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Fayoum university

Faculty of science
Botany department

PLANT
TAXONOMY

For
2nd year students

Prepared by: Asmaa Khamiss Revised by: Dr.


Hesham Elfayoumi

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


INTRODUCTION

Plant taxonomy is the science which deals with


identification , nomen-clature and classification of
the plants on the basis of their similarities and
(.differences (phylogenetic relationships
This science concerns with the flowering plants
(Angiosperms( which are the dominant class of
.the vascular plants on the earth

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Characters of the flowering plants

.They have true flower -1


.In the female flowers: ovules enclosed in the ovary -2
After pollination and fertilization the ovules develop -3
into seeds and the ovary wall develops to form the
.fruit
seeds include the embryo which consists of: -4
embryonic organs, plumule,radicle
(.and1or2cotyledon(s

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


The flower

It is a modified shoot acting as a reproductive


.organ
The elongated axis (internode( of a
vegetative shoot is reduced into horizontal
or cup- shaped disc known as: receptacle
(thalamus( on which the floral leaves are
.inserted
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
:Different parts of the flower
The flower arises on axile of leaf called bract- 1

which may be

Green coloured Reduced

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Green bract

Colored bract

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Reduced bract

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
.Green bract most of the plants

Coloured bract Bouganvillea

(Scaly(reduced
bract Umbelliferae

Sometimes bracts grouped together and form astructure known as


. involucre
Compositae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Pedicel -2
.It is the stalk of the flower
Flower may be

:Pedicellate: Sessile
With pedicel Without pedicel

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Dissection of the flower
Flower may be

Complete: Incomplete:

All the floral parts One or more


(.are present. missing part (s

Complete flower consists of

Non-essential parts Essential parts


Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Non-essential (subsidary( floral parts -3
Perianth

May be
Differentiated into

Calyx Corolla
.Outer whorl. *Inner whorl*
.Green in color. *Colored*
Consists of sepals *Consists of*
which may be free petals which may
.or united. be free or united
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Calyx
Free sepals
(Polysepalous(

United sepals
(Gamosepalous(

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Corolla
Free petals
(Polypetalous(

United petals
(Gamopetalous(

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


There is a floral part called epicalyx, which may confuse
with the calyx, epicalyx present in family Malvaceae; It
.arises at the base of the calyx

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Types of polypetalous corolla
:Rosaceous*
e.g.: Rosaceae

:Cruciform*
e.g.: Cruciferae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Papilionaceous*
e.g.: Paoilionaceae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
.Caesalpinaceous: With marked petal*
e.g.: Caesalpinaceae

:Caryophyllaceous*
e.g.: Caryophyllaceae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Caryophyllaceous corolla

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Types of gamopetalous corolla
Urceolate: Urn-shaped (pitcher-like( corolla*
e.g.: Ericaceae

Rotate: Wheel-shaped corolla*


e.g.: Solanum

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Funnel*
e.g.: Convolvulaceae

.Salver: Star-shaped corolla*


e.g.: Vinca rosea

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Contorted corolla

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


.Campinulate: Bell-shaped corolla*
e.g.: Campinulaceae

Tubular: The upper part of corolla is star in shape, the lower*


.part is tubular
.e.g.: Tubuliflorae disc floret

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Tubular corolla

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


.Ligulate: Ligule-shaped corolla*
.e.g.: Liguliflorae ray floret

Bilabiate: Corolla of tow lips,the upper one of 2 united petals*


and the lower part of 3 united petals. e.g.: Labiatae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Non-differentiated into
calyx & corolla
It may be known as

Perianth Tepals
. In dicots. *In monocots*
.It inturn may be. *It inturn may be *

Sepaloid Petaloid Reduced Petaloid


.:With green With colored e.g.: e.g
units. units. Graminae Iridaceae
- e.g.: Cheno- e.g.: Nyctagi
Podiaceae naceae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Sepaloid perianth

Petaloid perianth

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Reduced tepals

Petaloid tepals

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


According to the arrangement of the perianth units in different
:number of whorls , perianth may be
.Di-merous: 2 units in each whorl*
e.g.: Papaver

.Tri-merous: 3 units in each whorl*


e.g.: most of monocots

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


.Tetra-merous: 4 units in each whorl*
e.g.: Cruciferae

.Penta-merous: 5 units in each whorl*


.e.g.: most of dicots

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi