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3.

SPECIFICATION OF STEEL FOR SLEEPERS Steel channel sleeper is part of dynamic structure (critical loadings) which support directly rails of track on girders hence steel is used as follows:

3.3.1

Bridges located where service temperature does not fall below 0 C, steel used shall confirm to IS-2062 grade B fully killed. Note: Till such time rolled channel not available of steel to IS-2062 grade B steel confirming to IS-2062 A fully killed can be used.

3.3.2

Bridges located in below sub zero temperature areas, steel shall be confirming to IS-2062 grade C fully killed. Note: Steel used for fabrication should be tested one and must have mill test certificate clearly indicating the specification and fully killed. Fabricator should maintain the record of steel used with cast mark for verification if required at later date.

3.3.3 3.4

Rolled section should be within the rolling tolerances and surface defects prescribed in IS-1852. SIZE AND LENGTH OF SLEEPER There are two type of steel channel sleepers in use (1) 150 x 230mm size of cross section (2) 175 x 230mm size of cross-section.

3.4.1

Cross section of sleeper will be 150 x 230mm after fabrication (if rolled channel used is ISMC 150 x 75) as per Drawing No. B-1636/R2 & B-1636/1-R2) Fig. 3.3. Cross section of sleeper will be 175 x 230mm after fabrication (if rolled channel used is ISMC-175 x 75mm) as per Drawing No.B-1636/2. Length of steel channel sleeper depends on the type of steel girder bridges which is as follows: 78

3.4.2

3.4.3

150

CENTERS OF GIRDER OVER ALL LENGTH OF SLEEPER

ELASTOMERIC PAD

ELEVATION ELEVATION

PLAN

Fig. 3.3 STEEL CHANNEL SLEEPER B.G.

230

79

End portion
B A

Central portion

End portion

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Fig. 3.4 TOP FLANGE OF STANDARD PLATE GIRDER (WELDED TYPE) B.G.

3.4.3.1 Standard plate girder rivetted type (B.G.) Span Sleeper Length 24.4m 2550mm 18.3m 2440mm 12.2m 2440mm

3.4.3.2 Standard plate girder welded type (B.G.) The top flange plate of welded girder has different width at either end and middle portion of girder as shown in Fig. 3.4. Therefore, length of sleepers on A and B location are of different length: Span Sleeper length A B 24.4m 2565mm 2725mm 18.3m 2440mm 2535mm 12.2m 2440mm 2475mm

3.4.3.3 Standard Open Web Steel Girder through Span either rivetted type or welded type (B.G.) Steel channel sleeper rest on floor system i.e. rail bearer/stinger, the length of sleeper is same for all spans. Span 30.5m 45.7m 61.0m 76.2m Sleeper Length 2440mm 2440mm 2440mm 2440mm

3.4.3.4 Standard Open web (under slung) deck type 30.5m span RDSO, Lucknow has not issued any drawing for steel channel sleeper for B.G. Presently Zonal Railways uses the wooden sleeper or the steel channel sleeper as per Chief Bridge Engineers drawing of their zonal Railways.

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3.4.3.5 For non-standard Span Length of sleeper is as below: Length of sleeper = Center to center length of girders + Flange width + 200/300mm 3.4.4 Details of steel channel sleeper Shape of sleeper is made by 2 ISMC 150 x 75mm or 175 x 75mm, which are kept back-to-back 80mm apart to make width of 230mm. Both channels are connected in web by T and plate type diaphragms with fillet weld. T shape diaphragms are connected below T head bolt connecting rail clips. In case of loosening of nut, bolt will rest on T diaphragm, so that clip will be in position as well as prevent falling down of bolt. Canted bearing plates for rail seat are connected to top flange of both channel with rivets. Stiffener plate are provided below the rail seat with fillet weld in web between top and bottom flange of both channels as well as in the middle of sleepers. Details are shown in Fig. 3.5 (a) and 3.5 (b). 3.4.5 Fittings

3.4.5.1 Bolt T head bolts with spring washers and nuts are used to clamp the clip to canted bearing plate to hold rails. T head will facilitate insertion of bolt from top and vice versa removal of the same. 3.4.5.2 Clips Either side of rail clips are provided and tightened with T head bolts to keep the rail in position i.e. clip prevent lateral movement and uplift of rail but it will allow rail to move longitudinally to facilitate free movement of rail and girder as rail free fasteners. Grooved rubber pads are placed below the rail on canted bearing plates. Guard rails are also anchored with either side (crosswise) by bolt and clip to sleeper top flange. 82

ISMC 150x75 @ 16.4kg/m 230

TOP PLATE 80x12x250

STIFF. PLATE 65x10 150

TIGHT FIT

75

80

75

PLATE 80x10x120

Fig. 3.5 (a) SECTION OF CHANNEL SLEEPER (150 X 230 mm)

ISMC 175x75 @ 19.1kg/m 230

TOP PLATE 80x12x250

STIFF. PLATE 65x10 175

TIGHT FIT

75

80

75

DIAPH. 80x10x120

Fig. 3.5 (B) SECTION OF CHANNEL SLEEPER (175 X 230 mm)

3.4.5.3 Hook Bolts Hook bolts are of two types. (1) Straight lip (2) Tapered lip 83

Hook bolts are provided to outer edge of top flange plate on either side of girder to anchor the sleeper with the girder. Note: Plate girder whether rivetted or welded type requires straight lip hook bolts. Stinger/rail bearer of through type open web girder requires taper lip to ensure full grip to rolled angle. Square cross section of hook bolt near the head will prevent the turning of hook bolts during service ensuring lip of hook bolt in proper position. 3.4.5.4 Elastomeric Pad Elastomeric/rubber pad between bottom of steel channel sleeper and flange of girder, is essential to prevent cross bending of flange plate causing initiation of cracks in fillet weld or root of rolled angle under load. Sleepers are made up of steel, which is elastic material and cause cross bending under each axle passing. Thickness of elastomeric pad is minimum 12mm or as stipulated in drawing. 3.5 FABRICATION OF CHANNEL SLEEPERS Fabrication of steel channel sleeper is simple and required very simple infrastructure hence it can be fabricated in civil engineers workshop of zonal railways or by trade. Guide lines issued by RDSO for fabrication of steel channel sleepers vide Report No. 135-45 revised in May 2004 should be followed strictly for fabrication of these sleepers. Steel channel sleeper is part of dynamic loaded track bridge and support the rail to transfer the load from rail to steel girder hence considering safety aspect, following precautions shall be taken during fabrication to avoid fatigue failure of weld or cracks in steel of HAZ (heat affected zone).

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3.5.1

Precautions a) All steel section used in fabrication must have mill test certificate clearly indicating the steel specification conforming to IS-2062 grade B or C fully killed. b) All steel plates and rolled section should be straight and free from twist before cutting for fabrication. c) Oxy-acetylene gas cutting by mechanically controlled torch shall be used and cut edges to be ground. Profile of plate stiffener shall match with the profile of inner web and flange plate of both ISMC for snug fit to avoid cracking of weld or root of ISMC below rail seat. d) Welding position shall be flat position (down hand welding) either by MMAW or CO2 welding process as well as welding is carried out only by the qualified welders. e) Electrodes shall confirm to IRS-M-28 of class A-2 or C-1 and wire for C02 welding shall confirm to specification of class-1 of IRS-M-46-2001. Preferably CO2 welding shall be used for fabrication. g) Welding procedures requires approval and testing as per Clause-19 of Welded Bridge Code-2001 and record of fabrication and test qualification shall be maintained in proforma as stipulated in appendix-V of IRS serial B1 2001. h) Before welding, all mill scale and dust adjoining weld face shall be removed and surface shall be cleaned and to avoid cracking of weld during service. i) Bearing plates and supporting rails are connected to sleeper by rivet hence drilling of holes in sleeper after 85

manufacture and in bearing plate shall be by drilling jig to ensure accuracy in rail gauge and alignment of rails on bridge. Rivets shall be driven with proper heating for the full length of shank to minimize loosening of rivets during service and reduce maintenance cost. j) Entire surface of sleeper shall be grit blast cleaned before hot dip galvanizing as per IS-2629. k) Zinc coating weight / thickness is most important factor from corrosion prevention point of view since sleeper is in vulnerable location and affected by disposal of passenger carriage and dropping chemicals and salts from goods wagon. Hence nominal coating weight 610grams/m2 (85-86 microns thickness) for long life of 15 to 20 years and 750 grams / m2 (105 micron) for severe corrosion location of bridge has to be ensured. 3.6 INSPECTION To ensure minimum maintenance and safety of public, fabrication shall be in Civil Engineering Workshop of Zonal Railways or from trades who produce satisfactory evidence of his ability as stipulated in Clause-21 of Welded Bridge Code 2001. 3.6.1 Inspection shall be in accordance with Clause No.28, 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33 of Welded Bridge Code of 2001 so that cost of maintenance and repairs will be minimized. FIXING OF STEEL CHANNEL SLEEPER ON STEEL GIRDERS Arrangement of fixing of steel channel sleeper, depends on type of steel girder, is as follows: 1) Plate Girder (a) Rivetted type (b) Welded Type

3.7

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2) Open Web through Steel Girder Steel plate girders of span 12.2m, 18.3m & 24.4m span (either welded construction or rivetted construction) are not provided with camber as stipulated in steel bridge code. Therefore rail levels on plate girder as well as on entire bridge has to be in one level. In welded plate girder same thickness of top flange plate is provided through out the length of girder in different width as stipulated in para 3.4.3.2 Where as on riveted plate girder 1st flange plate is provided on entire length of girder. 2nd and 3rd flange plate is provided to required length depending upon the cross section required for different length of span. Therefore, top flange plate of riveted girder is not in one level through out the girder as shown in Fig. 3.6. To keep rail in one level different thickness of steel packing plates are required on splice plate, on 1st flange plate, 2nd and 3rd flange plates. SE/JE Bridge has to work out the thickness of steel packing plate by drawing full scale top flange plate on template floor of workshop and mark the sleeper position to ascertain different thickness of packing plates required. To minimize the thickness of packing plate, provide 150x230mm size sleeper with 16mm steel packing to accommodate the rivet heads on splice plate, so that steel sleeper rest on packing plate instead of on rivet head to avoid rocking of sleeper under running of trains. Height of rivet head is 14 or 15mm i.e. 0.7 x d where d is diameter of rivet. On 3rd flange plate provide 150x230mm size sleeper with increased thickness of steel packing plate to ensure the top of the all sleepers are in one level. On 2nd and 1st 87