Sie sind auf Seite 1von 52

FLUID POWER TECHNOLOGY

RADZI ABDUL RASIH


FACULTY OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING, UITMCPP

radzi_rasih@ppinang.uitm.edu.my
radzi_rasih@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

Chapter 6
Hydraulic Components and
Accessories
radzi_rasih@ppinang.uitm.edu.my

3
Reservoir
The reservoir must be considered:
The basic unit for storage of system uid
A primary contamination-control
component
A primary heat-control component
Reservoir
Size of reservoir

3
Reservoir
The reservoir helps condition uid
Reservoir
7
Accumulator
Accumulators allow a hydraulic system
to use the noncompressible nature of
liquids while still being able to absorb
and store energy in the system
Accumulators are also used to absorb
sudden pressure increases in the
system to prevent damage to system
components
8
Functions of
Accumulator Circuits
The four basic functions of
accumulators are
Providing a means to store energy
Controlling pressure and ow variations
Maintaining system pressure
Supplementing pump output ow
Energy is being stored any time an
accumulator is being lled
9
Accumulator
Accumulators installed on a machine
10
Accumulator
Energy is stored in an accumulator by:
Lifting a weight
Compressing a spring
Compressing a gas
11
Accumulator
Energy stored in an accumulator can
be used to:
Maintain system pressure
Produce uid ow to expand pump
output
Power the circuit when the pump is not
operating
12
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Weight-loaded accumulators are
generally used in large, stationary
hydraulic systems
Vertically mounted units with heavy weights
mounted on the cylinder rod
Gravity acts on the weight to pressurize the
hydraulic system uid, thus storing energy
Seldom used in current hydraulic system designs
13
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Conceptual
weight-loaded
accumulator
14
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Spring-loaded accumulators store
energy by compressing a spring
Spring tension maintains pressure on
system uid
Allowing storing of energy
Absorbs any sudden pressure increases in
the uid
13
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Typical spring-
loaded
accumulator
16
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Gas-charged accumulators are the
most common type of accumulator
They use a piston, bladder, or
diaphragm to separate the liquid and
gas
This separation prevents the gas from
being absorbed by the liquid or
entering the system liquid lines
17
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Piston-type accumulators are basically
a cylinder with a free-sliding piston
that separates the cylinder into a gas
chamber and a liquid chamber
These units are available in sizes from
under 10 cubic inches to over 100
gallons
18
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Piston-type accumulator
19
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Bladder-type accumulators use a
exible bladder tted into a metal
shell
The gas is stored in the bladder, while
the hydraulic uid is held in the space
between the shell and the bladder
20
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Bladder-type accumulator
21
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Poppet prevents
bladder from
being forced into
the system line
22
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Diaphragm-type accumulators are
constructed of two metal hemispheres
separated by a exible diaphragm
Hydraulic uid lls one of the
hemispheres while the second holds
the gas
23
Accumulator Design
and Operation
Diaphragm-type
accumulator
24
Heat Exchanger
Heat exchangers can be used to keep
the operating temperature within the
desired range
This is accomplished by either adding
heat to or subtracting heat from the
system uid
23
Heat Exchanger
Heat exchangers used in hydraulic
systems include:
Air-cooled radiators nned conductors
Water cooled shell-and-tube
Shell-and-tube can heat or cool
system uid
26
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
Radiators consist of a series of small
lines passing through a series of metal
ns
Fluid ows through the lines
Heat from the system uid passes through the
tube to the metal ns and on to the air passing
over the ns
Construction and operation is like the radiator in
a car
27
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
This radiator has
a fan to increase
airow over the
lines
HYDAC Technology Corporation
28
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers
consist of a bundle of tubes enclosed
in a metal shell
Tubes extend into common chambers in the
bonnets
Cooling or heating water passes through the
tubes
Hydraulic uid passes through the space
between the shell and the bundled tubes
CoodhearL-Wlllcox Co., lnc.
ermlsslon granLed Lo reproduce for
educauonal use only.
29
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
Typical shell-and-tube heat exchanger
30
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
Hydraulic uid passes through the
space between the shell and the
bundled tubes
31
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are
available in one-, two-, and four-pass
designs
Pass refers to the number of times the
cooling or heating uid passes
through the length of the shell
32
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
One-pass heat exchanger
33
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
Two-pass heat exchanger
34
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
Four-pass heat exchanger
33
Heat Exchanger Design
and Operation
Water may pass through a shell-and-
tube heat exchanger multiple times
Provided by API Heat Transfer
36
Filters and Strainers
Strainers and lters trap insoluble
material contained in hydraulic uid
Strainers are generally considered
coarse lters designed to remove only
larger particles
Filters are generally considered ne
lters that can remove small particles
37
Filters and Strainers
Filters and strainers clean uid
Schroeder Industries LLC
38
Filters and Strainers
Filters can be classied as surface type
or depth type
39
Filters and Strainers
Surface-type lters provide a surface
containing numerous holes to trap
particles (mechanically)
Depth-type lters use a mass of
porous material to provide numerous
ow routes that trap particles
40
Filters and Strainers
Surface-type lter
Eaton Fluid Power Training
41
Filters and Strainers
Microscopic view
of numerous
uid ow routes
in depth-type
lter media
Donaldson Company, Inc.
42
Filters and Strainers
Depth-type lters are classied as
either absorbent or adsorbent
Absorbent lters trap solid particles,
water, and suspended soluble materials
Adsorbent lters also use chemical
treatments such as activated charcoal to
remove contaminants
Filters and Strainers
Filters and Strainers
Conductors and Fittings
Conductors and ttings carry the uid
from reservoir through operating
components and back to the reservoir.
The pipe work must be able to
withstand vibration and thermal
expansion without excessive pressure
lost.
Conductors and Fittings
4 types of conductors:
Steel pipe
Steel tube
Plastic tube
Flexible hose
Conductors and Fittings
Sealing Devices
Sealing Devices
Sealing Devices
Sealing Devices
END