Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

Thermodynamic performance of a

double-eect absorption heat-transformer using


TFE/E181 as the working uid
Zongchang Zhao
*
, Xiaodong Zhang, Xuehu Ma
Research Institute of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology,
158 Zhong Shan Road, Dalian 116012, PR China
Accepted 12 October 2004
Available online 7 January 2005
Abstract
Triuoroethanol(TFE)tetraethylenglycol dimethylether (TEGDME or E181) is a new
organic working-pair which is non-corrosive, completely miscible and thermally stable up to
250 C. It is suitable for upgrading low-temperature level industrial waste-heat to a higher
temperature level for reuse. In this paper, the thermodynamic performance of the double-eect
absorption heat-transformer (DEAHT) using TFE/E181 as the working uid is simulated,
based on the thermodynamic properties of TFE/E181 solution. The results show that, when
the temperature in the high-pressure generator exceeds 100 C and the gross temperature lift
is 30 C, the coecient of performance (COP) of the DEAHT is about 0.58, which is larger
than the 0.48 of the single-stage absorption heat-transformer (SAHT), the increase of COP
is about 20%. But it is still less than 0.64 of the DEAHT using LiBrH
2
O as the working uid.
Meanwhile, the COP of the DEAHT decreases more rapidly with increases of the absorption
temperature than that for the SAHT. The range of available gross temperature-lift for the
DEAHT is narrower than that of the SAHT. The higher the temperature in the high-pressure
generator, the larger the gross temperature-lift could be. So the double-eect absorption heat-
transformer is more suitable for being applied in those circumstances of having a higher-tem-
perature heat-resource and when a higher temperature-lift is not needed.
2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
0306-2619/$ - see front matter 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2004.10.012
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 411 88993626; fax: +86 411 83633080.
E-mail address: zczhao55@163.com (Z. Zhao).
Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116

http://www.paper.edu.cn
Keywords: Double-eect absorption heat-transformer; Thermodynamic performance; Organic working-
uid; TFE/E181; Industrial waste-heat recovery
1. Introduction
As an absorption heat-transformer (AHT) could upgrade low-temperature level
industrial waste-heat to a higher temperature level for reuse, great eorts have re-
cently been focused on researching and developing the technologies of the AHT.
Up to now, the AHTs used in industries are mainly the single-stage absorption
heat-transformers (SAHTs) and the working uids in the absorption cycle are
mainly waterlithium bromide or ammoniawater. However, the aqueous solution
of lithium bromide strongly corrodes steel-iron equipment and easily crystallizes
when the concentration of the lithium bromide is high. Ammoniawater has a
high operating pressure and a distillation column is needed to separate the ammo-
Nomenclature
COP coecient of performance
FR ow-rate ratio
h specic enthalpy (kJ/kg)
m mass-ow rate (kg/s)
P pressure (MPa)
Q heat load (kW)
t temperature (C)
x TFE mass concentration in solution (mass % TFE)
Dx concentration dierence
Dt = t
AB
t
EV
gross temperature-lift (C)
Subscripts and abbreviations
AB absorber
CO condenser
DEAHT double-eect absorption heat-transformer
EV evaporator
HG high-pressure generator
HHE high-pressure solution heat-exchanger
LG low-pressure generator
LHE low-pressure solution heat-exchanger
SAHT single-stage absorption heat-transformer
1,2,. . .. . .17 the series number of a stream
108 Z. Zhao et al. / Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116
http://www.paper.edu.cn
nia from the aqueous solution of ammonia. So they are not suitable for upgrad-
ing low-temperature level industrial waste-heat to a higher temperature-level for
reuse.
In recent years, many researchers have began to look for some substitutes for clas-
sical working-uids for the absorption heat-pump or absorption heat-transformer.
Triuoroethanol (TFE)tetraethylenglycol dimethylether (E181) is one of the prom-
ising organic working-pairs, which is non-corrosive, completely miscible and ther-
mally stable up to 250 C. Meanwhile, as there exists a large dierence in boiling
temperatures between TFE and E181, it is not necessary to separate the TFE from
the solution of TFE/E181 by means of a distillation column. This feature makes the
TFE/E181 system very suitable for upgrading the low-temperature level industrial
waste-heat to a higher temperature level for resue.
Bidoz and Kashiwage [1] researched the performance of the single-stage AHT and
self-regenerated absorption heat-transformer using TFEE181 as the working uid.
Stephan and Hengerer [2] analyzed the performance of a single-stage AHT with the
ternary working uid TFEH
2
O-E181. Coronas et al. [3] researched the perfor-
mances of a heat-pump with TFEE181 and TFEH
2
O-E181 as the working pairs.
Bourouis et al. [4] researched the performance of the absorption/compression heat-
pump using TFEH
2
O-E181 as the working pair. Genssle and Stephan [5] researched
the process characteristics of the absorption-heat-transformer with compact heat-
exchangers and the TFEE181 mixture. Zhao et al. [6] researched the thermody-
namic performance of the double absorption-heat-transformer (DAHT) using
TFEE181 as the working uid. Zhao et al. [7] have further researched the SAHT
with two reuxes. The double-eect absorption heat-transformer has a higher coef-
cient-of-performance than that of the SAHT. However, up to now, no reports on
the performance of the DEAHT using TFE/E181 as the working uid have been
seen. In order to research and develop this type of DEAHT, it is necessary to sim-
ulate its thermodynamic performance based on the thermodynamic properties of
the TFE/E181 solution.
2. Simulation of the thermodynamic performance of the DEAHT
The conguration of the double-eect absorption heat-transformer using TFE/
E181 as the working uid and the corresponding thermodynamic cycle are shown
in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively. The main condition points in the solution cycle are
indicated in Fig. 2. In order to simulate the thermodynamic performance of the
DEAHT, the assumptions are as follows:
The analysis is carried out under steady-state conditions.
The solutions leaving the low-pressure generator, high-pressure generator and the
absorber are all in phase equilibrium, with the corresponding temperatures and
pressures.
All condensates are not subcooled.
Thermal and pressure losses are neglected.
Z. Zhao et al. / Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116 109
http://www.paper.edu.cn
The dierence in the condensation temperature of the TFE vapour coming from
the high-pressure generator and the evaporation temperature of the solution of
TFEE181 in the low-pressure generator is 3 C.
The minimum temperature-dierence between the hot and cold streams in any
solution heat-exchanger is 5 C.
The generation temperature in the high-pressure generator is equal to the evapo-
ration temperature in the evaporator.
The energy consumed by the pumps is neglected.
The most important parameters of the DEAHT are the coecient of performance
and the gross temperature-lift. They are given as follows:
Q
CO
7
AB
6
5
EV
Q
EV
P3
P1
1 16
10
12
17
13
P2
14
15
8 9
4
3
2
Q
HG
11
LHE
HHE
HG
LG
CO
Q
AB
Fig. 1. Conguration of a double-eect absorption heat-transformer.
x
GE
x
LG
7 6
10
12
15
16
x
HG
x
AB
TFE
t
AB
t
HG
t
LG
t
CO
P
CO
P
HG
P
EV
t
P
Fig. 2. Solution cycle in a double-eect absorption heat-transformer.
110 Z. Zhao et al. / Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116
http://www.paper.edu.cn
COP Q
AB
=Q
HG
Q
EV
; 1
Dt t
AB
t
EV
or Dt t
AB
t
HG
: 2
Besides these two parameters, the ow-rate ratio and the concentration dierence are
also important for optimizing the design and operation: they are given as follows,
respectively:
Dx x
LG
x
HG
x
12
x
10
; 3
FR m
12
=m
11
1 x
10
=x
12
x
10
1 x
10
=Dx: 4
Usually the condensing temperature, temperature in the high-pressure generator,
evaporation temperature and absorption temperature are known. The other param-
eters are all the functions of them. In order to obtain these parameters, the mass, en-
ergy and phase-equilibrium calculations on each component of the system are
needed. The main equations are given as follows:
Mass-balance equations:
m
3
m
1
m
2
1 kg=s mass base for calculation; 5
m
7
m
5
m
6
; 6
m
6
x
6
m
5
m
7
x
7
; 7
m
15
m
16
m
2
; 8
m
15
x
15
m
2
m
16
x
16
; 9
m
12
m
11
m
10
; 10
m
12
x
12
m
11
m
10
x
10
: 11
Energy-balance equations:
Q
CO
m
2
h
2
h
2l
; 12
where h
2l
is the specic enthalpy of liquid TFE at its condensing temperature.
Q
HG
m
11
h
11
m
10
h
10
m
12
h
12
; 13
m
11
h
11
m
17
h
17
m
2
h
2
m
16
h
16
m
15
h
15
; 14
Q
EV
m
5
h
5
m
4
h
4
; 15
Q
AB
m
5
h
5
m
6
h
6
m
7
h
7
; 16
Q
HHE
m
7
h
7
h
9
m
6
h
6
h
8
; 17
Q
LHE
m
9
h
9
h
13
m
14
h
12
h
14
: 18
Z. Zhao et al. / Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116 111
http://www.paper.edu.cn
Saturated-vapor pressure equations:
P
AB
Pt
AB
; x
AB
Pt
7
; x
7
; 19
P
HG
Pt
HG
; x
HG
Pt
10
; x
10
; 20
P
LG
Pt
LG
; x
LG
Pt
16
; x
16
; 21
where P(t, x) is the saturated-vapor pressure of the solution TFE/E181.
P
AB
P
EV
Pt
EV
Pt
5
; 22
P
LG
P
CO
Pt
CO
; 23
P
HG
Pt
LG
3 Pt
17
; 24
where P(t) is the saturated-vapor pressure of TFE.
Specic-enthalpy equations:
h
i
ht; x; i 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 12; 13; 14; 15 or 16; 25
where h(t, x) is specic enthalpy of the solution TFE/E181.
h
i
ht; i 1; 3; 4 or 17; 26
where h(t) is specic enthalpy of pure liquid TFE.
h
i
ht; i 5; 2 or 11; 27
where h(t) is the specic enthalpy of the saturated vapor of the TFE and the specic
heat of superheated TFE vapour is neglected.
The thermodynamic properties of TFE, E181 and solution TFE/E181 are given in
Stephan and Hengerer [2] or Coronas et al. [3].
3. Results and discussion
The simulation results are showed in Figs. 37. Fig. 3 shows the variations of the
COP with the absorption temperature t
AB
at dierent values of the generation-tem-
perature t
HG
. It can be seen that the COP of the DEAHT is higher than that of the
SAHT: the COP is 0.58 for the former while it is 0.48 for the latter, when the gross
temperature lift is 30 C. The increase of COP is about 20% by adopting the
DEAHT. But the COP of the former decrease more quickly than that of the latter:
this makes the range of gross temperature-lift of the DEAHT narrower than that of
the SAHT.
Also the COP decreases more slowly when the generation temperature t
HG
gets
higher: this indicates that if the COP is maintained constant and the t
HG
gets bigger,
a larger gross temperature-lift could be obtained. For example, when the COP is
maintained at 0.58, and t
HG
is 90, 100 and 110 C, gross temperature lifts of 26,
30 and 32 C could be reached, respectively.
112 Z. Zhao et al. / Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116
http://www.paper.edu.cn
Fig. 4 shows the comparison of the performances of the double-eect absorption
heat-transformers using LiBr/H
2
O and TFE/E181 as working uids, respectively.
The performance of the DEAHT with LiBr/H
2
O is similar to that of the DEAHT
with TFE/E181. But the former has a higher COP than that of the latter, and pos-
sesses a nearly unchangeable COP before the generation temperature t
HG
reaches
a critical value.
Fig. 5 shows the variations of the ow-rate ratio FR with the absorption tem-
perature t
AB
at dierent values of the generation temperature t
HG
. It can be seen
that the ow-rate ratio of the DEAHT increases more quickly than that of the
SAHT. That is why the COP of the DEAHT decreases more quickly than that
of the SAHT.
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170
t
AB
C
O
P
SAHT
DEAHT
100 110
100
110
t
CO
=30C t
HG
=90C
t
HG
=90C
Fig. 3. Eect of t
AB
on COP.
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
100 110 120 130 140 150 160
t
AB
C
O
P
LiBr/H2O
TFE/E181
100
110
t
CO
=30C
100 110 t
HG
=90C
t
HG
=90C
Fig. 4. Eect of t
AB
on COP.
Z. Zhao et al. / Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116 113
http://www.paper.edu.cn
Fig. 6 shows the variations of the low-pressure generation temperature t
LG
with
t
AB
. The t
LG
is not an independent variable: it relies on t
AB
, t
CO
, t
HG
or t
EV
and in-
creases more slowly with t
AB
.
Fig. 7 shows the variations of the concentration dierence Dx with t
AB
for dier-
ent generation-temperatures t
HG
. It can be seen that the concentration dierence,
Dx = x
LG
x
HG
, of the DEAHT is only about one third that of the SAHT, which
is x
AB
x
GE
for the SAHT (in Fig. 2 the dotted line expresses the solution cycle
in the SAHT), and it decreases at nearly same rate with that of the SAHT, so the
former rst approaches zero. That is why the FR of the DEAHT increases fast
and the COP decrease rapidly. The above characteristics could be seen clearly from
the Pt diagram of the solution TFE/E181 in Fig. 2. When the condensation temper-
ature t
CO
and the generation temperature t
HG
are maintained invariant, the increases
of t
AB
will make the concentration of solution leaving the absorber, x
AB
= x
7
, de-
crease and the line passing points 7 and 15 move towards the right. Meanwhile
0
10
20
30
40
50
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170
t
AB
F
R
DEAHT
SAHT
100
110
90C
100
110
t
HG
=90C
Fig. 5. Eect of t
AB
on FR.
30
40
50
60
70
100 110 120 130 140 150 160
t
AB
t
L
G
100
110
t
HG
=90C
t
CO
=30C
Fig. 6. Eect of t
AB
on t
LG
.
114 Z. Zhao et al. / Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116
http://www.paper.edu.cn
the increases of t
AB
will also make the low-pressure generation-temperature t
LG
in-
crease and the concentration of the solution leaving the low-pressure generation,
x
LG
= x
16
, decrease too, so the line passing points 16 and 12 also moves towards
the right. Because of the increase in t
LG
and the t
HG
being xed, the concentration
of the solution leaving the high-pressure generator, x
10
, will increase and the line
passing points 10 and 6 moves towards the left. This will result in the concentration
dierence, x
16
x
10
= x
LG
x
HG
, decreasing. Based on Eq. (4), it is not dicult to
nd that FR increases with t
AB
.
4. Conclusions
When the temperature in the high-pressure generator is over 100 C, the gross
temperature lift is 30 C. When TFE/E181 is used as the working uid, the coef-
cient of performance of the double-eect absorption heat-transformer can reach
0.58, which is larger than the 0.48 of the single-stage absorption heat-transformer,
but it is still less than 0.64 of the DEAHT employing LiBr/H
2
O.
The range of temperature lift of the double-eect absorption heat-transformer is
narrower than that of the single-stage absorption heat-transformer. The higher
the generation temperature in the high-pressure generator, the larger the gross
temperature-lift could be. So the double-eect absorption heat-transformer is
more suitable for being applied when the temperature of the heating resource is
higher and a medium gross temperature-lift (about 30 C), is needed.
References
[1] Bidoz PF, Kashiwagi T. Simulation of a new absorption temperature-amplier using a TFEE181 pair
for low-level temperature upgrading. ASHRAE Trans: Res 1991;97(pt 1):15662.
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
t
AB
x
DEAHT
SAHT
100
110
100 110
t
CO
=30C
t
HG
=90
t
HG
=90C
Fig. 7. Eect of t
AB
on Dx.
Z. Zhao et al. / Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116 115
http://www.paper.edu.cn
[2] Stephan K, Hengerer R. Heat transformation with the ternary working-uid TFEH
2
O-E181. Int J
Refrig 1993;16(2):1208.
[3] Coronas A, Valles M, Chaudhari SK, Patil KR. Absorption heat-pump with TFEE181 and TFE
H
2
O-E181. Appl Therm Eng 1996;16(4):33545.
[4] Bourouis M, Nogues M, Boer D, Coronas A. Industrial heat-recovery by absorption/compression
heat-pump using a TFE-H
2
O-TEGDME working mixture. Appl Therm Eng 2000;20:35569.
[5] Genssle A, Stephan K. Analysis of the process characteristics of an absorption heat-transformer with
compact heat-exchangers and the mixture TFE-E181. Int J Therm Sci 2000;39:308.
[6] Zhao ZC, Zhou FW, Li SP. Analysis of thermodynamic performance of a double-absorption heat-
transformer using TFE-E181 as the working uid. J Dalian Univ Technol 2003;43(5):6048.
[7] Zhao ZC, Zhou FW, Li SP. The simulation of the thermodynamic cycle in the absorption heat-
transformer using TFE-E181 as the working uid. J Dalian Univ Technol 2004;44(5):6516.
116 Z. Zhao et al. / Applied Energy 82 (2005) 107116
http://www.paper.edu.cn