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Fayoum university

Faculty of science
Botany department

PLANT
TAXONOMY

For
2nd year students

Prepared by: Asmaa Khamiss Revised by: Dr. Hesham Elfayoumi

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Essential floral parts- 4
A) Androecium)
.It is the male sex organ*
).It consists of one or more stamen )s*

Each stamen
Consists of

Anther Connective Filament

Consists of 2 lobes Is a patch of tissues Carries


)theca) each one joins the anther lobes the
. contains pollen and connects between anther
.grains )male anther and filament
).gametes
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
:Stamens may be know as
.Didynamous: 2 long+2 short stamens*

.Tetradynamous: 2 short+4 long stamens*

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


.Epipetalous: Attached with the petals*

Epipetalous staminal tube: Filaments are united to form this*


.tube with free anthers, always, this tube is epipetalous
e.g.: Malvaceae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Free anthers

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Monadelphous: Numerous stamens in one bundle, may form*
.one staminal tube

Diadelphous: Stamens in 2 bundles; A)9)+1*


e.g.: Papilionaceae

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


.Polydelphous: More than 2 bundles*

Syngenesious: United anthers and free filaments. *


. e.g.: Compositae disc floret

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


B) Gynoecium)
.It is the female sex organ*
).It consists of one or more carpel )s*

Each carpel (pistil)


Consists of

Ovary Style Stigma

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
:Stigma
.Is the terminal part of the gynoecium which recieves the pollen grains
:Style
Is the more or less elongated part of the gynoecium between the ovary and the
:stigma , it may be

:Ovary
Encloses one or more ovule )s), which after fertilization becomes seed and the
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
.ovary wall become fruit
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
:Carpels may be
) :United )Syncarpous*

) :Free )Apocarpous*

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Position of the ovary on the receptacle in relation to
:the other floral parts

Epigenous Hypogenous Perigenous

Level of the ovary Level of the ovary Both the ovary


is below the level is higher than the and the other
of the other floral level of the other floral parts are
parts on the rece- floral parts on the at the same level
.ptacle which in turn receptacle . on the receptacle
covers the ovary Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
.and fuses with it
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Placentation
It is the arrangement of the ovules inside the ovary, where the
ovules are attached to the ovary wall in place known as
. placenta

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Forms of placentation
:Marginal*
Placenta arises from the margin of the ovary wall at the #
.conjunction of the two margins of the carpel
.there is one carpel, one locule #
e.g.: Leguminales #

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Parietal*
Placentae bearing the ovules on the inner wall of the ovary and#
.their position corresponds to the fusion of the carpel margins
.Number of placentae = number of carpels #
).There are many carpels )=2 or more #
e.g.: Cruciferae #

L.S T.S

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Axile*
Ovules arranged on a central axis arises from the base to the tip #
.of the ovary wall
.There are many carpels, many locules#
(e.g. : Malvaceae, Solanum lycopersicum (Solanaceae #
T.S L.S

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Free central*
.Similar to the axile placentation but the tip of the axis is free #
.The ovules arise on this axis without any septae #
.There are many carpels, one locule #
(e.g. : Capsicum annum (Solanaceae #

T.S L.S L . S & T. S

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
:Basal*
Similar to the free central placentation, but with one ovule arises #
.at the base of ovary and fills the ovary cavity
.There is one carpel )rarely two), one locule #
e.g.: Graminae #

L. S

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Apical*
.As the reverse as the basal type #
.There is one carpel )may two), one locule#

.L. S

: Apical axile*
.e.g.: Umbelliferae L. S #
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
How can you formulate a floral formula from a dissected
?flower

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Floral formula
It is the number and figure of the flower contents
represented by different symbols , these symbols refer
:to
A) Symmetry)
:Which may be
[Actinomorphic [Regular flower
.When all the flower parts in each whorle are simillar in shape*

The flower can be divided into two equal halves along more than*
.one median longitudinal plane
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
[ %Zygomorphic [Irregular
.When the floral parts are unequal in shape*
The flower can be divided longitudinally into two equal halves in*
.only one vertical plane

Sometimes, the flower can not be divided into two equal halves, in this case the flower
is Asymmetric. e.g.: Canna

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


B) Sexuality)
:Flower may be
Unisexual
Male
or
Female
[Bisexual [Hermaphrodite
.Both male and female organs are present
C) Perianth)
:If we have a dicot flower, perianth may be
Differentiated into
Calyx
)United k)x
Free kx
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Corolla
)United C)x
Free CX
Un-differentiated into calyx & corolla
sepaloid or petaloid) and called)
Perianth
)United P)x
Free Px
If we have a monocot flower, perianth is undifferentiated into
caly & corolla
Reduced or petaloid) and called)
Tepals
United T)x) Free Tx
.Where the letter x refers to number of the floral units

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


D) Androecium)
:May be
)United A)x
Free Ax
Stamens may attach with the base of the petals and
called epipetalous
C A

E) Gynoecium)
May be with
.United G)X) in advanced flowers
. Free Gx in primitive flowers
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
According to position of ovary
)Superior ovary )Hypogenous flower*
G
) Inferior ovary )Epigenous flower*
G
)Semi-inferior )Perigenous [indefinite[ flower*
G

F) Placentation)
Should be written at the end of the floral
.formula
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
Summery
If dicots
K C A or G Placentation% ♂
Or Or or or
P both♀
or

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


If monocots

T A or G Placentation% ♀
or or or
both ♂
or

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


How can you draw a floral diagram )T.S.) from a floral formula of a
?dissected flower

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


:Floral diagram
Represents the cross section through the- 1
. flower
It shows the arrangement of the floral - 2
.parts in relation to each other
The rule is: the sepals, petals and- 3
.stamens are alternate to each other
It is derived from the dissected flower,- 4
where we draw it from out side to inside
.starting with the side, which near the stem
From outside to inside = from up to down)
).ward = from posterior to anterior side
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
:If we have this floral formula

K2+2 C4 A2+4 G)2) Parietal

:We can draw the floral diagram as the following

Calyx

Corolla

Placentation

Stamens

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


.:From the previous floral diagram we can draw this L. S

Complete sepal Complete sepal


Placentation
receptacl

Where L. S. planned from the floral diagram in downward*


.direction
.It is drawn from left to right*
It shows the arrangement of the floral parts longitudinally on the*
.receptacle from left to right hand side
During the planning of the L. S. we must take this rule in our*
:consideration
Length of: union of two epicalyx units < complete epicalyx unit <
union of two sepals < complete sepal < union of two petals <
.complete petal
Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
:Another example

K5 C5 A5 G)2) Axile

. T. S. L. S
)Stem )main axis

Complete sepal
Stamen
Placentation
Complete petal

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi


Bract
:Third example
K)5) C5 A)00) G)5) Axile

Attachment of the staminal tube with the petals

Staminal tube

Epicalyx

Note: Epicalyx can be drawn in T. S. & L. S. but can not


Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi
.be written in the floral formula
Differences between monocot & dicot flowers
Monocot flowers Dicot flowers
Perianth undifferentiated into- 1 Perianth differentiated into- 1
calyx & corolla ; it’s units are calyx & corolla ; some- times one
.called tepals [ .of them [sepaloid or petaloid
The whorls are penta-- 2
.The whorls are tri-merous-2 merous ,sometimes are tetra-
).merous )Cruciferae
In the floral diagram the stem- 3
In the floral diagram the stem- 3 is in the front of complete sepal
is in the front of two free tepals or [except in order
.union of two tepals
Leguminales] the stem is in the
front of two free sepals or union
.of two sepals

Taxonomy of the flowering plants- Asmaa Khamiss&Hesham Elfayoumi