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University Ruth Belk Smith, [University of Maryland the store image, or within-store attributes, have distinct and relevant influence on shopping behavior, apart from more obvious store attributes such as price, shopping hours, product assortment, convenience of location, and service (Donovan and Rossiter 1982). Although the more objective variables have previously been reported to be higher on consumers' rankings of relative importance of store attributes (Hansen and Deutshcer 1977, Jolson and Spath 1973), Donovan and Rossiter (1982) provide indications that mood states actually induced by retail store environments may affect purchase intentions. It has been noted by Simon (1982) and Kotler (1974) that there were effects of "atmospherics" in the retail setting, while others have reported effects of some uninduced aspects of ambience (e.g., nice weather -Cunningham 1979, "effective temperature" - Griffit 1970. Of course there are many aspects of an environment's physical surroundings which may influence a consumer's behavioi:, and the fact that a large number of these aspects are under the marketer's control "encourage optimism about the potential for inducing moods that will serve specific marketing ends" (Gardner 1985, p.291). :nie limitations of most previous approaches to this sort of study are 1) using store atmosphere as a component of store image; 2) conceptualizing store image as a single attribute; and 3) failure to assess how store image affects shopping behavior within the store (Donovan and RoBSiter 1982). Another criticism of store image measurement has been that it usually occurs well after the in-store experience and in settings external to the store environment. As Donovan and Rossiter (1982) point out, although retailers report significant effects from image manipulations, there is a lack of supporting evidence to document these outcomes. Several possible explanations for this ares "Store atmosphere effects are basic emotional states that (1) are difficult to verbalize, (2) are transient and therefore difficult to recall, and (3) influence behaviors within the store rather than gross external behaviors such as choosing whether or not to patronize the store"(p.35). They continue their observations upon the difficulty of the measuring of emotional responses to store image by observing that they may be very hard to document unless their measures "occur as close in time and place to the shopping behavior and preferably within the store" (p.36). Belk (1975), Kakkar and Lutz (1975), and Lutz and Kakkar (1975) studied overall usage environmentSj and Donovan and Rossiter (1982) studied environmental variables in a retail setting. Note, however, that in the latter study, thirty students assessed their own shopping intentions, and there were only 66 responses. Thus, much selective interviewer bias is likely to have affected results. The Mehrabian-Eussell model (1974) offers a theoretical framework of a taxonomy of antecedents, intervening variables and outcomes, in the traditional S-O-R paradigm, although it particularly focuses on the two latter ones. This study also focuses on the theoretical link between the intervening and outcome variables, irhe intervening variables are mood and store image. The response variables are categorized in the Mehrjabian -Russell tradition of approach or avoidance behaviors, many of which were suggested by Donovan and Rossiter (1982). They are seen in Table 1.

Abstract Consumer mood is an area of inquiry which has captured th attention of consumer researchers because it is not only subject of theoretical value but it appears to have practical implications to a wide range of consumer and marketing Issues. The purpose of this research was to test the utility of Mehrabian's mood scale combined with consumer perceptions of store image on actual shopping behavior. Very little is known about effects of mood on consumer behavior; most extant and current research effor focuses on the effects of advertising or other manipulations. Thus it seemed that a study which attempted the measurement of mood at the point of purchase would provid insight into the phenomenon itself, provide a test of the scale's external validity and offer some exploratory relationships between the constructs of interest. Results indicate that consumer's moods may have effect on certain aspects of shopping, and that there may be significant interaction between the constructs of cpnsumer and store image. Implications could be of importance to marketers, especially retailers. Introduction Although considerable research has focused on traditional information paradigms to explain or predict consumer behavior not much research has been concerned with the impact of affective factors on the beliefs, attitudes and behavior of the consumer. The purpose of this research is to explore some influences of consumers' moods and their perception of store image, on certain aspects of shopping behavior. Some significant findings are derived from prior research of Hirschman and Holbrook (1982), Holbrook and Hir8chman (1982), Gardner (1985), and Hill and Mazis (1985) on emotions, fantasy, attitudes toward advertising and anxiety. Current research which focuses on mood effects are usually (and pragmatically) concerned with reactions to advertisements chosen to induce particular mood states (e.g., Russo and Stephens 1986.) Hhile such research can be conducted in a reasonably controlled setting and can add internal validity to the increasing acceptance of consumer mood research, a field survey at the point of purchase could substantially give us new insights into understanding mood effects on shopping behavior. Since findings to date indicate that mood states are a particularly important set of affective factors (Gardner and Vandersteel 1984); they may form a part of all marketing situations (Belk 1975, Lutz and Kakkar (1975); and, as Gardner (1985) suggests, may influence consumer behavior in many contexts. These wouli include advertisement exposure and attitude,, brand loyalty, and as we suggest, other outcomes related to shopping. Thus the focus of this research is to explore the effect of both consumers' moods and their perceptions of store image on a variety of shopping behaviors.

The outcomes of this research could add to our knowledge of mood states on behavior in the actual shopping environment, suggest ways in which marketers could take advantage of (or induce) consumer mood states, and finally, help determine whether extant measurement techniques perform as adequately in the actual shopping environment as they do in mood-inducing laboratory studies. Conceptual Framework Previous studies of in-store behavior have suggested that


TABLE 1 raxonoi^ of Vg AptecedgntB Qutcomea (?) Outcomea S t o r e Image Hunber of Items bought

Demogrsphics e . g . , age sex

tn store
Conewmer Mood

Variables: Consumer mood was measured using tbe Mehrabian-Russell acaile consisting of 16 items on a 7point semantic differential scale. Grotjbach's alpha for the scale was .76. Factor analysis of the scale showed three distinct factors, previously mentioned. They were pleasure-displeasure, arousal or excitement and alertness or feeling wide awake and calis. Store image was measured using items suggested " c y DieksoE and Albaum (1977). Thirty one items were siailarly coded or a 7-point semantic differential scale and had s Cronbach's aipba of .90. Factor analysis was also performed on thi6 scale, and the clearest to emerge weia dimensions of pleasantness, excitement, and jncrowdedness. These are very much like the dimensions of tnood measured and add validity to the notion of interaction between the two in a retail context. The dependent variables consisted of single items abouc shopping behavior in the store. Respondents were asked the number of items purchased; whether they spent mores the same, or less than anticipated; the amount of tine spent in the store: whether it was more the same or less than expected; how often per year they visit the store; and whether they intended to revisit the store. Demographic data were collected for classification purposes only, not intended to serve as antecedents in the model. Other than the significance of occupation on spending more than anticipated (r =.24, p<.Oi); end tha indication, net surprising, that women shopped these stores more often than men, there were no noteworthy differences either in the Intervening or outcomes due to demographic variables. Table 2 shows tbe correlation matrix of the intervening and outconie variables with the demographics.

sei) Income occupation educa C loTt Venturesoinenese

Amount of money spent, relatively Cmore, Bime, lees) AiDouDt of ttme time spent tn store (actual and relative) H o w often shop this Btore

As Table 1 shows, antecedents have only been suggested. Demographic variables seem reasonable as antecedents, as do certain personality variables. For instance, Grossbart and other (1975) examined different personality types in sensation seeking related to shopping behavior, and this would seem to conceptually fit the model; however, further research is needed in order to establish such an integrative model- a task beyond the scope of this research. Mehrabian and Russell propose that three basic emotional states mediate approach-avoidance in environmental situations; pleasure, arousal, and dominance (or their opposites). This tridimensional theory of emotions was proposed half a century ago by Wilhelm Wundt (in 1905), who characterized emotions in terms of pleasuredispleasure, tension-relaxation, and excitementquiescence. Factor analysis of the Mehrabian-Russell scale we used in the retail environment clearly showed dimensions of pleasure, excitement, and alertness (feeling wide awake but calm). Whereas alertness is not strictly the same as dominance, it may be that in a store, feeling alert but calm puts consumers, already in a nonthreatening environment, into a feeling of being in control. Thus we suggest the following hypotheses based on the previous discussion; HI: The more positive the consumer's mood, the more likely s/he is to (a) spend more more money than anticipated (b) spend more time, both actual and in the store (c) shop in the store more often and (d) plan to revisit the store The more positive the consumer's image of the store, the more likely s/he is to (a) spend more money than anticipated (b) spend more time, both actual and anticipated in the store (c) shop in the store more often and (d) plan to revisit the store

Interven:Inx Vari a b l e a , aiid Outco Hood Store Iatage iten 1 8 bought Amount S spent VB a ntlclpated TlBe B pent (actua 1) Amount of time v8 a ntlclpated H o w often shop
Koo<3 .63* .32* ,22* .07 -.02 -.18 Stoce .63* 1 .31*.21* -.03 .05 -.04 -.07 .01 .23* -.06 -.30* ,09 -,03 ,19* .01 -.22 -.16 .OZ .07 ,14 -.18 .24* -.02 -.02 .09 -.09 .16

lcicose .11


One variable which does have Impact on the number of items bought (r = .23, p = .000) and paradoxically, the amount of time spent in the store (less; r = -.30, p. = .000) was age. This finding has intriguing implications which should be further studied. As the table shows, correlational evidence is that consumers' moods are positively related to store image, number of Items bought, and the amount of money spent. With a larger sample, the variables may show an even stronger relationship, and further research should be conducted to assess this. This table also shows similar correlations between the outcomes and store image indicating that the itiore positive the consumer's image of the store, the greater the number of items bought and amount of money spent. Because it was theoretically specified that there was interaction between mood and store image, and because tbe correlation between the two constructs was high, we performed partial correlation analysis on the outcomes controlling for each of the Intervening variables. The results of this analysis are shown in Table 3.

In addition, the Mehrabian-Russell model (1974) specifies a conditional Interaction among emotional responses. Indeed, our evidence suggests a clear interaction effect between mood and store image with both having impact on the dependent variables. Method The sample consisted of 89 shoppers selected at different times of day who had just made a purchase. Stores were clothing or other specialty types where the liklihood of spending a significant amount of money was greater. In the routine purchase of an item, such as some razor blades from a drug store, it is not as likely that one's mood at the time or one's image of the store would affect shopping behavior. Different stores were used, but they all could be classified as similar In the price ranges of their merchandise.


TABLE 3 P a r t i a l Cor r e l a t i o n An alyelB Zero order Correlations Outcoae Variables Humber of Items bought Anount of money spent Actual time spent Greater tban time anticipated How often shop here Revlcit intention Kood StOTe Image Mood ControllinK for Store lmaf;e





and more time than intended spent in the store. Store image was also related to number of items bought and amount of money spent; however, when the effect of mood was controlled for, these relationships lost significance. Although less than half the outcomes were found to be related to the emotional states measured, the fact that some shopping behavior could be affected by consumers' emotional states is quite interesting, and further research using a larger sample and antecedent variables for the complete model should be conducted. Discussion and Implications








.21"= ,12 .07

.05 .09 -.02

-.01 ,02 -.09

.17"^ .06 .11

Our results indicate that being in a positive mood may reinforce, even create, a good shopping mood which positively affects one's perception of store image. This has tremendous possibilities for retailers, especially those in shopping malls or others in close pro:5imity selling similar merchandise. Differentiating one's store could become a true mixture of art and science. Although the finding are promising, it must be remembered that people engage more often in helping behavior when In a better mood than not (e.g., filling out a questionnaire), and that the results must be interpreted accordingly. This type of bias is likely to be present i any type of survey, especially in the case of personal store Intercepts and telephone interviewing. But other than that, there is no reason to expect any more bias and nonresponse due to the respondent being in a bad mood in this study as In any other using the intercept technique. Another limitation includes the possibility that consumer may deliberately choose to shop in stores that induce a positive mood. Furthermore, since the sample size was small and fairly localized it would be difficult to generalize. Finally, the question of which antecedents t i use needs further investigation to develop variables of this nature and test the entire model. If this model could aid In our understanding of the complex Influence o emotions on consumer behavior while offering pragmatic guidelines to marketers, especially retailers, it would certainly be worth pursuing in future research. Results The results of our finding are that the scales used were valid in the retail setting, with good reliability scores and high factor loadings on theoretical expectations. Th finding that the main factors were quite similar could be due to the theoretical notion of their interrelationship. This is also evidenced in the high zero-order correlation score between the two and in the effects on the dependent variables when each Intervening variable was partialled out. Thus, although zero-order correlation coefficients showed support for more "approach" behavior the better the consumer mood and perceived store image, the influence became even more interesting when the effects of each other were controlled. Mood clearly has an impact on all the behaviors studied as shown by Table 3. All correlations became insignificant when controlling for mood. The analyses revealed supp(3rt for Beveral of the hypotheses. As Table 3 shows, the mood of the consumer may have influence on the number of items bought in the store, spending more money than originally anticipated. 253

This study lends credence to the often anecdotal retailer evidence that both consumers' moods and their image of the store have effect on buying behavior. Extending Donovan and Rossister (1982), we conducted the study not on behavioral intentions but on actual behavior just after it occurred in a natural retail setting. The study indicates that a consumer's mood may influence his or her shopping behavior after the decision to shop has been made. Thus the extent to which a consumer spends more than s/he originally expect may depend somewhat on marketerdominated stimuli. As Gardner (1985) points out, "although consumer's moods are often affected by factors beyond a marketer's control, moods can be greatly influenced by seemingly small aspects of marketer behavior, e.g., a salesperson's smile" (p.281). At the point of purchase there are many ways to make a consumer feel "better" by imisic, colors, salespeople training, and all those differentiating factors noticed long ago by Wundt (1905) in general environments and by Edward Chamberlin (1933) in the economic and marketing environment. Of course this research is exploratory and presents only correlational results, yet the findings seem important enough for marketers to note, especially if small capital investments are all that are necessary to positively affect consumers' moods and their store image. For example, changing the store's light level or playing music which would appeal to the clientele would be well worth the effort if it enhanced consumer's image of the store and simultaneously positively influenced consumers' moods. References Belk, Russell (1974), "An Exploratory Assessment of Situational Effects in Buyer Behavior, Journal of Marketing Research, 11 (May), 156-163. Chamberlin, Edward (1933), The Theory of Monopolistic Competition, Boston, MA: Harvard University Press. Cunningham, Michael (1979), "Weather, Mood, and Helping Behavior: Quasi Experiments With the Sunshine Samaritan," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (11), 1947-1956. Dickson, J . and G. Albaum (1977), " A Method for Developing Tailor-made Semantic Differentials for Specific Marketing Content Areas," Journal of Marketing Research, 14 (February), 87-91. Donovan, R. J . and J . R. Roseiter (1982), "Store Atmosphere: An Environmental Psychology Approach," Journal of Retailing, 58 ( 1 ) , 34-57. Gardner, Meryl (1985), "Mood States and Consumer Behavior: A C r i t i c a l Review," Journal of Consumer Research, 12 ( 3 ) , 281-300. Gardner, Meryl and Marion Vandersteel (1984), "The Consumer's Mood: An important Situational Variable," in Advances In Consumer Research, 525-529. Griffitt, W . (1970), "Environmental Effects on I n t e r personal Affective Behavior: Ambient Temperature and A t t r a c t i o n , " Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15 ( 3 ) , 240-244.

Grossbart, S. L., R. A. Mittelstaedt, W. N. Curtis and R. D. Rogers (1975), "Environmental Sensitivity and Shopping Behavior," Journal of Baainess Research, 3 (October), 281-294. Han8en, R. and T. Deutscher (1977), "An Empirical Investigation of Attribute Iiiportance in Retail Store Selection," Journal of Retailing, 53 (Winter), 59-73. Hill, R. and M. Mazis (1985), "Anxiety: A Construct of Dnderresearch in Marketing," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 13. ed. R. Belk, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 125-134. Hlrschman, E. and M. Holbrook (1982, "Hedonic Consumption: Emerging Concepts, Methods, and Propositions," Journal of Marketing, 46 (Summer), 92-101. Holbrook, M. and E. Hirschman (1982), "The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantisies, Feelings, and Fun," Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (September), 132140. Jolson, M. and W. F. Spath (1973), "Understanding and Fulfilling Shoppers' Requirements: An Anomaly in Retailing?," Journal of Retailing, 49 (Summer), 38-50. Kakkar, F. and R. Lutz (1975), Toward a Taxonomy of Consumption Situations," in Proceedings, American Marketing Association, 206-210. Kotler, P. (1974), "Atmosphere as a Marketing Tool," Journal of Retailing, 49 (Winter), 48-64. Uitz, R. and P. Kakkar (1975), "The Psychological Situation as a Eeterininant of Consumer Behavior," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 2 (ed) M. S. Schlinger, Chicago: Association for Consumer Researcb 439-453. Mandler, G. (1979), "Emotion," in The^ First-Centuy of ExperImeptal FsycholoSY, ed. E. Hearst, Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, 275-321. Mehrabian, A. and J. A. Russell (1974), An Approach to Environmental Psychology, Cambridge, Mass.: M I T Press. Russo,J. E. and D. Stephens (1986), "Emotional responses to Advertising: Advertiser vs. Viewer Control," MSI working paper. Wundt, Wilheim (1905), Grandriss der Psychologie, Leipzig: Wilheim Engelmann.