base If the positi%e %olta'e is
less than ,E;* the transistor switches O:: No current flows throu'h the bu==er in this case
and it will not bu== As can be seen in the bu==er circuitr& 'i%en below* a protection resistor
of @,# ohm is used in order to protect the transistor from bein' dama'ed in case of e5cessi%e
current flow In our s&stem* the bu==er is desi'ned to 'i%e a small beep whene%er one of the
de%ices such as a cooler or a bulb turns on in order to alert the user
4i g# * #'% BuMMer circuitry
*#B ! E 5 A =S
A rela& is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another
electrical circuit In the ori'inal form* the switch is operated b& an electroma'net to open or
close one or man& sets of contacts It was in%ented b& Joseph 2enr& in @>C- "ecause a rela&
is able to control an output circuit of hi'her power than the input circuit* it can be considered
to be* in a broad sense* a form of an electrical amplifier
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e DF +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
4ig # * #'A Suga r cube relay
3espite the speed of technolo'ical de%elopments* some products pro%e so popular
that their #e& parameters and desi'n features remain %irtuall& unchan'ed for &ears One such
product is the Osu'ar cubeP rela&* shown in the fi'ure abo%e* which has pro%ed useful to
man& desi'ners who needed to switch up to @,A* whilst usin' relati%el& little PC" area
7ince rela&s are switches* the terminolo'& applied to switches is also applied to
rela&s A rela& will switch one or more poles* each of whose contacts can be thrown b&
ener'i=in' the coil in one of three wa&s)
@" o rmally D open " 3 + contacts connect the circuit when the rela& is acti%ate d< the circuit
is disconnected when the rela& is inacti%e It is also called a :OR6 A contact or Lma#eM
contact
+" o rmally D c lo s ed " C+ contacts disconnect the circuit when the rela& is acti%ated < the
circuit is connected when rela& is inacti%e It is also called :OR6 " contact orM
brea#M contact
CCha n g e Do ver or dou b l e Dth r o/ contacts control two circuits < one normall& open contact
and one normall& Tclosed contact with a common terminal It is also called a :orm C
Ltransfer Lcontact
The followin' t&pes of rela&s are commonl& encountered)
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e D> +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
WCW denotes the common terminal in 7P3T and 3P3T t&pes
4i g # * #'B Di f ferent ty p e s of ! e la y s
R S-S2 . S in ' le - ole S in ' le 2 hr o w ) These ha%e two terminals which can be connected
or disconnected Includin' two for the coil* such a rela& has four terminals in total It
is ambi'uous whether the pole is normall& open or normall& closed The terminolo'&
W7PNOW and W7PNCW is sometimes used to resol%e the ambi'uit&
R S-D2 . S in ' le - ole D ou b le 2 hr o w ) A common terminal connects to either of two
others Includin' two for the coil* such a rela& has fi%e terminals in total
R D-S2 . D ou b le - ole S in ' le 2 hr o w ) These ha%e two pairs of terminals Equi%alent to
two 7P7T switches or rela&s actuated b& a sin'le coil Includin' two for the coil* such
a rela& has si5 terminals in total It is ambi'uous whether the poles are normall& open*
normall& closed* or one of each
R D- D 2 . D ou b le - ole D ou b le 2 hrow) These ha%e two rows of chan'e.o%er terminals
Equi%alent to two 7P3T switches or rela&s actuated b& a sin'le coil 7uch a rela& has
ei'ht terminals* includin' the coil
R @-D2 . @ uadr up le - o l e D o uble 2 h row ) Often referred to as Huad Pole 3ouble
Throw* or DP3T These ha%e four rows of chan'e.o%er terminals Equi%alent to four
7P3T switches or rela&s actuated b& a sin'le coil* or two 3P3T rela&s In total*
fourteen terminals includin' the coil
The Rela& interfacin' circuitr& used in the application is)
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e D/ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
1N4148
4ig# * #') ! el ay ci rcuit ry
*#) -3 7 E! S ,- - 5= C3" " E C 2 I 3 "
The power suppl& section consists of step down transformers of +C,; primar& to /;
and @+; secondar& %olta'es for the K-; and K@+; power supplies respecti%el& The stepped
down %olta'e is then rectified b& D @ND,,F diodes The hi'h %alue of capacitor @,,, N:
char'es at a slow rate as the time constant is low* and once the capacitor char'es there is no
resistor for capacitor to dischar'e This 'i%es a constant %alue of 3C IC F>,- is used for
re'ulated suppl& of K- %olts and IC F>@+ is used to pro%ide a re'ulated suppl& of K@+ %olts in
order to pre%ent the circuit ahead from an& fluctuations The filter capacitors connected after
this IC filters the hi'h frequenc& spi#es These capacitors are connected in parallel with
suppl& and common so that spi#es filter to the common These 'i%e stabilit& to the power
suppl& circuit
As can be seen from the abo%e circuit dia'rams* the rectified %olta'e from the D
diodes is 'i%en to pin @ of the respecti%e re'ulators Pin + of the re'ulators is connected to
'round and pin C to ;
cc
8ith adequate heat sin#in' the re'ulator can deli%er @A output
current If internal power dissipation becomes too hi'h for the heat sin#in' pro%ided* the
thermal shutdown circuit ta#es o%er pre%entin' the IC from o%erheatin'
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e -, +,,/.+,@,
3
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
1
Vin
7805
Vout
GND
2
230V, 50Hz
1000uf
10uf
1uf
4i g # *#'( G%? -o/er supply circuit
4ig # * #>$ G&'? -o/er suppl y Circui t
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e -@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
CI!C,I2 SC6EMA2IC 34 26E S=S2EM
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER -
7B7TE67 $7E3 IN 8OR? 6O3E
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e -C +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
%#& D!I- I! !IGA2I3" S= S2EM 43 ! C3"2!355I" G S3I5 M3IS2,!E
3rip* or micro.irri'ation* technolo'& uses a networ# of plastic pipes to carr& a low
flow of water under low pressure to plants
-olyethylene tubing is run from the source of water to the plant* where the emitter is
attached for drippin' water Emitter line !pol& tubin' with pre.installed emitters( is used
where a continuous band of water is needed 4ittings are a%ailable to ma#e sharp turns
!elbows(* branch lines !tees(* and to ma#e the transition between different si=es of tubin'
8hen plants are remo%ed or die* drip lines should be plu''ed
4ig# % #& D r ip irrigation s y s t em
3rip irri'ation !sometimes called tric#le irri'ation( wor#s b& appl&in' water slowl&*
directl& to the soil The hi'h efficienc& of drip irri'ation results from two primar& factors
The first is that the water soa#s into the soil before it can e%aporate or run off The second is
that the water is onl& applied where it is needed* !at the plantSs roots( rather than spra&ed
e%er&where
A drip irri'ation s&stem slowl& pro%ides water to the plantSs root s&stem Re'ular
waterin' pre%ents plant deh&dration* but roots donSt 'et o%erl& soa#ed and in turn* plant
'rowth can increase up to -,V 3rip s&stems irri'ate all t&pes of landscape) shrubs* trees*
perennial beds* 'round co%ers* annuals and lawns 3rip is the best choice to water roof 'ar.
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e -D +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
dens* containers on dec#s and patios* row crops and #itchen 'ardens* orchards* and
%ine&ards
%#' A !2I 4ICI A5 G!37 I" G 5I G62S 4 3! C3" 2!3 55I "G I55,M I" A2 I3"
1rowin' li'hts enable culti%ators to e5tend da&li'ht hours . useful for winter and
sprin' 'rowin' when le%els of natural li'hts can be low* and one can therefore impro%e plant
'rowth Three basic t&pes of lamps used in 'reenhouse li'htin' are)
R 4lu o r e scent lamps . These ha%e the ad%anta'e of hi'her li'ht efficienc& with low
heat This t&pe of lamp is the most widel& used for supplemental li'ht It is a%ailable
in a %ariet& of colors but cool.white lamps are the most common 2i'h intensit&
!@-,, ma( fluorescent tubes that require hi'her watta'e are also commonl& used to
reach +,,, foot candles
R Incandesc e nt la mps D These %ar& in si=e from E, watts to -,, watts The 'rower can
%ar& foot.candle le%els b& adjustin' the spacin' and mountin' hei'ht abo%e the
plants
R 6ighDi n tensity d i s c harge 6ID+ lamps D These ha%e a lon' life !-,,, hours or
more( 8ith impro%ements made possible b& the addition of sodium and metal.
halides* the lamp has a hi'h emission of li'ht in the re'ions utili=ed b& plants
The followin' 'enerall& accepted cultural di%isions describe li'ht le%els)
R ?e r y h ig h : O%er -,,, footcandles..nearl& full sun e5cept at midda&* when full
summer sun in most latitudes ma& reach @,*,,, fc
R 6igh: D,,,.-,,, footcandles..bri'ht li'ht* just under -,V of the full midda& sun
R Int e r m edi a te : @>,,.D,,, footcandles..dappled sunli'ht
R 5o/: @,,,.@>,, footcandles..reduced sunli'ht* so that if a hand is passed o%er the
lea%es it does not produce a shadow
One footcandle is equal to @,FE lu5* althou'h in the li'htin' industr&* t&picall& this
is appro5imated as @ footcandle bein' equal to @, lu5
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e -- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
%#> 2EM -E!A2,! E C3"2! 35 5E! S
%#>#& C3 35 I " G E@ ,I -ME " 2
There are three primar& coolin' de%ices in most 'reenhouses These are the %ent s&stem*
e5haust fan* and swamp cooler 7ome 'reenhouses ma& ma#e use of air conditioners and0or
mistin' s&stems as well
?ents are hin'ed or trac# connected panels in the roof or sides of 'reenhouses The&
open up the 'reenhouse to outside natural air 2ot air that builds up in the 'reenhouse
can escape* and fresh air can enter the house The microcontroller can be used to
automate the openin' and closin' of these %ents dependin' upon requirement
"ut durin' hot summer da&s* %entin' alone will not 'et the job done
E Jhaust fans can mo%e a lar'e %olume of the hot 'reenhouse air out and pull fresh
air in throu'h the rear %ent The&Sre powerful for a reason* as full sun on a hot
summer da& can cause temperatures inside the 'reenhouse to superheat An e5haust
fan must be able to pull this air out* or the temperatures will continue to rise
S/amp coo l ers: come in different widths and len'ths The& can be confi'ured to the
appropriate si=e* as this %aries dependin' on the len'th and width of the 'reenhouse*
location where &ou li%e* and t&pe of plants &ou wish to 'row
%#>#' 6 E A2I"G E @ , I - M E " 2
R 6 otD/ a ter o r steam h e at e r : A hot.water s&stem with circulator or a steam s&stem
lin#ed with automatic %entilation will 'i%e adequate temperature control In some
areas* coal or natural 'as is readil& a%ailable at low cost This fuel is ideal for hot.
water or a central steam s&stem 7team has an ad%anta'e in that it can be used to
sterili=e 'rowin' beds and pottin' soils
R E lectric h e a t e r s : O%erhead infrared heatin' equipment combined with soil cable heat
pro%ides a locali=ed plant en%ironment* which allows plants to thri%e e%en thou'h the
surroundin' air is at a lower than normal temperature Electric resistance.t&pe heaters
are used as space heaters or in a forced air s&stem
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e -E +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
%#* 6, MIDI4CA2I3" S=S2EMS
6an& e%aporati%e coolin' and humidif&in' s&stems are a%ailable) 4oggers0 Mist
systems0 !oof Sprin1lers0 and -an . 4an Systems# The& add water %apour to the air* and
ma& subsequentl& reduce the amount of water that the plants need to transpire
!o o f spr i n1 l ers add water %apour and cool the incomin' air On lar'e ran'es* it is
possible to decrease the temperature b& C . - C and increase the humidit& b& -.@,V
-ad and fan syste m s consist of porous wet pads at the inlet end of a fan %entilated
'reenhouse As the e5haust fans draw air throu'h the wet pads* water e%aporates* coolin'
and humidif&in' the air Temperatures tend to be coolest nearer the fans and hottest at the
e5haust when usin' these s&stems
M i st a nd fog s y s t e m s produce tin& water droplets that e%aporate* thereb& coolin' and
humidif&in' t he 'reenhouse ai r A mistin' s&st em can pro%ide needed moisture
to maintain a health& humidit& le%el of -, to F,V
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e -F +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER E
7O:T8ARE
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e -> +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A#& I"2!3D,C2I3 " 23 8EI5 S3427A!E
?eil 6icro;ision is an inte'rated de%elopment en%ironment used to create software
to be run on embedded s&stems !li#e a microcontroller( It allows for such software to be
written either in assembl& or C pro'rammin' lan'ua'es and for that software to be simulated
on a computer before bein' loaded onto the microcontroller
A#&#& 7 6 A 2 IS N ? is io n >O
;isionC is an I3E !Inte'rated 3e%elopment En%ironment( that helps write* compile*
and debu' embedded pro'rams It encapsulates the followin' components)
A project mana'er
A ma#e facilit&
Tool confi'uration
Editor
A powerful debu''er.
A#&#' S2E-S 435537ED I" C!EA 2I "G A" A--5IC A2 I3" I" u?isio n> :
To create a new project in u;isionC)
@ 7elect Project . New Project
+ 7elect a director& and enter the name of the project file
C 7elect Project T7elect 3e%ice and select a de%ice from 3e%ice 3atabase
D Create source files to add to the project
- 7elect Project . Tar'ets* 1roups* and :iles Add0:iles* select 7ource 1roup@* and add
the source files to the project
E 7elect Project . Options and set the tool options Note that when the tar'et de%ice is
selected from the 3e%ice 3atabasec all.special options are set automaticall& 3efault
memor& model settin's are optimal for most applications
F 7elect Project . Rebuild all tar'et files or "uild tar'et
To create a new project* simpl& start 6icro;ision and select LProjectMZdMNew
ProjectM from the pullTdown menus In the file dialo' that appears* choose a name and base
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e -/ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
director& for the project It is recommended that a new director& be created for each project*
as se%eral files will be 'enerated Once the project has been named* the dialo' shown in the
fi'ure below will appear* promptin' the user to select a tar'et de%ice In this lab* the chip
bein' used is the LAT>/7-+*M which is listed under the headin' LAtmelM
4ig# A #& 7i n do/ fo r c h o o s ing the ta rget d e vice
Ne5t* 6icro;ision must be instructed to 'enerate a 2EJ file upon pro'ram
compilation A 2EJ file is a standard file format for storin' e5ecutable code that is to be
loaded onto the microcontroller
In the LProject 8or#spaceM pane at the left* ri'htTclic# on LTar'et @M and select
LOptions for OTar'et @P M$nder the LOutputM tab of the resultin' options dialo'* ensure that
both the LCreate E5ecutableM and LCreate 2EJ :ileM options are chec#ed Then clic# LO?M
as shown in the two fi'ures below
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e E, +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
4i g# A #' -ro<ec t 7or1space -a ne 4ig# A#> -ro<ect 3ptions Dia log
Ne5t* a file must be added to the project that will contain the project code To do this*
e5pand the LTar'et @M headin'* ri'htTclic# on the L7ource 1roup @M folder* and select LAdd
filesAM Create a new blan# file !the file name should end in LasmM(* select it* and clic#
LAddM The new file should now appear in the LProject 8or#spaceM pane under the L7ource
1roup @M folder 3ouble.clic# on the newl& created file to open it in the editor All code for
this lab will 'o in this file To compile the pro'ram* first sa%e all source files b& clic#in' on
the L7a%e AllM button* and then clic# on the LRebuild All Tar'et :ilesM to compile the
pro'ram as shown in the fi'ure below If an& errors or warnin's occur durin' compilation*
the& will be displa&ed in the output window at the bottom of the screen All errors and
warnin's will reference the line and column number in which the& occur alon' with a
description of the problem so that the& can be easil& located Note that onl& errors indicate
that the compilation failed* warnin's do not !thou'h it is 'enerall& a 'ood idea to loo# into
them an&wa&(
4ig# A#* 9Save All: and 9 Build All 2a rget 4i les: Buttons
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e E@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
8hen the pro'ram has been successfull& compiled* it can be simulated usin' the
inte'rated debu''er in ?eil 6icro;ision To start the debu''er* select L3ebu'MZdM7tart07top
3ebu' 7essionM from the pullTdown menus
At the left side of the debu''er window* a table is displa&ed containin' se%eral #e&
parameters about the simulated microcontroller* most notabl& the elapsed time !circled in the
fi'ure below( Just abo%e that* there are se%eral buttons that control code e5ecution The
LRunM button will cause the pro'ram to run continuousl& until a brea#point is reached*
whereas the L7tep IntoM button will e5ecute the ne5t line of code and then pause !the current
position in the pro'ram is indicated b& a &ellow arrow to the left of the code(
4ig# A#% N?ision> Debugg er /indo/
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e E+ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
"rea#points can be set b& doubleTclic#in' on the 're& bar on the left ed'e of the
window containin' the pro'ram code A brea#point is indicated b& a red bo5 ne5t to the line
of code
4ig # A#A P! esetQ0 P!unQ and PStep into Q options
The current state of the pins on each I0O port on the simulated microcontroller can
also be displa&ed To %iew the state of a port* select LPeripheralsMZdMI0O PortsMZdMPort nM
from the pullTdown menus* where n is the port number A chec#ed bo5 in the port window
indicates a hi'h !@( pin* and an empt& bo5 indicates a low !,( pin "oth the I0O port data and
the data at the left side of the screen are updated whene%er the pro'ram is paused
The debu''er will help eliminate man& pro'rammin' errors* howe%er the simulation
is not perfect and code that e5ecutes properl& in simulation ma& not alwa&s wor# on the
actual microcontroller
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e EC +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A#&#> DE? ICE D A2ABA SE
A unique feature of the ?eil ;isionC I3E is the 3e%ice 3atabase* which contains
information about more than D,, supported microcontrollers 8hen &ou create a new
;isionC project and select the tar'et chip from the database* ;isionC sets all assembler*
compiler* lin#er* and debu''er options for &ou The onl& option &ou must confi'ure is the
memor& map
A#&#* - E ! I -6E !A 5 SIM , 5 A 2 I 3"
The ;isionC 3ebu''er pro%ides complete simulation for the CP$ and on.chip
peripherals of most embedded de%ices To disco%er which peripherals of a de%ice are
supported* in ;isionC select the 7imulated Peripherals item from the 2elp menu Bou ma&
also use the web.based 3e%ice 3atabase 8e are constantl& addin' new de%ices and
simulation support for on.chip peripherals so be sure to chec# 3e%ice 3atabase often
A#' -!3 G!AM ME!
The pro'rammer used is a powerful pro'rammer for the Atmel >/ series of
microcontrollers that includes >/C-@0-+0--* >/7-@0-+0-- and man& more
It is simple to use 4 low cost* &et powerful flash microcontroller pro'rammer for the
Atmel >/ series It will Pro'ram* Read and ;erif& Code 3ata* 8rite 9oc# "its* Erase and
"lan# Chec# All fuse and loc# bits are pro'rammable This pro'rammer has intelli'ent
onboard firmware and connects to the serial port It can be used with an& t&pe of computer
and requires no special hardware All that is needed is a serial communication port which all
computers ha%e
All de%ices also ha%e a number of loc# bits to pro%ide %arious le%els of software and
pro'rammin' protection These loc# bits are full& pro'rammable usin' this pro'rammer
9oc# bits are useful to protect the pro'am to be read bac# from microcontroller onl&
allowin' erase to repro'ram the microcontroller
6ajor parts of this pro'rammer are 7erial Port* Power 7uppl& and :irmware
microcontroller 7erial data is sent and recei%ed from / pin connector and con%erted to0from
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e ED +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
TT9 lo'ic0R7+C+ si'nal le%els b& 6AJ+C+ chip A 6ale to :emale serial port cable*
connects to the / pin connector of hardware and another side connects to bac# of computer
All the pro'rammin' Ointelli'enceP is built into the pro'rammer so &ou do not need
an& special hardware to run it Pro'rammer comes with window based software for eas&
pro'rammin' of the de%ices
A#> -ro5o ad -!3 G!A MM I" G S34 27 A!E
OPro9oadP is a software wor#in' as a user friendl& interface for pro'rammer boards
from 7unrom Technolo'ies Proload 'ets its name from L-ro'ram 5oaderM term* because
that is what it is supposed to do It ta#es in compiled 2EJ file and loads it to the hardware
An& compiler can be used with it* Assembl& or C* as all of them 'enerate compiled 2EJ
files Pro9oad accepts the Intel 2EJ format file 'enerated from compiler to be sent to tar'et
microcontroller It auto detects the hardware connected to the serial port It also auto detects
the chip inserted and b&tes used The software is de%eloped in 3elphi and requires no
o%erhead of an& e5ternal 399
The pro'rammer connects to the computerPs serial port !Comm @* +* C or D( with a
standard 3"/ 6ale to 3"/ :emale cable "aud Rate . -FE,,* CO65 Automaticall& selected
b& window software No PC Card Required
After ma#in' the necessar& selections* the OAuto Pro'ramP button is clic#ed as shown
in the fi'ure below which burns the selected he5 file onto the microcontroller
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e E- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
4ig# A #B -rog rammi ng /in do/
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e EE +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER F
:9O8C2ART
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e EF +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
B#& 4537C6A!2 !E-!ESE"2I"G 26E 73!8I"G 34 26E S=S2EM:
7TART
INITIA9I7E T2E 9C3
3I7P9AB INITIA9I7ATION 6E77A1E
"
INITIA9I7E T2E A3C
O"TAIN T2E 7EN7OR 3ATA
O"TAIN 3I1ITIGE3 3ATA :RO6 A3C
7TORE 3I1ITA9 O$TP$T IN T2E "$::ER 6E6ORB O:
T2E 6ICROCONTRO99ER
C9EAR T2E 9C3
I7 6O3E
"$TTON
PRE77E3
BE7
NO
3I7P9AB T2E 3E;ICE 7TAT$7
3I7P9AB T2E 7EN7OR 3ATA
A
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e E> +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A
BE7
7EN7OR
NO
T2RE72O93
CRO77E3I
T$RN ON ACT$ATOR
T$RN O:: ACT$ATOR
"
B#' 4537C6A!2 43! 5CD I" I2I A5IL A2I 3"
7TART
INTI9IAGE T2E 9C3 8IT2 +9INE7* -JF 6ATRIJ
C9EAR RE1I7TER 7E9ECT* REA308RITE
AN3 7ET T2E ENA"9E PIN O: T2E 9C3
CA99 7O6E 3E9AB
C9EAR T2E ENA"9E PIN O: T2E 9C3
CA99 7O6E 3E9AB
C
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e E/ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C
7ET T2E 3I7P9AB ON AN3 T2E C$R7OR ON
C9EAR RE1I7TER 7E9ECT* REA308RITE
AN3 7ET T2E ENA"9E PIN O: T2E 9C3
CA99 7O6E 3E9AB
C9EAR T2E ENA"9E PIN O: T2E 9C3
CA99 7O6E 3E9AB
C9EAR T2E 9C3 AN3 72I:T T2E C$R7OR TO RI12T
C9EAR RE1I7TER 7E9ECT* REA308RITE
AN3 7ET T2E ENA"9E PIN O: T2E 9C3
CA99 7O6E 3E9AB
C9EAR T2E ENA"9E PIN O: T2E 9C3
CA99 7O6E 3E9AB
72I:T T2E C$R7OR AT 9INE @* PO7ITION ,
C9EAR RE1I7TER 7E9ECT* REA308RITE
AN3 7ET T2E ENA"9E PIN O: T2E 9C3
3
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e F, +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
3
CA99 7O6E 3E9AB
C9EAR T2E ENA"9E PIN O: T2E 9C3
CA99 7O6E 3E9AB
7TOP
B#> 4537C6A!2 43! ADC I"I2IA5ILA2I3"
7TART
7E9ECT AN ANA9O1 C2ANNE9 "B 7ETTIN1
T2E A33RE77 9INE7 A* " AN3 C
C9EAR T2E O$TP$T ENA"9E PIN
ACTI;ATE T2E A9E PIN 8IT2
A 9O8 TO 2I12 P$97E
ACTI;ATE T2E 7TART PIN "B A 2I12 TO
9O8 P$97E TO INITIATE CON;ER7ION
NO
I7
EOC Z,I
BE7
A
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e F@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A
7ET T2E O$TP$T ENA"9E PIN
CA99 7O6E 3E9AB
REA3 3ATA O$T O: T2E A3C C2IP
C9EAR T2E O$TP$T ENA"9E PIN
7TOP
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e F+ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER >
RE7$9T ANA9B7I7
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e FC +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
! ES,52 A"A5= SIS
Readin's ta#en at room temperature of +F
,
C
)#& 2!A"SD,C E ! !EAD I "GS
)#&#& S3I5 M3IS2,!E SE"S3!
ToleranceZ ] ,+ ;
2a bl e ) #& So il moi st ure se nso r readi ng s
Soil Condition 2ransducer
3ptimum !ange
7oil is dr& ,;
Optimum le%el of
soil moisture
@/. C-;
7lurr& soil dC-;
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e FD +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
)#&#' 5IG62 SE"S3!
Tolerance Z ],@;
2able ) #' 5ig ht sen sor r ea din gs
Illumination Status 2ransducer 3ptimum
!ange
OPTI6$6
I99$6INATION
,;.,E/;
3I6 9I12T ,F;.+-;
3AR? +-;. C;
NI12T C;.CDF;
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e F- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
)#&#> 6,MIDI2= SE"S3!
)#&#>#& 43! M , 5 A:
R2 Z !!;out 0 ;cc( T ,@E (0,,,E+* t&pical at +-QC !Ref EqDC(
where* ;
suppl&
Z D/>;
ToleranceZ ],@;
2able ) #> 6umidity sensor r eadi ngs
-ercentage !6
!E5A2I?E 6,MIDI2=+
2ransducer 3ptimum !ange
,V ,.,>;
,V to />@V ,>.@@;
@+/V to +,@V @+.@D-;
++FV to C,,EV @-.@F+-;
C,>V to D,-V @F-.+,-;
D@CVto-,CV +,F-.+C-;
-@Vto E,,+V +CF-.+E-
E@EVtoF,-V +F.+/F-;
F@Vto>,+V C.C+F-;
>@@Vto /,V CC.CE;
/@Vto @,,V CE.C/;
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e FE +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
)#&#* 2E M-E !A 2, !E SE"S 3!
) #& #* #& 4 3 ! M, 5 A:
Temperature !
o
C ( Z !;out0-( [@,,!
o
C0;( !Ref EqDD(
2a bl e ) #* 2e mpera ture se nso r readi ng s
2emperature range in
degree Celsius
2emperature sensor
output?
out
+
@,
,
C ,-;
@-
,
to +,
,
C ,F-.@,;
+,
,
to +-
,
C @,.@+-;
+-
,
to C,
,
C @+-.@-;
C,
,
to C-
,
C @-.@F-;
C-
,
to D,
,
C @F-.+,;
D,
,
to D-
,
C +,.++-;
D-
,
to -,
,
C ++-.+-;
-,
,
to --
,
C +-.+F-;
--
,
to E,
,
C +F-.C,;
E,
,
to E-
,
C C,.C+-;
E-
,
to F,
,
C C+-.C-;
F,
,
to F-
,
C C-.CF-;
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e FF +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
F-
,
to >,
,
C CF-.D,;
>,
,
to >-
,
C D,.D+-;
>-
,
to /,
,
C D+-.D-;
/,
,
to /-
,
C D-.DF-;
/-
,
to @,,
,
C DF-.-;
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e F> +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER /
AD?A"2AGES A"D DISAD?A"2AGES
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e F/ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
AD?A"2AG ES A "D DISAD?A"2AGES
(#& AD?A"2AG E S
@ 7ensors used ha%e hi'h sensiti%it& and are eas& to handle
+ 9ow cost s&stem* pro%idin' ma5imum automation
C Closed loop desi'n pre%ents an& chances of disturbin' the 'reenhouse en%ironment
D $ser is indicated for chan'es in actuator state thereb& 'i%in' an option for manual
o%erride
- 9ow maintenance and low power consumption
E The s&stem is more compact compared to the e5istin' ones* hence is easil& portable
F Can be used for different plant species b& ma#in' minor chan'es in the ambient
en%ironmental parameters
> Can be easil& modified for impro%in' the setup and addin' new features
/ 9abour sa%in'
@, Pro%ides a user.friendl& interface hence will ha%e a 'reater acceptance b& the
technolo'icall& uns#illed wor#ers
@@ In response to the sensors* the s&stem will adjust the heatin'* fans* li'htin'* irri'ation
immediatel&* hence protect 'reenhouse from dama'e
@+ 6alfunctionin' of sin'le sensor will not affect the whole s&stem
@C Natural resource li#e water sa%ed to a 'reat e5tent
(#' DISAD?A"2AGES
@ Complete automation in terms of pest and insect detection and eradication cannot
be achie%ed
+ No self.test s&stem to detect malfunction of sensors
C Requires uninterrupted power suppl&
D :acilit& to remotel& monitor the 'reenhouse is not possible
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >, +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER @,
:$T$RE 7COPE
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
SC3-E 43 ! 4,!2 6E! DE ?E53-ME"2
@( The performance of the s&stem can be further impro%ed in terms of the operatin' speed*
memor& capacit&* instruction c&cle period of the microcontroller b& usin' other
controllers such as A;Rs and PICs The number of channels can be increased to interface
more number of sensors which is possible b& usin' ad%anced %ersions of
microcontrollers
+( The s&stem can be modified with the use of a datalo''er and a 'raphical 9C3 panel
showin' the measured sensor data o%er a period of time
C( A spea#in' %oice alarm could be used instead of the normal bu==er
D( This s&stem can be connected to communication de%ices such as modems* cellular phones
or satellite terminal to enable the remote collection of recorded data or alarmin' of certain
parameters
-( The de%ice can be made to perform better b& pro%idin' the power suppl& with the help of
batter& source which can be rechar'eable or non.rechar'eable* to reduce the requirement
of main AC power
E( Time bound administration of fertili=ers* insecticides and pesticides can be introduced
F( A multi.controller s&stem can be de%eloped that will enable a master controller alon' with
its sla%e controllers to automate multiple 'reenhouses simultaneousl&
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >+ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C2APTER @@
CONC9$7ION
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >C +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
C3 "C5,SI3"
A step.b&.step approach in desi'nin' the microcontroller based s&stem for
measurement and control of the four essential parameters for plant 'rowth* ie temperature*
humidit&* soil moisture* and li'ht intensit&* has been followed The results obtained from the
measurement ha%e shown that the s&stem performance is quite reliable and accurate
The s&stem has successfull& o%ercome quite a few shortcomin's of the e5istin'
s&stems b& reducin' the power consumption* maintenance and comple5it&* at the same time
pro%idin' a fle5ible and precise form of maintainin' the en%ironment
The continuousl& decreasin' costs of hardware and software* the wider acceptance of
electronic s&stems in a'riculture* and an emer'in' a'ricultural control s&stem industr& in
se%eral areas of a'ricultural production* will result in reliable control s&stems that will
address se%eral aspects of qualit& and quantit& of production :urther impro%ements will be
made as less e5pensi%e and more reliable sensors are de%eloped for use in a'ricultural
production
Althou'h the enhancements mentioned in the pre%ious chapter ma& seem far in the
future* the required technolo'& and components are a%ailable* man& such s&stems ha%e been
independentl& de%eloped* or are at least tested at a protot&pe le%el Also* inte'ration of all
these technolo'ies is not a dauntin' tas# and can be successfull& carried out
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >D +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
!E 4E!E "CE S
e@f 3r R Ja&anthi* Prof of 2orticulture* $A7* 1?;?* "an'alore
I EEE -a p ers
e+f 7tipanice% 3* 6araso%ic J* Networked embedded greenhouse monitoring and control,
Proceedin's of +,,C IEEE Conference on Control Applications* June +,,C
eCf Turnell* 3J de :atima* H;* Turnell* 6* 3eep* 17* :reire* RC7* FarmWeb-an
integrated, modular farm automation system, Proceedin's of IEEE International
Conference on 7&stems* 6an* and C&bernetics* ;ol +* Oct @//>
Boo1s
eCf Rebecca T&son Northen* Orchids As House Plants* 3o%er Publications* New Bor#* +
nd
Edition* @/>-
eDf 6uhammad Ali 6a=idi* Janice 1illispie 6a=idi* Rolin 3 6c ?inla& * he !"#$
%icrocontroller & 'mbedded (ystems* Pearson Education Inc +
nd
Edition* +,,>
e-f 6&#e Pred#o* Programming and )ustomising the !"#$ %icrocontroller, T62* @///
eEf ?enneth J A&ala* he !"#$ %icrocontroller Architecture, Programming & A**lications,
Penram International* +
nd
Edition* @//E
eFf Rama#ant 1a&a#wad* O*erational Am*lifiers +inear ,ntegrated )ircuits, Prentice 2all of
India* C
rd
Edition
e>f National 7emiconductors* )%O( +ogic -atabook
e/f ('N(O.(- he /ournal of A**lied (ensing echnology, Ad%anstar Communications Inc
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
7e b ! e sour ces
e@,f h ttp )0 0f r eew e b sc o m0ma h eshwan # ede
e@@f h ttp )0 0w w w f a lu d i c o m
e@+f h tt p )0 0wwwe l ec t r o . t ech.o n li n ec o m
e@+f h ttp )0 0w w w >, -+ c o m
e@Cf h ttp )0 0www>, - @ p roje c tsnet 0 f o ru m
e@Df h ttp )0 0wwwro b oticsindiac o m
e@-f h ttp )0 0w w w d at a s h e e td ir e c t c om
e@Ef h ttp )0 0w ww # eil co m0a ppno tes
e@Ff http)00www'oo'lecom
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >E +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A""EC,!E D I
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >F +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
&# 4inal -rototype:
19 20
21
22
18
17
1
6
16
8
10
2
15
14
3
13
4
9
14
5
7
12
@ Power 7uppl& K-; @- AC. switch
+ Temperature 7ensor @E AC fan
C 2umidit& 7ensor @F Power 7uppl& K@+;
D 9i'ht sensor @> +C,;. /; transformer
- 6oisture 7ensor @/ AC. bulb simulatin' li'ht@
E Power suppl& junction +, AC. bulb simulatin' li'ht+
F A3C and Cloc# circuit board +@ AC. bulb simulatin' spra&er
> Rela& board ++ AC.bulb simulatin' pump
/ "u==er circuit board
@, 6icrocontroller board
@@ "u==er
@+ 6ode selection switch
@C 3C .switch
@D 9C3 3ispla&
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >> +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
9i'ht 7ensor 7oil 6oisture 7ensor
2umidit& 7ensor Temperature 7ensor
A3C and Cloc# Circuit
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e >/ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
6icrocontroller "oard and "u==er Circuitr&
The Two 3ispla& 6odes of 9C3
AC Interface T Rela& "oard
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e /, +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A""EC,!E D II
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e /@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
Bill 3f Materials:
Sl# "o# 5ist of electrical components
@uantity in
numbers
@ +C,;* -,2=*/; transformer @
+ @+.,.@+;* -,,mA* @
C "rid'e rectifier C
D @,,,u: Electrol&tic capacitor C
- @,u: Electrol&tic capacitor C
E @u: Electrol&tic capacitor D
F C,p: Ceramic capacitor +
> @n: Ceramic capacitor -
/ @,# X resistance +,
@, >+# X resistance @
@@ @+# X resistance @
@+ @# X resistance @
@C @># X resistance @
@D CC, X resistance >
@- @,, X resistance @
@E @+-# X resistance @
@F 96F>,- +
@> 96F>@+ @
@/ +5@E 6atri5 9C3 @
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e /+ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
+, A3C,>,/ @
+@ AT>/7-+ 6icrocontroller @
++ Push to ON button +
+C To''le switches +
+D "C@,F @
+- "u==er @
+E >.pin connectors -
+F C.pin connectors +
+> +.pin connectors @-
7in'le connectors
C-
+/ C3D,/C 7chmitt tri''er IC @
C, "C-DF Transistor @,
C@ 7u'ar cube rela&s -
C+ @@,-/+ 62= Cr&stal @
CC 93R @+mm @
CD 96C+D @
C- 96C- @
CE +N+++N Transistor @
CF 2I2D,,,.,,@ @
C> @+- # X Resistor @
C/ AC -8 bulbs D
D, AC +C,; Coolin' :an @
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e /C +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
D@ @E Pin Connector +
D+ @, X Preset
-
DC @,# X "ourns Pot C
DD ++? X Resistor -
D- @,# X 7trip Resistor @
DE ,@u: Tantalum Capacitor @
DF 2eat 7in# C
D> 9E3 @,
D/ Copper 8ire C+A81 ,- m
-,
AC Power Cord
+ m
-@ 8ire Cap @ m
-+ ;aro "oard!7hoted* Non 7hoted ( D pc* -pc
-C 2OT 19$E 1$N @
-D :e%i Huic#
As per
requirement
-- Connectin' 8ires + m
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e /D +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A""EC,!E D III
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e /- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
&# S =S 2EM I"S 2A5 5A 2 I3" A"D 4A,52 !ED,C2I3":
The s&stem has to be pro%ided with uninterrupted power suppl& and should be
installed with care* in a place where the chan'es in microclimatic parameters are well
pronounced
:or best results with the moisture sensor* the probes must be inserted into the
specimen soil when the soil is dr&
:or best results with the humidit& sensor 2I2D,,,
R 3o not e5pose sensor to condensin' en%ironments E5posure to condensin'
en%ironments will cause sensor output to indicate , VR2
R 7ensor is li'ht sensiti%e :or best performance* shield sensor from bri'ht li'ht
R 7ensor is static sensiti%e 7ensor connection protected to @- #; ma5imum
:or best results with the temperature sensor* the 96C- and accompan&in' wirin' and
circuits must be #ept insulated and dr&* to a%oid lea#a'e and corrosion Printed.circuit
coatin's and %arnishes such as 2umiseal and epo5& paints or dips can be used to insure that
moisture does not corrode the 96C- or its connections
'# 2!3,B5E S6332I"G:
In case of a s&stem han'.up condition* the reset button in the %icinit& of the
6icrocontroller can be used to re%i%e the s&stem
In case of anomalies in the readin's of the humidit& sensor* it is recommended that
the sensor be #ept in an air .ti'ht container with silica.'el inside
In case of anomalies with the moisture sensor* the probes can be stripped off the soil
or mud particles deposited on its surface and in case of sensor.leads.o5idation* it is
recommended that the leads be replaced
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e /E +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A""EC,!E D I?
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e /F +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
Source Code
;Chinmaynanda Das, Chandan kumar Singh ,Summit Jindal, Asish Nanda,
Shrideep ;Mohapatra,Nisith Kumar Roy
;Dhaneswar Rath Institute o !ngineering and Medi"al S"ien"e, Cutta"k
;#########################################################
;ADC inputs
;IN$ # %M&'
;IN' # M(IS)*R! S!NS(R
;IN+ # ,I,$---
;IN. # %I/,) S!NS(R
;ADD0C 1 Conne"ted to 2""
;#########################################################
; Mi"ro"ontroller "onne"tions to %CD3
RS 4I) 563' ; 563' is "onne"ted to RS pin o %CD
R7 4I) 563+ ; 563+ is "onne"ted to R87 pin o %CD
! 4I) 563. ; 563' is "onne"ted to ! pin o %CD
%CDDA)A e9u 5- ; 5-3-#5-3. are "onne"ted to %CD data pins D-#D.
S7I)C, e9u 5&36 ; 5&36 :IN)-; is "onne"ted to S7I)C, or %CD
; Mi"ro"ontroller "onne"tions to ADC-<-<8= lines3
(! !>* 5&3- ; 5in = (utput !na?le
S)AR) !>* 5&3@ ; 5in + Start
!(C !>* 5&3& ; 5in . !(C
ADD0A !>* 5&3$ ; 5in 6' ADD A
ADD04 !>* 5&3' ; 5in 6$ ADD 4
A%! !>* 5&3. ; 5in 66 A%!
ADCDA)A !>* 5@ ; Data %ines
; Mi"ro"ontroller "onne"tions to A"tuators
C((%!R !>* 563$
5*M5 !>* 563&
S5RAA!R !>* 5636
%I/,)@ !>* 563@
%I/,)6 !>* 563-
4*BB!R !>* 5&3+
;#########################################################
; Register deinitions3
%CD0IN)R 4I) --h ;%CD Interrupt lag ?it
4*BB 4I) -@h ;4uCCer lag
4*BB@ 4I) -6h ;4uCCer lag
4*BB6 4I) -&h ;4uCCer lag
4*BB& 4I) -$h ;4uCCer lag
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e /> +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
)04*DD!R !>* &-h ;)emperature ?uer :ADC o8p;
M04*DD!R !>* &@h ;Soil Moisture ?uer :ADC o8p;
R,04*DD!R !>* &6h ;R, ?uer :ADC o8p;
%04*DD!R !>* &&h ;%ight ?uer :ADC o8p;
%I/,)0%!2!% !>* &$h ;4uer to store light leEel
M(IS)0%!2!% !>* &'h ;4uer to store moisture leEel

;##########################################################
org --h
%JM5 main
org -&h
%JM5 int0isr ; Interrupt or the %CD swit"h
org -.h
mainF
C%R -A-h ;Clear 5ort 6 or the a"tuators to turn o
C%R -4-h ;Clear port & or the ?uCCer to turn o
S!)4 4*BB!R
%CA%% D!%AA
C%R 4*BB!R ;)urn o ?uCCer
M(2 +-h, GHCH ; Intitialising A"tuator status message
M(2 +@h, GHFH
M(2 +6h, GH H
M(2 +&h, GH(H
M(2 +$h, GHDH
M(2 +'h, GHDH
M(2 ++h, GH H
M(2 +.h, GH H
M(2 +<h, GH5H
M(2 +=h, GH*H
M(2 +Ah, GHFH
M(2 +4h, GH(H
M(2 +Ch, GHDH
M(2 +Dh, GHDH
M(2 +!h, G-
M(2 .-h, GHSH
M(2 .@h, GH5H
M(2 .6h, GHFH
M(2 .&h, GH(H
M(2 .$h, GHDH
M(2 .'h, GHDH
M(2 .+h, GH H
M(2 ..h, GH H
M(2 .<h, GH%H
M(2 .=h, GHIH
M(2 .Ah, GHFH
M(2 .4h, GH(H
M(2 .Ch, GHDH
M(2 .Dh, GHDH
M(2 .!h, G-
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e // +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
;Main Code
;#######################################################################
M(2 )M(D, G-@h ;)imer - Mode @, @+ ?it timer :or generating '
se"ond delay or %CD;
S!)4 )C(N3- ;Make IN)- edge triggered
M(2 I!, G<@h ;!na?le IN)-
C%R %CD0IN)R ;Make %CD interrupt lag I-
ACA%% l"d0init ;%CD initialisation
ACA%% line0@ ;Display wel"ome message
?a"kF
ACA%% ad"read ;Read sensor data rom ADC
ACA%% data0display ;"all routine to display to %CD
ACA%% threshold0"he"k ;"all routine to "he"k threshold
SJM5 ?a"k ;repeat ADC pro"ess
l"d0initF ;%CD initialisation
M(2 A, G&<, ;init3 %CD 6 lines,'J. matriJ :C,AN/! ),ISKKK;
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, G-!, ;display on, "ursor on
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, G-@ ;"lear %CD
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, G-+, ;shit "ursor right
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
R!)
line0@F ;Displaying initialisation message
M(2 A, G-<-, ;"ursor at line @, position -
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 D5)R, Ginit@ ;address o line @ o initialisation message
repeat@F
C%R A
M(2C A, LAMD5)R ;moEing the data to a""umulator
JB line06
ACA%% datawrt ;"all data display routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
INC D5)R ;in"rement address
SJM5 repeat@
line06F
M(2 A, G-C-h ;"ursor at line 6, position -
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 D5)R, Ginit6 ;address o line 6 o initialisation message
repeat6F
C%R A
M(2C A, LAMD5)R ;moEing the data to a""umulator
JB line0&
%CA%% datawrt ;"all data display routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
INC D5)R ;in"rement address
SJM5 repeat6 ;Nump to la?el repeat6
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,, +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
line0&F ;Displaying initialisation message
M(2 A, G-<-, ;"ursor at line @, position -
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 D5)R, Ginit& ;address o line @ o initialisation message
repeat&F
C%R A
M(2C A, LAMD5)R ;moEing the data to a""umulator
JB line0$
ACA%% datawrt ;"all data display routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
INC D5)R ;in"rement address
SJM5 repeat&
line0$F
M(2 A, G-C-h ;"ursor at line 6, position -
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 D5)R, Ginit$ ;address o line 6 o initialisation message
repeat$F
C%R A
M(2C A, LAMD5)R ;moEing the data to a""umulator
JB line0'
%CA%% datawrt ;"all data display routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
INC D5)R ;in"rement address
SJM5 repeat$ ;Nump to la?el repeat$
line0'F ;Displaying initialisation message
M(2 A, G-<-, ;"ursor at line @, position -
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 D5)R, Ginit' ;address o line @ o initialisation message
repeat'F
C%R A
M(2C A, LAMD5)R ;moEing the data to a""umulator
JB line0+
ACA%% datawrt ;"all data display routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
INC D5)R ;in"rement address
SJM5 repeat'
line0+F
M(2 A, G-<-, ;"ursor at line @, position -
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 D5)R, Ginit+ ;address o line 6 o initialisation message
repeat+F
C%R A
M(2C A, LAMD5)R ;moEing the data to a""umulator
JB line0.
%CA%% datawrt ;"all data display routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
INC D5)R ;in"rement address
SJM5 repeat+ ;Nump to la?el repeat$
line0.F
M(2 A, G-C-h ;"ursor at line 6, position -
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 D5)R, Ginit. ;address o line 6 o initialisation message
repeat.F
C%R A
M(2C A, LAMD5)R ;moEing the data to a""umulator
JB eJit
%CA%% datawrt ;"all data display routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
INC D5)R ;in"rement address
SJM5 repeat. ;Nump to la?el repeat.
eJitF
M(2 A, G-@h ;"lear %CD
%CA%% "omnwrt
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
R!)
"omnwrtF ;send "ommand to %CD
M(2 %CDDA)A, A ;"opy reg A to port@
C%R RS ;RSI- or "ommand
C%R R7 ;R87I- or write
S!)4 ! ;!I@ or high pulse
M(2 R&,G'-
R!/0&F
M(2 R$,G6''
DJNB R$,O
DJNB R&,R!/0&
C%R ! ;!I- or ,#to#% pulse
R!)
datawrtF ;write data to %CD
M(2 %CDDA)A, A ;"opy reg A to port@
S!)4 RS ;RSI@ or data
C%R R7 ;R87I- or write
S!)4 ! ;!I@ or high pulse
M(2 R&,G'-
R!/0$F
M(2 R$,G6''
DJNB R$,O
DJNB R&,R!/0$
C%R ! ;!I- or ,#to#% pulse
R!)
l"ddelayF ;Delay routine or %CD
M(2 R&, G'-
here6F
M(2 R$, G6''
here&F
DJNB R$, here& ;stay until R$ ?e"omes -
DJNB R&, here6
R!)
ad"readF ;InitialiCing ADC
;S!NS(R @
M(2 ADCDA)A, G-DD, ; Data lines or input
S!)4 !(C ; Make !(C i8p
ACA%% delay
C%R A%! ; "learing A%!
C%R S)AR) ; Make start high
C%R (! ; Disa?le o8p
C%R ADD0A ;AI-
C%R ADD04 ;4I- ;Sele"t IN$
ACA%% delay
S!)4 A%! ;lat"hing the address
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,+ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
ACA%% delay
S!)4 S)AR) ;start "onEersion pulse
ACA%% delay
C%R A%! ;A%! ,#% transition
C%R S)AR) ;S)AR) ,#% transition
J4 !(C,O
JN4 !(C,O
ACA%% delay
S!)4 (! ;ena?le o8p
ACA%% delay
M(2 )04*DD!R, ADCDA)A ;store ad" data to ?uer
C%R (! ;disa?le o8p
;S!NS(R 6
M(2 ADCDA)A, G-DD, ; Data lines or input
S!)4 !(C ; Make !(C i8p
ACA%% delay
C%R A%! ; "learing A%!
C%R S)AR) ; Make start high
C%R (! ; Disa?le o8p
S!)4 ADD0A ;AI@
C%R ADD04 ;4I- Sele"t IN'
ACA%% delay
S!)4 A%! ;lat"hing the address
ACA%% delay
S!)4 S)AR) ;start "onEersion pulse
ACA%% delay
C%R A%! ;A%! ,#% transition
C%R S)AR) ;S)AR) ,#% transition
J4 !(C,O
JN4 !(C,O
ACA%% delay
S!)4 (! ;ena?le o8p
ACA%% delay
M(2 M04*DD!R, ADCDA)A ;store ad" data to ?uer
C%R (! ;disa?le o8p
;S!NS(R &
M(2 ADCDA)A, G-DD, ; Data lines or input
S!)4 !(C ; Make !(C i8p
ACA%% delay
C%R A%! ; "learing A%!
C%R S)AR) ; Make start high
C%R (! ; Disa?le o8p
C%R ADD0A ;AI-
S!)4 ADD04 ;4I@ Sele"t IN+
ACA%% delay
S!)4 A%! ;lat"hing the address
ACA%% delay
S!)4 S)AR) ;start "onEersion pulse
ACA%% delay
C%R A%! ;A%! ,#% transition
C%R S)AR) ;S)AR) ,#% transition
J4 !(C,O
JN4 !(C,O
ACA%% delay
S!)4 (! ;ena?le o8p
ACA%% delay
M(2 R,04*DD!R, ADCDA)A ;store ad" data to ?uer
C%R (! ;disa?le o8p
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,C +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
;S!NS(R $
M(2 ADCDA)A, G-DD, ; Data lines or input
S!)4 !(C ; Make !(C i8p
ACA%% delay
C%R A%! ; "learing A%!
C%R S)AR) ; Make start high
C%R (! ; Disa?le o8p
S!)4 ADD0A ;AI@
S!)4 ADD04 ;4I@ Sele"t IN.
ACA%% delay
S!)4 A%! ;lat"hing the address
ACA%% delay
S!)4 S)AR) ;start "onEersion pulse
ACA%% delay
C%R A%! ;A%! ,#% transition
C%R S)AR) ;S)AR) ,#% transition
J4 !(C,O
JN4 !(C,O
ACA%% delay
S!)4 (! ;ena?le o8p
ACA%% delay
M(2 %04*DD!R, ADCDA)A ;store ad" data to ?uer
C%R (! ;disa?le o8p
R!)
delayF ;Delay su?routine
M(2 R&, G6'-
here@F
M(2 R$, G6''
hereF
DJNB R$, here
DJNB R&, here@
R!)
data0displayF ;%CD routine to display sensor and a"tuator
data
JN4 %CD0IN)R, sensor0display ;i AC)I-, Nump to display sensor data
la?el
M(2 A, G-@h ;"lear %CD
ACA%% "omnwrt
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A,G<-, ;"ursor at line @, position -
ACA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
ACA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 R-, G+-h ;address o display message line @
line@F
C%R A
M(2 A, LR- ;moEing the data to a""umulator
JB nJt0line ;eJit loop on "ompletion o display and start
;display o %CD neJt line
%CA%% datawrt ;"all data display routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
INC R- ;in"rement address
SJM5 line@ ;repeat display till end o message

nJt0lineF ;Displaying on line 6 o %CD
M(2 A, G-C-h ;"ursor at line 6, position -
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,D +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
%CA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 R-, G.-h ;address o display message line 6
line6F
C%R A
M(2 A, LR - ;moEing the data to a""umulator
JB delay0's ;eJit loop on "ompletion o display P "all routine
;to wait ' se"
%CA%% datawrt ;"all data display routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
INC R- ;in"rement address
SJM5 line6 ;repeat display till end o message
delay0'sF ;' se"ond delay routine
M(2 R., G@-- ;R!5!A) @-- )IM!S :'-msQ@--I 'se";
se"0'F
M(2 )%-, G-DDh ;load $4DDh or 'ms delay
M(2 ),-, G$4h
S!)4 )R- ;Start timer -
JN4 )D-, O ;Che"k or end o "ount
C%R )R- ;Stop timer
C%R )D- ;Clear timer - lag
DJNB R., se"0' ;Repeat till R.I-
M(2 A, G-@h ;"lear %CD
%CA%% "omnwrt
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
sensor0displayF ;displaying sensor data
M(2 A,G<-, ;"ursor at line @, position -
%CA%% "omnwrt ;"all "ommand su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH)H ;display letter )
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHFH ;display F sym?ol
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, )04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
M(2 D5)R, Gtemp0tens ;address o ASCII "ode look up ta?le :tens pla"e;
M(2C A, LA M D5) R ;store "orresponding ASCII "ode to A""umulator
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, )04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
M(2 D5)R, Gtemp0ones ;address o ASCII "ode look up ta?le :ones pla"e;
M(2C A, LA M D5) R ;store "orresponding ASCII "ode to A""umulator
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH3H ;display 3 sym?ol
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, )04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
M(2 D5)R, Gtemp0de" ;address o ASCII "ode look up ta?le :de"3 pla"e;
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
M(2C A, LA M D5) R ;store "orresponding ASCII "ode to A""umulator
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, G-DDh ;display degree sym?ol
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHCH ;display letter C
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH H ;display spa"e
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
;DIS5%AAIN/ S!NS(R 6F S(I% M(IS)*R!
M(2
%CA%%
A, GHSH
datawrt
;display letter S
;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHFH ;display F sym?ol
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, M04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
CJN! A, G+.h, dry
dryF
JNC optimum
M(2 M(IS)0%!2!%, G@ ;Store leEel in a ?uer :or threshold "he"k;
M(2 A, GHDH ;display D
%CA%%
%CA%%
M(2
%CA%%
datawrt
l"ddelay
A, GHrH
datawrt
;"all display su?routine
;giEe %CD some time
;display r
;"all display su?routine
%CA%%
M(2
l"ddelay
A, GHyH
;giEe %CD some time
;display y
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2
%CA%%
%CA%%
A, GH H
datawrt
l"ddelay
;display spa"e
;"all display su?routine
;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH H ;display spa"e
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
SJM5 moist0oEer
optimumF ;normal "ondition
M(2 A, M04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
CJN! A, G.<h, disp0opt
disp0optF
JNC slurry
M(2 M(IS)0%!2!%, G6 ;Store leEel in a ?uer :or threshold "he"k;
M(2 A, GH(H ;display (
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHpH ;display p
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,E +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
M(2 A, GHtH ;display t
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2
%CA%%
A, GH3H
datawrt
;display spa"e
;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH H ;display spa"e
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
SJM5 moist0oEer
slurryF
M(2 M(IS)0%!2!%, G& ;Store leEel in a ?uer :or threshold "he"k;
M(2
%CA%%
A, GH!H
datawrt
;display !
;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHJH ;display J
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%%
M(2
l"ddelay
A, GH"H
;giEe %CD some time
;display "
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHeH ;display e
%CA%%
%CA%%
M(2
datawrt
l"ddelay
A, GHsH
;"all display su?routine
;giEe %CD some time
;display s
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
moist0oEerF
;DIS5%AAIN/ S!NS(R &F R!%A)I2! ,*MIDI)A
M(2
%CA%%
%CA%%
A, G-C-,
"omnwrt
l"ddelay
;"ursor at line 6, position
;"all "ommand su?routine
;giEe %CD some time
-
M(2 A, GHRH ;display letter R
%CA%%
%CA%%
M(2
datawrt
l"ddelay
A, GH,H
;"all display su?routine
;giEe %CD some time
;display letter ,
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHFH ;display F sym?ol
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, R,04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
M(2 D5)R, Grh0tens ;address o ASCII "ode look up ta?le :tens pla"e;
M(2C A, LA M D5) R ;store "orresponding ASCII "ode to A""umulator
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, R,04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
M(2 D5)R, Grh0ones ;address o ASCII "ode look up ta?le :ones pla"e;
M(2C A, LA M D5) R ;store "orresponding ASCII "ode to A""umulator
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,F +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
M(2 A, GH3H ;display 3 sym?ol
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, R,04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
M(2 D5)R, Grh0de" ;address o ASCII "ode look up ta?le :ones pla"e;
M(2C A, LA M D5) R ;store "orresponding ASCII "ode to A""umulator
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHRH ;display R sym?ol
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH H ;display spa"e
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
;DIS5%AAIN/ S!NS(R $F %I/,)
M(2 A, GH%H ;display letter %
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%%
M(2
%CA%%
l"ddelay
A, GHFH
datawrt
;giEe %CD some time
;display F sym?ol
;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, %04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
CJN! A, G6'h, ?right
?rightF
JNC normal
M(2 %I/,)0%!2!%, G@ ;Store leEel in a ?uer :or threshold "he"k;
M(2 A, GH(H ;display S
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHpH ;display u
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHtH ;display n
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH3H ;display n
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH H ;display spa"e
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
%JM5 light0oEer
normalF
M(2 A, %04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
CJN! A, G<6h, disp0norm
disp0normF
JNC dim
M(2 %I/,)0%!2!%, G6 ;Store leEel in a ?uer :or threshold "he"k;
M(2 A, GHDH ;display D
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,> +,,/.+,@,
M(2
%CA%%
A, GHNH
datawrt
;display N
;"all display su?routine
%CA%%
M(2
l"ddelay
A, GHiH
;giEe %CD some time
;display i
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2
%CA%%
A, GHgH
datawrt
;display g
;"all display su?routine
%CA%%
M(2
l"ddelay
A, GHhH
;giEe %CD some time
;display h
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%%
M(2
l"ddelay
A, GHtH
;giEe %CD some time
;display t
%CA%%
%CA%%
datawrt
l"ddelay
;"all display su?routine
;giEe %CD some time
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
%CA%%
M(2
%CA%%
%CA%%
l"ddelay
A, GHiH
datawrt
l"ddelay
;giEe %CD some time
;display i
;"all display su?routine
;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHmH ;display m
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH H ;display spa"e
%CA%%
%CA%%
datawrt
l"ddelay
;"all display su?routine
;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GH H ;display spa"e
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
SJM5 light0oEer
dimF
M(2 A, %04*DD!R ;moEe sensor data rom ?uer to a""umulator
CJN! A, G=Dh, disp0dim
disp0dimF
JNC dark
M(2 %I/,)0%!2!%, G& ;Store leEel in a ?uer :or threshold "he"k;
M(2
%CA%%
A, GHDH
datawrt
;display D
;"all display su?routine
%CA%%
M(2
l"ddelay
A, GHaH
;giEe %CD some time
;display a
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
M(2
%CA%%
%CA%%
A, GHrH
datawrt
l"ddelay
;display r
;"all display su?routine
;giEe %CD some time
M(2 A, GHkH ;display k
%CA%% datawrt ;"all display su?routine
%CA%%
M(2
%CA%%
l"ddelay
A, GH H
datawrt
;giEe %CD some time
;display spa"e
;"all display su?routine
%CA%% l"ddelay ;giEe %CD some time
SJM5 light0oEer
darkF
M(2 %I/,)0%!2!%, G$ ;Store leEel in a ?uer :or threshold "he"k;
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @,/ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
light0oEerF
R!)
threshold0"he"kF
temp0"he"kF ;C,!CKIN/ )!M5!RA)*R! ),R!S,(%D
M(2 A, )04*DD!R ;read sensor data rom ?uer
CJN! A, G<&, t0not0e9ual ;"he"k or am?ient temp :&6deg C;
SJM5 t0within0thresh ;end o threshold "he"king routine
t0not0e9ualF
JC t0within0thresh ;Nump to within threshold routine
t0outside0threshF
S!)4 C((%!R ;turn on heater
J4 4*BB, no0?uCC
S!)4 4*BB!R ;turn on ?uCCer
ACA%% delay
C%R 4*BB!R ;turn o ?uCCer
S!)4 4*BB ;set the ?uCCer lag high
no0?uCCF
M(2 +&h, GH H
M(2 +$h, GH(H
M(2 +'h, GHNH
SJM5 light0"he"k
t0within0threshF
M(2 A, )04*DD!R
CJN! A, G.&, ht0o
ht0oF
JNC light0"he"k
C%R C((%!R ;turn o heater
C%R 4*BB
M(2 +&h, GH(H
M(2 +$h, GHDH
M(2 +'h, GHDH
light0"he"kF ;C,!CKIN/ %I/,) ),R!S,(%DS
M(2 A, %I/,)0%!2!%
CJN! A, G@, leE6
C%R %I/,)@ ;turn o light @
C%R %I/,)6 ;turn o light 6
C%R 4*BB@
M(2 .4h, GH(H
M(2 .Ch, GHDH
M(2 .Dh, GHDH
SJM5 humid0"he"k
leE6F
M(2 A, %I/,)0%!2!%
CJN! A, G6, leE&
S!)4 %I/,)@ ;turn on light@
C%R %I/,)6 ;turn o light6
J4 4*BB@, no0?uCC@
S!)4 4*BB!R ;turn on ?uCCer
ACA%% delay
C%R 4*BB!R ;turn o ?uCCer
S!)4 4*BB@
no0?uCC@F
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @@, +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
M(2 .4h, GH H
M(2 .Ch, GH(H
M(2 .Dh, GHNH
SJM5 humid0"he"k
leE&F
M(2 A, %I/,)0%!2!%
CJN! A, G&, leE$
S!)4 %I/,)@ ;turn on light@
S!)4 %I/,)6 ;turn on light6
J4 4*BB@, no0?uCC@@
S!)4 4*BB!R ;turn on ?uCCer
ACA%% delay
C%R 4*BB!R ;turn o ?uCCer
S!)4 4*BB@
no0?uCC@@F
M(2 .4h, GH H
M(2 .Ch, GH(H
M(2 .Dh, GHNH
SJM5 humid0"he"k
leE$F
C%R %I/,)@ ;turn o light@
C%R %I/,)6 ;turn o light6
C%R 4*BB@
M(2 .4h, GH(H
M(2 .Ch, GHDH
M(2 .Dh, GHDH
humid0"he"kF
M(2 A, R,04*DD!R ;read sensor data rom ?uer
CJN! A, G$-, h0not0e9ual ;"he"k or am?ient R,
SJM5 h0within0thresh ;end o threshold "he"king routine
h0not0e9ualF
JNC h0within0thresh ;Nump to within threshold routine
h0outside0threshF
S!)4 S5RAA!R ;turn on sprayer
J4 4*BB6, no0?uCC6
S!)4 4*BB!R ;turn on ?uCCer
ACA%% delay
C%R 4*BB!R ;turn o ?uCCer
S!)4 4*BB6
no0?uCC6F
M(2 .&h, GH H
M(2 .$h, GH(H
M(2 .'h, GHNH
SJM5 moist0"he"k
h0within0threshF
CJN! A,G.-, sp0o
sp0oF JC moist0"he"k
C%R S5RAA!R ;turn o sprayer
C%R 4*BB6
M(2 .&h, GH(H
M(2 .$h, GHDH
M(2 .'h, GHDH
moist0"he"kF
;C,!CKIN/ M(IS)*R! ),R!S,(%DS
M(2 A, M(IS)0%!2!%
CJN! A, G@, leEel6
S!)4 5*M5 ;turn on pump
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @@@ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
J4 4*BB&, no0?uCC&
S!)4 4*BB!R ;turn on ?uCCer
ACA%% delay
C%R 4*BB!R ;turn o ?uCCer
S!)4 4*BB&
no0?uCC&F
M(2 +4h, GH H
M(2 +Ch, GH(H
M(2 +Dh, GHNH
SJM5 th0end0"he"k
leEel6F
M(2 A, M(IS)0%!2!%
CJN! A, G6, leEel&
C%R 5*M5
C%R 4*BB&
M(2 +4h, GH(H
M(2 +Ch, GHDH
M(2 +Dh, GHDH
SJM5 th0end0"he"k
leEel&F
C%R 5*M5 ;turn o pump
C%R 4*BB&
M(2 +4h, GH(H
M(2 +Ch, GHDH
M(2 +Dh, GHDH
th0end0"he"kF
end0"he"kF R!)
int0isrF ;interrupt routine or %CD ?utton
M(2 I!, G--h ;Disa?le interrupts
5*S, -!-h ;5ush A to sta"k
5*S, --h ;5ush R-
5*S, -&h ;5ush R&
5*S, -$h ;5ush R$
5*S, -.h ;5ush R.
5*S, <6h ;5ush D5%
5*S, <&h ;5ush D5,
S!)4 %CD0IN)R ;Set lag to "he"k interrupt
5(5 <&h ;5op D5,
5(5 <6h ;5op D5%
5(5 -.h ;5op R. rom sta"k
5(5 -$h ;5op R$
5(5 -&h ;5op R&
5(5 --h ;5op reg R-
5(5 -!-h ;5op A""umulator
M(2 I!, G<@h ;!na?le IN)-
R!)I
org +--h
init@F D4 S 7el"ome to S, -
init6F D4 S5roNe"t /reen4eeS, -
init&F D4 S S, -
init$F D4 S S, -
init'F D4 S DRI!MS S, -
init+F D4 SInitialiCing theS, -
init.F D4 SSensors333333333S, - ; System initialiCation message
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @@+ +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
temp0tensF
D4 H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H
D4 &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h
D4 &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h, &-h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h
D4 &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h
D4 &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h, &@h
D4 &@h, &@h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h
D4 &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h
D4 &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &6h, &&h, &&h
D4 &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h
D4 &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h
D4 &&h, &&h, &&h, &&h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h
D4 &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h
D4 &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h, &$h
D4 &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h
D4 &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h
D4 &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &'h, &+h, &+h, &+h, &+h
D4 &+h, &+h, &+h, &+h, &+h, &+h, &+h, &+h, &+h, &+h
temp0onesF
D4 H-H, H-H, H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H&H, H&H, H&H, H$H
D4 H$H, H$H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H+H, H+H, H.H, H.H, H.H
D4 H<H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H=H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H
D4 H&H, H&H, H$H, H$H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H+H
D4 H+H, H+H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H=H, H=H
D4 H=H, H-H, H-H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H&H
D4 H&H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H'H, H'H, H+H, H+H, H+H, H.H
D4 H.H, H.H, H<H, H<H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H-H, H-H, H@H
D4 H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H&H, H&H, H$H, H$H, H$H
D4 H'H, H'H, H'H, H+H, H+H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H<H, H<H
D4 H=H, H=H, H=H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H
D4 H6H, H&H, H&H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H'H, H'H, H+H, H+H
D4 H+H, H+H, H.H, H.H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H
temp0de"F
D4 H-H, H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H'H,H'H,H'H,H'H,H'H,H-H ;@-),
D4 H-H, H-H,H-H,H'H,H'H,H'H,H'H,H-H,H-H,H-H ;6-),
D4 H-H, H'H,H'H,H'H,H'H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H ;&-),
D4 H'H, H'H,H'H,H'H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H'H,H-H ;$-),
D4 H-H, H'H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H-H ;'-),
D4 H'H, H-H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H'H,H-H ;+-),
D4 H'H, H-H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H-H,H'H,H-H ;.-),
D4 H'H, H'H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H-H ;<-),
D4 H-H, H'H,H-H,H'H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H-H,H'H ;=-),
D4 H-H, H'H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H'H,H-H,H'H ;@--),
D4 H-H, H-H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H'H,H-H,H'H,H-H,H-H ;@@-),
D4 H'H, H'H,H-H,H-H,H'H,H'H,H-H,H-H,H'H,H'H ;@6-),
D4 H-H, H'H,H-H,H'H,H'H,H'H,H-H,H-H,H'H,H'H ;@&-),
D4 H-H, H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H ;@$-),
rh0tensF
D4 H-H,H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H,H-H ;@-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;6-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;&-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;$-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;'-th
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @@C +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;+-th
D4 H@H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H@H ;.-th
D4 H@H, H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H6H ;<-th
D4 H6H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H6H, H&H, H&H, H&H ;=-th
D4 H&H, H&H, H&H, H&H, H&H, H&H, H&H, H&H, H&H, H&H ;@--th
D4 H&H, H&H, H&H, H&H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H$H ;@@-th
D4 H$H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H'H ;@6-th
D4 H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H ;@&-th
D4 H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H+H, H+H, H+H, H+H, H+H ;@$-th
D4 H+H, H+H, H+H, H+H, H+H, H+H, H+H, H+H, H+H, H+H ;@'-th
D4 H+H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H ;@+-th
D4 H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H<H, H<H, H<H ;@.-th
D4 H<H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H=H ;@<-th
D4 H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H ;@=-th
D4 H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H, H=H ;6--th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;6@-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;66-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6&-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6$-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6'-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH
rh0onesF
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;@-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;6-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;&-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;$-th
D4 H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H, H&H, H&H, H$H, H$H, H'H, H'H ;'-th
D4 H+H, H.H, H.H, H<H, H<H, H=H, H-H, H-H, H@H, H@H ;+-th
D4 H&H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H'H, H'H, H+H, H+H, H.H, H<H ;.-th
D4 H=H, H=H, H-H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H6H, H&H, H$H, H'H ;<-th
D4 H'H, H+H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H<H, H=H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;=-th
D4 H@H, H6H, H&H, H&H, H$H, H$H, H'H, H+H, H+H, H.H ;@--th
D4 H<H, H<H, H<H, H=H, H-H, H@H, H6H, H6H, H&H, H&H ;@@-th
D4 H$H, H$H, H'H, H+H, H.H, H.H, H<H, H=H, H=H, H-H ;@6-th
D4 H-H, H@H, H@H, H6H, H&H, H&H, H$H, H'H, H'H, H+H ;@&-th
D4 H+H, H.H, H<H, H=H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H@H, H@H, H6H ;@$-th
D4 H&H, H$H, H$H, H$H, H'H, H+H, H.H, H.H, H<H, H<H ;@'-th
D4 H=H, H=H, H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H, H&H, H$H, H$H, H'H ;@+-th
D4 H+H, H.H, H.H, H.H, H'H, H<H, H=H, H-H, H@H, H@H ;@.-th
D4 H@H, H6H, H&H, H$H, H'H, H'H, H+H, H+H, H.H, H.H ;@<-th
D4 H<H, H<H, H=H, H=H, H-H, H@H, H6H, H&H, H&H, H$H ;@=-th
D4 H$H, H$H, H'H, H+H, H.H, H.H, H<H, H<H, H=H, H-H ;6--th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6@-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;66-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6&-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6$-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6'-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6'+th
rh0de"F
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;@-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H, H-H ;6-th
D4 H-H, H-H, H-H, H@H, H6H, H&H, H$H, H'H, H+H, H+H ;&-th
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @@D +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
D4 H.H, H.H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H=H, H=H,
D4 H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H, H&H, H&H, H$H,
D4 H+H, H.H, H.H, H<H, H<H, H<H, H=H,
D4 H-H, H@H, H@H, H@H, H6H, H6H, H&H,
D4 H'H, H'H, H'H, H'H, H+H, H+H, H.H,
D4 H+H, H-H, H-H, H+H, H.H, H=H, H6H,
D4 H+H, H$H, H&H, H'H, H@H, H=H, H.H,
D4 H@H, H=H, H<H, H.H, H'H, H&H, H6H,
D4 H+H, H<H, H$H, H6H, H-H, H.H, H<H,
D4 H-H, H@H, H=H, H.H, H'H, H$H, H&H,
D4 H.H, H'H, H$H, H6H, H-H, H-H, H<H,
D4 H6H, H-H, H<H, H$H, H+H, H$H, H&H,
D4 H.H, H'H, H@H, H=H, H.H, H=H, H&H,
D4 H+H, H$H, H.H, H.H, H+H, H<H, H$H,
D4 H=H, H+H, H'H, H&H, H'H, H$H, H.H,
D4 H<H, H+H, H'H, H&H, H.H, H@H, H6H,
D4 H-H, H$H, H'H, H+H, H6H, H.H, H<H,
H=H, H-H, H-H ;$-th
H$H, H'H, H'H ;'-th
H=H, H-H, H-H ;+-th
H&H, H&H, H$H ;.-th
H@H, H&H, H'H ;<-th
H-H, H<H, H.H ;=-th
H'H, H+H, H&H ;@--th
H+H, H-H, H<H ;@@-th
H+H, H$H, H&H ;@6-th
H@H, H=H, H+H ;@&-th
H+H, H@H, H$H ;@$-th
H.H, H@H, H<H ;@'-th
H.H, H'H, H=H ;@+-th
H6H, H'H, H<H ;@.-th
H+H, H'H, H.H ;@<-th
H&H, H'H, H$H ;@=-th
H<H, H=H, H-H ;6--th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, TQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6@-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, TQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;66-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, TQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6&-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6$-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, TQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6'-th
D4 HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH, HQH ;6'+th
!ND
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @@- +,,/.+,@,
6ONITOR AN3 CONTRO9 O: 1REEN2O$7E EN;IRON6ENT
A""EC,!E D ?
3epartment of AE 4 I Pa'e @@E +,,/.+,@,
A
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9

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October 2002
ADC0808/ADC0809
8-Bit P Com!ti"#$ A/D Co%&$'t$'( )it* 8-C*!%%$#
+,#ti#$-$'
.$%$'!# D$(/'itio%
The ADC0808, ADC0809 data acquisition component is a
monolithic CMOS device with an 8-bit analog-to-digital con-
verter, 8-channel multiplexer and microprocessor compatible
control logic. The 8-bit A/D converter uses successive ap-
proximation as the conversion technique. The converter fea-
tures a high impedance chopper stabilized comparator, a
256R voltage divider with analog switch tree and a succes-
sive approximation register. The 8-channel multiplexer can
directly access any of 8-single-ended analog signals.
The device eliminates the need for external zero and
full-scale adjustments. Easy interfacing to microprocessors
is provided by the latched and decoded multiplexer address
inputs and latched TTL TR-STATE outputs.
The design of the ADC0808, ADC0809 has been optimized
by incorporating the most desirable aspects of several A/D
conversion techniques. The ADC0808, ADC0809 offers high
speed, high accuracy, minimal temperature dependence,
excellent long-term accuracy and repeatability, and con-
sumes minimal power. These features make this device
ideally suited to applications from process and machine
control to consumer and automotive applications. For
16-channel multiplexer with common output (sample/hold
port) see ADC0816 data sheet. (See AN-247 for more infor-
mation.)
0$!t,'$(
n Easy interface to all microprocessors
n Operates ratiometrically or with 5 V
DC
or analog span
adjusted voltage reference
n No zero or full-scale adjust required
n 8-channel multiplexer with address logic
n 0V to 5V input range with single 5V power supply
n Outputs meet TTL voltage level specifications
n ADC0808 equivalent to MM74C949
n ADC0809 equivalent to MM74C949-1
K$1 S$/i2i/!tio%(
n Resolution 8 Bits
n Total Unadjusted Error
1
'2 LSB and 1 LSB
n Single Supply 5 V
DC
n Low Power 15 mW
n Conversion Time 100 s
B#o/3 Di!4'!m
S$$ O'5$'i%4
I%2o'm!tio%
00567201
2002 National Semiconductor Corporation DS005672 ww w .national.com
A
D
C
0
8
0
8
/
A
D
C
0
8
0
9
Co%%$/tio% Di!4'!m(
D,!#-I%-Li%$ P!/3!4$
00567211
O'5$' N,m"$' ADC0808CCN o' ADC0809CCN
S$$ NS P!/3!4$ 678A o' N78A
+o#5$5 C*i C!''i$' P!/3!4$
00567212
O'5$' N,m"$' ADC0808CCV o' ADC0809CCV
S$$ NS P!/3!4$ V78A
O'5$'i%4 I%2o'm!tio%
TE+PERAT8RE RAN.E 940:C to ;85:C
Error
1
'2 LSB Unadjusted ADC0808CCN ADC0808CCV
1 LSB Unadjusted ADC0809CCN ADC0809CCV
Package Outline N28A Molded DP V28A Molded Chip Carrier
ww w .national.com 2
A
D
C
0
8
0
8
/
A
D
C
0
8
0
9
A"(o#,t$ +!-im,m R!ti%4( (Notes 2, Dual-n-Line Package (plastic)
260C
1)
Molded Chip Carrier Package
I2 +i#it!'1/A$'o(!/$ ($/i2i$5 5$&i/$( !'$ '$<,i'$5=
Vapor Phase (60 seconds) 215C
#$!($ /o%t!/t t*$ N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to' S!#$( O22i/$/
nfrared (15 seconds) 220C
Di(t'i",to'( 2o' !&!i#!"i#it1 !%5 ($/i2i/!tio%(>
ESD Susceptibility (Note 8) 400V
Supply Voltage (V
CC
) (Note 3) 6.5V
Voltage at Any Pin ~0.3V to
O$'!ti%4 Co%5itio%( (Notes 1, 2)
(V
CC
+0.3V)
Except Control nputs
Temperature Range (Note 1) T
MN
gT
A
gT
MAX
Voltage at Control nputs ~0.3V to +15V
ADC0808CCN,ADC0809CCN ~40CgT
A
g+85C
(START, OE, CLOCK, ALE, ADD A, ADD B, ADD C)
ADC0808CCV, ADC0809CCV ~40CgT
A
g+85C
Storage Temperature Range ~65C to +150C
Range of V
CC
(Note 1) 4.5 V
DC
to 6.0 V
DC
Package Dissipation at T
A
=25C 875 mW
Lead Temp. (Soldering, 10 seconds)
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
Co%&$'t$' S$/i2i/!tio%(? V
CC
=5 V
DC
=V
REF+
, V
REF(~)
=GND, T
MN
gT
A
gT
MAX
and f
CLK
=640 kHz unless otherwise stated.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i% T1 +!- 8%it(
ADC0808
Total Unadjusted Error
(Note 5)
25C
T
MN
to T
MAX

1
'2

3
'4
LSB
LSB
ADC0809
Total Unadjusted Error
(Note 5)
0C to 70C
T
MN
to T
MAX
1
1
1
'4
LSB
LSB
nput Resistance From Ref(+) to Ref(~) 1.0 2.5 kX
Analog nput Voltage Range (Note 4) V(+) or V(~) GND~0.10 V
CC
+0.10 V
DC
V
REF(+)
Voltage, Top of Ladder Measured at Ref(+) V
CC
V
CC
+0.1 V
Voltage, Center of Ladder V
CC
/2-0.1 V
CC
/2 V
CC
/2+0.1 V
V
REF(~)
Voltage, Bottom of Ladder Measured at Ref(~) ~0.1 0 V

N
Comparator nput Current f
c
=640 kHz, (Note 6) ~2 0.5 2 A
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
Di4it!# L$&$#( !%5 DC S$/i2i/!tio%(? ADC0808CCN, ADC0808CCV, ADC0809CCN and ADC0809CCV, 4.75gV
CC
g5.25V,
~40CgT
A
g+85C unless otherwise noted
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i% T1 +!- 8%it(
ANALO. +8LTIPLE@ER

OFF(+)
OFF Channel Leakage Current V
CC
=5V, V
N
=5V,
T
A
=25C
T
MN
to T
MAX
10 200
1.0
nA
A

OFF(~)
OFF Channel Leakage Current V
CC
=5V, V
N
=0,
T
A
=25C
T
MN
to T
MAX
~200
~1.0
~10 nA
A
CONTROL INP8TS
V
N(1)
Logical "1 nput Voltage V
CC
~1.5 V
V
N(0)
Logical "0 nput Voltage 1.5 V

N(1)
Logical "1 nput Current
(The Control nputs)
V
N
=15V 1.0 A

N(0)
Logical "0 nput Current
(The Control nputs)
V
N
=0 ~1.0 A

CC
Supply Current f
CLK
=640 kHz 0.3 3.0 mA
3 ww w .national.com
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/
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8
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9
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( (Continued)
Di4it!# L$&$#( !%5 DC S$/i2i/!tio%(? ADC0808CCN, ADC0808CCV, ADC0809CCN and ADC0809CCV, 4.75gV
CC
g5.25V,
~40CgT
A
g+85C unless otherwise noted
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i% T1 +!- 8%it(
DATA O8TP8TS AND EOC AINTERR8PTB
V
OUT(1)
Logical "1 Output Voltage V
CC
= 4.75V

OUT
= ~360A

OUT
= ~10A
7>4
4>5
V(min)
V(min)
V
OUT(0)
Logical "0 Output Voltage
O
=1.6 mA 0.45 V
V
OUT(0)
Logical "0 Output Voltage EOC
O
=1.2 mA 0.45 V

OUT
TR-STATE Output Current V
O
=5V
V
O
=0 ~3
3 A
A
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
Timi%4 S$/i2i/!tio%( V
CC
=V
REF(+)
=5V, V
REF(~)
=GND, t
r
=t
f
=20 ns and T
A
=25C unless otherwise noted.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +I% T1 +!- 8%it(
t
WS
Minimum Start Pulse Width (Figure 5) 100 200 ns
t
WALE
Minimum ALE Pulse Width (Figure 5) 100 200 ns
t
s
Minimum Address Set-Up Time (Figure 5) 25 50 ns
t
H
Minimum Address Hold Time (Figure 5) 25 50 ns
t
D
Analog MUX Delay Time
From ALE
R
S
=0X (Figure 5) 1 2.5 s
t
H1
, t
H0
OE Control to Q Logic State C
L
=50 pF, R
L
=10k (Figure 8) 125 250 ns
t
1H
, t
0H
OE Control to Hi-Z C
L
=10 pF, R
L
=10k (Figure 8) 125 250 ns
t
c
Conversion Time f
c
=640 kHz, (Figure 5) (Note 7) 90 100 116 s
f
c
Clock Frequency 10 640 1280 kHz
t
EOC
EOC Delay Time (Figure 5) 0 8+2 S Clock
Periods
C
N
nput Capacitance At Control nputs 10 15 pF
C
OUT
TR-STATE Output
Capacitance
At TR-STATE Outputs 10 15 pF
Not$ 1? Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. DC and AC electrical specifications do not apply when operating
the device beyond its specified operating conditions.
Not$ 7? All voltages are measured with respect to GND, unless othewise specified.
Not$ C? A zener diode exists, internally, from V
CC
to GND and has a typical breakdown voltage of 7 V
DC
.
Not$ 4? Two on-chip diodes are tied to each analog input which will forward conduct for analog input voltages one diode drop below ground or one diode drop
greater than the V
CC
n supply. The spec allows 100 mV forward bias of either diode. This means that as long as the analog V
N
does not exceed the supply voltage
by more than 100 mV, the output code will be correct. To achieve an absolute 0V
DC
to 5V
DC
input voltage range will therefore require a minimum supply voltage of
4.900 V
DC
over temperature variations, initial tolerance and loading.
Not$ 5? Total unadjusted error includes offset, full-scale, linearity, and multiplexer errors. See Figure 3. None of these A/Ds requires a zero or full-scale adjust.
However, if an all zero code is desired for an analog input other than 0.0V, or if a narrow full-scale span exists (for example: 0.5V to 4.5V full-scale) the reference
voltages can be adjusted to achieve this. See Figure 13.
Not$ 6? Comparator input current is a bias current into or out of the chopper stabilized comparator. The bias current varies directly with clock frequency and has
little temperature dependence (Figure 6). See paragraph 4.0.
Not$ D? The outputs of the data register are updated one clock cycle before the rising edge of EOC.
Not$ 8? Human body model, 100 pF discharged through a 1.5 kX resistor.
ww w .national.com 4
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0,%/tio%!# D$(/'itio%
+,#ti#$-$'> The device contains an 8-channel single-ended
analog signal multiplexer. A particular input channel is se-
lected by using the address decoder. Table 1 shows the input
states for the address lines to select any channel. The
address is latched into the decoder on the low-to-high tran-
sition of the address latch enable signal.
TABLE 1>
SELECTED
ANALO. CEANNEL
ADDRESS LINE
C B A
N0
N1
N2
N3
N4
N5
N6
N7
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
CONVERTER CEARACTERISTICS
T*$ Co%&$'t$'
The heart of this single chip data acquisition system is its
8-bit analog-to-digital converter. The converter is designed to
give fast, accurate, and repeatable conversions over a wide
range of temperatures. The converter is partitioned into 3
major sections: the 256R ladder network, the successive
approximation register, and the comparator. The converter's
digital outputs are positive true.
The 256R ladder network approach (Figure 1) was chosen
over the conventional R/2R ladder because of its inherent
monotonicity, which guarantees no missing digital codes.
Monotonicity is particularly important in closed loop feedback
control systems. A non-monotonic relationship can cause
oscillations that will be catastrophic for the system. Addition-
ally, the 256R network does not cause load variations on the
reference voltage.
The bottom resistor and the top resistor of the ladder net-
work in Figure 1 are not the same value as the remainder of
the network. The difference in these resistors causes the
output characteristic to be symmetrical with the zero and
full-scale points of the transfer curve. The first output transi-
tion occurs when the analog signal has reached +
1
'2 LSB
and succeeding output transitions occur every 1 LSB later up
to full-scale.
The successive approximation register (SAR) performs 8
iterations to approximate the input voltage. For any SAR
type converter, n-iterations are required for an n-bit con-
verter. Figure 2 shows a typical example of a 3-bit converter.
n the ADC0808, ADC0809, the approximation technique is
extended to 8 bits using the 256R network.
The A/D converter's successive approximation register
(SAR) is reset on the positive edge of the start conversion
start pulse. The conversion is begun on the falling edge of
the start conversion pulse. A conversion in process will be
interrupted by receipt of a new start conversion pulse. Con-
tinuous conversion may be accomplished by tying the
end-of-conversion (EOC) output to the SC input. f used in
this mode, an external start conversion pulse should be
applied after power up. End-of-conversion will go low be-
tween 0 and 8 clock pulses after the rising edge of start
conversion.
The most important section of the A/D converter is the
comparator. t is this section which is responsible for the
ultimate accuracy of the entire converter. t is also the com-
parator drift which has the greatest influence on the repeat-
ability of the device. A chopper-stabilized comparator pro-
vides the most effective method of satisfying all the
converter requirements.
The chopper-stabilized comparator converts the DC input
signal into an AC signal. This signal is then fed through a
high gain AC amplifier and has the DC level restored. This
technique limits the drift component of the amplifier since the
drift is a DC component which is not passed by the AC
amplifier. This makes the entire A/D converter extremely
insensitive to temperature, long term drift and input offset
errors.
Figure 4 shows a typical error curve for the ADC0808 as
measured using the procedures outlined in AN-179.
5 ww w .national.com
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0,%/tio%!# D$(/'itio% (Continued)
00567202
0I.8RE 1> R$(i(to' L!55$' !%5 S)it/* T'$$
00567213
0I.8RE 7> C-Bit A/D T'!%(2$' C,'&$
00567214
0I.8RE C> C-Bit A/D A"(o#,t$ A//,'!/1 C,'&$
00567215
0I.8RE 4> T1i/!# E''o' C,'&$
ww w .national.com 6
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8
0
8
/
A
D
C
0
8
0
9
Timi%4 Di!4'!m
00567204
0I.8RE 5>
7 ww w .national.com
A
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8
0
8
/
A
D
C
0
8
0
9
T1i/!# P$'2o'm!%/$ C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
00567216
0I.8RE 6> Com!'!to' I
IN
&( V
IN
AV
CC
FV
RE0
F5VB
00567217
0I.8RE D> +,#ti#$-$' R
ON
&( V
IN
AV
CC
FV
RE0
F5VB
ww w .national.com 8
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0
8
0
8
/
A
D
C
0
8
0
9
TRI-STATE T$(t Ci'/,it( !%5
Timi%4 Di!4'!m(
t
1E
= t
E1
00567218
t
0E
= t
E0
00567221
t
1E
= C
L
F 10 0
t
0E
= C
L
F 10 0
t
E1
= C
L
F 50 0
00567219
t
E0
= C
L
F 50 0
00567222
00567220
00567223
0I.8RE 8>
A#i/!tio%( I%2o'm!tio%
OPERATION
1>0 RATIO+ETRIC CONVERSION
The ADC0808, ADC0809 is designed as a complete Data
Acquisition System (DAS) for ratiometric conversion sys-
tems. n ratiometric systems, the physical variable being
measured is expressed as a percentage of full-scale which is
not necessarily related to an absolute standard. The voltage
input to the ADC0808 is expressed by the equation
(1)
V
N
=nput voltage into the ADC0808
V
fs
=Full-scale voltage
V
Z
=Zero voltage
D
X
=Data point being measured
D
MAX
=Maximum data limit
D
MN
=Minimum data limit
A good example of a ratiometric transducer is a potentiom-
eter used as a position sensor. The position of the wiper is
directly proportional to the output voltage which is a ratio of
the full-scale voltage across it. Since the data is represented
as a proportion of full-scale, reference requirements are
greatly reduced, eliminating a large source of error and cost
for many applications. A major advantage of the ADC0808,
ADC0809 is that the input voltage range is equal to the
supply range so the transducers can be connected directly
across the supply and their outputs connected directly into
the multiplexer inputs, (Figure 9).
Ratiometric transducers such as potentiometers, strain
gauges, thermistor bridges, pressure transducers, etc., are
suitable for measuring proportional relationships; however,
many types of measurements must be referred to an abso-
lute standard such as voltage or current. This means a
system reference must be used which relates the full-scale
voltage to the standard volt. For example, if
V
CC
=V
REF
=5.12V, then the full-scale range is divided into
256 standard steps. The smallest standard step is 1 LSB
which is then 20 mV.
9 ww w .national.com
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/
A
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0
8
0
9
A#i/!tio%( I%2o'm!tio% (Continued)
7>0 RESISTOR LADDER LI+ITATIONS
The voltages from the resistor ladder are compared to the
selected into 8 times in a conversion. These voltages are
coupled to the comparator via an analog switch tree which is
referenced to the supply. The voltages at the top, center and
bottom of the ladder must be controlled to maintain proper
operation.
The top of the ladder, Ref(+), should not be more positive
than the supply, and the bottom of the ladder, Ref(~), should
not be more negative than ground. The center of the ladder
voltage must also be near the center of the supply because
the analog switch tree changes from N-channel switches to
P-channel switches. These limitations are automatically sat-
isfied in ratiometric systems and can be easily met in ground
referenced systems.
Figure 10 shows a ground referenced system with a sepa-
rate supply and reference. n this system, the supply must be
trimmed to match the reference voltage. For instance, if a
5.12V is used, the supply should be adjusted to the same
voltage within 0.1V.
00567207
0I.8RE 9> R!tiom$t'i/ Co%&$'(io% S1(t$m
The ADC0808 needs less than a milliamp of supply current
so developing the supply from the reference is readily ac-
complished. n Figure 11 a ground referenced system is
shown which generates the supply from the reference. The
buffer shown can be an op amp of sufficient drive to supply
the milliamp of supply current and the desired bus drive, or if
a capacitive bus is driven by the outputs a large capacitor will
supply the transient supply current as seen in Figure 12. The
LM301 is overcompensated to insure stability when loaded
by the 10 F output capacitor.
The top and bottom ladder voltages cannot exceed V
CC
and
ground, respectively, but they can be symmetrically less than
V
CC
and greater than ground. The center of the ladder
voltage should always be near the center of the supply. The
sensitivity of the converter can be increased, (i.e., size of the
LSB steps decreased) by using a symmetrical reference
system. n Figure 13, a 2.5V reference is symmetrically
centered about V
CC
/2 since the same current flows in iden-
tical resistors. This system with a 2.5V reference allows the
LSB bit to be half the size of a 5V reference system.
ww w .national.com 10
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8
/
A
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0
8
0
9
A#i/!tio%( I%2o'm!tio% (Continued)
00567224
0I.8RE 10> .'o,%5 R$2$'$%/$5
Co%&$'(io% S1(t$m 8(i%4 T'imm$5 S,#1
00567225
0I.8RE 11> .'o,%5 R$2$'$%/$5 Co%&$'(io% S1(t$m )it*
R$2$'$%/$ .$%$'!ti%4 V
CC
S,#1
11 ww w .national.com
A
D
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8
0
8
/
A
D
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0
8
0
9
A#i/!tio%( I%2o'm!tio% (Continued)
00567226
0I.8RE 17> T1i/!# R$2$'$%/$ !%5 S,#1 Ci'/,it
00567227
R
A
=R
B
[Ratiometric transducers
0I.8RE 1C> S1mm$t'i/!##1 C$%t$'$5 R$2$'$%/$
C>0 CONVERTER EG8ATIONS
The transition between adjacent codes N and N+1 is given
by:
The output code N for an arbitrary input are the integers
within the range:
The center of an output code N is given by:
(2)
(3)
Where: V
N
=Voltage at comparator input
V
REF(+)
=Voltage at Ref(+)
V
REF(~)
=Voltage at Ref(~)
V
TUE
=Total unadjusted error voltage (typically
V
REF(+)
512)
(4)
ww w .national.com 12
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0
8
/
A
D
C
0
8
0
9
A#i/!tio%( I%2o'm!tio% (Continued)
4>0 ANALO. CO+PARATOR INP8TS
The dynamic comparator input current is caused by the
periodic switching of on-chip stray capacitances. These are
connected alternately to the output of the resistor ladder/
switch tree network and to the comparator input as part of
the operation of the chopper stabilized comparator.
The average value of the comparator input current varies
directly with clock frequency and with V
N
as shown in
Figure 6.
T1i/!# A#i/!tio%
f no filter capacitors are used at the analog inputs and the
signal source impedances are low, the comparator input
current should not introduce converter errors, as the tran-
sient created by the capacitance discharge will die out be-
fore the comparator output is strobed.
f input filter capacitors are desired for noise reduction and
signal conditioning they will tend to average out the dynamic
comparator input current. t will then take on the character-
istics of a DC bias current whose effect can be predicted
conventionally.
*Address latches needed for 8085 and SC/MP interfacing the ADC0808 to a microprocessor
TABLE 7> +i/'o'o/$((o' I%t$'2!/$ T!"#$
PROCESSOR READ HRITE INTERR8PT ACO++ENTB
8080 MEMR MEMW NTR (Thru RST Circuit)
8085 RD WR NTR (Thru RST Circuit)
Z-80 RD WR NT (Thru RST Circuit, Mode 0)
SC/MP NRDS NWDS SA (Thru Sense A)
6800 VMAh2R/W VMAhR/W RQA or RQB (Thru PA)
00567210
13 ww w .national.com
A
D
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0
8
0
8
/
A
D
C
0
8
0
9
P*1(i/!# Dim$%(io%( inches (millimeters)
unless otherwise noted
+o#5$5 D,!#-I%-Li%$ P!/3!4$ ANB
O'5$' N,m"$' ADC0808CCN o' ADC0809CCN
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' N78B
ww w .national.com 14
A
D
C
0
8
0
8
/
A
D
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0
8
0
9

8
-
B
i
t

P

C
o
m

!
t
i
"
#
$

A
/
D

C
o
%
&
$
'
t
$
'
(

)
i
t
*

8
-
C
*
!
%
%
$
#

+
,
#
t
i

#
$
-
$
'
P*1(i/!# Dim$%(io%( inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)
+o#5$5 C*i C!''i$' AVB
O'5$' N,m"$' ADC0808CCV o' ADC0809CCV
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' V78A
LI0E S8PPORT POLICI
NATONAL'S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORZED FOR USE AS CRTCAL COMPONENTS N LFE SUPPORT
DEVCES OR SYSTEMS WTHOUT THE EXPRESS WRTTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESDENT AND GENERAL
COUNSEL OF NATONAL SEMCONDUCTOR CORPORATON. As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant
into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and
whose failure to perform when properly used in
accordance with instructions for use provided in the
labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a
significant injury to the user.
2. A critical component is any component of a life
support device or system whose failure to perform
can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of
the life support device or system, or to affect its
safety or effectiveness.
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
Co'o'!tio%
Americas
Email: support@nsc.com
www.national.com
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
E,'o$
Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86
Email: europe.support@nsc.com
Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208
English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171
Franais Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
A(i! P!/i2i/ C,(tom$'
R$(o%($ .'o,
Tel: 65-2544466
Fax: 65-2504466
Email: ap.support@nsc.com
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
6!!% Lt5>
Tel: 81-3-5639-7560
Fax: 81-3-5639-7507
National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.
PRELI+INARI C-75-04
Humidity/Moisture Sensors
Humidity Sensor HIH-4000 Series
0EAT8RES
Molded thermoset plastic
housing
Linear voltage output vs
%RH
Laser trimmed
interchangeability
Low power design
High accuracy
Fast response time
Stable, low drift
performance
Chemically resistant
TIPICAL APPLICATIONS
Refrigeration Equipment
HVAC Equipment
Medical Equipment
Drying
Metrology
Battery -powered systems
OEM assemblies
HARNIN.
PERSONAL IN68RI DO
NOT USE these products as
safety or emergency stop
devices or in any other
application where failure of
the product could result in
personal injury.
0!i#,'$ to /om#1 )it* t*$($
i%(t',/tio%( /o,#5 '$(,#t i%
5$!t* o' ($'io,( i%J,'1>
The HH-4000 Series humidity sens or is designed specifically for high
volume OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) users. Direct input to a
controller or other device is made possible by this sensor's linear voltage
output. With a typical current draw of only 200 A, the HH-4000 Series is
ideally suited for low drain, battery operated systems. Tight sensor
interchangeability reduces or eliminates OEM production calibration costs.
ndividual sensor calibration data is available.
The HH-4000 Series delivers instrumentation-quality RH (Relative
Humidity) sensing performance in a low cost, solderable SP (Single n-line
Package). Available in two lead spacing configurations, the RH sensor is a
laser trimmed thermoset polymer capacitive sensing element with on-chip
integrated signal conditioning. The sensing element's multilayer
construction provides excellent resistance to application hazards such as
wetting, dust, dirt, oils, and common environmental chemicals.
HARNIN.
+IS8SE O0
DOC8+ENTATION
The information presented in
this product sheet is for
reference only. Do not use
this document as system
installation information
Complete installation,
operation, and maintenance
information is provided in the
instructions supplied with
each product.
0!i#,'$ to /om#1 )it* t*$($
i%(t',/tio%( /o,#5 '$(,#t i%
5$!t* o' ($'io,( i%J,'1>
7ensin' and Control
Humidity/Moisture Sensors
Humidity Sensor
HIH- 4000 Series
TABLE 1? PRELI+INARI PER0OR+ANCE SPECI0ICATIONS
@ 5.0 VDC SUPPLY AND 25C UNLESS OTHERWSE NOTED
% RH PERFORMANCE SPECFCATONS NCLUDE TEST SYSTEM MEASUREMENT ERRORS (0.5% TYPCAL)
PARA+ETER +INI+8+ TIPICAL +A@I+8+ 8NITS
NTERCHANGEABLTY (Best fit straight line)
0 TO 60% RH
60% TO 100%
-5 5 % RH
-8 8 % RH
NTERCHANGEABLTY (2nd order curve) 3.5 %RH
*ACCURACY (Best fit straight line) 3.5 % RH
**ACCURACY (2nd order curve) 2.5 % RH
HYSTERESS 3 %RH
REPEATABLTY 0.5 %RH
SETTLNG TME 70 mS
RESPONSE TME (1/e in slow moving air) 15 Sec
***STABLTY (@ 50% RH in 1 year) 1.2 %RH
****STABLTY (@ 50% RH) TBD %RH
POWER REQUREMENTS
VOLTAGE SUPPLY 4 5.8 VDC
CURRENT SUPPLY 500 A
VOLTAGE OUPUT (1st order fit) Vout=Vsupply(0.0062(Sensor RH)+0.16)
VOLTAGE OUPUT (2nd order curve fit)
Vout=0.00003(Sensor RH)+0.0281(Sensor RH)+0.820 Typical
@ 25C
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATON
Vout=(0.0305+0.000044T-0.0000011T)(Sensor RH)+(0.9237-
0.0041T+0.000040T) T=Temperature in C
OPERATNG TEMPERATURE
-40 SEE FGURE 1 85 C
-40 185 F
OPERATNG HUMDTY 0 SEE FGURE 1 100 % RH
STORAGE TEMPERATURE
-40 125 C
-40 257 F
STORAGE HUMDTY
SEE FGURE 2
% RH
*For HH-4000-003 & -004 Only
**For HH-4000-003 & -004 Only (Not available at time of publication. Please contact your Honeywell Sales Representative)
***Specification includes testing outside of recommended operating zone
****Specification for recommended operating zone only
Notes:
1. Do not expose sensor to condensing environments
2. Exposure to liquid water will cause sensor output to indicate 0% RH
3. Sensor is light sensitive. For best performance, shield the sensor from bright light.
4. Exposure to > 90% RH causes a reversible shift of 3% RH
5. Sensor is static sensitive. Sensor connection protected to 15kV maximum
6. Sensor output is ratiometric to supply voltage.
7 Honeywell Sensing and Control For application help: call 1-800-537-6945
+o5$# EIE-4000-001
Channel 92
Wafer 030996M
MRP 337313
Calculated values at 5 V
Vout @ 0% RH
V
out
@ 75.3% RH
0.958 V
3.268 V
Linear output for 2% RH
accuracy @ 25 C
Zero offset
Slope
RH
0.958 V
30.680 mV/%RH
(Vout- zero offset)/slope
(Vout-0.958)/0.0307
Ratiometric response for 0
to 100% RH
Vout
Vsupply (0.1915 to 0.8130)
R
$
#
!
t
i
&
$

E
,
m
i
5
i
t
1
R
$
#
!
t
i
&
$

E
,
m
i
5
i
t
1
V
o
#
t
!
4
$

O
,
t
V
o
#
t
!
4
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O
,
t
Humidity/Moisture Sensors
Humidity Sensor
HIH- 4000 Series
0I.8RE 1? RECO++ENDED OPERATIN. CONDITIONS
0I.8RE C? TIPICAL BEST 0IT STRAI.ET LINE
4
100%
90%
80%
70%
3.5
60%
50%
40%
RECO++ENDED
OPERATIN. KONE 3
30%
20%
10%
2.5
0%
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
T$m$'!t,'$ LC
2
O$'!tio% #imit$5 to M 50 *o,'( AS,'&i&!"i#it1 o%#1B
8%5$2i%$5
0I.8RE 7? STORA.E ENVIRON+ENT
100%
1.5
90%
80%
1
70%
60%
50%
40%
STORA.E KONE
0.5
30%
20%
10%
0%
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
T$m$'!t,'$ LC
0
0 25 50 75 100
NRE
0ACTORI CALIBRATION DATA
HH-4000 sensors may be ordered with a calibration and
data printout (Table 2). See order guide on back page.
TABLE 7? E@A+PLE DATA PRINTO8T
0I.8RE 4? TIPICAL 7
ND
ORDER C8RVE 0IT
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 25 50 75 100
NRE
For application help: call 1-800-537-6945 Honeywell Sensing and Control C
C!t!#o4 Li(ti%4 D$(/'itio%
HH-4000-001 ntegrated circuitry humidity sensor, 0.100 in lead
pitch SP
HH-4000-002 ntegrated circuitry humidity sensor, 0.050 in lead
pitch SP
HH-4000-003 ntegrated circuitry humidity sensor, 0.100 in lead
pitch SP with calibration and data printout
HH-4000-004 ntegrated circuitry humidity sensor, 0.050 in lead
pitch SP with calibration and data printout
Humidity/Moisture Sensors
Humidity Sensor
HIH- 4000 Series
ORDER .8IDE
0I.8RE 5? +O8NTIN. DI+ENSIONS
2o' '$2$'$%/$ o%#1 mm/Oi%P
HARRANTI/RE+EDI
Honeywell warrants goods of its
manufacture as being free of defective
materials and fa ulty workmanship.
Contact your local sales office for
warranty information. f warranted
goods are returned to Honeywell
during the period of coverage,
Honeywell will repair or replace
without charge those items it finds
defective. T*$ 2o'$4oi%4 i( B,1$'Q(
(o#$ '$m$51 !%5 i( i% #i$, o2 !##
ot*$' )!''!%ti$(= $-'$(($5 o'
im#i$5= i%/#,5i%4 t*o($ o2
m$'/*!%t!"i#it1 !%5 2it%$(( 2o' !
!'ti/,#!' ,'o($>
Specifications may change without
HH-4000-002
HH-4000-004
4,27
[0.168]
9,47
[0.373]
1,90
4,27
[0.168]
HH-4000-001
HH-4000-003
2,03
[0.080]
9,47
[0.373]
notice. The information we supply is
believed to be accurate and reliable
as of this printing. However, we
assume no responsibility for its use.
While we provide application
assistance personally, through our
literature and the Honeywell web site,
it is up to the customer to determine
-
OUT
12,70 MN
[0.50]
+
[0.075]
2,54
12,19 MN
[0.480])
- +
OUT
3X 0,38
[0.015]
the suitability of the product in the
application.
For application assistance, current
specifications, or name of the nearest
Authorized Distributor, check the
Honeywell web site or call:
1-800-537-6945 USA
1-800-737-3360 Canada
1-815-235-6847 nternational
0A@
1-815-235-6545 USA
INTERNET
1,27
3X 0,38
[0.015]
[0.100]
5,08
www.honey w ell.com/sensing
info.sc@honeywell.com
[0.050]
2,54
[0.100]
[0.200]
Sensing and Control
)))>*o%$1)$##>/om/($%(i%4
2one&well
@@ 8est 7prin' 7treet
:reeport* Illinois E@,C+
00XXXX-1-EN L50 GLO 0204 Printed in USA
Copyright 2003 Honeywell nternational nc. All Rights Reserved.
L
+
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5

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P'$/i(io% C$%ti4'!5$ T$m$'!t,'$ S$%(o'(
November 2000
.$%$'!# D$(/'itio%
The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature
sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the
Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an
advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in
Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large
constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centi-
grade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external
calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of
1
'4C
at room temperature and
3
'4C over a full ~55 to +150C
temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and
calibration at the wafer level. The LM35's low output imped-
ance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make
interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. t
can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and
minus supplies. As it draws only 60 A from its supply, it has
very low self-heating, less than 0.1C in still air. The LM35 is
rated to operate over a ~55 to +150C temperature range,
while the LM35C is rated for a ~40 to +110C range (~10
with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available pack-
aged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the
LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the
plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also avail-
able in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a
plastic TO-220 package.
0$!t,'$(
n Calibrated directly in Celsius (Centigrade)
n Linear + 10.0 mV/C scale factor
n 0.5C accuracy guaranteeable (at +25C)
n Rated for full ~55 to +150C range
n Suitable for remote applications
n Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
n Operates from 4 to 30 volts
n Less than 60 A current drain
n Low self-heating, 0.08C in still air
n Nonlinearity only
1
'4C typical
n Low impedance output, 0.1 for 1 mA load
T1i/!# A#i/!tio%(
DS005516-3
Choose R
1
= ~V
S
/50 A
DS005516-4
0I.8RE 1> B!(i/ C$%ti4'!5$ T$m$'!t,'$ S$%(o'
A;7:C to ;150:CB
V
OUT
=+1,500 mV at +150C
= +250 mV at +25C
= ~550 mV at ~55C
0I.8RE 7> 0,##-R!%4$ C$%ti4'!5$ T$m$'!t,'$ S$%(o'
2000 National Semiconductor Corporation DS005516 ww w .national.com
L
+
C
5
Co%%$/tio% Di!4'!m(
TO-46
+$t!# C!% P!/3!4$R
SO-8
Sm!## O,t#i%$ +o#5$5 P!/3!4$
DS005516-1
*Case is connected to negative pin (GND)
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C5E= L+C5AE= L+C5CE= L+C5CAE o'
N.C. = No Connection
DS005516-21
To Vi$)
L+C5DE
S$$ NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' E0CE
TO-97
P#!(ti/ P!/3!4$
DS005516-2
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C5CK=
L+C5CAK o' L+C5DK
S$$ NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' K0CA
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C5D+
S$$ NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' +08A
TO-770
P#!(ti/ P!/3!4$R
DS005516-24
*Tab is connected to the negative pin (GND).
Not$? The LM35DT pinout is different than the discontinued LM35DP.
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C5DT
S$$ NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' TA0C0
ww w .national.com 2
L
+
C
5 A"(o#,t$ +!-im,m R!ti%4( (Note 10) TO-92 and TO-220 Package,
I2 +i#it!'1/A$'o(!/$ ($/i2i$5 5$&i/$( !'$ '$<,i'$5=
(Soldering, 10 seconds) 260C
#$!($ /o%t!/t t*$ N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to' S!#$( O22i/$/
SO Package (Note 12)
Di(t'i",to'( 2o' !&!i#!"i#it1 !%5 ($/i2i/!tio%(>
Vapor Phase (60 seconds) 215C
nfrared (15 seconds) 220C
Supply Voltage +35V to ~0.2V
ESD Susceptibility (Note 11) 2500V
Output Voltage +6V to ~1.0V
Output Current 10 mA
Specified Operating Temperature Range: T
MN
to T
MAX
(Note 2)
Storage Temp.;
LM35, LM35A ~55C to +150C
TO-46 Package, ~60C to +180C
LM35C, LM35CA ~40C to +110C
TO-92 Package, ~60C to +150C
LM35D 0C to +100C
SO-8 Package, ~65C to +150C
TO-220 Package, ~65C to +150C
Lead Temp.:
TO-46 Package,
(Soldering, 10 seconds) 300C
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
(Notes 1, 6)
P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%(
L+C5A L+C5CA
8%it(
A+!->B T1i/!#
T$(t$5
Limit
(Note 4)
D$(i4%
Limit
(Note 5)
T1i/!#
T$(t$5
Limit
(Note 4)
D$(i4%
Limit
(Note 5)
Accuracy
(Note 7)
T
A
=+25C
T
A
=~10C
T
A
=T
MAX
T
A
=T
MN
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.5
1.0
1.0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.5
C
C
C
C
Nonlinearity
(Note 8)
T
MN
T
A
T
MAX
S0>18 S0>C5 S0>15 S0>C C
Sensor Gain
(Average Slope)
T
MN
T
A
T
MAX
;10>0 ;9>9=
;10>1
;10>0 ;9>9=
;10>1
mV/C
Load Regulation
(Note 3) 0
L
1 mA
T
A
=+25C
T
MN
T
A
T
MAX
0.4
S0>5
1.0
SC>0
0.4
S0>5
1.0
SC>0
mV/mA
mV/mA
Line Regulation
(Note 3)
T
A
=+25C
4V V
S
30V
0.01
S0>07
0.05
S0>1
0.01
S0>07
0.05
S0>1
mV/V
mV/V
Quiescent Current
(Note 9)
V
S
=+5V, +25C
V
S
=+5V
V
S
=+30V, +25C
V
S
=+30V
56
105
56.2
105>5
67
68
1C1
1CC
56
91
56.2
91>5
67
68
114
116
A
A
A
A
Change of
Quiescent Current
(Note 3)
4V V
S
30V, +25C
4V V
S
30V
0.2
0>5
1.0
7>0
0.2
0>5
1.0
7>0
A
A
Temperature
Coefficient of
Quiescent Current
;0>C9 ;0>5 ;0>C9 ;0>5 A/C
Minimum Temperature
for Rated Accuracy
n circuit of
Figure 1,
L
=0
+1.5 +2.0 +1.5 +2.0 C
Long Term Stability T
J
=T
MAX
, for
1000 hours
0.08 0.08 C
3 ww w .national.com
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+
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5
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
(Notes 1, 6)
P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%(
L+C5 L+C5C= L+C5D
8%it(
A+!->B T1i/!#
T$(t$5
Limit
(Note 4)
D$(i4%
Limit
(Note 5)
T1i/!#
T$(t$5
Limit
(Note 4)
D$(i4%
Limit
(Note 5)
Accuracy,
LM35, LM35C
(Note 7)
T
A
=+25C
T
A
=~10C
T
A
=T
MAX
T
A
=T
MN
0.4
0.5
0.8
0.8
1.0
1.5
1.5
0.4
0.5
0.8
0.8
1.0
1.5
1.5
2.0
C
C
C
C
Accuracy, LM35D
(Note 7)
T
A
=+25C
T
A
=T
MAX
T
A
=T
MN
0.6
0.9
0.9
1.5
2.0
2.0
C
C
C
Nonlinearity
(Note 8)
T
MN
T
A
T
MAX
S0>C S0>5 S0>7 S0>5 C
Sensor Gain
(Average Slope)
T
MN
T
A
T
MAX
;10>0 ;9>8=
;10>7
;10>0 ;9>8=
;10>7
mV/C
Load Regulation
(Note 3) 0
L
1 mA
T
A
=+25C
T
MN
T
A
T
MAX
0.4
S0>5
2.0
S5>0
0.4
S0>5
2.0
S5>0
mV/mA
mV/mA
Line Regulation
(Note 3)
T
A
=+25C
4V V
S
30V
0.01
S0>07
0.1
S0>7
0.01
S0>07
0.1
S0>7
mV/V
mV/V
Quiescent Current
(Note 9)
V
S
=+5V, +25C
V
S
=+5V
V
S
=+30V, +25C
V
S
=+30V
56
105
56.2
105>5
80
82
158
161
56
91
56.2
91>5
80
82
1C8
141
A
A
A
A
Change of
Quiescent Current
(Note 3)
4V V
S
30V, +25C
4V V
S
30V
0.2
0>5
2.0
C>0
0.2
0>5
2.0
C>0
A
A
Temperature
Coefficient of
Quiescent Current
;0>C9 ;0>D ;0>C9 ;0>D A/C
Minimum Temperature
for Rated Accuracy
n circuit of
Figure 1,
L
=0
+1.5 +2.0 +1.5 +2.0 C
Long Term Stability T
J
=T
MAX
, for
1000 hours
0.08 0.08 C
Not$ 1? Unless otherwise noted, these specifications apply: ~55C T
J
+150C for the LM35 and LM35A; ~40 T
J
+110C for the LM35C and LM35CA; and
0 T
J
+100C for the LM35D. V
S
=+5Vdc and
LOAD
=50 A, in the circuit of Figure 2. These specifications also apply from +2C to T
MAX
in the circuit of Figure 1.
Specifications in "o#52!/$ apply over the full rated temperature range.
Not$ 7? Thermal resistance of the TO-46 package is 400C/W, junction to ambient, and 24C/W junction to case. Thermal resistance of the TO-92 package is
180C/W junction to ambient. Thermal resistance of the small outline molded package is 220C/W junction to ambient. Thermal resistance of the TO-220 package
is 90C/W junction to ambient. For additional thermal resistance information see table in the Applications section.
Not$ C? Regulation is measured at constant junction temperature, using pulse testing with a low duty cycle. Changes in output due to heating effects can be
computed by multiplying the internal dissipation by the thermal resistance.
Not$ 4? Tested Limits are guaranteed and 100% tested in production.
Not$ 5? Design Limits are guaranteed (but not 100% production tested) over the indicated temperature and supply voltage ranges. These limits are not used to
calculate outgoing quality levels.
Not$ 6? Specifications in "o#52!/$ apply over the full rated temperature range.
Not$ D? Accuracy is defined as the error between the output voltage and 10mv/C times the device's case temperature, at specified conditions of voltage, current,
and temperature (expressed in C).
Not$ 8? Nonlinearity is defined as the deviation of the output-voltage-versus-temperature curve from the best-fit straight line, over the device's rated temperature
range.
Not$ 9? Quiescent current is defined in the circuit of Figure 1.
Not$ 10? Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. DC and AC electrical specifications do not apply when operating
the device beyond its rated operating conditions. See Note 1.
Not$ 11? Human body model, 100 pF discharged through a 1.5 k resistor.
Not$ 17? See AN-450 "Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect on Product Reliability or the section titled "Surface Mount found in a current National
Semiconductor Linear Data Book for other methods of soldering surface mount devices.
ww w .national.com 4
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5 T1i/!# P$'2o'm!%/$ C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
T*$'m!# R$(i(t!%/$
6,%/tio% to Ai'
DS005516-25
T*$'m!# Tim$ Co%(t!%t
DS005516-26
T*$'m!# R$(o%($
i% Sti## Ai'
DS005516-27
T*$'m!# R$(o%($ i%
Sti''$5 Oi# B!t*
DS005516-28
+i%im,m S,#1
Vo#t!4$ &(> T$m$'!t,'$
DS005516-29
G,i$(/$%t C,''$%t
&(> T$m$'!t,'$
AI% Ci'/,it o2 Figure 1>B
DS005516-30
G,i$(/$%t C,''$%t
&(> T$m$'!t,'$
AI% Ci'/,it o2 Figure 2>B
DS005516-31
A//,'!/1 &(> T$m$'!t,'$
A.,!'!%t$$5B
DS005516-32
A//,'!/1 &(> T$m$'!t,'$
A.,!'!%t$$5B
DS005516-33
5 ww w .national.com
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T1i/!# P$'2o'm!%/$ C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( (Continued)
Noi($ Vo#t!4$
St!'t-8 R$(o%($
A#i/!tio%(
DS005516-34 DS005516-35
The TO-46 metal package can also be soldered to a metal
surface or pipe without damage. Of course, in that case the
The LM35 can be applied easily in the same way as other
integrated-circuit temperature sensors. t can be glued or
cemented to a surface and its temperature will be within
about 0.01C of the surface temperature.
This presumes that the ambient air temperature is almost the
same as the surface temperature; if the air temperature were
much higher or lower than the surface temperature, the
actual temperature of the LM35 die would be at an interme-
diate temperature between the surface temperature and the
air temperature. This is expecially true for the TO-92 plastic
package, where the copper leads are the principal thermal
path to carry heat into the device, so its temperature might
be closer to the air temperature than to the surface tempera-
ture.
To minimize this problem, be sure that the wiring to the
LM35, as it leaves the device, is held at the same tempera-
ture as the surface of interest. The easiest way to do this is
to cover up these wires with a bead of epoxy which will
insure that the leads and wires are all at the same tempera-
ture as the surface, and that the LM35 die's temperature will
not be affected by the air temperature.
V~ terminal of the circuit will be grounded to that metal.
Alternatively, the LM35 can be mounted inside a sealed-end
metal tube, and can then be dipped into a bath or screwed
into a threaded hole in a tank. As with any C, the LM35 and
accompanying wiring and circuits must be kept insulated and
dry, to avoid leakage and corrosion. This is especially true if
the circuit may operate at cold temperatures where conden-
sation can occur. Printed-circuit coatings and varnishes such
as Humiseal and epoxy paints or dips are often used to
insure that moisture cannot corrode the LM35 or its connec-
tions.
These devices are sometimes soldered to a small
light-weight heat fin, to decrease the thermal time constant
and speed up the response in slowly-moving air. On the
other hand, a small thermal mass may be added to the
sensor, to give the steadiest reading despite small deviations
in the air temperature.
T$m$'!t,'$ Ri($ o2 L+C5 D,$ To S$#2-*$!ti%4 AT*$'m!# R$(i(t!%/$=
6A
B
TO-46= TO-46R= TO-97= TO-97RR= SO-8 SO-8RR TO-770
%o *$!t
(i%3
(m!## *$!t 2i% %o *$!t
(i%3
(m!## *$!t 2i% %o *$!t
(i%3
(m!## *$!t 2i% %o *$!t
(i%3
Still air 400C/W 100C/W 180C/W 140C/W 220C/W 110C/W 90C/W
Moving air 100C/W 40C/W 90C/W 70C/W 105C/W 90C/W 26C/W
Still oil 100C/W 40C/W 90C/W 70C/W
Stirred oil 50C/W 30C/W 45C/W 40C/W
(Clamped to metal,
nfinite heat sink) (24C/W) (55C/W)
*Wakefield type 201, or 1" disc of 0.020" sheet brass, soldered to case, or similar.
**TO-92 and SO-8 packages glued and leads soldered to 1" square of 1/16" printed circuit board with 2 oz. foil or similar.
ww w .national.com 6
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5 T1i/!# A#i/!tio%(
DS005516-19
0I.8RE C> L+C5 )it* D$/o,#i%4 2'om C!!/iti&$ Lo!5
DS005516-6
0I.8RE 6> T)o-Hi'$ R$mot$ T$m$'!t,'$ S$%(o'
AO,t,t R$2$''$5 to .'o,%5B
0I.8RE 4> L+C5 )it* R-C D!m$'
DS005516-20
CAPACITIVE LOADS
Like most micropower circuits, the LM35 has a limited ability
to drive heavy capacitive loads. The LM35 by itself is able to
drive 50 pf without special precautions. f heavier loads are
anticipated, it is easy to isolate or decouple the load with a
resistor; see Figure 3. Or you can improve the tolerance of
capacitance with a series R-C damper from output to
ground; see Figure 4.
When the LM35 is applied with a 200 load resistor as
shown in Figure 5, Figure 6 or Figure 8 it is relatively
immune to wiring capacitance because the capacitance
forms a by- pass from ground to input, not on the output.
However, as with any linear circuit connected to wires in a
hostile envi- ronment, its performance can be affected
adversely by in- tense electromagnetic sources such as
relays, radio trans- mitters, motors with arcing brushes, SCR
transients, etc, as its wiring can act as a receiving
antenna and its internal junctions can act as rectifiers. For
best results in such cases, a bypass capacitor from V
N
to
ground and a series R-C
damper such as 75 in series with 0.2 or 1 F from output to
ground are often useful. These are shown in Figure 13,
Figure 14, and Figure 16.
DS005516-5
0I.8RE 5> T)o-Hi'$ R$mot$ T$m$'!t,'$ S$%(o'
A.'o,%5$5 S$%(o'B
DS005516-7
0I.8RE D> T$m$'!t,'$ S$%(o'= Si%4#$ S,#1= 955: to
;150:C
DS005516-8
0I.8RE 8> T)o-Hi'$ R$mot$ T$m$'!t,'$ S$%(o'
AO,t,t R$2$''$5 to .'o,%5B
DS005516-9
0I.8RE 9> 4-To-70 mA C,''$%t So,'/$ A0:C to ;100:CB
7 ww w .national.com
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T1i/!# A#i/!tio%( (Continued)
DS005516-10
0I.8RE 10> 0!*'$%*$it T*$'mom$t$'
DS005516-11
0I.8RE 11> C$%ti4'!5$ T*$'mom$t$' AA%!#o4 +$t$'B
DS005516-12
0I.8RE 17> 0!*'$%*$it T*$'mom$t$'E-!%5$5 S/!#$
T*$'mom$t$'
A50: to 80: 0!*'$%*$it= 2o' E-!m#$ S*o)%B
DS005516-13
0I.8RE 1C> T$m$'!t,'$ To Di4it!# Co%&$'t$' AS$'i!# O,t,tB A;178:C 0,## S/!#$B
DS005516-14
0I.8RE 14> T$m$'!t,'$ To Di4it!# Co%&$'t$' AP!'!##$# TRI-STATE
T
O,t,t( 2o'
St!%5!'5 D!t! B,( to P I%t$'2!/$B A178:C 0,## S/!#$B
ww w .national.com 8
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T1i/!# A#i/!tio%( (Continued)
[ =1% or 2% film resistor
Trim R
B
for V
B
=3.075V
Trim R
C
for V
C
=1.955V
Trim R
A
for V
A
=0.075V + 100mV/C x T
ambient
Example, V
A
=2.275V at 22C
DS005516-16
0I.8RE 15> B!'-.'!* T$m$'!t,'$ Di(#!1 ADot +o5$B
DS005516-15
0I.8RE 16> L+C5 Hit* Vo#t!4$-To-0'$<,$%/1 Co%&$'t$' A%5 I(o#!t$5 O,t,t
A7:C to ;150:CU 70 EV to 1500 EVB
9 ww w .national.com
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B#o/3 Di!4'!m
DS005516-23
ww w .national.com 10
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5 P*1(i/!# Dim$%(io%( inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted
TO-46 +$t!# C!% P!/3!4$ AEB
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C5E= L+C5AE= L+C5CE=
L+C5CAE= o' L+C5DE
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' E0CE
SO-8 +o#5$5 Sm!## O,t#i%$ P!/3!4$ A+B
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C5D+
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' +08A
11 ww w .national.com
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P*1(i/!# Dim$%(io%( inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)
Po)$' P!/3!4$ TO-770 ATB
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C5DT
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' TA0C0
ww w .national.com 12
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5

P
'
$
/
i
(
i
o
%

C
$
%
t
i
4
'
!
5
$

T
$
m

$
'
!
t
,
'
$

S
$
%
(
o
'
(
P*1(i/!# Dim$%(io%( inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)
TO-97 P#!(ti/ P!/3!4$ AKB
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C5CK= L+C5CAK o' L+C5DK
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' K0CA
LI0E S8PPORT POLICI
NATONAL'S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORZED FOR USE AS CRTCAL COMPONENTS N LFE SUPPORT
DEVCES OR SYSTEMS WTHOUT THE EXPRESS WRTTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESDENT AND GENERAL
COUNSEL OF NATONAL SEMCONDUCTOR CORPORATON. As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant
into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and
whose failure to perform when properly used in
accordance with instructions for use provided in the
labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a
significant injury to the user.
2. A critical component is any component of a life
support device or system whose failure to perform
can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of
the life support device or system, or to affect its
safety or effectiveness.
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
Co'o'!tio%
Americas
Tel: 1-800-272-9959
Fax: 1-800-737-7018
Email: support@nsc.com
www.national.com
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
E,'o$
Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86
Email: europe.support@nsc.com
Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208
English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171
Franais Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
A(i! P!/i2i/ C,(tom$'
R$(o%($ .'o,
Tel: 65-2544466
Fax: 65-2504466
Email: ap.support@nsc.com
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
6!!% Lt5>
Tel: 81-3-5639-7560
Fax: 81-3-5639-7507
National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.
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7

L
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'

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5

O

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'
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t
i
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A
m

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i
2
i
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'
(
L+174/L+774/L+C74/L+7907
Lo) Po)$' G,!5 O$'!tio%!# Am#i2i$'(
August 2000
.$%$'!# D$(/'itio%
The LM124 series consists of four independent, high gain,
internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers
which were designed specifically to operate from a single
power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from
split power supplies is also possible and the low power
supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the
power supply voltage.
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain
blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now
can be more easily implemented in single power supply
systems. For example, the LM124 series can be directly
operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which
is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required
interface electronics without requiring the additional 15V
power supplies.
8%i<,$ C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
n n the linear mode the input common-mode voltage
range includes ground and the output voltage can also
swing to ground, even though operated from only a
single power supply voltage
n The unity gain cross frequency is temperature
compensated
n The input bias current is also temperature compensated
A5&!%t!4$(
n Eliminates need for dual supplies
n Four internally compensated op amps in a single
package
n Allows directly sensing near GND and V
OUT
also goes
to GND
n Compatible with all forms of logic
n Power drain suitable for battery operation
0$!t,'$(
n nternally frequency compensated for unity gain
n Large DC voltage gain 100 dB
n Wide bandwidth (unity gain) 1 MHz
(temperature compensated)
n Wide power supply range:
Single supply 3V to 32V
or dual supplies 1.5V to 16V
n Very low supply current drain (700 A) essentially
independent of supply voltage
n Low input biasing current 45 nA
(temperature compensated)
n Low input offset voltage 2 mV
and offset current: 5 nA
n nput common-mode voltage range includes ground
n Differential input voltage range equal to the power
supply voltage
n Large output voltage swing 0V to V
+
~ 1.5V
Co%%$/tio% Di!4'!m(
D,!#-I%-Li%$ P!/3!4$
To Vi$)
00929901
O'5$' N,m"$' L+1746= L+174A6= L+1746/88C (Note 2)= L+174A6/88C (Note 1)= L+7746= L+774A6= L+C746=
L+C74+= L+C74+@= L+C74A+= L+C74A+@= L+7907+= L+7907+@= L+C74N= L+C74AN= L+C74+T=
L+C74+T@ o' L+7907N L+174A6RG+L !%5 L+174A6RG+LV(Note 3)
S$$ NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' 614A= +14A o' N14A
2004 National Semiconductor Corporation DS009299 ww w .national.com
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Co%%$/tio% Di!4'!m( (Continued)
00929933
O'5$' N,m"$' L+174AH/88C= L+174AH./88C= L+174H/88C o' L+174H./88C
L+174AHRG+L !%5 L+174AHRG+LV(Note 3)
S$$ NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' H14B L+174AH.RG+L
!%5 L+174AH.RG+LV(Note 3) S$$ NS P!/3!4$
N,m"$' H.14A
Not$ 1? LM124A available per JM38510/11006
Not$ 7? LM124 available per JM38510/11005
Not$ C? See STD Mil DWG 5962R99504 for Radiation Tolerant Device
S/*$m!ti/ Di!4'!m (Each Amplifier)
00929902
ww w .national.com 2
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A"(o#,t$ +!-im,m R!ti%4( (Note 12)
Di(t'i",to'( 2o' !&!i#!"i#it1 !%5 ($/i2i/!tio%(>
I2 +i#it!'1/A$'o(!/$ ($/i2i$5 5$&i/$( !'$ '$<,i'$5=
#$!($ /o%t!/t t*$ N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to' S!#$( O22i/$/
L+174/L+774/L+C74 L+7907
L+174A/L+774A/L+C74A
Supply Voltage, V
+
32V 26V
Differential nput Voltage 32V 26V
nput Voltage ~0.3V to +32V ~0.3V to +26V
nput Current
(V
N
< ~0.3V) (Note 6) 50 mA 50 mA
Power Dissipation (Note 4)
Molded DP 1130 mW 1130 mW
Cavity DP 1260 mW 1260 mW
Small Outline Package 800 mW 800 mW
Output Short-Circuit to GND
(One Amplifier) (Note 5)
V
+
g 15V and T
A
= 25C Continuous Continuous
Operating Temperature Range ~40C to +85C
LM324/LM324A 0C to +70C
LM224/LM224A ~25C to +85C
LM124/LM124A ~55C to +125C
Storage Temperature Range ~65C to +150C ~65C to +150C
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 seconds) 260C 260C
Soldering nformation
Dual-n-Line Package
Soldering (10 seconds) 260C 260C
Small Outline Package
Vapor Phase (60 seconds) 215C 215C
nfrared (15 seconds) 220C 220C
See AN-450 "Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect on Product Reliability for other methods of soldering surface mount
devices.
ESD Tolerance (Note 13) 250V 250V
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
V
+
= +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated
P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%(
L+174A L+774A L+C74A
8%it(
+i% T1 +!- +i% T1 +!- +i% T1 +!-
nput Offset Voltage (Note 8) T
A
= 25C 1 2 1 3 2 3 mV
nput Bias Current
(Note 9)

N(+)
or
N(~)
, V
CM
= 0V,
T
A
= 25C
20 50 40 80 45 100 nA
nput Offset Current
N(+)
or
N(~)
, V
CM
= 0V,
T
A
= 25C
2 10 2 15 5 30 nA
nput Common-Mode
Voltage Range (Note
10)
V
+
= 30V, (LM2902, V
+
= 26V),
T
A
= 25C
0 V
+
~1.5 0 V
+
~1.5 0 V
+
~1.5 V
Supply Current Over Full Temperature Range
R
L
= i On All Op Amps
V
+
= 30V (LM2902 V
+
= 26V)
V
+
= 5V
1.5 3
0.7 1.2
1.5 3
0.7 1.2
1.5 3
0.7 1.2
mA
Large Signal
Voltage Gain
V
+
= 15V, R
L
j 2kX,
(V
O
= 1V to 11V), T
A
= 25C
50 100 50 100 25 100 V/mV
Common-Mode DC, V
CM
= 0V to V
+
~ 1.5V, 70 85 70 85 65 85 dB
3 ww w .national.com
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9
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7
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( (Continued)
V
+
= +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated
P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%(
L+174A L+774A L+C74A
8%it(
+i% T1 +!- +i% T1 +!- +i% T1 +!-
Rejection Ratio T
A
= 25C
Power Supply
Rejection Ratio
V
+
= 5V to 30V
(LM2902, V
+
= 5V to 26V),
T
A
= 25C
65 100 65 100 65 100 dB
Amplifier-to-Amplifier
Coupling (Note 11)
f = 1 kHz to 20 kHz, T
A
= 25C
(nput Referred)
~120 ~120 ~120 dB
Output
Current
Source V
N
+
= 1V, V
N
~
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V, V
O
= 2V, T
A
= 25C
20 40 20 40 20 40
mA
Sink V
N
~
= 1V, V
N
+
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V, V
O
= 2V, T
A
= 25C
10 20 10 20 10 20
V
N
~
= 1V, V
N
+
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V, V
O
= 200 mV, T
A
= 25C
12 50 12 50 12 50 A
Short Circuit to Ground (Note 5) V
+
= 15V, T
A
= 25C 40 60 40 60 40 60 mA
nput Offset Voltage (Note 8) 4 4 5 mV
V
OS
Drift R
S
= 0X 7 20 7 20 7 30 V/C
nput Offset Current
N(+)
~
N(~)
, V
CM
= 0V 30 30 75 nA

OS
Drift R
S
= 0X 10 200 10 200 10 300 pA/C
nput Bias Current
N(+)
or
N(~)
40 100 40 100 40 200 nA
nput Common-Mode
Voltage Range (Note
10)
V
+
= +30V
(LM2902, V
+
= 26V)
0 V
+
~2 0 V
+
~2 0 V
+
~2 V
Large Signal
Voltage Gain
V
+
= +15V (V
O
Swing = 1V to 11V)
R
L
j 2 kX 25 25 15 V/mV
Output
Voltage
Swing
V
OH
V
+
= 30V
(LM2902, V
+
= 26V)
R
L
= 2 kX 26 26 26 V
R
L
= 10 kX 27 28 27 28 27 28
V
OL
V
+
= 5V, R
L
= 10 kX 5 20 5 20 5 20 mV
Output
Current
Source V
O
= 2V V
N
+
= +1V,
V
N
~
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V
10 20 10 20 10 20
mA
Sink V
N
~
= +1V,
V
N
+
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V
10 15 5 8 5 8
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
V
+
= +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated
P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%(
L+174/L+774 L+C74 L+7907
8%it(
+i% T1 +!- +i% T1 +!- +i% T1 +!-
nput Offset Voltage (Note 8) T
A
= 25C 2 5 2 7 2 7 mV
nput Bias Current
(Note 9)

N(+)
or
N(~)
, V
CM
= 0V,
T
A
= 25C
45 150 45 250 45 250 nA
nput Offset Current
N(+)
or
N(~)
, V
CM
= 0V,
T
A
= 25C
3 30 5 50 5 50 nA
nput Common-Mode
Voltage Range (Note
10)
V
+
= 30V, (LM2902, V
+
= 26V),
T
A
= 25C
0 V
+
~1.5 0 V
+
~1.5 0 V
+
~1.5 V
ww w .national.com 4
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+
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7
4
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9
0
7
E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( (Continued)
V
+
= +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated
P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%(
L+174/L+774 L+C74 L+7907
8%it(
+i% T1 +!- +i% T1 +!- +i% T1 +!-
Supply Current Over Full Temperature Range
R
L
= i On All Op Amps
V
+
= 30V (LM2902 V
+
= 26V)
V
+
= 5V
1.5 3
0.7 1.2
1.5 3
0.7 1.2
1.5 3
0.7 1.2
mA
Large Signal
Voltage Gain
V
+
= 15V, R
L
j 2kX,
(V
O
= 1V to 11V), T
A
= 25C
50 100 25 100 25 100 V/mV
Common-Mode
Rejection Ratio
DC, V
CM
= 0V to V
+
~ 1.5V,
T
A
= 25C
70 85 65 85 50 70 dB
Power Supply
Rejection Ratio
V
+
= 5V to 30V
(LM2902, V
+
= 5V to 26V),
T
A
= 25C
65 100 65 100 50 100 dB
Amplifier-to-Amplifier
Coupling (Note 11)
f = 1 kHz to 20 kHz, T
A
= 25C
(nput Referred)
~120 ~120 ~120 dB
Output
Current
Source V
N
+
= 1V, V
N
~
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V, V
O
= 2V, T
A
= 25C
20 40 20 40 20 40
mA
Sink V
N
~
= 1V, V
N
+
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V, V
O
= 2V, T
A
= 25C
10 20 10 20 10 20
V
N
~
= 1V, V
N
+
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V, V
O
= 200 mV, T
A
= 25C
12 50 12 50 12 50 A
Short Circuit to Ground (Note 5) V
+
= 15V, T
A
= 25C 40 60 40 60 40 60 mA
nput Offset Voltage (Note 8) 7 9 10 mV
V
OS
Drift R
S
= 0X 7 7 7 V/C
nput Offset Current
N(+)
~
N(~)
, V
CM
= 0V 100 150 45 200 nA

OS
Drift R
S
= 0X 10 10 10 pA/C
nput Bias Current
N(+)
or
N(~)
40 300 40 500 40 500 nA
nput Common-Mode
Voltage Range (Note
10)
V
+
= +30V
(LM2902, V
+
= 26V)
0 V
+
~2 0 V
+
~2 0 V
+
~2 V
Large Signal
Voltage Gain
V
+
= +15V (V
O
Swing = 1V to 11V)
R
L
j 2 kX 25 15 15 V/mV
Output
Voltage
Swing
V
OH
V
+
= 30V
(LM2902, V
+
= 26V)
R
L
= 2 kX 26 26 22 V
R
L
= 10 kX 27 28 27 28 23 24
V
OL
V
+
= 5V, R
L
= 10 kX 5 20 5 20 5 100 mV
Output
Current
Source V
O
= 2V V
N
+
= +1V,
V
N
~
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V
10 20 10 20 10 20
mA
Sink V
N
~
= +1V,
V
N
+
= 0V,
V
+
= 15V
5 8 5 8 5 8
Not$ 4? For operating at high temperatures, the LM324/LM324A/LM2902 must be derated based on a +125C maximum junction temperature and a thermal
resistance of 88C/W which applies for the device soldered in a printed circuit board, operating in a still air ambient. The LM224/LM224A and LM124/LM124A can
be derated based on a +150C maximum junction temperature. The dissipation is the total of all four amplifiers use external resistors, where possible, to allow the
amplifier to saturate of to reduce the power which is dissipated in the integrated circuit.
Not$ 5? Short circuits from the output to V
+
can cause excessive heating and eventual destruction. When considering short circuits to ground, the maximum output
current is approximately 40 mA independent of the magnitude of V
+
. At values of supply voltage in excess of +15V, continuous short-circuits can exceed the power
dissipation ratings and cause eventual destruction. Destructive dissipation can result from simultaneous shorts on all amplifiers.
Not$ 6? This input current will only exist when the voltage at any of the input leads is driven negative. t is due to the collector-base junction of the input PNP
transistors becoming forward biased and thereby acting as input diode clamps. n addition to this diode action, there is also lateral NPN parasitic transistor action
5 ww w .national.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( (Continued)
on the C chip. This transistor action can cause the output voltages of the op amps to go to the V
+
voltage level (or to ground for a large overdrive) for the time
duration that an input is driven negative. This is not destructive and normal output states will re-establish when the input voltage, which was negative, again returns to
a value greater than ~0.3V (at 25C).
Not$ D? These specifications are limited to ~55C g T
A
g +125C for the LM124/LM124A. With the LM224/LM224A, all temperature specifications are limited to
~25C g T
A
g +85C, the LM324/LM324A temperature specifications are limited to 0C g T
A
g +70C, and the LM2902 specifications are limited to ~40C g T
A
g
+85C.
Not$ 8? V
O
1.4V, R
S
= 0X with V
+
from 5V to 30V; and over the full input common-mode range (0V to V
+
~ 1.5V) for LM2902, V
+
from 5V to
26V.
Not$ 9? The direction of the input current is out of the C due to the PNP input stage. This current is essentially constant, independent of the state of the output so
no loading change exists on the input lines.
Not$ 10? The input common-mode voltage of either input signal voltage should not be allowed to go negative by more than 0.3V (at 25C). The upper end of the
common-mode voltage range is V
+
~ 1.5V (at 25C), but either or both inputs can go to +32V without damage (+26V for LM2902), independent of the magnitude
of V
+
.
Not$ 11? Due to proximity of external components, insure that coupling is not originating via stray capacitance between these external parts. This typically can be
detected as this type of capacitance increases at higher frequencies.
Not$ 17? Refer to RETS124AX for LM124A military specifications and refer to RETS124X for LM124 military specifications.
Not$ 1C? Human body model, 1.5 kX in series with 100 pF.
T1i/!# P$'2o'm!%/$ C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
I%,t Vo#t!4$ R!%4$ I%,t C,''$%t
00929934 00929935
S,#1 C,''$%t Vo#t!4$ .!i%
00929936 00929937
ww w .national.com 6
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4
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9
0
7
T1i/!# P$'2o'm!%/$ C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( (Continued)
O$% Loo 0'$<,$%/1
R$(o%($
00929938
Commo% +o5$ R$J$/tio%
R!tio
00929939
Vo#t!4$ 0o##o)$' P,#($
R$(o%($
Vo#t!4$ 0o##o)$' P,#($
R$(o%($ ASm!## Si4%!#B
00929940 00929941
L!'4$ Si4%!# 0'$<,$%/1
R$(o%($
O,t,t C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
C,''$%t So,'/i%4
00929942
00929943
7 ww w .national.com
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/
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+
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7
4
/
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+
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/
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+
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9
0
7
T1i/!# P$'2o'm!%/$ C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( (Continued)
O,t,t C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
C,''$%t Si%3i%4 C,''$%t Limiti%4
00929944 00929945
I%,t C,''$%t AL+7907 o%#1B Vo#t!4$ .!i% AL+7907 o%#1B
00929946 00929947
A#i/!tio% Ei%t(
The LM124 series are op amps which operate with only a
single power supply voltage, have true-differential inputs,
and remain in the linear mode with an input common-mode
voltage of 0 V
DC
. These amplifiers operate over a wide range
of power supply voltage with little change in performance
characteristics. At 25C amplifier operation is possible down
to a minimum supply voltage of 2.3 V
DC
.
The pinouts of the package have been designed to simplify
PC board layouts. nverting inputs are adjacent to outputs for
all of the amplifiers and the outputs have also been placed at
the corners of the package (pins 1, 7, 8, and 14).
Precautions should be taken to insure that the power supply
for the integrated circuit never becomes reversed in polarity
or that the unit is not inadvertently installed backwards in a
test socket as an unlimited current surge through the result-
ing forward diode within the C could cause fusing of the
internal conductors and result in a destroyed unit.
Large differential input voltages can be easily accommo-
dated and, as input differential voltage protection diodes are
not needed, no large input currents result from large differ-
ential input voltages. The differential input voltage may be
larger than V
+
without damaging the device. Protection
should be provided to prevent the input voltages from going
negative more than ~0.3 V
DC
(at 25C). An input clamp diode
with a resistor to the C input terminal can be used.
To reduce the power supply drain, the amplifiers have a
class A output stage for small signal levels which converts to
class B in a large signal mode. This allows the amplifiers to
both source and sink large output currents. Therefore both
NPN and PNP external current boost transistors can be used
to extend the power capability of the basic amplifiers. The
output voltage needs to raise approximately 1 diode drop
above ground to bias the on-chip vertical PNP transistor for
output current sinking applications.
For ac applications, where the load is capacitively coupled to
the output of the amplifier, a resistor should be used, from
the output of the amplifier to ground to increase the class A
bias current and prevent crossover distortion.
Where the load is directly coupled, as in dc applications,
there is no crossover distortion.
Capacitive loads which are applied directly to the output of
the amplifier reduce the loop stability margin. Values of
50 pF can be accommodated using the worst-case non-
inverting unity gain connection. Large closed loop gains or
resistive isolation should be used if larger load capacitance
must be driven by the amplifier.
ww w .national.com 8
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9
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7
A#i/!tio% Ei%t( (Continued)
The bias network of the LM124 establishes a drain current
which is independent of the magnitude of the power supply
voltage over the range of from 3 V
DC
to 30 V
DC
.
Output short circuits either to ground or to the positive power
supply should be of short time duration. Units can be de-
stroyed, not as a result of the short circuit current causing
metal fusing, but rather due to the large increase in C chip
dissipation which will cause eventual failure due to exces-
sive junction temperatures. Putting direct short-circuits on
more than one amplifier at a time will increase the total C
power dissipation to destructive levels, if not properly pro-
tected with external dissipation limiting resistors in series
with the output leads of the amplifiers. The larger value of
output source current which is available at 25C provides a
larger output current capability at elevated temperatures
(see typical performance characteristics) than a standard C
op amp.
The circuits presented in the section on typical applications
emphasize operation on only a single power supply voltage.
f complementary power supplies are available, all of the
standard op amp circuits can be used. n general, introduc-
ing a pseudo-ground (a bias voltage reference of V
+
/2) will
allow operation above and below this value in single power
supply systems. Many application circuits are shown which
take advantage of the wide input common-mode voltage
range which includes ground. n most cases, input biasing is
not required and input voltages which range to ground can
easily be accommodated.
T1i/!# Si%4#$-S,#1 A#i/!tio%( (V
+
= 5.0 V
DC
)
No%-I%&$'ti%4 DC .!i% A0V I%,t F 0V O,t,tB
*R not needed due to temperature independent
N
00929905
DC S,mmi%4 Am#i2i$'
AV
INQS
j 0 V
DC
!%5 V
O
j V
DC
B Po)$' Am#i2i$'
Where: V
0
= V
1
+ V
2
~ V
3
~ V
4
(V
1
+ V
2
) j (V
3
+ V
4
) to keep V
O
> 0 V
DC
00929906
V
0
= 0 V
DC
for V
N
= 0 V
DC
A
V
= 10
00929907
9 ww w .national.com
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7
4
/
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+
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9
0
7
T1i/!# Si%4#$-S,#1 A#i/!tio%( (V
+
= 5.0 V
DC
) (Continued)
LED D'i&$' WBI-G8ADX RC A/ti&$ B!%5!(( 0i#t$'
00929908
f
o
= 1 kHz
Q = 50
A
V
= 100 (40 dB)
0i-$5 C,''$%t So,'/$( L!m D'i&$'
00929910
ww w .national.com 10
00929911
00929909
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/
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+
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7
4
/
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+
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7
4
/
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+
7
9
0
7
T1i/!# Si%4#$-S,#1 A#i/!tio%(
(V
+
= 5.0 V
DC
) (Continued)
C,''$%t +o%ito'
P,#($ .$%$'!to'
S<,!'$)!&$ O(/i##!to'
00929915
*(ncrease R1 for
L
small)
D'i&i%4 TTL
00929912
00929913
Vo#t!4$ 0o##o)$'
00929914
P,#($ .$%$'!to'
00929916
00929917
11 ww w .national.com
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4
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+
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7
4
/
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+
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9
0
7
T1i/!# Si%4#$-S,#1 A#i/!tio%( (V
+
= 5.0 V
DC
) (Continued)
Ei4* Com#i!%/$ C,''$%t Si%3

O
= 1 amp/volt V
N
(ncrease R
E
for
o
small)
00929918
Lo) D'i2t P$!3 D$t$/to'
00929919
ww w .national.com 12
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/
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+
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7
4
/
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+
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7
4
/
L
+
7
9
0
7
T1i/!# Si%4#$-S,#1 A#i/!tio%( (V
+
= 5.0 V
DC
) (Continued)
Com!'!to' )it* E1(t$'$(i( .'o,%5 R$2$'$%/i%4 ! Di22$'$%ti!# I%,t Si4%!#
00929920
V
O
= V
R
Vo#t!4$ Co%t'o##$5 O(/i##!to' Ci'/,it
00929921
*Wide control voltage range: 0 V
DC
g V
C
g 2 (V
+
~1.5 V
DC
)
00929922
P*oto Vo#t!i/-C$## Am#i2i$'
00929923
13 ww w .national.com
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4
/
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+
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7
4
/
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+
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9
0
7
T1i/!# Si%4#$-S,#1 A#i/!tio%( (V
+
= 5.0 V
DC
) (Continued)
AC Co,#$5 I%&$'ti%4 Am#i2i$'
AC Co,#$5 No%-I%&$'ti%4 Am#i2i$'
00929924
ww w .national.com 14
00929925
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4
/
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+
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4
/
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+
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7
4
/
L
+
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9
0
7
T1i/!# Si%4#$-S,#1 A#i/!tio%( (V
+
= 5.0 V
DC
) (Continued)
DC Co,#$5 Lo)-P!(( RC A/ti&$ 0i#t$'
f
O
= 1 kHz
Q = 1
A
V
= 2
00929926
Ei4* I%,t K= DC Di22$'$%ti!# Am#i2i$'
15
00929927
ww w .national.com
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+
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4
/
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+
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7
4
/
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+
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9
0
7
T1i/!# Si%4#$-S,#1 A#i/!tio%( (V
+
= 5.0 V
DC
) (Continued)
Ei4* I%,t K A5J,(t!"#$-.!i%
DC I%(t',m$%t!tio% Am#i2i$'
00929928
8(i%4 S1mm$t'i/!# Am#i2i$'( to
R$5,/$ I%,t C,''$%t A.$%$'!# Co%/$tB
00929929
B'i54$ C,''$%t Am#i2i$'
00929930
ww w .national.com 16
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4
/
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+
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9
0
7
T1i/!# Si%4#$-S,#1 A#i/!tio%( (V
+
= 5.0 V
DC
) (Continued)
B!%5!(( A/ti&$ 0i#t$'
f
O
= 1 kHz
Q = 25
00929931
17 ww w .national.com
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0
7
P*1(i/!# Dim$%(io%( inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted
C$'!mi/ D,!#-I%-Li%$ P!/3!4$ A6B
O'5$' N,m"$' 6L174ABCA= 6L174BCA= 6L174ASCA= 6L174SCA= L+1746=
L+174A6= L+174A6/88C= L+1746/88C= L+7746= L+774A6 o' L+C746
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' 614A
+@ S>O> P!/3!4$ A+B
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C74+= L+C74+@= L+C74A+= L+C74A+@= L+7907+ o' L+7907+@
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' +14A
ww w .national.com 18
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+o#5$5 D,!#-I%-Li%$ P!/3!4$ ANB
O'5$' N,m"$' L+C74N= L+C74AN o' L+7907N
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' N14A
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O'5$' N,m"$' 6L174ABDA= 6L174ABKA= 6L174ASDA= 6L174BDA= 6L174BKA=
6L174SDA= L+174AH/88C= L+174AH./88C= L+174H/88C o' L+174H./88C
NS P!/3!4$ N,m"$' H14B
19 ww w .national.com
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14-Pi% TSSOP
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LI0E S8PPORT POLICI
NATONAL'S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORZED FOR USE AS CRTCAL COMPONENTS N LFE SUPPORT
DEVCES OR SYSTEMS WTHOUT THE EXPRESS WRTTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESDENT AND GENERAL
COUNSEL OF NATONAL SEMCONDUCTOR CORPORATON. As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant
into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and
whose failure to perform when properly used in
accordance with instructions for use provided in the
labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a
significant injury to the user.
BANNED S8BSTANCE CO+PLIANCE
2. A critical component is any component of a life
support device or system whose failure to perform
can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of
the life support device or system, or to affect its
safety or effectiveness.
National Semiconductor certifies that the products and packing materials meet the provisions of the Customer Products
Stewardship Specification (CSP-9-111C2) and the Banned Substances and Materials of nterest Specification
(CSP-9-111S2) and contain no ''Banned Substances'' as defined in CSP-9-111S2.
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
Am$'i/!( C,(tom$'
S,o't C$%t$'
Email: new.feedback@nsc.com
Tel: 1-800-272-9959
www.national.com
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
E,'o$ C,(tom$' S,o't C$%t$'
Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86
Email: europe.support@nsc.com
Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208
English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171
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N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
A(i! P!/i2i/ C,(tom$'
S,o't C$%t$'
Email: ap.support@nsc.com
N!tio%!# S$mi/o%5,/to'
6!!% C,(tom$' S,o't C$%t$'
Fax: 81-3-5639-7507
Email: jpn.feedback@nsc.com
Tel: 81-3-5639-7560
National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.
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L+D8@@/L+D8@@A
C-T$'mi%!# 1A Po(iti&$ Vo#t!4$
R$4,#!to'
May 2006
0$!t,'$(
Output Current up to 1A
Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24
Thermal Overload Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection
.$%$'!# D$(/'itio%
The LM78XX series of three terminal positive regulators
are available in the TO-220 package and with several
fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide
range of applications. Each type employs internal current
limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area pro-
tection, making it essentially indestructible. f adequate
heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output
current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators, these devices can be used with external com-
ponents to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.
O'5$'i%4 I%2o'm!tio%
P'o5,/t N,m"$' O,t,t Vo#t!4$ To#$'!%/$ P!/3!4$ O$'!ti%4 T$m$'!t,'$
LM7805CT ]4% TO-220 -40C to +125C
LM7806CT
LM7808CT
LM7809CT
LM7810CT
LM7812CT
LM7815CT
LM7818CT
LM7824CT
LM7805ACT ]2% 0C to +125C
LM7806ACT
LM7808ACT
LM7809ACT
LM7810ACT
LM7812ACT
LM7815ACT
LM7818ACT
LM7824ACT
2006 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation 1 www.fairchildsemi.com
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
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B#o/3 Di!4'!m
nput
1
Series Pass
Element
Output
3
Current
Generator
SOA
Protection
Starting
Circuit
Reference
Voltage
Error
Amplifier
Thermal
Protection
GND
2
0i4,'$ 1>
Pi% A((i4%m$%t
TO-770
GND
1. nput
1 2. GND
3. Output
0i4,'$ 7>
A"(o#,t$ +!-im,m R!ti%4(
Absolute maximum ratings are those values beyond which damage to the device may occur. The datasheet
specifications should be met, without exception, to ensure that the system design is reliable over its power supply,
temperature, and output/input loading variables. Fairchild does not recommend operation outside datasheet
specifications.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' V!#,$ 8%it
V

nput Voltage V
O
= 5V to 18V 35 V
V
O
= 24V 40 V
R
kJC
Thermal Resistance Junction-Cases (TO-220) 5 C/W
R
kJA
Thermal Resistance Junction-Air (TO-220) 65 C/W
T
OPR
Operating Temperature
Range
LM78xx -40 to +125 C
LM78xxA 0 to +125
T
STG
Storage Temperature Range -65 to +150 C
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
7 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D805B
Refer to the test circuits. -40C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 500mA, V

= 10V, C

= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 4.8 5.0 5.2 V
5mA g
O
g 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 7V to 20V
4.75 5.0 5.25
Regline Line Regulation
(1)
T
J
= +25C V
O
= 7V to 25V 4.0 100 mV
V

= 8V to 12V 1.6 50.0
Regload Load Regulation
(1)
T
J
= +25C
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 9.0 100 mV

O
= 250mA to 750mA 4.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.0 8.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.03 0.5 mA
V

= 7V to 25V 0.3 1.3
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(2)

O
= 5mA -0.8 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 42.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(2)
f = 120Hz, V
O
= 8V to 18V 62.0 73.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(2)
f = 1kHz 15.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 230 mA

PK
Peak Current
(2)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
1. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
2. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
C www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D806B (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. -40C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 500mA, V

= 11V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i% T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 5.75 6.0 6.25 V
5mA g
O
g 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 8.0V to 21V
5.7 6.0 6.3
Regline Line Regulation
(3)
T
J
= +25C V

= 8V to 25V 5.0 120 mV
V

= 9V to 13V 1.5 60.0
Regload Load Regulation
(3)
T
J
= +25C
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 9.0 120 mV

O
= 250mA to 750mA 3.0 60.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.0 8.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current
Change

O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 8V to 25V 1.3
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(4)

O
= 5mA -0.8 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 45.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(4)
f = 120Hz, V
O
= 8V to 18V 62.0 73.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(4)
f = 1kHz 19.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(4)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
3. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
4. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
4 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D808B (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. -40C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 500mA, V

= 14V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 7.7 8.0 8.3 V
5mA g
O
g 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 10.5V to 23V
7.6 8.0 8.4
Regline Line Regulation
(5)
T
J
= +25C V

= 10.5V to 25V 5.0 160 mV
V

= 11.5V to 17V 2.0 80.0
Regload Load Regulation
(5)
T
J
= +25C
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 10.0 160 mV

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 80.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.0 8.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.05 0.5 mA
V

= 10.5V to 25V 0.5 1.0
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(6)

O
= 5mA -0.8 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 52.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(6)
f = 120Hz, V
O
= 11.5V to 21.5V 56.0 73.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(6)
f = 1kHz 17.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 230 mA

PK
Peak Current
(6)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
5. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
6. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
5 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D809B (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. -40C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 500mA, V

= 15V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 8.65 9.0 9.35 V
5mA g
O
g 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 11.5V to 24V
8.6 9.0 9.4
Regline Line Regulation
(7)
T
J
= +25C V

= 11.5V to 25V 6.0 180 mV
V

= 12V to 17V 2.0 90.0
Regload Load Regulation
(7)
T
J
= +25C
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 12.0 180 mV

O
= 250mA to 750mA 4.0 90.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.0 8.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 11.5V to 26V 1.3
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(8)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 58.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(8)
f = 120Hz, V
O
= 13V to 23V 56.0 71.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(8)
f = 1kHz 17.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(8)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
7. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
8. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
6 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D810B (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. -40C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 500mA, V

= 16V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 9.6 10.0 10.4 V
5mA g
O
g 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 12.5V to 25V
9.5 10.0 10.5
Regline
Line Regulation
(9)
T
J
= +25C V

= 12.5V to 25V 10.0 200 mV
V

= 13V to 25V 3.0 100
Regload
Load Regulation
(9)
T
J
= +25C
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 12.0 200 mV

O
= 250mA to 750mA 4.0 400

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.1 8.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 12.5V to 29V 1.0
mV
O
/mT
Output Voltage Drift
(10)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 58.0 NV/V
O
RR
Ripple Rejection
(10)
f = 120Hz, V
O
= 13V to 23V 56.0 71.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O Output Resistance
(10)
f = 1kHz 17.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK Peak Current
(10)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
9. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
10. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
D www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D817B (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. -40C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 500mA, V

= 19V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 11.5 12.0 12.5 V
5mA g
O
g 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 14.5V to 27V
11.4 12.0 12.6
Regline Line Regulation
(11)
T
J
= +25C V

= 14.5V to 30V 10.0 240 mV
V

= 16V to 22V 3.0 120
Regload Load Regulation
(11)
T
J
= +25C
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 11.0 240 mV

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 120

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.1 8.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.1 0.5 mA
V

= 14.5V to 30V 0.5 1.0
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(12)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 76.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(12)
f = 120Hz, V

= 15V to 25V 55.0 71.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(12)
f = 1kHz 18.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 230 mA

PK
Peak Current
(12)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
11. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
12. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
8 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D815B (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. -40C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 500mA, V

= 23V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 14.4 15.0 15.6 V
5mA g
O
g 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 17.5V to 30V
14.25 15.0 15.75
Regline Line Regulation
(13)
T
J
= +25C V

= 17.5V to 30V 11.0 300 mV
V

= 20V to 26V 3.0 150
Regload Load Regulation
(13)
T
J
= +25C
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 12.0 300 mV

O
= 250mA to 750mA 4.0 150

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.2 8.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 17.5V to 30V 1.0
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(14)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 90.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(14)
f = 120Hz, V

= 18.5V to 28.5V 54.0 70.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(14)
f = 1kHz 19.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(14)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
13. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
14. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
9 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D818B (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. -40C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 500mA, V

= 27V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 17.3 18.0 18.7 V
5mA g
O
g 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 21V to 33V
17.1 18.0 18.9
Regline Line Regulation
(15)
T
J
= +25C V

= 21V to 33V 15.0 360 mV
V

= 24V to 30V 5.0 180
Regload Load Regulation
(15)
T
J
= +25C
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 15.0 360 mV

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 180

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.2 8.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 21V to 33V 1.0
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(16)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 110 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(16)
f = 120Hz, V

= 22V to 32V 53.0 69.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(16)
f = 1kHz 22.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(16)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
15. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
16. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
10 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D874B (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. -40C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 500mA, V

= 33V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 23.0 24.0 25.0 V
5mA g
O
g 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 27V to 38V
22.8 24.0 25.25
Regline Line Regulation
(17)
T
J
= +25C V

= 27V to 38V 17.0 480 mV
V

= 30V to 36V 6.0 240
Regload Load Regulation
(17)
T
J
= +25C
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 15.0 480 mV

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 240

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.2 8.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.1 0.5 mA
V

= 27V to 38V 0.5 1.0
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(18)

O
= 5mA -1.5 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 60.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(18)
f = 120Hz, V

= 28V to 38V 50.0 67.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
rO Output Resistance
(18)
f = 1kHz 28.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 230 mA

PK
Peak Current
(18)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
17. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
18. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
11 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D805AB (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. 0C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 1A, V

= 10V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 4.9 5.0 5.1 V

O
= 5mA to 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 7.5V to 20V
4.8 5.0 5.2
Regline Line Regulation
(19)
V

= 7.5V to 25V,
O
= 500mA 5.0 50.0 mV
V

= 8V to 12V 3.0 50.0
T
J
= +25C V

= 7.3V to 20V 5.0 50.0
V

= 8V to 12V 1.5 25.0
Regload Load Regulation
(19)
T
J
= +25C,
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 9.0 100 mV

O
= 5mA to 1A 9.0 100

O
= 250mA to 750mA 4.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.0 6.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current
Change

O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 8V to 25V,
O
= 500mA 0.8
V

= 7.5V to 20V, T
J
= +25C 0.8
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(20)

O
= 5mA -0.8 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 10.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(20)
f = 120Hz,
O
= 500mA, V

= 8V to 18V 68.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(20)
f = 1kHz 17.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(20)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
19. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
20. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
17 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D806AB (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. 0C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 1A, V

= 11V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 5.58 6.0 6.12 V

O
= 5mA to 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 8.6V to 21V
5.76 6.0 6.24
Regline Line Regulation
(21)
V

= 8.6V to 25V,
O
= 500mA 5.0 60.0 mV
V

= 9V to 13V 3.0 60.0
T
J
= +25C V

= 8.3V to 21V 5.0 60.0
V

= 9V to 13V 1.5 30.0
Regload Load Regulation
(21)
T
J
= +25C,
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 9.0 100 mV

O
= 5mA to 1A 9.0 100

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 4.3 6.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 19V to 25V,
O
= 500mA 0.8
V

= 8.5V to 21V, T
J
= +25C 0.8
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(22)

O
= 5mA -0.8 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 10.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(22)
f = 120Hz,
O
= 500mA, V

= 9V to 19V 65.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(22)
f = 1kHz 17.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(22)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
21. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
22. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
1C www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D808AB (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. 0C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 1A, V

= 14V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 7.84 8.0 8.16 V

O
= 5mA to 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 10.6V to 23V
7.7 8.0 8.3
Regline Line Regulation
(23)
V

= 10.6V to 25V,
O
= 500mA 6.0 80.0 mV
V

= 11V to 17V 3.0 80.0
T
J
= +25C V

= 10.4V to 23V 6.0 80.0
V

= 11V to 17V 2.0 40.0
Regload Load Regulation
(23)
T
J
= +25C,
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 12.0 100 mV

O
= 5mA to 1A 12.0 100

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.0 6.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 11V to 25V,
O
= 500mA 0.8
V

= 10.6V to 23V, T
J
= +25C 0.8
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(24)

O
= 5mA -0.8 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 10.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(24)
f = 120Hz,
O
= 500mA,
V

= 11.5V to 21.5V
62.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(24)
f = 1kHz 18.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(24)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
23. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
24. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
14 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D809AB (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. 0C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 1A, V

= 15V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it(
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 8.82 9.0 9.16 V

O
= 5mA to 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 11.2V to 24V
8.65 9.0 9.35
Regline Line Regulation
(25)
V

= 11.7V to 25V,
O
= 500mA 6.0 90.0 mV
V

= 12.5V to 19V 4.0 45.0
T
J
= +25C V

= 11.5V to 24V 6.0 90.0
V

= 12.5V to 19V 2.0 45.0
Regload Load Regulation
(25)
T
J
= +25C,
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 12.0 100 mV

O
= 5mA to 1A 12.0 100

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.0 6.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 12V to 25V,
O
= 500mA 0.8
V

= 11.7V to 25V, T
J
= +25C 0.8
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(26)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 10.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(26)
f = 120Hz,
O
= 500mA,
V

= 12V to 22V
62.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(26)
f = 1kHz 17.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(26)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
25. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
26. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
15 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D810AB (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. 0C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 1A, V

= 16V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it(
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 9.8 10.0 10.2 V

O
= 5mA to 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 12.8V to 25V
9.6 10.0 10.4
Regline Line Regulation
(27)
V

= 12.8V to 26V,
O
= 500mA 8.0 100 mV
V

= 13V to 20V 4.0 50.0
T
J
= +25C V

= 12.5V to 25V 8.0 100
V

= 13V to 20V 3.0 50.0
Regload Load Regulation
(27)
T
J
= +25C,
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 12.0 100 mV

O
= 5mA to 1A 12.0 100

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.0 6.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current
Change

O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 12.8V to 25V,
O
= 500mA 0.8
V

= 13V to 26V, T
J
= +25C 0.5
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(28)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 10.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(28)
f = 120Hz,
O
= 500mA, V

= 14V to 24V 62.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(28)
f = 1kHz 17.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(28)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
27. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
28. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
16 www.fairchildsemi.com
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E#$/t'i/!# C*!'!/t$'i(ti/( AL+D817AB (Continued)
Refer to the test circuits. 0C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 1A, V

= 19V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it(
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 11.75 12.0 12.25 V

O
= 5mA to 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 14.8V to 27V
11.5 12.0 12.5
Regline Line Regulation
(29)
V

= 14.8V to 30V,
O
= 500mA 10.0 120 mV
V

= 16V to 22V 4.0 120
T
J
= +25C V

= 14.5V to 27V 10.0 120
V

= 16V to 22V 3.0 60.0
Regload Load Regulation
(29)
T
J
= +25C,
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 12.0 100 mV

O
= 5mA to 1A 12.0 100

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.1 6.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 14V to 27V,
O
= 500mA 0.8
V

= 15V to 30V, T
J
= +25C 0.8
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(30)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 10.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(30)
f = 120Hz,
O
= 500mA,
V

= 14V to 24V
60.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(30)
f = 1kHz 18.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(30)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$?
29. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
30. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
1D www.fairchildsemi.com
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Refer to the test circuits. 0C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 1A, V

= 23V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it(
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 14.75 15.0 15.3 V

O
= 5mA to 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 17.7V to 30V
14.4 15.0 15.6
Regline Line Regulation
(31)
V

= 17.4V to 30V,
O
= 500mA 10.0 150 mV
V

= 20V to 26V 5.0 150
T
J
= +25C V

= 17.5V to 30V 11.0 150
V

= 20V to 26V 3.0 75.0
Regload Load Regulation
(31)
T
J
= +25C,
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 12.0 100 mV

O
= 5mA to 1A 12.0 100

O
= 250mA to 750mA 5.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.2 6.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 17.5V to 30V,
O
= 500mA 0.8
V

= 17.5V to 30V, T
J
= +25C 0.8
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(32)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 10.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(32)
f = 120Hz,
O
= 500mA,
V

= 18.5V to 28.5V
58.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(32)
f = 1kHz 19.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(32)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
31. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
32. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
18 www.fairchildsemi.com
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4
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Refer to the test circuits. 0C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 1A, V

= 27V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it(
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 17.64 18.0 18.36 V

O
= 5mA to 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 21V to 33V
17.3 18.0 18.7
Regline Line Regulation
(33)
V

= 21V to 33V,
O
= 500mA 15.0 180 mV
V

= 21V to 33V 5.0 180
T
J
= +25C V

= 20.6V to 33V 15.0 180
V

= 24V to 30V 5.0 90.0
Regload Load Regulation
(33)
T
J
= +25C,
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 15.0 100 mV

O
= 5mA to 1A 15.0 100

O
= 250mA to 750mA 7.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.2 6.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 12V to 33V,
O
= 500mA 0.8
V

= 12V to 33V, T
J
= +25C 0.8
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(34)

O
= 5mA -1.0 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 10.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(34)
f = 120Hz,
O
= 500mA,
V

= 22V to 32V
57.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(34)
f = 1kHz 19.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(34)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
33. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
34. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
19 www.fairchildsemi.com
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Refer to the test circuits. 0C l T
J
l 125C,
O
= 1A, V

= 33V, C

= 0.33NF, C
O
= 0.1NF, unless otherwise specified.
S1m"o# P!'!m$t$' Co%5itio%( +i%> T1> +!-> 8%it(
V
O
Output Voltage T
J
= +25C 23.5 24.0 24.5 V

O
= 5mA to 1A, P
O
g 15W,
V

= 27.3V to 38V
23.0 24.0 25.0
Regline Line Regulation
(35)
V

= 27V to 38V,
O
= 500mA 18.0 240 mV
V

= 21V to 33V 6.0 240
T
J
= +25C V

= 26.7V to 38V 18.0 240
V

= 30V to 36V 6.0 120
Regload Load Regulation
(35)
T
J
= +25C,
O
= 5mA to 1.5A 15.0 100 mV

O
= 5mA to 1A 15.0 100

O
= 250mA to 750mA 7.0 50.0

Q
Quiescent Current T
J
= +25C 5.2 6.0 mA
m
Q
Quiescent Current Change
O
= 5mA to 1A 0.5 mA
V

= 27.3V to 38V,
O
= 500mA 0.8
V

= 27.3V to 38V, T
J
= +25C 0.8
mV
O
/mT Output Voltage Drift
(36)

O
= 5mA -1.5 mV/C
V
N
Output Noise Voltage f = 10Hz to 100kHz, T
A
= +25C 10.0 NV/V
O
RR Ripple Rejection
(36)
f = 120Hz,
O
= 500mA,
V

= 28V to 38V
54.0 dB
V
DROP
Dropout Voltage
O
= 1A, T
J
= +25C 2.0 V
r
O
Output Resistance
(36)
f = 1kHz 20.0 mX

SC
Short Circuit Current V

= 35V, T
A
= +25C 250 mA

PK
Peak Current
(36)
T
J
= +25C 2.2 A
Not$(?
35. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Changes in V
O
due to heating effects
must be taken into account separately. Pulse testing with low duty is used.
36. These parameters, although guaranteed, are not 100% tested in production.
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
70 www.fairchildsemi.com
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D


O
8
T
P
8
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V
O
L
T
A
.
E

A
V
B
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8
I
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C
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N
T

C
8
R
R
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N
T

A
m
A
B
O
8
T
P
8
T

C
8
R
R
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T

A
A
B
T1i/!# P$'2o'm!%/$ C*!'!/t$'i(ti/(
6
5.75
5.5
5.25
5
4.75
V

= 10V
V
O
= 5V

O
= 5mA
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
.5
T
J
= 25QC
mV
O
= 100mV
4.5
-50
-25 0 25 50 75 100 125
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
68NCTION TE+PERAT8RE ALCB
INP8T-O8TP8T DI00ERENTIAL AVB
0i4,'$ C> G,i$(/$%t C,''$%t 0i4,'$ 4> P$!3 O,t,t C,''$%t
1.02
V V = 5V
7
T = 25QC
O J

O
= 5mA V
O
= 5V

O
= 10mA
1.01
1
0.99
6
5.5
5
4.5
0.98
-50
-25 0 25 50 75 100 125
4
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
68NCTION TE+PERAT8RE ALCB
INP8T VOLTA.E AVB
0i4,'$ 5> O,t,t Vo#t!4$ 0i4,'$ 6> G,i$(/$%t C,''$%t
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
71
www.fairchildsemi.com
L
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T1i/!# A#i/!tio%(
nput
1 3
L+D8@@
Output
C

0.33NF
2 C
O 0.1NF
0i4,'$ D> DC P!'!m$t$'(
nput
1
3
L+D8@@
2 R
L
270pF
Output
V
O
0.33F
2N6121
or EQ
0V
V
O
100X
30S
0i4,'$ 8> Lo!5 R$4,#!tio%
nput
5.1X
1
0.33F
L+D8@@
2
3
Output
R
L
470F
120Hz +
0i4,'$ 9> Ri#$ R$J$/tio%
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
77 www.fairchildsemi.com
O
R
Q
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nput
1 3
L+D8@@
Output
C

0.33NF
2
C
O 0.1NF
0i4,'$ 10> 0i-$5 O,t,t R$4,#!to'
nput
1 3
L+D8@@ Output
C

2
0.33NF

Q
C
O 0.1NF
R
1
V
XX

O
R
L
=
V
XX
+

1
Not$(:
1. To specify an output voltage, substitute voltage value for "XX. A common ground is required between the input and the
output voltage. The input voltage must remain typically 2.0V above the output voltage even during the low point on the
input ripple voltage.
2. C

is required if regulator is located an appreciable distance from power supply filter.
3. C
O
improves stability and transient response.
0i4,'$ 11>
nput
1 3
L+D8@@
V
XX
Output
C

0.33NF
2
C
O

Q
0.1NF
R1
R2

R
j 5
Q
V
O
= V
XX
(1 + R
2
/ R
1
) +
Q
R
2
0i4,'$ 17> Ci'/,it 2o' I%/'$!(i%4 O,t,t Vo#t!4$
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
7C www.fairchildsemi.com
R1 =
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4
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4
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t
o
'

nput
1
3
L+D805
Output
C

0.33NF
2
-
2
6
LM741
C
O
0.1NF
+
3
10kX
4

R
j 5
Q
V
O
= V
XX
(1 + R
2
/ R
1
) +
Q
R
2
0i4,'$ 1C> A5J,(t!"#$ O,t,t R$4,#!to' ADV to C0VB
nput
Q1 BD536
Q1
R1
1
3X
REG
3
L+D8@@
2
Output

O
V
BEQ1

REG

Q1
B
Q1
0.33F
0.1F

O
=
REG
+ B
Q1
(
REG
V
BEQ1
/R
1
)
0i4,'$ 14> Ei4* C,''$%t Vo#t!4$ R$4,#!to'
nput
R
SC
Q1
Q2
R1
3X
Q1 = TP42
Q2 = TP42
V
BEQ2
1
0.33F
L+D8@@
2
3
0.1F
Output
R
SC
=
SC
0i4,'$ 15> Ei4* O,t,t C,''$%t )it* S*o't Ci'/,it P'ot$/tio%
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
74
www.fairchildsemi.com
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1
V

0.33F
3
L+D8@@
2
0.1F
V
O
4.7kX
COMMON
7
_
2
6
LM741
COMMON
4
+
3 4.7kX
-V
N
TP42
-V
O
0i4,'$ 16> T'!/3i%4 Vo#t!4$ R$4,#!to'
+20V
-20V
1
0.33F
+ 2.2F
2
L+D815
2
1
+CD915
3
0.1F
1F +
3
1N4001
1N4001
+15V
-15V
0i4,'$ 1D> S#it Po)$' S,#1 AS15V Y 1AB
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
75 www.fairchildsemi.com
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3
nput
+
0.1F
Output
2
1 3
L+D8@@
0i4,'$ 18> N$4!ti&$ O,t,t Vo#t!4$ Ci'/,it
nput
D45H11
1mH
Output
4.7X
470X
Z1
1
L+D8@@
+
10F
0.5X
2
0.33F
+
2000F
0i4,'$ 19> S)it/*i%4 R$4,#!to'
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
76 www.fairchildsemi.com
1.30
0.50
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1
3
.
0
8

]
0
.
2
0
9
.
2
0

]
0
.
2
0
(
1
.
7
0
)
(
1
.
4
6
)
1
.
3
0

]
0
.
1
0
(
1
.
0
0
)
(
3
.
0
0
)
(
3
.
7
0
)
1
5
.
9
0

]
0
.
2
0
1
8
.
9
5
M
A
X
.
2
.
8
0

]
0
.
1
0
1
0
.
0
8

]
0
.
3
0
+$/*!%i/!# Dim$%(io%(
Dimensions in millimeters
TO-770
9.90 ]0.20
4.50 ]0.20
(8.70)
3.60 ]0.10
+0.10
0.05
1.27 ]0.10
1.52 ]0.10
2.54TYP
[2.54 ]0.20]
0.80 ]0.10
2.54TYP
[2.54 ]0.20]
+0.10
0.05
2.40 ]0.20
10.00 ]0.20
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
7D www.fairchildsemi.com
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TRADE+ARKS
The following are registered and unregistered trademarks Fairchild Semiconductor owns or is authorized to use and is not
intended to be an exhaustive list of all such trademarks.
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ActiveArray
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FRFET
GlobalOptoisolator
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HiSeC

2
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mpliedDisconnect
ntelliMAX
SOPLANAR
LittleFET
MCROCOUPLER
MicroFET
MicroPak
MCROWRE
MSX
MSXPro
OCX
OCXPro
OPTOLOGC

PowerEdge
PowerSaver
PowerTrench

QFET

QS
QT Optoelectronics
Quiet Series
RapidConfigure
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NSerDes
ScalarPump
SuperFET
SuperSOT-3
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TruTranslation
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Across the board. Around the world.
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Wire
DISCLAI+ER
FARCHLD SEMCONDUCTOR RESERVES THE RGHT TO MAKE CHANGES WTHOUT FURTHER NOTCE TO ANY
PRODUCTS HEREN TO MPROVE RELABLTY, FUNCTON OR DESGN. FARCHLD DOES NOT ASSUME ANY
LABLTY ARSNG OUT OF THE APPLCATON OR USE OF ANY PRODUCT OR CRCUT DESCRBED HEREN;
NETHER DOES T CONVEY ANY LCENSE UNDER TS PATENT RGHTS, NOR THE RGHTS OF OTHERS. THESE
SPECFCATONS DO NOT EXPAND THE TERMS OF FARCHLDS WORLDWDE TERMS AND CONDTONS,
SPECFCALLY THE WARRANTY THEREN, WHCH COVERS THESE PRODUCTS.
LI0E S8PPORT POLICI
FARCHLDS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORZED FOR USE AS CRTCAL COMPONENTS N LFE SUPPORT
DEVCES OR SYSTEMS WTHOUT THE EXPRESS WRTTEN APPROVAL OF FARCHLD SEMCONDUCTOR
CORPORATON.
As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems
which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body,
or (b) support or sustain life, or (c) whose failure to perform
when properly used in accordance with instructions for use
provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to
result in significant injury to the user.
2. A critical component is any component of a life support
device or system whose failure to perform can be
reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support
device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness.
PROD8CT STAT8S DE0INITIONS
D$2i%itio% o2 T$'m(
D!t!(*$$t I5$%ti2i/!tio% P'o5,/t St!t,( D$2i%itio%
Advance nformation Formative or n
Design
This datasheet contains the design specifications for
product development. Specifications may change in
any manner without notice.
Preliminary First Production This datasheet contains preliminary data, and
supplementary data will be published at a later date.
Fairchild Semiconductor reserves the right to make
changes at any time without notice in order to improve
design.
No dentification Needed Full Production This datasheet contains final specifications. Fairchild
Semiconductor reserves the right to make changes at
any time without notice in order to improve design.
Obsolete Not n Production This datasheet contains specifications on a product
that has been discontinued by Fairchild semiconductor.
The datasheet is printed for reference information only.
Rev. 19
LM78XX/LM78XXA Rev. 1.0.1
78 www.fairchildsemi.com
Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data 1
R!ti%4 S1m"o# V!#,$ 8%it
Collector Emitter Voltage V
CEO
40 Vdc
Collector Base Voltage V
CBO
75 Vdc
Emitter Base Voltage V
EBO
6.0 Vdc
Collector Current Continuous
C
600 mAdc
Total Device Dissipation @ T
A
= 25C
Derate above 25C
P
D
625
5.0
mW
mW/C
Total Device Dissipation @ T
C
= 25C
Derate above 25C
P
D
1.5
12
Watts
mW/C
Operating and Storage Junction
Temperature Range
T
J
, T
stg
55 to +150 C

SE+ICOND8CTOR TECENICAL DATA
O'5$' t*i( 5o/,m$%t
"1 P7N7777A/D

NPN Si#i/o%
COLLECTOR
1
2
BASE
3
EMTTER
+A@I+8+ RATIN.S
1
2
3
CASE 79Y04= STILE 1D
TOY97 ATOY776AAB
TEER+AL CEARACTERISTICS
C*!'!/t$'i(ti/ S1m"o# +!- 8%it
Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient R
JA
200 C/W
Thermal Resistance, Junction to Case R
JC
83.3 C/W
ELECTRICAL CEARACTERISTICS (T
A
= 25C unless otherwise noted)
C*!'!/t$'i(ti/ S1m"o# +i% +!- 8%it
O00 CEARACTERISTICS
Collector Emitter Breakdown Voltage
(
C
= 10 mAdc,
B
= 0)
V
(BR)CEO
40 Vdc
Collector Base Breakdown Voltage
(
C
= 10 Adc,
E
= 0)
V
(BR)CBO
75 Vdc
Emitter Base Breakdown Voltage
(
E
= 10 Adc,
C
= 0)
V
(BR)EBO
6.0 Vdc
Collector Cutoff Current
(V
CE
= 60 Vdc, V
EB(off)
= 3.0 Vdc)

CEX
10 nAdc
Collector Cutoff Current
(V
CB
= 60 Vdc,
E
= 0)
(V
CB
= 60 Vdc,
E
= 0, T
A
= 150C)

CBO

0.01
10
Adc
Emitter Cutoff Current
(V
EB
= 3.0 Vdc,
C
= 0)

EBO
10 nAdc
Collector Cutoff Current
(V
CE
= 10 V)

CEO
10 nAdc
Base Cutoff Current
(V
CE
= 60 Vdc, V
EB(off)
= 3.0 Vdc)

BEX
20 nAdc
Motorola, nc. 1996

ELECTRICAL CEARACTERISTICS (T
A
= 25C unless otherwise noted) (Continued)
C*!'!/t$'i(ti/ S1m"o# +i% +!- 8%it
ON CEARACTERISTICS
DC Current Gain
(
C
= 0.1 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc)
(
C
= 1.0 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc)
(
C
= 10 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc)
(
C
= 10 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, T
A
= 55C)
(
C
= 150 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc)
(1)
(
C
= 150 mAdc, V
CE
= 1.0 Vdc)
(1)
(
C
= 500 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc)
(1)
h
FE
35
50
75
35
100
50
40

300

Collector Emitter Saturation


Voltage
(1)
(
C
= 150 mAdc,
B
= 15
mAdc)
(
C
= 500 mAdc,
B
= 50 mAdc)
V
CE(sat)

0.3
1.0
Vdc
Base Emitter Saturation
Voltage
(1)
(
C
= 150 mAdc,
B
= 15
mAdc)
(
C
= 500 mAdc,
B
= 50 mAdc)
V
BE(sat)
0.6

1.2
2.0
Vdc
S+ALLY SI.NAL CEARACTERISTICS
Current Gain Bandwidth Product
(2)
(
C
= 20 mAdc, V
CE
= 20 Vdc, f = 100 MHz)
f
T
300 MHz
Output Capacitance
(V
CB
= 10 Vdc,
E
= 0, f = 1.0 MHz)
C
obo
8.0 pF
nput Capacitance
(V
EB
= 0.5 Vdc,
C
= 0, f = 1.0 MHz)
C
ibo
25 pF
nput mpedance
(
C
= 1.0 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, f = 1.0 kHz)
(
C
= 10 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, f = 1.0 kHz)
h
ie
2.0
0.25
8.0
1.25
k
Voltage Feedback Ratio
(
C
= 1.0 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, f = 1.0 kHz)
(
C
= 10 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, f = 1.0 kHz)
h
re

8.0
4.0
X 10
4
SmallSignal Current Gain
(
C
= 1.0 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, f = 1.0 kHz)
(
C
= 10 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, f = 1.0 kHz)
h
fe
50
75
300
375

Output Admittance
(
C
= 1.0 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, f = 1.0 kHz)
(
C
= 10 mAdc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, f = 1.0 kHz)
h
oe
5.0
25
35
200
mhos
Collector Base Time Constant
(
E
= 20 mAdc, V
CB
= 20 Vdc, f = 31.8 MHz)
rb C
c
150 ps
Noise Figure
(
C
= 100 Adc, V
CE
= 10 Vdc, R
S
= 1.0 k , f = 1.0 kHz)
N
F
4.0 dB
SHITCEIN. CEARACTERISTICS
Delay Time
(V
CC
= 30 Vdc, V
BE(off)
= 2.0 Vdc,

C
= 150 mAdc,
B1
= 15 mAdc) (Figure 1)
t
d
10 ns
Rise Time t
r
25 ns
Storage Time (V
CC
= 30 Vdc,
C
= 150 mAdc,

B1
=
B2
= 15 mAdc) (Figure 2)
t
s
225 ns
Fall Time t
f
60 ns
1. Pulse Test: Pulse Width 300 s, Duty Cycle 2.0%.
2. f
T
is defined as the frequency at which |h
fe
| extrapolates to unity.
2 Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data
V
C
E
,

C
O
L
L
E
C
T
O
R

E
M

T
T
E
R

V
O
L
T
A
G
E

(
V
O
L
T
S
)
h
F
E
,

D
C

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

G
A

N
SHITCEIN. TI+E EG8IVALENT TEST CIRC8ITS
+16 V
0
2 V
1.0 to 100 s,
DUTY CYCLE 2.0%
1 k
+ 30 V
200
C
S
* < 10 pF
+16 V
0
14 V
1.0 to 100 s,
DUTY CYCLE 2.0%
1 k
+ 30 V
200
C
S
* < 10 pF
< 2 ns
Scope rise time < 4 ns
*Total shunt capacitance of test jig,
connectors, and oscilloscope.
< 20 ns
1N914
4 V
0i4,'$ 1> T,'%YO% Tim$ 0i4,'$ 7> T,'%YO22 Tim$
1000
700
500
300
200
100
70
50
30
T
J
= 125C
25C
55C
V
CE
= 1.0 V
20 V
CE
= 10 V
10
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300 500 700 1.0 k

C
, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)
0i4,'$ C> DC C,''$%t .!i%
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

C
= 1.0 mA
10 mA 150 mA 500 mA
T
J
= 25C
0
0.005 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 10 20 30 50

B
, BASE CURRENT (mA)
0i4,'$ 4> Co##$/to' S!t,'!tio% R$4io%
Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data 3
C
A
P
A
C

T
A
N
C
E

(
p
F
)
N
F
,

N
O

S
E

F

G
U
R
E

(
d
B
)
t
,

T

M
E

(
n
s
)
f
T
,

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

G
A

N

B
A
N
D
W

D
T
H

P
R
O
D
U
C
T

(
M
H
z
)
N
F
,

N
O

S
E

F

G
U
R
E

(
d
B
)
t
,

T

M
E

(
n
s
)
200
100
70
t
r
@ V
CC
= 30 V

C
/
B
= 10
T
J
= 25C
500
300
200
t
s
= t
s
1/8 t
f
V
CC
= 30 V

C
/
B
= 10

B1
=
B2
T
J
= 25C
50
30
20
10
7.0
5.0
3.0
2.0
t
d
@ V
EB(off)
= 2.0 V
t
d
@ V
EB(off)
= 0
100
70
50
t
f
30
20
10
7.0
5.0
5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300 500 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300 500

C
, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)
0i4,'$ 5> T,'% Y O%
Tim$

C
, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)
0i4,'$ 6> T,'% Y O22 Tim$
10
8.0
6.0

C
= 1.0 mA, R
S
= 150
500 A, R
S
= 200
100 A, R
S
= 2.0 k
50 A, R
S
= 4.0 k
R
S
= OPTMUM
SOURCE
RESSTANCE
10
8.0
6.0
f = 1.0 kHz

C
= 50 A
100 A
500 A
1.0 mA
4.0
4.0
2.0
2.0
0
0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1
0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 50 100
0
50 100 200 500 1.0 k 2.0 k 5.0 k 10 k 20 k 50 k 100 k
f, FREQUENCY (kHz)
0i4,'$ D> 0'$<,$%/1 E22$/t(
R
S
, SOURCE RESSTANCE (OHMS)
0i4,'$ 8> So,'/$ R$(i(t!%/$ E22$/t(
30
20
C
eb
10
500
300
200
V
CE
= 20 V
T
J
= 25C
7.0
5.0
3.0
C
cb
100
70
2.0
0.1
0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50
REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS)
0i4,'$ 9> C!!/it!%/$(
50
1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30 50 70 100

C
, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)
0i4,'$ 10> C,''$%tY.!i% B!%5)i5t* P'o5,/t
4 Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data
V
,

V
O
L
T
A
G
E

(
V
O
L
T
S
)
C
O
E
F
F

E
N
T

(
m
V
/

C
)
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
T
J
= 25C
V
BE(sat)
@
C
/
B
= 10
V
BE(on)
@ V
CE
= 10 V
V
CE(sat)
@
C
/
B
= 10
1.0 V
+0.5
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

R
VC
for V
CE(sat)
R
VB
for V
BE
0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 50 100 200 500 1.0 k 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 50 100 200 500

C
, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)
0i4,'$ 11> WO%X Vo#t!4$(

C
, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)
0i4,'$ 17> T$m$'!t,'$ Co$22i/i$%t(
Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data 5
6 Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data
DI+
INCEES +ILLI+ETERS
+IN +A@ +IN +A@
A 0.175 0.205 4.45 5.20
B 0.170 0.210 4.32 5.33
C 0.125 0.165 3.18 4.19
D 0.016 0.022 0.41 0.55
0 0.016 0.019 0.41 0.48
. 0.045 0.055 1.15 1.39
E 0.095 0.105 2.42 2.66
6 0.015 0.020 0.39 0.50
K 0.500 12.70
L 0.250 6.35
N 0.080 0.105 2.04 2.66
P 0.100 2.54
R 0.115 2.93
V 0.135 3.43
PACKA.E DI+ENSIONS
A
B
R
P
L
SEATIN.
0
PLANE K
D
NOTES:
1. DMENSONNG AND TOLERANCNG PER ANS
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLNG DMENSON: NCH.
3. CONTOUR OF PACKAGE BEYOND DMENSON R
S UNCONTROLLED.
4. DMENSON F APPLES BETWEEN P AND L.
DMENSON D AND J APPLY BETWEEN L AND K
MNMUM. LEAD DMENSON S UNCONTROLLED
N P AND BEYOND DMENSON K MNMUM.
@ @
6
.
E
V
C
SECTION @Y@
1
N
N
CASE 079Y04
ATOY776AAB
ISS8E AD
STYLE 17:
PN 1. COLLECTOR
2. BASE
3. EMTTER
Motorola reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein. Motorola makes no warranty, representation or guarantee
regarding the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Motorola assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or
circuit, and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation consequential or incidental damages. "Typical parameters which may be
provided in Motorola data sheets and/or specifications can and do vary in different applications and actual performance may vary over time. All operating
parameters, including "Typicals must be validated for each customer application by customer's technical experts. Motorola does not convey any license
under its patent rights nor the rights of others. Motorola products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in systems intended for
surgical implant into the body, or other applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the Motorola product
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P7N7777A/D

M3D125
DISCRETE SE+ICOND8CTORS
BC10DU BC108U BC109
NPN general purpose transistors
Product specification
Supersedes data of 1997 Jun 03
File under Discrete Semiconductors, SC04
1997 Sep 03
P*i#i( S$mi/o%5,/to'( P'o5,/t ($/i2i/!tio%
NPN 4$%$'!# ,'o($ t'!%(i(to'( BC10DU BC108U BC109
0EAT8RES
Low current (max. 100 mA)
Low voltage (max. 45 V).
APPLICATIONS
General purpose switching and amplification.
DESCRIPTION
PNP complement: BC177.
PINNIN.
PIN DESCRIPTION
1 emitter
2 base
3 collector, connected to the case
1
3
2
2
3
MAM264
1
Fig.1 Simplified outline (TO-18; SOT18)
and symbol.
G8ICK RE0ERENCE DATA
SI+BOL PARA+ETER CONDITIONS +IN> +A@> 8NIT
V
CBO
collector-base voltage
BC107
BC108; BC109
open emitter
50
30
V
V
V
CEO
collector-emitter voltage
BC107
BC108; BC109
open base
45
20
V
V

CM
peak collector current 200 mA
P
tot
total power dissipation T
amb
25 C 300 mW
h
FE
DC current gain
BC107
BC108
BC109

C
= 2 mA; V
CE
= 5 V
110
110
200
450
800
800
f
T
transition frequency
C
= 10 mA; V
CE
= 5 V; f = 100 MHz 100 MHz
1997 Sep 03 2
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC107; BC108; BC109
LI+ITIN. VAL8ES
n accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (EC 134).
SI+BOL PARA+ETER CONDITIONS +IN> +A@> 8NIT
V
CBO
collector-base voltage
BC107
BC108; BC109
open emitter
50
30
V
V
V
CEO
collector-emitter voltage
BC107
BC108; BC109
open base
45
20
V
V
V
EBO
emitter-base voltage
BC107
BC108; BC109
open collector
6
5
V
V

C
collector current (DC) 100 mA

CM
peak collector current 200 mA

BM
peak base current 200 mA
P
tot
total power dissipation T
amb
25 C 300 mW
T
stg
storage temperature 65 +150 C
T
j
junction temperature 175 C
T
amb
operating ambient temperature 65 +150 C
TEER+AL CEARACTERISTICS
SI+BOL PARA+ETER CONDITIONS VAL8E 8NIT
R
th j-a
thermal resistance from junction to ambient note 1 0.5 K/mW
R
th j-c
thermal resistance from junction to case 0.2 K/mW
Not$
1. Transistor mounted on an FR4 printed-circuit board.
1997 Sep 03 3
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC107; BC108; BC109
CEARACTERISTICS
T
j
= 25 C unless otherwise specified.
SI+BOL PARA+ETER CONDITIONS +IN> TIP> +A@> 8NIT

CBO
collector cut-off current
E
= 0; V
CB
= 20 V 15 nA

E
= 0; V
CB
= 20 V; T
j
= 150 C 15 A

EBO
emitter cut-off current
C
= 0; V
EB
= 5 V 50 nA
h
FE
DC current gain
BC107A; BC108A
BC107B; BC108B; BC109B
BC108C; BC109C

C
= 10 A; V
CE
= 5 V
40
100
90
150
270
h
FE
DC current gain
BC107A; BC108A
BC107B; BC108B; BC109B
BC108C; BC109C

C
= 2 mA; V
CE
= 5 V
110
200
420
180
290
520
220
450
800
V
CEsat
collector-emitter saturation voltage
C
= 10 mA;
B
= 0.5 mA 90 250 mV

C
= 100 mA;
B
= 5 mA 200 600 mV
V
BEsat
base-emitter saturation voltage
C
= 10 mA;
B
= 0.5 mA; note 1 700 mV

C
= 100 mA;
B
= 5 mA; note 1 900 mV
V
BE
base-emitter voltage
C
= 2 mA; V
CE
= 5 V; note 2 550 620 700 mV

C
= 10 mA; V
CE
= 5 V; note 2 770 mV
C
c
collector capacitance
E
= i
e
= 0; V
CB
= 10 V; f = 1 MHz 2.5 6 pF
C
e
emitter capacitance
C
= i
c
= 0; V
EB
= 0.5 V; f = 1 MHz 9 pF
f
T
transition frequency
C
= 10 mA; V
CB
= 5 V; f = 100 MHz 100 MHz
F noise figure
BC109B; BC109C

C
= 200 A; V
CE
= 5 V; R
S
= 2 k ;
f = 30 Hz to 15.7 kHz
4 dB
F noise figure
BC107A; BC108A
BC107B; BC108B; BC108C
BC109B; BC109C

C
= 200 A; V
CE
= 5 V; R
S
= 2 k ;
f = 1 kHz; B = 200 Hz
10
4
dB
dB
Not$(
1. V
BEsat
decreases by about 1.7 mV/K with increasing temperature.
2. V
BE
decreases by about 2 mV/K with increasing temperature.
1997 Sep 03 4
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC107; BC108; BC109
PACKA.E O8TLINE
+$t!#-/!% /1#i%5'i/!# (i%4#$-$%5$5 !/3!4$U C #$!5( SOT18/1C
j
seating plane
B
w M
1
A M B M
b
k
7
D
1
C
a
A D A L
0 5 10 mm
scale
DI+ENSIONS Ami##im$t'$ 5im$%(io%( !'$ 5$'i&$5 2'om t*$ o'i4i%!# i%/* 5im$%(io%(B
8NIT A ! " D D
1
J 3 L )
mm
5.31
4.74
2.54
0.47
0.41
5.45
5.30
4.70
4.55
1.03
0.94
1.1
0.9
15.0
12.7
0.40 45
O8TLINE
VERSION
RE0ERENCES
IEC 6EDEC EIA6
E8ROPEAN
PRO6ECTION
ISS8E DATE
SOT18/13 B11/C7 type 3 TO-18 97-04-18
1997 Sep 03 5
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC107; BC108; BC109
DE0INITIONS
D!t! S*$$t St!t,(
Objective specification This data sheet contains target or goal specifications for product development.
Preliminary specification This data sheet contains preliminary data; supplementary data may be published later.
Product specification This data sheet contains final product specifications.
Limiti%4 &!#,$(
Limiting values given are in accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (EC 134). Stress above one or
more of the limiting values may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and operation
of the device at these or at any other conditions above those given in the Characteristics sections of the
specification is not implied. Exposure to limiting values for extended periods may affect device reliability.
A#i/!tio% i%2o'm!tio%
Where application information is given, it is advisory and does not form part of the specification.
LI0E S8PPORT APPLICATIONS
These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where malfunction of these
products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Philips customers using or selling these products for
use in such applications do so at their own risk and agree to fully indemnify Philips for any damages resulting from
such improper use or sale.
1997 Sep 03 6
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC107; BC108; BC109
NOTES
1997 Sep 03 7
P*i#i( S$mi/o%5,/to'( Y ! )o'#5)i5$ /om!%1
A'4$%ti%!? see South America
A,(t'!#i!? 34 Waterloo Road, NORTH RYDE, NSW 2113,
Tel. +61 2 9805 4455, Fax. +61 2 9805 4466
A,(t'i!? Computerstr. 6, A-1101 WEN, P.O. Box 213, Tel. +43 160 1010,
Fax. +43 160 101 1210
B$#!',(? Hotel Minsk Business Center, Bld. 3, r. 1211, Volodarski Str. 6,
220050 MNSK, Tel. +375 172 200 733, Fax. +375 172 200 773
B$#4i,m? see The Netherlands
B'!Vi#? see South America
B,#4!'i!? Philips Bulgaria Ltd., Energoproject, 15th floor,
51 James Bourchier Blvd., 1407 SOFA,
Tel. +359 2 689 211, Fax. +359 2 689 102
C!%!5!? PHLPS SEMCONDUCTORS/COMPONENTS,
Tel. +1 800 234 7381
C*i%!/Eo%4 Ko%4? 501 Hong Kong ndustrial Technology Centre,
72 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, HONG KONG,
Tel. +852 2319 7888, Fax. +852 2319 7700
Co#om"i!? see South America
CV$/* R$,"#i/? see Austria
D$%m!'3? Prags Boulevard 80, PB 1919, DK-2300 COPENHAGEN S,
Tel. +45 32 88 2636, Fax. +45 31 57 0044
0i%#!%5? Sinikalliontie 3, FN-02630 ESPOO,
Tel. +358 9 615800, Fax. +358 9 61580920
0'!%/$? 4 Rue du Port-aux-Vins, BP317, 92156 SURESNES Cedex,
Tel. +33 1 40 99 6161, Fax. +33 1 40 99 6427
.$'m!%1? Hammerbrookstrae 69, D-20097 HAMBURG,
Tel. +49 40 23 53 60, Fax. +49 40 23 536 300
.'$$/$? No. 15, 25th March Street, GR 17778 TAVROS/ATHENS,
Tel. +30 1 4894 339/239, Fax. +30 1 4814 240
E,%4!'1? see Austria
I%5i!? Philips NDA Ltd, Band Box Building, 2nd floor,
254-D, Dr. Annie Besant Road, Worli, MUMBA 400 025,
Tel. +91 22 493 8541, Fax. +91 22 493 0966
I%5o%$(i!? see Singapore
I'$#!%5? Newstead, Clonskeagh, DUBLN 14,
Tel. +353 1 7640 000, Fax. +353 1 7640 200
I('!$#? RAPAC Electronics, 7 Kehilat Saloniki St, PO Box 18053,
TEL AVV 61180, Tel. +972 3 645 0444, Fax. +972 3 649 1007
It!#1? PHLPS SEMCONDUCTORS, Piazza V Novembre 3,
20124 MLANO, Tel. +39 2 6752 2531, Fax. +39 2 6752 2557
6!!%? Philips Bldg 13-37, Kohnan 2-chome, Minato-ku, TOKYO 108,
Tel. +81 3 3740 5130, Fax. +81 3 3740 5077
Ko'$!? Philips House, 260-199 taewon-dong, Yongsan-ku, SEOUL,
Tel. +82 2 709 1412, Fax. +82 2 709 1415
+!#!1(i!? No. 76 Jalan Universiti, 46200 PETALNG JAYA, SELANGOR,
Tel. +60 3 750 5214, Fax. +60 3 757 4880
+$-i/o? 5900 Gateway East, Suite 200, EL PASO, TEXAS 79905,
Tel. +9-5 800 234 7381
+i55#$ E!(t? see taly
N$t*$'#!%5(? Postbus 90050, 5600 PB ENDHOVEN, Bldg. VB,
Tel. +31 40 27 82785, Fax. +31 40 27 88399
N$) K$!#!%5? 2 Wagener Place, C.P.O. Box 1041, AUCKLAND,
Tel. +64 9 849 4160, Fax. +64 9 849 7811
No')!1? Box 1, Manglerud 0612, OSLO,
Tel. +47 22 74 8000, Fax. +47 22 74 8341
P*i#ii%$(? Philips Semiconductors Philippines nc.,
106 Valero St. Salcedo Village, P.O. Box 2108 MCC, MAKAT,
Metro MANLA, Tel. +63 2 816 6380, Fax. +63 2 817 3474
Po#!%5? Ul. Lukiska 10, PL 04-123 WARSZAWA,
Tel. +48 22 612 2831, Fax. +48 22 612 2327
Po't,4!#? see Spain
Rom!%i!? see taly
R,((i!? Philips Russia, Ul. Usatcheva 35A, 119048 MOSCOW,
Tel. +7 095 755 6918, Fax. +7 095 755 6919
Si%4!o'$? Lorong 1, Toa Payoh, SNGAPORE 1231,
Tel. +65 350 2538, Fax. +65 251 6500
S#o&!3i!? see Austria
S#o&$%i!? see taly
So,t* A2'i/!? S.A. PHLPS Pty Ltd., 195-215 Main Road Martindale,
2092 JOHANNESBURG, P.O. Box 7430 Johannesburg 2000,
Tel. +27 11 470 5911, Fax. +27 11 470 5494
So,t* Am$'i/!? Rua do Rocio 220, 5th floor, Suite 51,
04552-903 So Paulo, SO PAULO - SP, Brazil,
Tel. +55 11 821 2333, Fax. +55 11 829 1849
S!i%? Balmes 22, 08007 BARCELONA,
Tel. +34 3 301 6312, Fax. +34 3 301 4107
S)$5$%? Kottbygatan 7, Akalla, S-16485 STOCKHOLM,
Tel. +46 8 632 2000, Fax. +46 8 632 2745
S)itV$'#!%5? Allmendstrasse 140, CH-8027 ZRCH,
Tel. +41 1 488 2686, Fax. +41 1 481 7730
T!i)!%? Philips Semiconductors, 6F, No. 96, Chien Kuo N. Rd., Sec. 1,
TAPE, Taiwan Tel. +886 2 2134 2865, Fax. +886 2 2134 2874
T*!i#!%5? PHLPS ELECTRONCS (THALAND) Ltd.,
209/2 Sanpavuth-Bangna Road Prakanong, BANGKOK 10260,
Tel. +66 2 745 4090, Fax. +66 2 398 0793
T,'3$1? Talatpasa Cad. No. 5, 80640 GLTEPE/STANBUL,
Tel. +90 212 279 2770, Fax. +90 212 282 6707
83'!i%$: PHLPS UKRANE, 4 Patrice Lumumba str., Building B, Floor 7,
252042 KEV, Tel. +380 44 264 2776, Fax. +380 44 268 0461
8%it$5 Ki%45om? Philips Semiconductors Ltd., 276 Bath Road, Hayes,
MDDLESEX UB3 5BX, Tel. +44 181 730 5000, Fax. +44 181 754 8421
8%it$5 St!t$(? 811 East Arques Avenue, SUNNYVALE, CA 94088-3409,
Tel. +1 800 234 7381
8',4,!1? see South America
Vi$t%!m? see Singapore
I,4o(#!&i!? PHLPS, Trg N. Pasica 5/v, 11000 BEOGRAD,
Tel. +381 11 625 344, Fax.+381 11 635 777
0o' !## ot*$' /o,%t'i$( !#1 to? Philips Semiconductors, Marketing & Sales Communications,
Building BE-p, P.O. Box 218, 5600 MD ENDHOVEN, The Netherlands, Fax. +31 40 27 24825
I%t$'%$t? http://www.semiconductors.philips.com
Philips Electronics N.V. 1997 SCA55
All rights are reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written consent of the copyright owner.
The information presented in this document does not form part of any quotation or contract, is believed to be accurate and reliable and may be changed
without notice. No liability will be accepted by the publisher for any consequence of its use. Publication thereof does not convey nor imply any license
under patent- or other industrial or intellectual property rights.
Printed in The Netherlands 117047/00/04/pp8 Date of release: 1997 Sep 03 Document order number: 9397 750 02817
M3D186
DISCRETE SE+ICOND8CTORS
BC546U BC54D
NPN general purpose transistors
Product specification
Supersedes data of 1997 Mar 04
1999 Apr 15
PIN DESCRIPTION
1 emitter
2 base
3 collector
P*i#i( S$mi/o%5,/to'( P'o5,/t ($/i2i/!tio%
NPN 4$%$'!# ,'o($ t'!%(i(to'( BC546U BC54D
0EAT8RES
Low current (max. 100 mA)
Low voltage (max. 65 V).
APPLICATIONS
General purpose switching and amplification.
DESCRIPTION
NPN transistor in a TO-92; SOT54 plastic package.
PNP complements: BC556 and BC557.
PINNIN.
Fig.1 Simplified outline (TO-92; SOT54)
and symbol.
LI+ITIN. VAL8ES
n accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (EC 134).
SI+BOL PARA+ETER CONDITIONS +IN> +A@> 8NIT
V
CBO
collector-base voltage
BC546
BC547
open emitter
80
50
V
V
V
CEO
collector-emitter voltage
BC546
BC547
open base
65
45
V
V
V
EBO
emitter-base voltage
BC546
BC547
open collector
6
6
V
V

C
collector current (DC) 100 mA

CM
peak collector current 200 mA

BM
peak base current 200 mA
P
tot
total power dissipation T
amb
25 C; note 1 500 mW
T
stg
storage temperature 65 +150 C
T
j
junction temperature 150 C
T
amb
operating ambient temperature 65 +150 C
Not$
1. Transistor mounted on an FR4 printed-circuit board.
1999 Apr 15 2
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC546; BC547
TEER+AL CEARACTERISTICS
SI+BOL PARA+ETER CONDITIONS VAL8E 8NIT
R
th j-a
thermal resistance from junction to ambient note 1 0.25 K/mW
Not$
1. Transistor mounted on an FR4 printed-circuit board.
CEARACTERISTICS
T
j
= 25 C unless otherwise specified.
SI+BOL PARA+ETER CONDITIONS +IN> TIP> +A@> 8NIT

CBO
collector cut-off current
E
= 0; V
CB
= 30 V 15 nA

E
= 0; V
CB
= 30 V; T
j
= 150 C 5 A

EBO
emitter cut-off current
C
= 0; V
EB
= 5 V 100 nA
h
FE
DC current gain
BC546A
BC546B; BC547B
BC547C

C
= 10 A; V
CE
= 5 V;
see Figs 2, 3 and 4
90
150
270
DC current gain
BC546A
BC546B; BC547B
BC547C
BC547
BC546

C
= 2 mA; V
CE
= 5 V;
see Figs 2, 3 and 4
110
200
420
110
110
180
290
520
220
450
800
800
450
V
CEsat
collector-emitter saturation
voltage

C
= 10 mA;
B
= 0.5 mA 90 250 mV

C
= 100 mA;
B
= 5 mA 200 600 mV
V
BEsat
base-emitter saturation voltage
C
= 10 mA;
B
= 0.5 mA; note 1 700 mV

C
= 100 mA;
B
= 5 mA; note 1 900 mV
V
BE
base-emitter voltage
C
= 2 mA; V
CE
= 5 V; note 2 580 660 700 mV

C
= 10 mA; V
CE
= 5 V 770 mV
C
c
collector capacitance
E
= i
e
= 0; V
CB
= 10 V; f = 1 MHz 1.5 pF
C
e
emitter capacitance
C
= i
c
= 0; V
EB
= 0.5 V; f = 1 MHz 11 pF
f
T
transition frequency
C
= 10mA; V
CE
= 5 V; f = 100 MHz 100 MHz
F noise figure
C
= 200 A; V
CE
= 5 V;
R
S
= 2 k ; f = 1 kHz; B = 200 Hz
2 10 dB
Not$(
1. V
BEsat
decreases by about 1.7 mV/K with increasing temperature.
2. V
BE
decreases by about 2 mV/K with increasing temperature.
1999 Apr 15 3
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC546; BC547
250
MBH723
h
FE
200
V
CE
= 5 V
150
100
50
0
10
2
10
1
1
10 10
2

C
(mA)
10
3
BC546A>
Fig.2 DC current gain; typical values.
300
MBH724
h
FE V
CE
= 5 V
200
100
0
10
2
10
1
1
10 10
2

C
(mA)
10
3
BC546BU BC54DB>
Fig.3 DC current gain; typical values.
1999 Apr 15 4
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC546; BC547
600
MBH725
h
FE
V
CE
= 5 V
400
200
0
10
2
10
1
1
10 10
2

C
(mA)
10
3
BC54DC>
Fig.4 DC current gain; typical values.
1999 Apr 15 5
L
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC546; BC547
PACKA.E O8TLINE
P#!(ti/ (i%4#$-$%5$5 #$!5$5 At*'o,4* *o#$B !/3!4$U C #$!5( SOT54
c
E
d A L
b
1
7
e
1
D
e
C
b
1
1
0 2.5 5 mm
scale
DI+ENSIONS Amm !'$ t*$ o'i4i%!# 5im$%(io%(B
8NIT A " "
1
/ D 5 E $ $
1
L L
A1B
1
mm
5.2
5.0
0.48
0.40
0.66
0.56
0.45
0.40
4.8
4.4
1.7
1.4
4.2
3.6
2.54 1.27
14.5
12.7
2.5
Not$
1. Terminal dimensions within this zone are uncontrolled to allow for flow of plastic and terminal irregularities.
O8TLINE
VERSION
RE0ERENCES
IEC 6EDEC EIA6
E8ROPEAN
PRO6ECTION
ISS8E DATE
SOT54 TO-92 SC-43 97-02-28
1999 Apr 15 6
Philips Semiconductors Product specification
NPN general purpose transistors BC546; BC547
DE0INITIONS
D!t! S*$$t St!t,(
Objective specification This data sheet contains target or goal specifications for product development.
Preliminary specification This data sheet contains preliminary data; supplementary data may be published later.
Product specification This data sheet contains final product specifications.
Limiti%4 &!#,$(
Limiting values given are in accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (EC 134). Stress above one or
more of the limiting values may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and operation
of the device at these or at any other conditions above those given in the Characteristics sections of the
specification is not implied. Exposure to limiting values for extended periods may affect device reliability.
A#i/!tio% i%2o'm!tio%
Where application information is given, it is advisory and does not form part of the specification.
LI0E S8PPORT APPLICATIONS
These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where malfunction of these
products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Philips customers using or selling these products for
use in such applications do so at their own risk and agree to fully indemnify Philips for any damages resulting from
such improper use or sale.
1999 Apr 15 7
P*i#i( S$mi/o%5,/to'( Y ! )o'#5)i5$ /om!%1
A'4$%ti%!? see South America
A,(t'!#i!? 34 Waterloo Road, NORTH RYDE, NSW 2113,
Tel. +61 2 9805 4455, Fax. +61 2 9805 4466
A,(t'i!? Computerstr. 6, A-1101 WEN, P.O. Box 213,
Tel. +43 1 60 101 1248, Fax. +43 1 60 101 1210
B$#!',(? Hotel Minsk Business Center, Bld. 3, r. 1211, Volodarski Str. 6,
220050 MNSK, Tel. +375 172 20 0733, Fax. +375 172 20 0773
B$#4i,m? see The Netherlands
B'!Vi#? see South America
B,#4!'i!? Philips Bulgaria Ltd., Energoproject, 15th floor,
51 James Bourchier Blvd., 1407 SOFA,
Tel. +359 2 68 9211, Fax. +359 2 68 9102
C!%!5!? PHLPS SEMCONDUCTORS/COMPONENTS,
Tel. +1 800 234 7381, Fax. +1 800 943 0087
C*i%!/Eo%4 Ko%4? 501 Hong Kong ndustrial Technology Centre,
72 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, HONG KONG,
Tel. +852 2319 7888, Fax. +852 2319 7700
Co#om"i!? see South America
CV$/* R$,"#i/? see Austria
D$%m!'3? Sydhavnsgade 23, 1780 COPENHAGEN V,
Tel. +45 33 29 3333, Fax. +45 33 29 3905
0i%#!%5? Sinikalliontie 3, FN-02630 ESPOO,
Tel. +358 9 615 800, Fax. +358 9 6158 0920
0'!%/$? 51 Rue Carnot, BP317, 92156 SURESNES Cedex,
Tel. +33 1 4099 6161, Fax. +33 1 4099 6427
.$'m!%1? Hammerbrookstrae 69, D-20097 HAMBURG,
Tel. +49 40 2353 60, Fax. +49 40 2353 6300
E,%4!'1? see Austria
I%5i!? Philips NDA Ltd, Band Box Building, 2nd floor,
254-D, Dr. Annie Besant Road, Worli, MUMBA 400 025,
Tel. +91 22 493 8541, Fax. +91 22 493 0966
I%5o%$(i!? PT Philips Development Corporation, Semiconductors Division,
Gedung Philips, Jl. Buncit Raya Kav.99-100, JAKARTA 12510,
Tel. +62 21 794 0040 ext. 2501, Fax. +62 21 794 0080
I'$#!%5? Newstead, Clonskeagh, DUBLN 14,
Tel. +353 1 7640 000, Fax. +353 1 7640 200
I('!$#? RAPAC Electronics, 7 Kehilat Saloniki St, PO Box 18053,
TEL AVV 61180, Tel. +972 3 645 0444, Fax. +972 3 649 1007
It!#1? PHLPS SEMCONDUCTORS, Piazza V Novembre 3,
20124 MLANO, Tel. +39 2 6752 2531, Fax. +39 2 6752 2557
6!!%? Philips Bldg 13-37, Kohnan 2-chome, Minato-ku,
TOKYO 108-8507, Tel. +81 3 3740 5130, Fax. +81 3 3740 5077
Ko'$!? Philips House, 260-199 taewon-dong, Yongsan-ku, SEOUL,
Tel. +82 2 709 1412, Fax. +82 2 709 1415
+!#!1(i!? No. 76 Jalan Universiti, 46200 PETALNG JAYA, SELANGOR,
Tel. +60 3 750 5214, Fax. +60 3 757 4880
+$-i/o? 5900 Gateway East, Suite 200, EL PASO, TEXAS 79905,
Tel. +9-5 800 234 7381, Fax +9-5 800 943 0087
+i55#$ E!(t? see taly
N$t*$'#!%5(? Postbus 90050, 5600 PB ENDHOVEN, Bldg. VB,
Tel. +31 40 27 82785, Fax. +31 40 27 88399
N$) K$!#!%5? 2 Wagener Place, C.P.O. Box 1041, AUCKLAND,
Tel. +64 9 849 4160, Fax. +64 9 849 7811
No')!1? Box 1, Manglerud 0612, OSLO,
Tel. +47 22 74 8000, Fax. +47 22 74 8341
P!3i(t!%? see Singapore
P*i#ii%$(? Philips Semiconductors Philippines nc.,
106 Valero St. Salcedo Village, P.O. Box 2108 MCC, MAKAT,
Metro MANLA, Tel. +63 2 816 6380, Fax. +63 2 817 3474
Po#!%5? Ul. Lukiska 10, PL 04-123 WARSZAWA,
Tel. +48 22 612 2831, Fax. +48 22 612 2327
Po't,4!#? see Spain
Rom!%i!? see taly
R,((i!? Philips Russia, Ul. Usatcheva 35A, 119048 MOSCOW,
Tel. +7 095 755 6918, Fax. +7 095 755 6919
Si%4!o'$? Lorong 1, Toa Payoh, SNGAPORE 319762,
Tel. +65 350 2538, Fax. +65 251 6500
S#o&!3i!? see Austria
S#o&$%i!? see taly
So,t* A2'i/!? S.A. PHLPS Pty Ltd., 195-215 Main Road Martindale,
2092 JOHANNESBURG, P.O. Box 7430 Johannesburg 2000,
Tel. +27 11 470 5911, Fax. +27 11 470 5494
So,t* Am$'i/!? Al. Vicente Pinzon, 173, 6th floor,
04547-130 SO PAULO, SP, Brazil,
Tel. +55 11 821 2333, Fax. +55 11 821 2382
S!i%? Balmes 22, 08007 BARCELONA,
Tel. +34 93 301 6312, Fax. +34 93 301 4107
S)$5$%? Kottbygatan 7, Akalla, S-16485 STOCKHOLM,
Tel. +46 8 5985 2000, Fax. +46 8 5985 2745
S)itV$'#!%5? Allmendstrasse 140, CH-8027 ZRCH,
Tel. +41 1 488 2741 Fax. +41 1 488 3263
T!i)!%? Philips Semiconductors, 6F, No. 96, Chien Kuo N. Rd., Sec. 1,
TAPE, Taiwan Tel. +886 2 2134 2886, Fax. +886 2 2134 2874
T*!i#!%5? PHLPS ELECTRONCS (THALAND) Ltd.,
209/2 Sanpavuth-Bangna Road Prakanong, BANGKOK 10260,
Tel. +66 2 745 4090, Fax. +66 2 398 0793
T,'3$1? Talatpasa Cad. No. 5, 80640 GLTEPE/STANBUL,
Tel. +90 212 279 2770, Fax. +90 212 282 6707
83'!i%$: PHLPS UKRANE, 4 Patrice Lumumba str., Building B, Floor 7,
252042 KEV, Tel. +380 44 264 2776, Fax. +380 44 268 0461
8%it$5 Ki%45om? Philips Semiconductors Ltd., 276 Bath Road, Hayes,
MDDLESEX UB3 5BX, Tel. +44 181 730 5000, Fax. +44 181 754 8421
8%it$5 St!t$(? 811 East Arques Avenue, SUNNYVALE, CA 94088-3409,
Tel. +1 800 234 7381, Fax. +1 800 943 0087
8',4,!1? see South America
Vi$t%!m? see Singapore
I,4o(#!&i!? PHLPS, Trg N. Pasica 5/v, 11000 BEOGRAD,
Tel. +381 11 62 5344, Fax.+381 11 63 5777
0o' !## ot*$' /o,%t'i$( !#1 to? Philips Semiconductors,
nternational Marketing & Sales Communications, Building BE-p, P.O. Box 218,
5600 MD ENDHOVEN, The Netherlands, Fax. +31 40 27 24825
I%t$'%$t? http://www.semiconductors.philips.com
Philips Electronics N.V. 1999 SCA63
All rights are reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written consent of the copyright owner.
The information presented in this document does not form part of any quotation or contract, is believed to be accurate and reliable and may be changed
without notice. No liability will be accepted by the publisher for any consequence of its use. Publication thereof does not convey nor imply any license
under patent- or other industrial or intellectual property rights.
Printed in The Netherlands 115002/00/03/pp8 Date of release: 1999 Apr 15 Document order number: 9397 750 05677
6D**B)$, 5CDDII+
!3ot 6atri5 9iquid Cr&stal 3ispla& Controller03ri%er(
A3E.+,F.+F+!G(
S///
Re% ,,
Description
The 23DDF>,$ dot.matri5 liquid cr&stal displa& controller and dri%er 97I displa&s alphanumerics*
Japanese #ana characters* and s&mbols It can be confi'ured to dri%e a dot.matri5 liquid cr&stal displa&
under the control of a D. or >.bit microprocessor 7ince all the functions such as displa& RA6* character
'enerator* and liquid cr&stal dri%er* required for dri%in' a dot.matri5 liquid cr&stal displa& are internall&
pro%ided on one chip* a minimal s&stem can be interfaced with this controller0dri%er
A sin'le 23DDF>,$ can displa& up to one >.character line or two >.character lines
The 23DDF>,$ has pin function compatibilit& with the 23DDF>,7 which allows the user to easil& replace
an 9C3.II with an 23DDF>,$ The 23DDF>,$ character 'enerator RO6 is e5tended to 'enerate +,> -

> dot character fonts and C+ - @, dot character fonts for a total of +D, different character
fonts
The low power suppl& !+F; to --;( of the 23DDF>,$ is suitable for an& portable batter&.dri%en product
requirin' low power dissipation
4eatures
- > and - @, dot matri5
possible
9ow power operation support)
+F to --;
8ide ran'e of liquid cr&stal displa& dri%er power
C, to @@;
9iquid cr&stal dri%e wa%eform
A !One line frequenc& AC wa%eform(
Correspond to hi'h speed 6P$ bus interface
+ 62= !when ;
CC
Z -;(
D.bit or >.bit 6P$ interface enabled
>, >.bit displa& RA6 !>, characters
ma5(
/*/+,.bit character 'enerator RO6 for a total of +D, character fonts
+,> character fonts !- > dot(
C+ character fonts !- @, dot(
1
6D**B)$,
ED >.bit character 'enerator RA6
> character fonts !- > dot(
D character fonts !- @, dot(
@E.common D,.se'ment liquid cr&stal displa& dri%er
Pro'rammable dut& c&cles
@0> for one line of - > dots with cursor
@0@@ for one line of - @, dots with cursor
@0@E for two lines of - > dots with cursor
8ide ran'e of instruction functions)
3ispla& clear* cursor home* displa& on0off* cursor on0off* displa& character blin#* cursor shift*
displa& shift
Pin function compatibilit& with 23DDF>,7
Automatic reset circuit that initiali=es the controller0dri%er after power on
Internal oscillator with e5ternal resistors
9ow power consumption
3rdering Information
T1$ No> P!/3!4$ C.RO+
HD44780UA00FS
HCD44780UA00
FP-80B
Chip
Japanese standard font
HD44780UA00TF TFP-80F
HD44780UA02FS
HCD44780UA02
HD44780UA02TF
HD44780UBxxFS
HCD44780UBxx
HD44780UBxxTF
Note: xx: ROM code No.
FP-80B
Chip
TFP-80F
FP-80B
Chip
TFP-80F
European standard font
Custom font
2
6D**B)$,
6D**B)$, Bloc1 Diagram
Reset
circuit
ACL
8
OSC1 OSC2
CPG
nstruction
register (R)
Timing
generator
7
CL1
CL2
M
D
RS
R/W
E
MPU
inter-
face
nstruction
decoder
Display
data RAM
(DDRAM)
80 8 bits
16-bit
shift
register
Common
signal
driver
COM1 to
COM16
DB4 to
DB7
nput/
8
7
Data
Address 7
counter
8
7
8
40-bit
shift
register
40-bit
latch
circuit
Segment
signal
driver
SEG1 to
SEG40
DB0 to
DB3
output
buffer
register
(DR)
40
8 8
Busy
flag
LCD drive
voltage
selector
GND
Character
generator
RAM
(CGRAM)
64 bytes
5
Character
generator
ROM
(CGROM)
9,920 bits
5
Cursor
and
blink
controller
Parallel/serial converter
and
attribute circuit
V
CC
V1 V2 V3 V4 V5
3
O
S
C
2
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
C
L
1
C
L
2
V
C
C

M

D
R
S

R
/
W

E

D
B
0
D
B
1
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
2
9
3
0
3
1
3
2
3
3
3
4
3
5
3
6
3
7
3
8
3
9
4
0
8
0


S
E
G
2
3
7
9


S
E
G
2
4
7
8


S
E
G
2
5
7
7


S
E
G
2
6
7
6


S
E
G
2
7
7
5


S
E
G
2
8
7
4


S
E
G
2
9
7
3


S
E
G
3
0
7
2


S
E
G
3
1
7
1


S
E
G
3
2
7
0


S
E
G
3
3
6
9


S
E
G
3
4
6
8


S
E
G
3
5
6
7


S
E
G
3
6
6
6


S
E
G
3
7
6
5


S
E
G
3
8
6D**B)$,
6D**B)$, -in Arrangement 4-D)$B+
SEG22
1
SEG21
2
SEG20
3
SEG19
4
SEG18
5
SEG17
6
SEG16
7
SEG15
8
SEG14
9
64
SEG39
63
SEG40
62
COM16
61
COM15
60
COM14
59
COM13
58
COM12
57
COM11
56
COM10
SEG13
10
SEG12
11
SEG11
12
SEG10
13
FP-80B
(Top view)
55
COM9
54
COM8
53
COM7
52
COM6
SEG9
14
SEG8
15
SEG7
16
SEG6
17
SEG5
18
SEG4
19
SEG3
20
SEG2
21
SEG1
22
GND
23
OSC1
24
51
COM5
50
COM4
49
COM3
48
COM2
47
COM1
46
DB7
45
DB6
44
DB5
43
DB4
42
DB3
41
DB2
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
G
N
D
O
S
C
1
O
S
C
2
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
C
L
1
C
L
2
V
C
C
8
0
7
9
7
8
7
7
7
6
7
5
7
4
7
3
7
2
7
1
7
0
6
9
6
8
6
7
6
6
6
5
6
4
6
3
6
2
6
1
S
E
G
2
1
S
E
G
2
2
S
E
G
2
3
S
E
G
2
4
S
E
G
2
5
S
E
G
2
6
S
E
G
2
7
S
E
G
2
8
S
E
G
2
9
S
E
G
3
0
S
E
G
3
1
S
E
G
3
2
S
E
G
3
3
S
E
G
3
4
S
E
G
3
5
S
E
G
3
6
S
E
G
3
7
S
E
G
3
8
S
E
G
3
9
S
E
G
4
0
R
S
R
/
W
D
B
0
D
B
1
D
B
2
D
B
3
6D**B)$,
6D**B)$, -in Arrangement 24-D)$4+
SEG20
SEG19
SEG18
SEG17
SEG16
SEG15
SEG14
SEG13
SEG12
SEG11
SEG10
SEG9
SEG8
SEG7
SEG6
SEG5
SEG4
SEG3
SEG2
SEG1
TFP-80F
(Top view)
COM16
COM15
COM14
COM13
COM12
COM11
COM10
COM9
COM8
COM7
COM6
COM5
COM4
COM3
COM2
COM1
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
2
9
3
0
3
1
3
2
3
3
3
4
3
5
3
6
3
7
3
8
3
9
4
0
5
6D**B)$,
6D**B)$, -ad Arrangement
Chip size:
Coordinate:
Origin:
Pad size:
4.90 4.90 mm
2
Pad center (m)
Chip center
114 114 m
2
2 1 80 63
Y
Type code
HD44780U
23 42
X
6
6D**B)$,
6CD**B)$, -ad 5ocation Coordinates
Coo'5i%!t$ Coo'5i%!t$
P!5 No> 0,%/tio% @ A,mB I A,mB P!5 No> 0,%/tio% @ A,mB I A,mB
1 SEG22 2100 2313 41 DB2 2070 2290
2 SEG21 2280 2313 42 DB3 2260 2290
3 SEG20 2313 2089 43 DB4 2290 2099
4 SEG19 2313 1833 44 DB5 2290 1883
5 SEG18 2313 1617 45 DB6 2290 1667
6 SEG17 2313 1401 46 DB7 2290 1452
7 SEG16 2313 1186 47 COM1 2313 1186
8 SEG15 2313 970 48 COM2 2313 970
9 SEG14 2313 755 49 COM3 2313 755
10 SEG13 2313 539 50 COM4 2313 539
11 SEG12 2313 323 51 COM5 2313 323
12 SEG11 2313 108 52 COM6 2313 108
13 SEG10 2313 108 53 COM7 2313 108
14 SEG9 2313 323 54 COM8 2313 323
15 SEG8 2313 539 55 COM9 2313 539
16 SEG7 2313 755 56 COM10 2313 755
17 SEG6 2313 970 57 COM11 2313 970
18 SEG5 2313 1186 58 COM12 2313 1186
19 SEG4 2313 1401 59 COM13 2313 1401
20 SEG3 2313 1617 60 COM14 2313 1617
21 SEG2 2313 1833 61 COM15 2313 1833
22 SEG1 2313 2073 62 COM16 2313 2095
23 GND 2280 2290 63 SEG40 2296 2313
24 OSC1 2080 2290 64 SEG39 2100 2313
25 OSC2 1749 2290 65 SEG38 1617 2313
26 V1 1550 2290 66 SEG37 1401 2313
27 V2 1268 2290 67 SEG36 1186 2313
28 V3 941 2290 68 SEG35 970 2313
29 V4 623 2290 69 SEG34 755 2313
30 V5 304 2290 70 SEG33 539 2313
31 CL1 48 2290 71 SEG32 323 2313
32 CL2 142 2290 72 SEG31 108 2313
33 V
CC
309 2290 73 SEG30 108 2313
34 M 475 2290 74 SEG29 323 2313
35 D 665 2290 75 SEG28 539 2313
36 RS 832 2290 76 SEG27 755 2313
37 R/W 1022 2290 77 SEG26 970 2313
38 E 1204 2290 78 SEG25 1186 2313
39 DB0 1454 2290 79 SEG24 1401 2313
40 DB1 1684 2290 80 SEG23 1617 2313
7
6D**B)$,
-in 4unctions
Si4%!#
No> o2
Li%$( I/O
D$&i/$
I%t$'2!/$5 )it* 0,%/tio%
RS 1 MPU Selects registers.
0: nstruction register (for write) Busy flag:
1: Data register (for write and read)
R/W 1 MPU Selects read or write.
0: Write
1: Read
E 1 MPU Starts data read/write.
DB4 to DB7
4 /O MPU Four high order bidirectional tristate data bus
pins. Used for data transfer and receive between
the MPU and the HD44780U. DB7 can be used
as a busy flag.
DB0 to DB3 4 /O MPU Four low order bidirectional tristate data bus pins.
Used for data transfer and receive between the
MPU and the HD44780U.
These pins are not used during 4-bit operation.
CL1 1 O Extension driver Clock to latch serial data D sent to the extension
driver
CL2 1 O Extension driver Clock to shift serial data D
M 1 O Extension driver Switch signal for converting the liquid crystal
drive waveform to AC
D 1 O Extension driver Character pattern data corresponding to each
segment signal
COM1 to COM16 16 O LCD Common signals that are not used are changed
to non-selection waveforms. COM9 to COM16
are non-selection waveforms at 1/8 duty factor
and COM12 to COM16 are non-selection
waveforms at 1/11 duty factor.
SEG1 to SEG40 40 O LCD Segment signals
V1 to V5 5 Power supply Power supply for LCD drive
V
CC
V5 = 11 V (max)
V
CC
, GND 2 Power supply V
CC
: 2.7V to 5.5V, GND: 0V
OSC1, OSC2 2 Oscillation
resistor clock
When crystal oscillation is performed, a resistor
must be connected externally. When the pin input
is an external clock, it must be input to OSC1.
address counter (for read)
8
6D**B)$,
4unction Description
!egisters
The 23DDF>,$ has two >.bit re'isters* an instruction re'ister !IR( and a data re'ister !3R(
The IR stores instruction codes* such as displa& clear and cursor shift* and address information for displa&
data RA6 !33RA6( and character 'enerator RA6 !C1RA6( The IR can onl& be written from the 6P$
The 3R temporaril& stores data to be written into 33RA6 or C1RA6 and temporaril& stores data to be
read from 33RA6 or C1RA6 3ata written into the 3R from the 6P$ is automaticall& written into
33RA6 or C1RA6 b& an internal operation The 3R is also used for data stora'e when readin' data
from 33RA6 or C1RA6 8hen address information is written into the IR* data is read and then stored
into the 3R from 33RA6 or C1RA6 b& an internal operation 3ata transfer between the 6P$ is then
completed when the 6P$ reads the 3R After the read* data in 33RA6 or C1RA6 at the ne5t address is
sent to the 3R for the ne5t read from the 6P$ "& the re'ister selector !R7( si'nal* these two re'isters can
be selected !Table @(
Busy 4lag B4+
8hen the bus& fla' is @* the 23DDF>,$ is in the internal operation mode* and the ne5t instruction will not
be accepted 8hen R7 Z , and R0 8 Z @ !Table @(* the bus& fla' is output to 3"F The ne5t instruction
must be written after ensurin' that the bus& fla' is ,
Address Counter AC+
The address counter !AC( assi'ns addresses to both 33RA6 and C1RA6 8hen an address of an
instruction is written into the IR* the address information is sent from the IR to the AC 7election of either
33RA6 or C1RA6 is also determined concurrentl& b& the instruction
After writin' into !readin' from( 33RA6 or C1RA6* the AC is automaticall& incremented b& @
!decremented b& @( The AC contents are then output to 3", to 3"E when R7 Z , and R08 Z @ !Table @(
2able & !egister Selection
RS R/W O$'!tio%
0 0 R write as an internal operation (display clear, etc.)
0 1 Read busy flag (DB7) and address counter (DB0 to DB6)
1 0 DR write as an internal operation (DR to DDRAM or CGRAM)
1 1 DR read as an internal operation (DDRAM or CGRAM to DR)
9
AC6 AC5 AC4 AC3 AC2 AC1 AC0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
00 01 02 03 04
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4E 4F
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
4F 00 01 02 03 04 05 06
6D**B)$,
Display Data !AM DD!AM+
3ispla& data RA6 !33RA6( stores displa& data represented in >.bit character codes Its e5tended
capacit& is >, > bits* or >, characters The area in displa& data RA6 !33RA6( that is not used
for displa& can be used as 'eneral data RA6 7ee :i'ure @ for the relationships between 33RA6
addresses and positions on the liquid cr&stal displa&
The 33RA6 address !A
33
( is set in the address counter !AC( as he5adecimal
@.line displa& !N Z ,( !:i'ure +(
8hen there are fewer than >, displa& characters* the displa& be'ins at the head position :or
e5ample* if usin' onl& the 23DDF>,* > characters are displa&ed 7ee :i'ure C
8hen the displa& shift operation is performed* the 33RA6 address shifts 7ee :i'ure C
AC
(hexadecimal)
High order
bits
Low order
bits Example: DDRAM address 4E
4igure & DD!AM Address
Display position
(digit)
1 2 3 4 5 79 80
DDRAM
address
(hexadecimal)
4igure ' &D5ine Display
Display
position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
DDRAM
address
For
shift left
For
shift right
4igure > &D5ine by )DCharacter Display EJample
10
00 01 02 03 04
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26 27
40 41 42 43 44
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66 67
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
27 00 01 02 03 04 05 06
67 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
6D**B)$,
+.line displa& !N Z @( !:i'ure D(
Case @) 8hen the number of displa& characters is less than D, + lines* the two lines are
displa&ed from the head Note that the first line end address and the second line start address are not
consecuti%e :or e5ample* when just the 23DDF>, is used* > characters + lines are displa&ed
7ee :i'ure -
8hen displa& shift operation is performed* the 33RA6 address shifts 7ee :i'ure -
Display
position 1 2 3 4 5 39 40
DDRAM
address
(hexadecimal)
4igure * 'D5ine Display
Display
position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
DDRAM
address
For
shift left
For
shift right
4igure % 'D5ine by )DCharacter Display EJample
11
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A0B0C0D0E0F
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A4B4C4D4E4F
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A0B0C0D0E 0F10
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A4B4C4D4E 4F 50
27 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A0B0C0D0E
67 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A4B4C4D4E
6D**B)$,
Case +) :or a @E.character +.line displa&* the 23DDF>, can be e5tended usin' one D,.
output e5tension dri%er 7ee :i'ure E
8hen displa& shift operation is performed* the 33RA6 address shifts 7ee :i'ure E
Display
position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
DDRAM
address
For
shift left
HD44780U display Extension driver
display
For
shift right
4igure A 'D5ine by &ADCharacter Display EJample
12
6D**B)$,
Character Generator !3M CG!3M+
The character 'enerator RO6 'enerates - > dot or - @, dot character patterns from >.bit
character codes !Table D( It can 'enerate +,> - > dot character patterns and C+ - @, dot character
patterns $ser. defined character patterns are also a%ailable b& mas#.pro'rammed RO6
Character Generator !AM CG!AM+
In the character 'enerator RA6* the user can rewrite character patterns b& pro'ram :or - > dots*
ei'ht character patterns can be written* and for - @, dots* four character patterns can be written
8rite into 33RA6 the character codes at the addresses shown as the left column of Table D to show the
character patterns stored in C1RA6
7ee Table - for the relationship between C1RA6 addresses and data and displa& patterns
Areas that are not used for displa& can be used as 'eneral data RA6
Modifying Character -atterns
Character pattern de%elopment procedure
The followin' operations correspond to the numbers listed in :i'ure F)
@ 3etermine the correspondence between character codes and character patterns
+ Create a listin' indicatin' the correspondence between EPRO6 addresses and data
C Pro'ram the character patterns into the EPRO6
D 7end the EPRO6 to 2itachi
- Computer processin' on the EPRO6 is performed at 2itachi to create a character pattern listin'* which
is sent to the user
E If there are no problems within the character pattern listin'* a trial 97I is created at 2itachi and samples
are sent to the user for e%aluation 8hen it is confirmed b& the user that the character patterns are
correctl& written* mass production of the 97I proceeds at 2itachi
13
6D**B)$,
Eit!/*i
8($'
Start
Computer
processing
Determine
1
character patterns
Create character
5
pattern listing
Create EPROM
2
address data listing
Evaluate
character
patterns
No
OK?
Yes
Write EPROM 3
EPROM Hitachi 4
Art work
M/T
Masking
Trial
Sample
Sample
6
evaluation
No
OK?
Yes
Mass
production
Note: For a description of the numbers used in this figure, refer to the preceding page.
4igure B Character -attern Development -rocedure
14
6D**B)$,
Pro'rammin' character patterns
This section e5plains the correspondence between addresses and data used to pro'ram character patterns
in EPRO6 The 23DDF>,$ character 'enerator RO6 can 'enerate +,> - > dot character patterns
and
C+ - @, dot character patterns for a total of +D, different character patterns
Character patterns
EPRO6 address data and character pattern data correspond with each other to form a - > or -
@, dot character pattern !Tables + and C(
2able ' EJample of Correspondence bet/een E-!3M Address Data and Character -attern
% ) Dots+
EPRO+ A55'$((
D!t!
A1 1A 1 0 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A0
LSB
O 4 O3 O2 O1 O0
0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Cursor position
Character code
Line
position
Notes: 1. EPROM addresses A11 to A4 correspond to a character code.
2. EPROM addresses A3 to A0 specify a line position of the character pattern.
3. EPROM data O4 to O0 correspond to character pattern data.
4. EPROM data O5 to O7 must be specified as 0.
5. A lit display position (black) corresponds to a 1.
6. Line 9 and the following lines must be blanked with 0s for a 5 8 dot character fonts.
15
6D**B)$,
2andlin' unused character patterns
@ EPRO6 data outside the character pattern area) Alwa&s input ,s
+ EPRO6 data in C1RA6 area) Alwa&s input ,s !Input ,s to EPRO6 addresses ,,2 to ::2(
C EPRO6 data used when the user does not use an& 23DDF>,$ character pattern) Accordin' to the user
application* handled in one of the two wa&s listed as follows
a 8hen unused character patterns are not pro'rammed) If an unused character code is written into
33RA6* all its dots are lit "& not pro'ramin' a character pattern* all of its bits become lit !This is
due to the EPRO6 bein' filled with @s after it is erased(
b 8hen unused character patterns are pro'rammed as ,s) Nothin' is displa&ed e%en if unused
character codes are written into 33RA6 !This is equi%alent to a space(
2able > EJample of Correspondence bet/een E-!3M Address Data and Character -attern
% &$ Dots+
EPRO+ A55'$((
D!t!
A1 1A 1 0 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
LSB
O 4 O3 O2 O1 O0
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 1
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 1
0 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Cursor position
Character code
Line
position
Notes: 1. EPROM addresses A11 to A3 correspond to a character code.
2. EPROM addresses A3 to A0 specify a line position of the character pattern.
3. EPROM data O4 to O0 correspond to character pattern data.
4. EPROM data O5 to O7 must be specified as 0.
5. A lit display position (black) corresponds to a 1.
6. Line 11 and the following lines must be blanked with 0s for a 5 10 dot character fonts.
16
6D**B)$,
2able * Correspondence bet/een Character Codes and Character -atterns !3M Code: A$$+
Lo)$'
4 Bit(
8$' 4
Bit(
0000
CG
RAM
0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111
xxxx0000
xxxx0001
xxxx0010
xxxx0011
xxxx0100
xxxx0101
xxxx0110
xxxx0111
xxxx1000
xxxx1001
xxxx1010
xxxx1011
xxxx1100
xxxx1101
xxxx1110
xxxx1111
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Note: The user can specify any pattern for character-generator RAM.
17
6D**B)$,
2able * Correspondence bet/een Character Codes and Character -atterns !3M Code: A$'+
Lo)$'
4 Bit(
8$' 4
Bit( 0000
CG
0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111
xxxx0000
xxxx0001
xxxx0010
xxxx0011
xxxx0100
xxxx0101
xxxx0110
xxxx0111
xxxx1000
xxxx1001
xxxx1010
xxxx1011
xxxx1100
xxxx1101
xxxx1110
xxxx1111
RAM
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
18
6D**B)$,
2able % !elationship bet/een CG!AM Addresses0 Character Codes DD!AM+ and Character
-atterns CG!AM Data+
0o' 5 8 5ot /*!'!/t$' !tt$'%(
C*!'!/t$' Co5$(
ADDRA+ 5!t!B
C.RA+ A55'$((
C*!'!/t$' P!tt$'%(
AC.RA+ 5!t!B
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
High Low High Low High Low
0 0 0 0 [ 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 [ 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 [ 1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 1
1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
[ [ [
[ [ [
[ [ [
[ [ [
[ [ [
[ [ [
1 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 0
1 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Character
pattern (1)
Cursor position
Character
pattern (2)
Cursor position
Notes: 1. Character code bits 0 to 2 correspond to CGRAM address bits 3 to 5 (3 bits: 8 types).
2. CGRAM address bits 0 to 2 designate the character pattern line position. The 8th line is the
cursor position and its display is formed by a logical OR with the cursor.
Maintain the 8th line data, corresponding to the cursor display position, at 0 as the cursor display.
f the 8th line data is 1, 1 bits will light up the 8th line regardless of the cursor presence.
3. Character pattern row positions correspond to CGRAM data bits 0 to 4 (bit 4 being at the left).
4. As shown Table 5, CGRAM character patterns are selected when character code bits 4 to 7 are
all 0. However, since character code bit 3 has no effect, the R display example above can be
selected by either character code 00H or 08H.
5. 1 for CGRAM data corresponds to display selection and 0 to non-selection.
* ndicates no effect.
19
6D**B)$,
2able % !elationship bet/een CG!AM Addresses0 Character Codes DD!AM+ and Character
-atterns CG!AM Data+ cont+
0o' 5 10 5ot /*!'!/t$' !tt$'%(
C*!'!/t$' Co5$(
ADDRA+ 5!t!B
C.RA+ A55'$((
C*!'!/t$' P!tt$'%(
AC.RA+ 5!t!B
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
High Low High Low High Low
0 0 0 0 [ 0 0 [
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 1
[ [ [
[ [ [
[ [ [
[ [ [
[ [ [
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
[ [ [ [ [
[ [ [ [ [
Character
pattern
Cursor position
0 0 0 0
[ 1 1 [ 1 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
[ [ [
[ [ [
[ [ [
[ [ [ [ [
[ [ [ [ [
Notes: 1. Character code bits 1 and 2 correspond to CGRAM address bits 4 and 5 (2 bits: 4 types).
2. CGRAM address bits 0 to 3 designate the character pattern line position. The 11th line is the
cursor position and its display is formed by a logical OR with the cursor.
Maintain the 11th line data corresponding to the cursor display positon at 0 as the cursor display.
f the 11th line data is "1, "1 bits will light up the 11th line regardless of the cursor presence.
Since lines 12 to 16 are not used for display, they can be used for general data RAM.
3. Character pattern row positions are the same as 5 8 dot character pattern positions.
4. CGRAM character patterns are selected when character code bits 4 to 7 are all 0.
However, since character code bits 0 and 3 have no effect, the P display example above can be
selected by character codes 00H, 01H, 08H, and 09H.
5. 1 for CGRAM data corresponds to display selection and 0 to non-selection.
* ndicates no effect.
20
0 0 0 1 0 0 0
6D**B)$,
2iming Generation Circuit
The timin' 'eneration circuit 'enerates timin' si'nals for the operation of internal circuits such as
33RA6* C1RO6 and C1RA6 RA6 read timin' for displa& and internal operation timin' b& 6P$
access are 'enerated separatel& to a%oid interferin' with each other Therefore* when writin' data to
33RA6* for e5ample* there will be no undesirable interferences* such as flic#erin'* in areas other than the
displa& area
5iEuid Crystal Display Driver Circuit
The liquid cr&stal displa& dri%er circuit consists of @E common si'nal dri%ers and D, se'ment si'nal
dri%ers 8hen the character font and number of lines are selected b& a pro'ram* the required common
si'nal dri%ers automaticall& output dri%e wa%eforms* while the other common si'nal dri%ers continue to
output non.selection wa%eforms
7endin' serial data alwa&s starts at the displa& data character pattern correspondin' to the last address of
the displa& data RA6 !33RA6(
7ince serial data is latched when the displa& data character pattern correspondin' to the startin' address
enters the internal shift re'ister* the 23DDF>,$ dri%es from the head displa&
CursorKBlin1 Control Circuit
The cursor0blin# control circuit 'enerates the cursor or character blin#in' The cursor or the blin#in' will
appear with the di'it located at the displa& data RA6 !33RA6( address set in the address counter !AC(
:or e5ample !:i'ure >(* when the address counter is ,>2* the cursor position is displa&ed at 33RA6
address ,>2
AC6 AC5 AC4 AC3 AC2 AC1 AC0
AC
For a 1-line display
Display position
DDRAM address
(hexadecimal)
1 2
00 01
3 4
02 03
5 6 7
04 05 06
8 9
07 08
10 11
09 0A
For a 2-line display
cursor position
Display position
DDRAM address
(hexadecimal)
1 2
00 01
40 41
3 4
02 03
42 43
5 6 7
04 05 06
44 45 46
8 9
07 08
47 48
10 11
09 0A
49 4A
cursor position
Note: The cursor or blinking appears when the address counter (AC) selects the
character generator RAM (CGRAM). However, the cursor and blinking become
meaningless.
The cursor or blinking is displayed in the meaningless position when the AC is a CGRAM address.
4igure ) CursorKBlin1 Display EJample
21
6D**B)$,
Interfacing to the M-,
The 23DDF>,$ can send data in either two D.bit operations or one >.bit operation* thus allowin'
interfacin' with D. or >.bit 6P$s
:or D.bit interface data* onl& four bus lines !3"D to 3"F( are used for transfer "us lines 3", to 3"C
are disabled The data transfer between the 23DDF>,$ and the 6P$ is completed after the D.bit data
has been transferred twice As for the order of data transfer* the four hi'h order bits !for >.bit operation*
3"D to 3"F( are transferred before the four low order bits !for >.bit operation* 3", to 3"C(
The bus& fla' must be chec#ed !one instruction( after the D.bit data has been transferred twice Two
more D.bit operations then transfer the bus& fla' and address counter data
:or >.bit interface data* all ei'ht bus lines !3", to 3"F( are used
RS
R/W
E
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
R7
R6
R5
R4
R3
R2
R1
R0
BF
AC6
AC5
AC4
AC3
AC2
AC1
AC0
DR7
DR6
DR5
DR4
DR3
DR2
DR1
DR0
nstruction register (R)
write
Busy flag (BF) and
address counter (AC)
read
Data register (DR)
read
4igure ( *DBit 2ransfer EJample
22
6D**B)$,
!eset 4unction
InitialiMing by Internal !eset Circuit
An internal reset circuit automaticall& initiali=es the 23DDF>,$ when the power is turned on The
followin' instructions are e5ecuted durin' the initiali=ation The bus& fla' !":( is #ept in the bus& state
until the initiali=ation ends !": Z @( The bus& state lasts for @, ms after ;
CC
rises to D- ;
@ 3ispla& clear
+ :unction set)
39 Z @< >.bit interface data
N Z ,< @.line displa&
: Z ,< - > dot character font
C 3ispla& on0off control)
3 Z ,< 3ispla& off
C Z ,< Cursor off
" Z ,< "lin#in' off
D Entr& mode set)
I03 Z @< Increment b& @
7 Z ,< No shift
Note) If the electrical characteristics conditions listed under the table Power 7uppl& Conditions $sin'
Internal Reset Circuit are not met* the internal reset circuit will not operate normall& and will fail to
initiali=e the 23DDF>,$ :or such a case* initial.i=ation must be performed b& the 6P$ as
e5plained in the section* Initiali=in' b& Instruction
Instructions
3utline
Onl& the instruction re'ister !IR( and the data re'ister !3R( of the 23DDF>,$ can be controlled b& the
6P$ "efore startin' the internal operation of the 23DDF>,$* control information is temporaril& stored
into these re'isters to allow interfacin' with %arious 6P$s* which operate at different speeds* or %arious
peripheral control de%ices The internal operation of the 23DDF>,$ is determined b& si'nals sent from the
6P$ These si'nals* which include re'ister selection si'nal !R7(* read0
write si'nal !R08(* and the data bus !3", to 3"F(* ma#e up the 23DDF>,$ instructions !Table E( There
are four cate'ories of instructions that)
3esi'nate 23DDF>,$ functions* such as displa& format* data len'th* etc
7et internal RA6 addresses
Perform data transfer with internal RA6
Perform miscellaneous functions
23
6D**B)$,
Normall&* instructions that perform data transfer with internal RA6 are used the most 2owe%er* auto.
incrementation b& @ !or auto.decrementation b& @( of internal 23DDF>,$ RA6 addresses after each data
write can li'hten the pro'ram load of the 6P$ 7ince the displa& shift instruction !Table @@( can perform
concurrentl& with displa& data write* the user can minimi=e s&stem de%elopment time with ma5imum
pro'rammin' efficienc&
8hen an instruction is bein' e5ecuted for internal operation* no instruction other than the bus& fla'0address
read instruction can be e5ecuted
"ecause the bus& fla' is set to @ while an instruction is bein' e5ecuted* chec# it to ma#e sure it is , before
sendin' another instruction from the 6P$
Note) "e sure the 23DDF>,$ is not in the bus& state !": Z ,( before sendin' an instruction from the
6P$ to the 23DDF>,$ If an instruction is sent without chec#in' the bus& fla'* the time between
the first instruction and ne5t instruction will ta#e much lon'er than the instruction time itself Refer
to Table E for the list of each instruc.tion e5ecution time
2able A Instructions
Co5$
E-$/,tio% Tim$
Am!-B A)*$% 2
/
o'
I%(t',/tio% RS R/W DBD DB6 DB5 DB4 DBC DB7 DB1 DB0 D$(/'itio% 2
OSC
i( 7D0 3EVB
Clear
display
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Clears entire display and
sets DDRAM address 0 in
address counter.
Return 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Sets DDRAM address 0 in 1.52 ms
home address counter. Also
returns display from being
shifted to original position.
DDRAM contents remain
unchanged.
Entry 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 /D S Sets cursor move direction 37 s
mode set and specifies display shift.
These operations are
performed during data write
and read.
Display 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 D C B Sets entire display (D) on/off, 37 s
on/off cursor on/off (C), and
control blinking of cursor position
character (B).
Cursor or 0 0 0 0 0 1 S/C R/L Moves cursor and shifts 37 s
display display without changing
shift DDRAM contents.
Function 0 0 0 0 1 DL N F Sets interface data length 37 s
set (DL), number of display lines
(N), and character font (F).
Set
CGRAM
address
Set
DDRAM
address
Read busy
flag &
address
0 0 0 1 ACG ACG ACG ACG ACG ACG Sets CGRAM address.
CGRAM data is sent and
received after this setting.
0 0 1 ADD ADD ADD ADD ADD ADD ADD Sets DDRAM address.
DDRAM data is sent and
received after this setting.
0 1 BF AC AC AC AC AC AC AC Reads busy flag (BF)
indicating internal operation
is being performed and
reads address counter
contents.
37 s
37 s
0 s
24
6D**B)$,
2able A Instructions cont+
Co5$
E-$/,tio% Tim$
Am!-B A)*$% 2
cp
o'
I%(t',/tio% RS R/W DBD DB6 DB5 DB4 DBC DB7 DB1 DB0 D$(/'itio% 2
OSC
i( 7D0 3EVB
Write data
to CG or
DDRAM
Read data
from CG or
DDRAM
1 0 Write data Writes data into DDRAM or
CGRAM.
1 1 Read data Reads data from DDRAM or
CGRAM.
37 s
t
ADD
= 4 s*
37 s
t
ADD
= 4 s*
/D = 1: ncrement
/D = 0: Decrement
S = 1: Accompanies display shift
S/C = 1: Display shift
S/C = 0: Cursor move
R/L = 1: Shift to the right
R/L = 0: Shift to the left
DDRAM: Display data RAM
CGRAM: Character generator
RAM
ACG: CGRAM address
ADD: DDRAM address
(corresponds to cursor
address)
Execution time
changes when
frequency changes
Example:
When f
cp
or f
OSC
is
250 kHz,
270
DL = 1: 8 bits, DL = 0: 4 bits
N = 1: 2 lines, N = 0: 1 line
F = 1: 5 10 dots, F = 0: 5 8
dots
BF = 1: nternally operating
BF = 0: nstructions acceptable
Note: indicates no effect.
AC: Address counter used for
both DD and CGRAM
addresses
37 s
250
= 40

s
* After execution of the CGRAM/DDRAM data write or read instruction, the RAM address counter
is incremented or decremented by 1. The RAM address counter is updated after the busy flag
turns off. n Figure 10, t
ADD
is the time elapsed after the busy flag turns off until the address
counter is updated.
Busy signal
(DB7 pin)
Address counter
(DB0 to DB6 pins)
Busy state
A A + 1
Note: t
ADD
depends on the operation frequency
t
ADD
= 1.5/(f
cp
or f
OSC
) seconds
t
ADD
4igure &$ Address Counter ,pdate
25
6D**B)$,
Instruction Description
Clear Display
Clear displa& writes space code +,2 !character pattern for character code +,2 must be a blan# pattern( into
all 33RA6 addresses It then sets 33RA6 address , into the address counter* and returns the displa& to
its ori'inal status if it was shifted In other words* the displa& disappears and the cursor or blin#in' 'oes to
the left ed'e of the displa& !in the first line if + lines are displa&ed( It also sets I03 to @ !increment mode(
in entr& mode 7 of entr& mode does not chan'e
!eturn 6ome
Return home sets 33RA6 address , into the address counter* and returns the displa& to its ori'inal status
if it was shifted The 33RA6 contents do not chan'e
The cursor or blin#in' 'o to the left ed'e of the displa& !in the first line if + lines are displa&ed(
Entry Mode Set
IKD: Increments !I03 Z @( or decrements !I03 Z ,( the 33RA6 address b& @ when a character code is
written into or read from 33RA6
The cursor or blin#in' mo%es to the ri'ht when incremented b& @ and to the left when decremented b& @
The same applies to writin' and readin' of C1RA6
S: 7hifts the entire displa& either to the ri'ht !I03 Z ,( or to the left !I03 Z @( when 7 is @ The displa& does
not shift if 7 is ,
If 7 is @* it will seem as if the cursor does not mo%e but the displa& does The displa& does not shift when
readin' from 33RA6 Also* writin' into or readin' out from C1RA6 does not shift the displa&
Display 3nK3ff Control
D: The displa& is on when 3 is @ and off when 3 is , 8hen off* the displa& data remains in 33RA6* but
can be displa&ed instantl& b& settin' 3 to @
C: The cursor is displa&ed when C is @ and not displa&ed when C is , E%en if the cursor disappears* the
function of I03 or other specifications will not chan'e durin' displa& data write The cursor is displa&ed
usin' - dots in the >th line for - > dot character font selection and in the @@th line for the - @,
dot character font selection !:i'ure @C(
B: The character indicated b& the cursor blin#s when " is @ !:i'ure @C( The blin#in' is displa&ed as
switchin' between all blan# dots and displa&ed characters at a speed of D,/E.ms inter%als when f
cp
or f
O7C
is +-, #2= The cursor and blin#in' can be set to displa& simultaneousl& !The blin#in' frequenc& chan'es
accordin' to f
O7C
or the reciprocal of f
cp
:or e5ample* when f
cp
is +F, #2=* D,/E +-,0+F, Z CF/+ ms(
26
6D**B)$,
Cursor or Display Shift
Cursor or displa& shift shifts the cursor position or displa& to the ri'ht or left without writin' or readin'
displa& data !Table F( This function is used to correct or search the displa& In a +.line displa&* the cursor
mo%es to the second line when it passes the D,th di'it of the first line Note that the first and second line
displa&s will shift at the same time
8hen the displa&ed data is shifted repeatedl& each line mo%es onl& hori=ontall& The second line displa&
does not shift into the first line position
The address counter !AC( contents will not chan'e if the onl& action performed is a displa& shift
4unction Set
D5: 7ets the interface data len'th 3ata is sent or recei%ed in >.bit len'ths !3"F to 3",( when 39 is @*
and in D.bit len'ths !3"F to 3"D( when 39 is ,8hen D.bit len'th is selected* data must be sent or
recei%ed twice
": 7ets the number of displa& lines
4: 7ets the character font
Note) Perform the function at the head of the pro'ram before e5ecutin' an& instructions !e5cept for the
read bus& fla' and address instruction( :rom this point* the function set instruction cannot be
e5ecuted unless the interface data len'th is chan'ed
Set CG!AM Address
7et C1RA6 address sets the C1RA6 address binar& AAAAAA into the address counter
3ata is then written to or read from the 6P$ for C1RA6
27
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 [
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 /D S
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 D C B
0 0 0 0 0 1 S/C R/L [ [
0 0 0 0 1 DL N F [ [
0 0 0 1 A A A A A A
6D**B)$,
Clear
display
Code
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
RS R/W
DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
Return
home
Code Note: [ Don't care.
Entry
mode set
Display
on/off control
Code
Code
RS R/W
RS R/W
DB7
DB7
DB6
DB6
DB5
DB5
DB4
DB4
DB3
DB3
DB2 DB1
DB2 DB1
DB0
DB0
Cursor or
display shift
Code
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
Note: [ Don't care.
RS R/W
DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
Function set
Code
Set CGRAM
address
Code
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
Higher
order bit
Lower
order bit
4igure && Instruction &+
28
6D**B)$,
Set DD!AM Address
7et 33RA6 address sets the 33RA6 address binar& AAAAAAA into the address counter
3ata is then written to or read from the 6P$ for 33RA6
2owe%er* when N is , !@.line displa&(* AAAAAAA can be ,,2 to D:2 8hen N is @ !+.line displa&(*
AAAAAAA can be ,,2 to +F2 for the first line* and D,2 to EF2 for the second line
!ead Busy 4lag and Address
Read bus& fla' and address reads the bus& fla' !":( indicatin' that the s&stem is now internall& operatin'
on a pre%iousl& recei%ed instruction If ": is @* the internal operation is in pro'ress The ne5t instruction
will not be accepted until ": is reset to , Chec# the ": status before the ne5t write operation At the same
time* the %alue of the address counter in binar& AAAAAAA is read out This address counter is used b&
both C1 and 33RA6 addresses* and its %alue is determined b& the pre%ious instruction The address
contents are the same as for instructions set C1RA6 address and set 33RA6 address
2able B Shift 4unction
S/C R/L
0 0 Shifts the cursor position to the left. (AC is decremented by one.)
0 1 Shifts the cursor position to the right. (AC is incremented by one.)
1 0 Shifts the entire display to the left. The cursor follows the display shift.
1 1 Shifts the entire display to the right. The cursor follows the display shift.
2able ) 4unction Set
No> o2
Di(#!1 D,t1
N 0 Li%$( C*!'!/t$' 0o%t 0!/to' R$m!'3(
0 0 1 5 8 dots 1/8
0 1 1 5 10 dots 1/11
1 * 2 5 8 dots 1/16 Cannot display two lines for 5 10 dot character font
Note: * ndicates don't care.
29
0 0 1 A A A A A A A
0 1 BF A A A A A A A
6D**B)$,
Cursor
5 8 dot
character font
5 10 dot
character font
Alternating display
Cursor display example Blink display example
4igure &' Cursor and Blin1ing
Set DDRAM
address
Code
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
Higher
order bit
Lower
order bit
Read busy flag
and address
Code
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
Higher
order bit
Lower
order bit
4igure &> Instruction '+
30
1 0 D D D D D D D D
1 1 D D D D D D D D
6D**B)$,
7rite Data to CG or DD!AM
8rite data to C1 or 33RA6 writes >.bit binar& data 33333333 to C1 or 33RA6
To write into C1 or 33RA6 is determined b& the pre%ious specification of the C1RA6 or 33RA6
address settin' After a write* the address is automaticall& incremented or decremented b& @ accordin' to
the entr& mode The entr& mode also determines the displa& shift
!ead Data from CG or DD!AM
Read data from C1 or 33RA6 reads >.bit binar& data 33333333 from C1 or 33RA6
The pre%ious desi'nation determines whether C1 or 33RA6 is to be read "efore enterin' this read
instruction* either C1RA6 or 33RA6 address set instruction must be e5ecuted If not e5ecuted* the first
read data will be in%alid 8hen seriall& e5ecutin' read instructions* the ne5t address data is normall& read
from the second read The address set instructions need not be e5ecuted just before this read instruction
when shiftin' the cursor b& the cursor shift instruction !when readin' out 33RA6( The operation of the
cursor shift instruction is the same as the set 33RA6 address instruction
After a read* the entr& mode automaticall& increases or decreases the address b& @ 2owe%er* displa& shift
is not e5ecuted re'ardless of the entr& mode
Note) The address counter !AC( is automaticall& incremented or decremented b& @ after the write
instructions to C1RA6 or 33RA6 are e5ecuted The RA6 data selected b& the AC cannot be
read out at this time e%en if read instructions are e5ecuted Therefore* to correctl& read data*
e5ecute either the address set instruction or cursor shift instruction !onl& with 33RA6(* then just
before readin' the desired data* e5ecute the read instruction from the second time the read
instruction is sent
Write data to
CG or DDRAM
Code
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
Higher
order bits
Lower
order bits
Read data from
CG or DDRAM
Code
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
Higher
order bits
Lower
order bits
4igure &* Instruction >+
31
6D**B)$,
Interfacing the 6D**B)$,
Interface to M-,s
Interfacin' to an >.bit 6P$
7ee :i'ure @E for an e5ample of usin' a I0O port !for a sin'le.chip microcomputer( as an interface
de%ice
In this e5ample* PC, to PCF are connected to the data bus 3", to 3"F* and PF- to PFF are connected to
E* R08* and R7* respecti%el&
RS
R/W
E
nternal
operation
DB7
Functioning
Data Busy Busy
Not
busy
Data
nstruction
write
Busy flag
check
Busy flag
check
Busy flag
check
nstruction
write
4igure &% EJample of Busy 4lag Chec1 2iming SeEuence
H8/325 HD44780U
P30 to P37
P77
P76
P75
8
DB0 to DB7
E
RS
R/W
COM1 to
16
COM16
SEG1 to
40
SEG40
LCD
4igure &A 6)K>'% Interface SingleDChip Mode+
32
6D**B)$,
Interfacin' to a D.bit 6P$
The 23DDF>,$ can be connected to the I0O port of a D.bit 6P$ If the I0O port has enou'h bits* >.bit
data can be transferred Otherwise* one data transfer must be made in two operations for D.bit data In
this case* the timin' sequence becomes somewhat comple5 !7ee :i'ure @F(
7ee :i'ure @> for an interface e5ample to the 26C7D,@/R
Note that two c&cles are needed for the bus& fla' chec# as well as for the data transfer The D.bit
operation is selected b& the pro'ram
RS
R/W
E
nternal
operation
Functioning
Not
DB7 R7 R3 Busy AC3 busy AC3 D7 D3
nstruction
write
Busy flag
check
Busy flag
check
nstruction
write
Note: R7 , R3 are the 7th and 3rd bits of the instruction.
AC3 is the 3rd bit of the address counter.
4igure &B EJample of *DBit Data 2ransfer 2iming SeEuence
HMCS4019R HD44780
D15
D14
D13
RS
R/W
E
COM1 to
16
COM16
LCD
R10 to R13
4
DB4 to DB7
SEG1 to
40
SEG40
4igure &) EJample of Interface to 6MCS*$&(!
33
6D**B)$,
Interface to 5iEuid Crystal Display
Character 4ont and "umber of 5ines: The 23DDF>,$ can perform two t&pes of displa&s* - > dot
and
- @, dot character fonts* each with a cursor
$p to two lines are displa&ed for - > dots and one line for - @, dots Therefore* a total of
three t&pes of common si'nals are a%ailable !Table /(
The number of lines and font t&pes can be selected b& the pro'ram !7ee Table E* Instructions(
Connection to 6D**B)$ and 5iEuid Crystal Display: 7ee :i'ure @/ for the connection e5amples
2able ( Common Signals
N,m"$' o2 Li%$( C*!'!/t$' 0o%t N,m"$' o2 Commo% Si4%!#( D,t1 0!/to'
1 5 8 dots + cursor 8 1/8
1 5 10 dots + cursor 11 1/11
2 5 8 dots + cursor 16 1/16
HD44780
COM1
COM8
SEG1
SEG40
Example of a 5 8 dot, 8-character 1-line display (1/4 bias, 1/8 duty cycle)
HD44780
COM1
COM11
SEG1
SEG40
Example of a 5 10 dot, 8-character 1-line display (1/4 bias, 1/11 duty cycle)
4igure &( 5iEuid Crystal Display and 6D**B)$ Connections
34
6D**B)$,
7ince fi%e se'ment si'nal lines can displa& one di'it* one 23DDF>,$ can displa& up to > di'its for a @.line
displa& and @E di'its for a +.line displa&
The e5amples in :i'ure @/ ha%e unused common si'nal pins* which alwa&s output non.selection
wa%eforms 8hen the liquid cr&stal displa& panel has unused e5tra scannin' lines* connect the e5tra
scannin' lines to these common si'nal pins to a%oid an& undesirable effects due to crosstal# durin' the
floatin' state
HD44780
COM1
COM8
COM9
COM16
SEG1
SEG40
Example of a 5 8 dot, 8-character 2-line display (1/5 bias, 1/16 duty cycle)
4igure &( 5iEuid Crystal Display and 6D**B)$ Connections cont+
35
6D**B)$,
Connection of Changed MatriJ 5ayout: In the precedin' e5amples* the number of lines correspond to the
scannin' lines 2owe%er* the followin' displa& e5amples !:i'ure +,( are made possible b& alterin' the
matri5 la&out of the liquid cr&stal displa& panel In either case* the onl& chan'e is the la&out The displa&
characteristics and the number of liquid cr&stal displa& characters depend on the number of common
si'nals or on dut& factor Note that the displa& data RA6 !33RA6( addresses for D characters +
lines and for @E characters @ line are the same as in :i'ure @/
HD44780
COM1
COM8
SEG1
SEG40
COM9
COM16
5 8 dot, 16-character 1-line display
(1/5 bias, 1/16 duty cycle)
4igure '$ Changed MatriJ 5ayout Displays
36
6D**B)$,
-o/er Supply for 5iEuid Crystal Display Drive
;arious %olta'e le%els must be applied to pins ;@ to ;- of the 23DDF>,$ to obtain the liquid cr&stal
displa& dri%e wa%eforms The %olta'es must be chan'ed accordin' to the dut& factor !Table @,(
;9C3 is the pea# %alue for the liquid cr&stal displa& dri%e wa%eforms* and resistance di%idin' pro%ides
%olta'es ;@ to ;- !:i'ure +@(
2able &$ Duty 4actor and -o/er Supply for 5iEuid Crystal Display Drive
D,t1 0!/to'
1/8= 1/11 1/16
Bi!(
Po)$' S,#1 1/4 1/5
V1 V
CC
1/4 VLCD V
CC
1/5 VLCD
V2 V
CC
1/2 VLCD V
CC
2/5 VLCD
V3 V
CC
1/2 VLCD V
CC
3/5 VLCD
V4 V
CC
3/4 VLCD V
CC
4/5 VLCD
V5 V
CC
VLCD V
CC
VLCD
V
CC
(+5 V)
V
CC
(+5 V)
V
CC
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
1/4 bias
(1/8, 1/11 duty cycle)
R
R
R
R
VR
5 V
VLCD
V
CC
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
1/5 bias
(1/16, duty cycle)
R
R
R
R
R
VR
5 V
VLCD
4igure '& Drive ?oltage Supply EJample
37
6D**B)$,
!elationship bet/een 3scillation 4reEuency and 5iEuid Crystal Display 4rame
4reEuency
The liquid cr&stal displa& frame frequencies of :i'ure ++ appl& onl& when the oscillation frequenc& is +F,
#2= !one cloc# pulse of CF s(
1/8 duty cycle
COM1
V
CC
V1
V2 (V3)
V4
V5
400 clocks
1 2 3 4 8 1 2
1 frame
1 frame = 3.7 s 400 8 = 11850 s = 11.9 ms
Frame frequency = 1
11.9 ms
= 84.3 Hz
1/11 duty cycle
COM1
V
CC
V1
V2 (V3)
V4
V5
400 clocks
1 2 3 4 11 1 2
1 frame
1 frame = 3.7 s 400 11 = 16300 s = 16.3 ms
Frame frequency = 1
16.3 ms
= 61.4 Hz
1/16 duty cycle
COM1
V
CC
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
200 clocks
1 2 3 4
16 1 2
1 frame
1 frame = 3.7 s 200 16 = 11850 s = 11.9 ms
Frame frequency = 1
11.9 ms
= 84.3 Hz
4igure '' 4rame 4reEuency
38
6D**B)$,
Instruction and Display Correspondence
>.bit operation* >.di'it @.line displa& with internal reset
Refer to Table @@ for an e5ample of an >.di'it @.line displa& in >.bit operation The 23DDF>,$
functions must be set b& the function set instruction prior to the displa& 7ince the displa& data RA6
can store data for >, characters* as e5plained before* the RA6 can be used for displa&s such as for
ad%ertisin' when combined with the displa& shift operation
7ince the displa& shift operation chan'es onl& the displa& position with 33RA6 contents unchan'ed*
the first displa& data entered into 33RA6 can be output when the return home operation is performed
D.bit operation* >.di'it @.line displa& with internal reset
The pro'ram must set all functions prior to the D.bit operation !Table @+( 8hen the power is turned on*
>.bit operation is automaticall& selected and the first write is performed as an >.bit operation 7ince
3", to 3"C are not connected* a rewrite is then required 2owe%er* since one operation is completed in
two accesses for D.bit operation* a rewrite is needed to set the functions !see Table @+( Thus* 3"D to
3"F of the function set instruction is written twice
>.bit operation* >.di'it +.line displa&
:or a +.line displa&* the cursor automaticall& mo%es from the first to the second line after the D,th di'it
of the first line has been written Thus* if there are onl& > characters in the first line* the 33RA6
address must be a'ain set after the >th character is completed !7ee Table @C( Note that the displa& shift
operation is performed for the first and second lines In the e5ample of Table @C* the displa& shift is
performed when the cursor is on the second line 2owe%er* if the shift operation is performed when the
cursor is on the first line* both the first and second lines mo%e to'ether If the shift is repeated* the
displa& of the second line will not mo%e to the first line The same displa& will onl& shift within its own
line for the number of times the shift is repeated
Note) 8hen usin' the internal reset* the electrical characteristics in the Power 7uppl& Conditions $sin'
Internal Reset Circuit table must be satisfied If not* the 23DDF>,$ must be initiali=ed b&
instructions 7ee the section* Initiali=in' b& Instruction
39
6D**B)$,
2able && )DBit 3peration0 )DDigit &D5ine Display EJample /ith Internal !eset
St$
I%(t',/tio%
No> RS R/W DBD DB6 DB5 DB4 DBC DB7 DB1 DB0 Di(#!1 O$'!tio%
1 Power supply on (the HD44780U is initialized by the internal
reset circuit)
2 Function set
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 * *
3 Display on/off control
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
4 Entry mode set
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
5 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
6 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
7

8 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM


1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
9 Entry mode set
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
10 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
nitialized. No display.
Sets to 8-bit operation and
selects 1-line display and 5
8 dot character font. (Number
of display lines and character
fonts cannot be changed after
step #2.)
_
Turns on display and cursor.
Entire display is in space mode
because of initialization.
_
Sets mode to increment the
address by one and to shift the
cursor to the right at the time of
write to the DD/CGRAM.
Display is not shifted.
H_
Writes H. DDRAM has already
been selected by initialization
when the power was turned on.
The cursor is incremented by
one and shifted to the right.
H_
Writes .

HTACH_
Writes .
HTACH_
Sets mode to shift display at
the time of write.
TACH _
Writes a space.
40
6D**B)$,
2able && )DBit 3peration0 )DDigit &D5ine Display EJample /ith Internal !eset cont+
St$
I%(t',/tio%
No> RS R/W DBD DB6 DB5 DB4 DBC DB7 DB1 DB0 Di(#!1 O$'!tio%
11 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
12

13 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM


1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
14 Cursor or display shift
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 * *
TACH M_
Writes M.

MCROKO_
Writes O.
MCROKO_
Shifts only the cursor position
to the left.
15 Cursor or display shift
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 * *
MCROK_
O
Shifts only the cursor position
to the left.
16 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
17 Cursor or display shift
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 * *
18 Cursor or display shift
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 * *
19 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
20

CROCO_
Writes C over K.
The display moves to the left.
MCROCO_
Shifts the display and cursor
position to the right.
MCROCO_
Shifts the display and cursor
position to the right.
CROCOM_
Writes M.

21 Return home
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
H_
TACH
Returns both display and
cursor to the original position
(address 0).
41
6D**B)$,
2able &' *DBit 3peration0 )DDigit &D5ine Display EJample /ith Internal !eset
St$
I%(t',/tio%
No> RS R/W DBD DB6 DB5 DB4 Di(#!1 O$'!tio%
1 Power supply on (the HD44780U is initialized by the internal
reset circuit)
2 Function set
0 0 0 0 1 0
3 Function set
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 * *
4 Display on/off control
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1 0
5 Entry mode set
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 0
6 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0
nitialized. No display.
Sets to 4-bit operation.
n this case, operation is
handled as 8 bits by initializa-
tion, and only this instruction
completes with one write.
Sets 4-bit operation and
selects 1-line display and 5
8 dot character font. 4-bit
operation starts from this step
and resetting is necessary.
(Number of display lines and
character fonts cannot be
changed after step #3.)
_
Turns on display and cursor.
Entire display is in space mode
because of initialization.
_
Sets mode to increment the
address by one and to shift the
cursor to the right at the time of
write to the DD/CGRAM.
Display is not shifted.
H_
Writes H.
The cursor is incremented by
one and shifts to the right.
Note: The control is the same as for 8-bit operation beyond step #6.
42
6D**B)$,
2able &> )DBit 3peration0 )DDigit 'D5ine Display EJample /ith Internal !eset
St$
I%(t',/tio%
No> RS R/W DBD DB6 DB5 DB4 DBC DB7 DB1 DB0 Di(#!1 O$'!tio%
1 Power supply on (the HD44780U is initialized by the internal
reset circuit)
nitialized. No display.
2 Function set
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 * *
3 Display on/off control
_
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
4 Entry mode set
Sets to 8-bit operation and
selects 2-line display and 5
8 dot character font.
Turns on display and cursor.
All display is in space mode
because of initialization.
Sets mode to increment
the
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
_
address by one and to shift the
cursor to the right at the time of
write to the DD/CGRAM.
Display is not shifted.
5 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
H_
Writes H. DDRAM has already
been selected by initialization
when the power was turned on.
The cursor is incremented by
one and shifted to the right.
6

7 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM


1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

HTACH_
Writes .
8 Set DDRAM address
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
HTACH
_
Sets DDRAM address so that
the cursor is positioned at the
head of the second line.
43
6D**B)$,
2able &> )DBit 3peration0 )DDigit 'D5ine Display EJample /ith Internal !eset cont+
St$
I%(t',/tio%
No> RS R/W DBD DB6 DB5 DB4 DBC DB7 DB1 DB0 Di(#!1 O$'!tio%
9 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
HTACH
M_
Writes M.
10

11 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM


1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
12 Entry mode set
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
13 Write data to CGRAM/DDRAM
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
14

15 Return home
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

HTACH
MCROCO_
HTACH
MCROCO_
TACH
CROCOM_

H_ TACH
MCROCOM
Writes O.
Sets mode to shift display at
the time of write.
Writes M. Display is shifted to
the left. The first and second
lines both shift at the same
time.
Returns both display and
cursor to the original position
(address 0).
44
6D**B)$,
InitialiMing by Instruction
If the power suppl& conditions for correctl& operatin' the internal reset circuit are not met* initiali=ation b&
instructions becomes necessar&
Refer to :i'ures +C and +D for the procedures on >.bit and D.bit initiali=ations* respecti%el&
Power on
Wait for more than 15 ms
after V
CC
rises to 4.5 V
Wait for more than 40 ms
after V
CC
rises to 2.7 V
RS R/WDB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3DB2 DB1
DB0
BF cannot be checked before this instruction.
0 0 0
0 1 1
[ [ [ [
Function set (nterface is 8 bits long.)
Wait for more than 4.1 ms
RS R/WDB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1
DB0
BF cannot be checked before this instruction.
0 0 0
0 1 1
[ [ [ [
Function set (nterface is 8 bits long.)
Wait for more than 100 s
RS R/WDB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1
DB0
BF cannot be checked before this instruction.
0 0 0
0 1 1
[ [ [ [
Function set (nterface is 8 bits long.)
RS R/WDB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1
DB0
BF can be checked after the following instructions.
When BF is not checked, the waiting time between
instructions is longer than the execution instuction
time. (See Table 6.)
Function set (nterface is 8 bits long. Specify the
number of display lines and character font.)
0 0 0
0 1 1 N F
[ [
The number of display lines and character font
cannot be changed after this point.
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 1 /D S
Display off
Display clear
Entry mode set
nitialization ends
4igure '> )DBit Interface
45
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 N F [ [
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 /D S
6D**B)$,
Power on
Wait for more than 15 ms
after V
CC
rises to 4.5 V
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5
DB4
Wait for more than 40 ms
after V
CC
rises to 2.7 V
BF cannot be checked before this instruction.
0 0 0
0 1 1
Function set (nterface is 8 bits long.)
Wait for more than 4.1 ms
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5
DB4
BF cannot be checked before this instruction.
0 0 0
0 1 1
Function set (nterface is 8 bits long.)
Wait for more than 100 s
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5
DB4
BF cannot be checked before this instruction.
0 0 0
0 1 1
Function set (nterface is 8 bits long.)
RS R/W DB7 DB6 DB5
DB4
BF can be checked after the following instructions.
0 0 0 0 1 0
When BF is not checked, the waiting time between
instructions is longer than the execution instuction
time. (See Table 6.)
Function set (Set interface to be 4 bits long.)
nterface is 8 bits in length.
Function set (nterface is 4 bits long. Specify the
number of display lines and character font.)
The number of display lines and character font
cannot be changed after this point.
Display off
Display clear
nitialization ends
Entry mode set
4igure '* *DBit Interface
46
Note: * f the LS is used above these absolute maximum ratings, it may become permanently damaged.
Using the LS within the following electrical characteristic limits is strongly recommended for
normal operation. f these electrical characteristic conditions are also exceeded, the LS will
malfunction and cause poor reliability.
6D**B)$,
Absolute MaJimum !atingsR
It$m S1m"o# V!#,$ 8%it Not$(
Power supply voltage (1) V
CC
GND 0.3 to +7.0 V 1
Power supply voltage (2) V
CC
V5 0.3 to +13.0 V 1, 2
nput voltage Vt 0.3 to V
CC
+0.3 V 1
Operating temperature T
opr
30 to +75 C
Storage temperature T
stg
55 to +125 C 4
47
CC a
6D**B)$,
DC Characteristics ? S '#B to *#% ?0 2 S T>$ to GB%CR
>
+
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio% Not$(R
nput high voltage (1) VH1 0.7V
CC
V
CC
V 6
(except OSC1)
nput low voltage (1) VL1 0.3 0.55 V 6
(except OSC1)
nput high voltage (2) VH2 0.7V
CC
V
CC
V 15
(OSC1)
nput low voltage (2) VL2 0.2V
CC
V 15
(OSC1)
Output high voltage (1) VOH1 0.75V
CC
V
OH
= 0.1 mA 7
(DB0DB7)
Output low voltage (1) VOL1 0.2V
CC
V
OL
= 0.1 mA 7
(DB0DB7)
Output high voltage (2) VOH2 0.8V
CC
V
OH
= 0.04 mA 8
(except DB0DB7)
Output low voltage (2) VOL2 0.2V
CC
V
OL
= 0.04 mA 8
(except DB0DB7)
Driver on resistance R
COM
2 20 k d = 0.05 mA, 13
(COM) VLCD = 4 V
Driver on resistance R
SEG
2 30 k d = 0.05 mA, 13
(SEG) VLCD = 4 V
nput leakage current
L
1 1 A VN = 0 to V
CC
9
Pull-up MOS current
(DB0DB7, RS, R/W)

p
10 50 120 A V
CC
= 3 V
Power supply current
CC
150 300 A R
f
oscillation, 10, 14
external clock
V
CC
= 3 V,
f
OSC
= 270 kHz
LCD voltage VLCD1 3.0 11.0 V V
CC
V5, 1/5 bias 16
VLCD2 3.0 11.0 V V
CC
V5, 1/4 bias 16
Note: * Refer to the Electrical Characteristics Notes section following these tables.
48
Cloc1 Characteristics
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio% Not$R
External External clock frequency f
cp
125 250 350 kHz 11
clock
External clock duty Duty 45 50 55 %
External clock rise time t
rcp
0.2 s
External clock fall time t
fcp
0.2 s
R
f
oscillation
Clock oscillation frequency f
OSC
190 270 350 kHz R
f
= 75 k,
V
CC
= 3 V
12
CC a
6D**B)$,
AC Characteristics ? S '#B to *#% ?0 2 S T>$ to GB%CR
>
+
operation
Note: * Refer to the Electrical Characteristics Notes section following these tables.
Bus 2iming Characteristics
7rite 3peration
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio%
Enable cycle time t
cycE
1000 ns Figure 25
Enable pulse width (high level) PW
EH
450
Enable rise/fall time t
Er
, t
Ef
25
Address set-up time (RS, R/W to E) t
AS
60
Address hold time t
AH
20
Data set-up time t
DSW
195
Data hold time t
H
10
!ead 3peration
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio%
Enable cycle time t
cycE
1000 ns Figure 26
Enable pulse width (high level) PW
EH
450
Enable rise/fall time t
Er
, t
Ef
25
Address set-up time (RS, R/W to E) t
AS
60
Address hold time t
AH
20
Data delay time t
DDR
360
Data hold time t
DHR
5
49
6D**B)$,
Interface 2iming Characteristics /ith EJternal Driver
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio%
Clock pulse width High level t
CWH
800 ns Figure 27
Low level t
CWL
800
Clock set-up time t
CSU
500
Data set-up time t
SU
300
Data hold time t
DH
300
M delay time t
DM
1000 1000
Clock rise/fall time t
ct
200
-o/er Supply Conditions ,sing Internal !eset Circuit
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio%
Power supply rise time t
rCC
0.1 10 ms Figure 28
Power supply off time t
OFF
1
50
CC a
6D**B)$,
DC Characteristics ? S *#% to %#% ?0 2 S T>$ to GB%CR
>
+
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio% Not$(R
nput high voltage (1) VH1 2.2 V
CC
V 6
(except OSC1)
nput low voltage (1) VL1 0.3 0.6 V 6
(except OSC1)
nput high voltage (2) VH2 V
CC
1.0 V
CC
V 15
(OSC1)
nput low voltage (2) VL2 1.0 V 15
(OSC1)
Output high voltage (1) VOH1 2.4 V
OH
= 0.205 mA 7
(DB0DB7)
Output low voltage (1) VOL1 0.4 V
OL
= 1.2 mA 7
(DB0DB7)
Output high voltage (2) VOH2 0.9 V
CC
V
OH
= 0.04 mA 8
(except DB0DB7)
Output low voltage (2) VOL2 0.1 V
CC
V
OL
= 0.04 mA 8
(except DB0DB7)
Driver on resistance RCOM 2 20 k d = 0.05 mA, 13
(COM) VLCD = 4 V
Driver on resistance RSEG 2 30 k d = 0.05 mA, 13
(SEG) VLCD = 4 V
nput leakage current
L
1 1 A VN = 0 to V
CC
9
Pull-up MOS current
(DB0DB7, RS, R/W)

p
50 125 250 A V
CC
= 5 V
Power supply current
CC
350 600 A R
f
oscillation, 10, 14
external clock
V
CC
= 5 V,
f
OSC
= 270 kHz
LCD voltage VLCD1 3.0 11.0 V V
CC
V5, 1/5 bias 16
VLCD2 3.0 11.0 V V
CC
V5, 1/4 bias 16
Note: * Refer to the Electrical Characteristics Notes section following these tables.
51
CC a
6D**B)$,
AC Characteristics ? S *#% to %#% ?0 2 S T>$ to GB%CR
>
+
Cloc1 Characteristics
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio% Not$(R
External External clock frequency f
cp
125 250 350 kHz 11
clock
External clock duty Duty 45 50 55 % 11
operation
External clock rise time t
rcp
0.2 s 11
External clock fall time t
fcp
0.2 s 11
R
f
Clock oscillation frequency f
OSC
190 270 350 kHz R
f
= 91 k 12
oscillation V
CC
= 5.0 V
Note: * Refer to the Electrical Characteristics Notes section following these tables.
Bus 2iming Characteristics
7rite 3peration
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio%
Enable cycle time t
cycE
500 ns Figure 25
Enable pulse width (high level) PW
EH
230
Enable rise/fall time t
Er
, t
Ef
20
Address set-up time (RS, R/W to E) t
AS
40
Address hold time t
AH
10
Data set-up time t
DSW
80
Data hold time t
H
10
!ead 3peration
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio%
Enable cycle time t
cycE
500 ns Figure 26
Enable pulse width (high level) PW
EH
230
Enable rise/fall time t
Er
, t
Ef
20
Address set-up time (RS, R/W to E) t
AS
40
Address hold time t
AH
10
Data delay time t
DDR
160
Data hold time t
DHR
5
52
6D**B)$,
Interface 2iming Characteristics /ith EJternal Driver
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio%
Clock pulse width High level t
CWH
800 ns Figure 27
Low level t
CWL
800
Clock set-up time t
CSU
500
Data set-up time t
SU
300
Data hold time t
DH
300
M delay time t
DM
1000 1000
Clock rise/fall time t
ct
100
-o/er Supply Conditions ,sing Internal !eset Circuit
It$m S1m"o# +i% T1 +!- 8%it T$(t Co%5itio%
Power supply rise time t
rCC
0.1 10 ms Figure 28
Power supply off time t
OFF
1
53
6D**B)$,
Electrical Characteristics "otes
@ All %olta'e %alues are referred to 1N3 Z , ;
V
CC
B
V1
A = V
CC
V5
A
B = V
CC
V1
A 1.5 V
V5
B 0.25 A
The conditions of V1 and V5 voltages are for proper
operation of the LS and not for the LCD output level.
The LCD drive voltage condition for the LCD output
level is specified as LCD voltage VLCD.
+ ;
CC
;@ ;+ ;C ;D ;- must be maintained
C :or die products* specified at F-C
D :or die products* specified b& the die shipment specification
- The followin' four circuits are I0O pin confi'urations e5cept for liquid cr&stal displa& output
nput pin
Pin: E (MOS without pull-up) Pins: RS, R/W (MOS with pull-up)
Output pin
Pins: CL1, CL2, M, D
V
CC
V
CC V
CC
PMOS
NMOS
PMOS
(pull up MOS)
PMOS
NMOS
PMOS
NMOS
/O Pin
Pins: DB0 DB7
(MOS with pull-up)
V
CC
V
CC
(input circuit)
(pull-up MOS)
PMOS PMOS
nput enable
NMOS
NMOS
PMOS
NMOS
V
CC
(output circuit)
(tristate)
Output enable
Data
54
OSC1
OSC2
Oscillator
Open
f

O
S
C

(
k
H
z
)
f

O
S
C

(
k
H
z
)
6D**B)$,
E Applies to input pins and I0O pins* e5cludin' the O7C@ pin
F Applies to I0O pins
> Applies to output pins
/ Current flowin' throu'h pullTup 6O7s* e5cludin' output dri%e 6O7s
@, Input0output current is e5cluded 8hen input is at an intermediate le%el with C6O7* the e5cessi%e
current flows throu'h the input circuit to the power suppl& To a%oid this from happenin'* the input
le%el must be fi5ed hi'h or low
@@ Applies onl& to e5ternal cloc# operation
Th Tl
0.7 V
CC
0.5 V
CC
0.3 V
CC
t
rcp
t
fcp
Duty =
Th
Th + Tl
100%
@+ Applies onl& to the internal oscillator operation usin' oscillation resistor R
f

R
f
: 75 k 2% (when V
CC
= 3 V)
OSC1
R : 91 k 2% (when V = 5 V)
f CC
R
f
OSC2
Since the oscillation frequency varies depending on the OSC1 and
OSC2 pin capacitance, the wiring length to these pins should be minimized.
500
400
300
V
CC
= 5 V
500
400
300
V
CC
= 3 V
(270) (270)
max.
max.
200
100
50
typ.
min.
(91)
100 150
200
100
50
(75)
typ.
min.
100 150
R
f
(k ) R
f
(k )
55

C
C

(
m
A
)

C
C

(
m
A
)
6D**B)$,
@C RCO6 is the resistance between the power suppl& pins !;
CC
* ;@* ;D* ;-( and each common si'nal pin
!CO6@ to CO6@E(
R7E1 is the resistance between the power suppl& pins !;
CC
* ;+* ;C* ;-( and each se'ment si'nal pin
!7E1@ to 7E1D,(
@D The followin' 'raphs show the relationship between operation frequenc& and current consumption
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
V
CC
= 5 V
max.
typ.
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
V
CC
= 3 V
max.
typ.
0 100 200 300 400 500
0 100 200 300 400 500
f
OSC
or f
cp
(kHz)
f
OSC
or f
cp
(kHz)
@- Applies to the O7C@ pin
@E Each CO6 and 7E1 output %olta'e is within ,@- ; of the 9C3 %olta'e !;
CC
* ;@* ;+* ;C* ;D* ;-(
when there is no load
56
6D**B)$,
5oad Circuits
Data Bus DB$ to DBB
For V
CC
= 4.5 to 5.5 V
Test
point
90 pF 11 k
V
CC
= 5 V
3.9 k
S2074 H
diodes
For V
CC
= 2.7 to 4.5 V
Test
point
50 pF
EJternal Driver Control Signals: C5&0 C5'0 D0 M
Test
point
30 pF
57
6D**B)$,
2iming Characteristics
VH1
RS
VL1
t
AS
t
AH
VH1
VL1
R/W
VL1 VL1
E
VH1
VL1
t
Er
PW
EH
VH1
VL1
t
AH
t
Ef
VL1
t
DSW
t
H
DB0 to DB7
VH1
VL1
Valid data
t
cycE
VH1
VL1
4igure '% 7rite 3peration
VH1
RS
VL1
t
AS
t
AH
VH1
VL1
R/W
VH1 VH1
E
VH1
VL1
t
Er
PW
EH
VH1
VL1
t
AH
t
Ef
VL1
t
DDR
t
DHR
DB0 to DB7
VOH1
VOL1 *
Valid data
t
cycE
VOH1
* VOL1
Note: * VOL1 is assumed to be 0.8 V at 2 MHz operation.
4igure 'A !ead 3peration
58
6D**B)$,
CL1
CL2
VOH2
VOH2
t
CWH
t
CSU
VOL2
t
ct
VOL2
t
CWH
VOH2
t
CSU
t
CWL
t
ct
D
t
SU
t
DH
VOH2
VOL2
M
VOH2
t
DM
4igure 'B Interface 2iming /ith EJternal Driver
V
CC
2.7 V/4.5 V*
2
0.2 V
0.2 V 0.2 V
t
rcc
t
OFF
*1
0.1 ms t
rcc
10 ms t
OFF
1 ms
Notes: 1.
2.
3.
t
OFF
compensates for the power oscillation period caused by momentary power supply
oscillations.
Specified at 4.5 V for 5-V operation, and at 2.7 V for 3-V operation.
For if 4.5 V is not reached during 5-V operation, the internal reset circuit will not operate
normally.
n this case, the LS must be initialized by software. (Refer to the nitializing by
nstruction section.)
4igure ') Internal -o/er Supply !eset
59
6D**B)$,
Cautions
@ 2itachi neither warrants nor 'rants licenses of an& ri'hts of 2itachiPs or an& third part&Ps patent*
cop&ri'ht* trademar#* or other intellectual propert& ri'hts for information contained in this document
2itachi bears no responsibilit& for problems that ma& arise with third part&Ps ri'hts* includin'
intellectual propert& ri'hts* in connection with use of the information contained in this document
+ Products and product specifications ma& be subject to chan'e without notice Confirm that &ou ha%e
recei%ed the latest product standards or specifications before final desi'n* purchase or use
C 2itachi ma#es e%er& attempt to ensure that its products are of hi'h qualit& and reliabilit& 2owe%er*
contact 2itachiPs sales office before usin' the product in an application that demands especiall& hi'h
qualit& and reliabilit& or where its failure or malfunction ma& directl& threaten human life or cause ris#
of bodil& injur&* such as aerospace* aeronautics* nuclear power* combustion control* transportation*
traffic* safet& equipment or medical equipment for life support
D 3esi'n &our application so that the product is used within the ran'es 'uaranteed b& 2itachi particularl&
for ma5imum ratin'* operatin' suppl& %olta'e ran'e* heat radiation characteristics* installation
conditions and other characteristics 2itachi bears no responsibilit& for failure or dama'e when used
be&ond the 'uaranteed ran'es E%en within the 'uaranteed ran'es* consider normall& foreseeable
failure rates or failure modes in semiconductor de%ices and emplo& s&stemic measures such as fail.
safes* so that the equipment incorporatin' 2itachi product does not cause bodil& injur&* fire or other
consequential dama'e due to operation of the 2itachi product
- This product is not desi'ned to be radiation resistant
E No one is permitted to reproduce or duplicate* in an& form* the whole or part of this document without
written appro%al from 2itachi
F Contact 2itachiPs sales office for an& questions re'ardin' this document or 2itachi semiconductor
products
Eit!/*i= Lt5>
Semiconductor & ntegrated Circuits.
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Tel: Tokyo (03) 3270-2111 Fax: (03) 3270-5109
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0o' 2,'t*$' i%2o'm!tio% )'it$ to?
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(America) nc.
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Tel: <1> (408) 433-1990
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Copyright Hitachi, Ltd., 1998. All rights reserved. Printed in Japan.
60