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NEMA Standards Publication No. SM 23-1991(R1997,R2002)

Steam Turbines for Mechanical Drive Service

Published by:

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1847 Rosslyn, VA 22209

O Copyright 2002 by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association. All rights including translation into other languages, reserved under the Universal Copyright Convention, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, and the international and Pan American Copyright Conventions.

NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER

The information in this publication was considered technically sound by the consensus of persons engaged in the development and approval of the document at the time it was developed, Consensus does not necessarily mean that there is unanimous agreement among every person participating in the development of this document.

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards and guideline publications, of which the document contained herein is one, are developed through a voluntary consensus standards development process. This process brings together volunteers and/or seeks out the views of persons who have an interest in the topic covered by this publication. While NEMA administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus, it does not write the document and it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy or completeness of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its standards and guideline publications.

NEMA disclaims liability for any personal injury, property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, application, or reliance on this document. NEMA disclaims and makes no guaranty or warranty, express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and disclaims and makes no warranty that the information in this document will fulfill any of your particular purposes or needs. NEMA does not undertake to guarantee the performance of any individual manufacturer or seller’s products or services by virtue of this standard or guide.

In publishing and making this document available, NEMA is not undertaking to render professional or other services for or on behalf of any person or entity, nor is NEMA undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independentjudgment or, as appropriate, seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. Information and other standards on the topic covered by this publication may be available from other sources, which the user may wish to consult for additional views or information not covered by this publication.

O

NEMA has no power, nor does it undertake to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. NEMA does not certify, test, or inspect products, designs, or installations for safety or health purposes. Any certification or other statement of compliance with any health or safety-related information in this document shall not be attributable to NEMA and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement.

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STQ-NEMA SM 23-ENGL 1991

~

6470247 0524297 714 m

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREwom

SCOPE

Sectkn 1

REFERENCEDSTANDARDSAND DEPlNlïïONS RefaencedSEancbrrds Definithm

sectm2

CONSTRUCTION

'I)pesofSteamT

CiassiñedbyExhaustcaiditiasis

. -N

Tiabmc

CoadensingTUrbinc

classifiedby Number of Stages and Coam1 Valves

SingleValveSingieSEagC'Iirrbint

SingleVaive MuuistegeMine

Multi*

sil@

stage mine

Muitivaive Muitisiage'ïixòine Ciassiñdby~Needs

controlled(Alumtic) ExeractionTurbine

NoncwtrolletiExtractiosinlrbhw Noacontrolled Induction'linbine

CmmUed InQiCtim (Mixdnesslire)Me

InductimExtractionTirrbine

SteamIIiabinecctUl~ts

Turbinecasmg

SteamInletEndseCtion

ExhaustEI?dstction

Irlemedia&sactiw

SteamChest (GOV~IIKNvahe Body)

SteamRing

Nozzles

StatiomyReveEngBladcs

StationaryRevczsingCham~

Diciphragm

sw.nlrbirbe

ImpuIseStage

ReactianStage

shaftseals

casingshaftseals

Intemagestlaftseals

BearingHousing

Bearings

RacüaiBcarings

ThnistBearings

AntitÌiCtianBearings

RotorAssembly

wheels@iscs)

Biades(Buckets)

Shroud

Handvalve@)

RotectiveDevice

COnmhgDevi~

ExtemalcontrolDevice

PiSc

i

ii

1

1

1

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

sectlocr2

plr

 

SentinelWhgValve

5

soleplate(s)

5

Basephte

6

FeatmsandAccessan?es

6

BasicFeaMesaQd-

6

OptiOnalFeaMesandAccessorics

6

controned~~andcontrolled~?Itrrbines

7

NcmwntroiledExüacîh Turbhes

7

Nonconp.olled InductiaiIlabines

7

?IiirbineRating

7

power

7

speed

7

Ratedspeed

7

Maximum continwusspeed

7

Nd Power endSpeedandSteam Caiditions

7

Stcamconditiaas:

7

MinimwnSteam(hKiibS

7

MaximumStcamconditions

7

MinimumEnergystcamccmditions

7

Inletsteampressure

7

ExhaiistSteampressUre

8

Extraction SteamRressiire

8

Induction SteamPressure

8

Inlet Steam Tempemure

8

ExhaustSteamT~perame

8

Extiaction SteamTemperatrae

8

Lndpctim Steam Tempgatme

8

Maximum MowableWorkingPressuresandTeanptmtms

8

DualSteamconditions

8

VauiationsinSteamconditions

8

Flow Limits foran Automatic Exaaction ?Mihe

9

HowrjmitpforanInductionTurbine

9

Units of Measurement for Absolute

and Gauge Pressure

9

Thermodynamic?Iienns

9

SteamRateS

9

I

TheOretidSteamRate

9

ActualsteamRates

10

GuaranteedSteamRate

10

?Iiirbineconnectiais

10

outputshaftExte~

10

Steamcohus

10

AuxiliaryconnectionS

10

LlbiClUb

10

NonpFessure?lSpeLubncation(Single stagelbbines)

10

oil LulnicztredsleeveBeanngs(HarizwEalTiirbines)

10

G?ease or oillubricatad AntinictionBearings

pressure?lslpeoilLu~

10

11

InProduction

11

Oilnrmpr

11

oilReservoir

11

oilcooler

11

OilFdt~zs

11

. .

STD-NEMA SM 23-ENGL L99L

b470247 0524299 597 =

.

section2

 

piping andInstnunentation

11

nwisonsforthe Esrvin>nment

12

Eaclosufe

12

Exposwe to Nanrral Elements

12

Exposure toAbnonnalAhnœphedic conditioas

12

GeneraiRequiremeats

12

PltsSureandTempemmRanges

12

vi’bration

12

Singlestageïùrbim

12

Mdtistageïùrb~

12

clitwspeeds.L

13

NameplateData

13

Sedkn 3

CONTROLS

17

GoveaningSystem

17

SpeedGOmar

17

Multivariable Govexnor

17

CoatmlMeChanism

17

GOvmorconmlled WVe(S)

17

Servomom System

17

ExtemalCdDeviw

17

Speedcbangetlype

17

RemoteSetPointQpe

17

Valve Actuating-

17

speedchanger

17

SpeedGovaning System classification

17

SpeedRange

18

Maximums@Rise

18

speedvariation

18

DeadBand

18

stability

18

Speed Regulation.Steady State

18

steamPressurecaritrd

ZQ

PressureRegUlatingSysíea~

m

PressureRegUlatw

m

ControlMechaniSn

20

nessUre ControlledWves

pressurechanger

SteadyStatePxess~mReguûuion

PressureReguiatioaiC

20

20

m

A)

stability

21

pressurecontrol perfamilmce

21

Compensatedcoatrol System

21

Electronic Governing System

21

Basic Features

21

Accessones

21

ControlPrimiries

21

Control of inâuctim or Extracoon

21

Missing SignaiDetection Featrae

22

SensorRedundancy

22

OverSpeeaTnp

22

Genexal

Automatic Stat Controls

22

22

STD.NEMA Sfl 23-ENGL 1991 m b470247 0524300 039

 

p.pc

secth4

PRûïECTiON

23

BasicFeaûues

23

UanUalTrip

23

Overspeed'LtipSystem

23

 

OverspeedScnsingD

23

nipspeed

23

nipvalve

23

Combined 'Ltip andIhrottltValve

23

overspeednipsystemsetting

23

secSIon5

FACIDRYTESTING

25

'Iiirbine

25

HydroTd

25

Sectbn6

NoLoadRUnmngTesc

25

SOUNDPñESSUREJEVELS

27

Gtaeral

n

swnd€3essweLev&

27

soSmd~LevelMtasuremcntprocedme

27

CamctionforBacLgrwndNoise

28

souadResolution

28

Instnuneats

28

 

SdAüendon

29

sectm7

PRapARATI0NFORS"TANDSTORAGE

31

ShijlpiDgRe~

31

Shipneat

31

Wit and Storage of Equipmeat

31

sectkn8

INSTALLAIION

33

In-tion

33

SupervisionOfIaseallation

33

 

33

 

Fouudation

33

steam InletandExhaustPiping

33

Cieamngof~SteamPiping

34

SteamPipingSystems

36

Inetion

36

The Piping noblem as Applied to ?brbines

36

FbmsDue to Stearn Pressure

36

Fbms Due to Temperatwe

38

FarcesDue to Dead Weight

40

AuowaMe Fœces andMoments onSttamTurbines

41

DrainPiping

42

IÆak-ofli

42

Fuil-FiowReii&Device

42

CoUptingAlignmcnt

44

Grwting

44

FlushingûiiSystem

44

seCtrOn9

OPERATONANDMAINTENANCE

51

In-tim

51

operatioa

51

Noncondensin' g'hbine opetatianofaMultisragecondensia. g'Ihrbine

51

'I)pical SEertmgSeqaencefimaSteamnirbine

51

Maintlmance

51

Intluduction

51

STDmNEUA SU 23-ENGL 1991

SeCtknS

UitemalWaterWashing

steamhinty

Sacth10 INQUIRYGUIDE

6470247 0524303 T75

pige

52

52

67

STD*NEMA SU 23-ENGL L99L 9 6470247 052430il 7Dl W

Foreword

Ilhisstandard has been developed by the Steam "wbiine Section of NEMA. In its preparation

andrevision, considaationbas been given to the work of other organizations. such as the American

National Standardsinstitute, the AmericanPeuoleum institute, the AmericanBoilerManufacturas

Association, and the Amencan.

SoCiety of Mechanical Engineers, striving toward the deveiopment

ofstandards,anddtishaebygiventoaii whosesiandardsmayhavebeenh~~inthepreparatian of thispublication. nK purpose of this standard fa singie stage and multistagemechanid drive steam turbines is to faciiitate the appiication of the.se turbines by engineers, users, aad conuactas, to promote ecwomieS m driving rotalhg mechanical equipment, and to assist in the proper seiection and

app~ofthedifferingmechantcaldesignsof turbines.

NEMA Standards Publia SM 23-1991revisesand SupeISedestheNEMA StandardsPubli-

Cation Steam Turbinesfor Me~hanicalz)rive SeMe, SM 23-1985.

User needs have been considertd throughout the development of this standard. Proposed M recommmdedrevisionsshould be submittedto:

ViceResident,Engineering Depamnent

NationalEiecaicalManufacturersAssociation

2101 L SlEaNw,suite300

Washnigton,DC 20037

(202)457-8400

1

STD-NEMA SU 23-ENGL L99L

ii

b470247 0524303 848