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6.1.1.

Mechanical Design: Mechanical design phase is very important from the view of designer as whole success of

the project depends on the correct design analysis of the problem. Many preliminary alternatives are eliminated during this phase Designer should have adequate knowledge above physical properties of material, loads stresses, deformation, and failure. Theories and wear analysis. He should identify the external and internal force acting on the machine parts. This force may be classified as; 1] Dead weigh forces 2] Friction forces 3] Inertia forces 4] Centrifugal forces 5] Forces generated during power transmission etc. Designer should estimate these forces very accurately by using design equations. If he does not have sufficient information to estimate them he should make certain practical assumptions based on similar conditions. This will almost satisfy the functional needs. Assumptions must always be on the safer side. Selection of factors of safety to find working or design stress is another important step in design of working dimensions of machine elements. The corrections in the theoretical stress value are to be made according in the kinds of loads, shape of parts & service requirements. Selection of material should be made according to the condition of loading shapes of products environments conditions & desirable properties of material. Provision should be made to minimize nearly adopting proper lubrications methods. In, mechanical design the components are listed down & stored on the basis of their procurement in two categories. Design parts Parts to be purchased

For design parts a detailed design is done & designation thus obtain are compared to the next highest dimension which is ready available in market.

This simplification the assembly as well as post production service work. The various tolerances on the work are specified. The processes charts are prepared & passed on to the work are specified. The parts to be purchased directly are selected from various catalogues & specification so that anybody can purchase the same from retail shop with the given specifications.

6.2.

MOTOR SELECTION The operation speed of the is about 5oo rpm, hence the power requirement of the machine

can be analyzed as follows, Torque required at the shaft = 2500 N-mm = 2.5 N-m

Where;

T = Torque at spindle (Nm) P = POWER (Kw) N=Speed (rpm)

= 130 .85 watt Considering efficiency of belt drive 70 % power required = 170 watt

Motor Selection

1- Phase Induction Motor ( 2 Pole ) 230 Volts, 50 Hp ( 0.18 Kw) Speed = 1440 rpm ( Synchronous ) Frame Size = 71 Current = 1.70 Amp Torque = O.17 Kg.m TEFC Construction.

6.2.1.

Torque Analysis: Torque at spindle is given by

Where; T = Torque at spindle (Nm) P = Power (Kw) N = Speed (rpm)

Considering 25% overload;

=1.25 3.437

6.3.

DESIGN OF BELT DRIVE FOR MACHINE SPINDLE:

Selection an open belt drive using V- belt; Reduction ratio = = 2.88

Planning a 1 stage reduction; Stage A) Motor pulley (D1) =50 mm B) Main shaft pulley (D2) =150 mm

6.3.1.

Input Data:

Input Power = 0.18 KW Input Speed = 1440 Rpm Center Distance = 300 mm

Max Belt Speed = 1600 m/min =26.67 m/sec Groove Angle (2) = Coefficient Of Friction = 0.25 Between Belt and Pulley Allowable Tensile Stress = 2.5 N/mm2

6.3.2.

Section of Belt Selection: (Ref PSG Design Data Pg No.7.58) Table no.6.1. Section of Belt Selection C/S Symbol Usual Land Of Drive (KW) A 0.75-5 Nominal Top Width W(mm) 13 Nominal Thickness T(mm) 8 0.106 Weight Meter Kgf

Angle of lap smaller pulley; i.e. motor pulley

Now, Mass of belt / meter length = 0.106kgf Centrifugal Tension (Tc) M

Max Tension in belt (T) = = 2.5 = 260 Tension In Tight Side Of Belt = =T= 260 - 75.397 = 184 N Tension In Slack Side Of Belt = [ ] ( [ ] [ ] ) ( )

Power Transmitting Capacity of Belt ( ( ) )

Belt can safely transmit 0.18 kW power.

6.3.3.

Length of Belt: ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( [ [ ( ) ] ) ]

L =930 mm

6.3.4.

Selection of Belt: Selection of belt A- 38 from STD manufacturers catalogue

MAKE: PIX

Table no.6.2 Result Table 1 2 3 4 5 Belt Selected Tight side Tension Slack side Tension Motor pulley diameter (D1) Pulley diameter (D2) A- 36 T1 = 184 N T2 = 25.28 N D1= 50 mm D2 = 150 mm

6.3.5.

DESIGN OF MAIN SPINDLE: = 3.68 Nm = 3.68 x N.mm

Selection of main spindle material (Ref:PSG Design Data Pg No.:- 1.10 & 1.12.1.17) Table no.6.3 Design of Main Spindle Designation EN 24(40 N; 2 cr 1Mo28) Ultimate Tensile Strength (N/mm2) 720 Yield strength (N/mm2) 600

Using ASME code of design Allowable shear stress; Is given stress; = 0.30 x = 0.30 x 60 = 180N/mm2

= 0.18 x = 0.18 x720 = 130 N/mm2 Considering minimum of the above values; =130 N/mm2

As, we are providing key way on shaft;

Reducing above value by 25% =0.75 x 130 = 97.5 N/ mm2

a) Considering pure torsional load;

Selecting minimum diameter of spindle = 16 mm from ease of Construction because the standard pulley has a pilot bore of 12.5 mm in as cast condition, and a bore of minimum 16 mm for keyway slotting operation. But, Shaft is also subjected to bending loads; due to tensions in tight side and slack of pulley and weight of magnetic die supporter. Tension in Tight Side of Belt ( ) = 184 N Tension in Slack Side of Belt ( ) = 25.28 N

Fig.6.1 Loading & Bending Diagram ( )

175

Max bending moment = Equivalent Torque;

As Shaft is safe under torsional load Check For Bending Failure Of Shaft: Max bending moment occurs at point A, the section diameter at point DA = 20 mm

= = ( ) ( )

As, Shaft is safe under bending load.

6.4.

SELECTION OF BEARING: Spindle bearing will be subjected to purely medium radial loads; hence we shall use ball

bearings for our application.

Selecting; single Row deep groove ball bearing as follows; Series 62 Table no. 6.4 Selection of Bearing I S I No. 20 BC02 Bearing of Basic design No. ( SKF ) Plummer Block D 20 D1 26 D 47 D2 41 B 14 Basic Capacity 10000 6550

P=X

+Y

For our application Fa = o P=X Where As; <eX=1 P= Max radial load = P = 204.5 N Calculation dynamic load capacity of bearing ( ) Where, a=3 for ball bearings When P for ball Bearing For m/c used for eight hr of service per day; = 12000- 20000 hr = 204.5 N = 204.5 N

Mrev Now;

As the required dynamic capacity of bearing is less than the rated dynamic capacity of bearing. Bearing is safe.

Chapter 7 MANUFACTURING & FABRICATION

Table no. 7.1 Manufacturing & Fabrication Sr. No. 1. Plummer Block Inner Dia.= 20mm Length125mm Height60mm Part Name Dimensions

2.

Driven Pulley Outer Dia.=150mm Inner Dia.=20mm

3.

V-Belt

Type-B90 MaterialPolyester Cord

4.

Driver Pulley
Inner Diameter=20

mm Groove Angle=

5.

Shafts
Diameter of shaft=20mm