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VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is parallel communication?

parallel communication is a method of sending several data signals simultaneously over several parallel channels. It contrasts with serial communication; this distinction is one way of characterizing a communications link. 2. What is serial communication? serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus. This is in contrast to parallel communication, where several bits are sent as a whole, on a link with several parallel channels. Serial communication is used for all long haul communication and most computer networks, where the cost of cable and synchronization difficulties make parallel communication impractical. . !e"ine !NS? System that can map a name to an address and conversely an address to a name. In T!"#I", this is the domain name system. #. Name $i""erent sections use$ in internet !NS. a. $eneric domain b. !ountry domain c. Inverse domain %. What $oes a &eneric $omain $e"ine? The generic domains define registered hosts according to their generic behaviour. '. (entions the usa&e o" in)erse $omain. a. Inverse domain is used to map an address to a name. b. To determine if the client is on the authorized list , it can send a query to the %&S server and ask for the mapping of address to name. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. !e"ine *T+. 'ile transfer protocol is the standard mechanism provided by the T!"#I" for copying a file one host to another. Transferring files from one computer to another is one of the most common takes e(pected from a networking or internetworking environment. 2. ,o- $oes *T+ $i""er "rom other client ser)er applications? 'T" differs from other client server applications in that it establishes two connections between the hosts. )ne connection is used for data transfer and other for control information. . What is S(T+? The T!"#I" protocol supports electronic mail on the internet is called Simple mail transfer protocol. It is a system for sending messages to other computer users based on e mail addresses. #.What is ,ttp? The *yperte(t Transfer "rotocol is a protocol used mainly to access data on the +orld +ide +eb. The protocol transfer data in the form of plainte(t, hyperte(t, audio, and video and so on. %.,o- $oes ,TT+ $i""er "rom S(T+? a. *TT" differs from S,T" in the way the messages are sent from the client to the server and from the server to the client. b. -nlike S,T", the *TT" messages are not destined to be read by humans. c. *TT" messages are delivered immediately. '. .elate ,TT+ an$ *T+. HTTP is similar to FTP, because it transfers files and uses the services of TCP. However it is much simpler than FTP, because HTTP uses only one TCP connection. There is not a separate control connection.

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is meant /0 con&estion? !ongestion in a network occurs if user sends data into the network at a rate greater than that allowed by network resources. 2. Wh0 the con&estion occur in a net-or1? !ongestion occurs because the switches in a network have a limited buffer size to store arrived packets before processing. . What is $ata encr0ption ? %ata encryption refers to mathematical calculations and algorithmic schemes that transform plainte(t into cypherte(t, a form that is non readable to unauthorized parties. The recipient of an encrypted message uses a key which triggers the algorithm mechanism to decrypt the data, transforming it to the original plainte(t version. #.What is .SA al&orithm? .n public key encryption technology developed by /S. %ata Security, Inc. The acronym stands for /ivest, Shamir, and .delman, the inventors of the technique. The /S. algorithm is based on the fact that there is no efficient way to factor very large numbers. %educing an /S. key, therefore, requires an e(traordinary amount of computer processing power and time.The /S. algorithm has become the de facto standard for industrial strengthencryption, especially for data sent over the Internet. %. What is the "unction o" *E2N? The FECN bit is used to warn the receiver of congestion in the networ . The sender and receiver are communication with each other and are using some type of flow control at a higher level.