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English Grammar Explanations Adjective/Adverb Comparison of adjectives There are three forms of comparison: - positive - comparative - superlative A - Comparison

with -er/-est clean - cleaner - (the) cleanest We use -er/-est with the following adjectives: 1) adjectives with one syllable Clean New Cheap cleaner newer cheaper cleanest newest cheapest

2) adjectives with two syllables and the following endings: 2 - 1) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y Dirty Easy Happy Pretty dirtier easier happier prettier dirtiest easiest happiest prettiest

2 - 2) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -er Clever cleverer cleverest

2 - 3) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le Simple simpler simplest

2 - 4) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow Narrow narrower narrowest

Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est Large Big larger bigger largest biggest leave out the silent -e Double the consonant after short vowel

Sad Dirty Shy

sadder dirtier shyer

saddest dirtiest shyest Change -y to -i (consonant before -y) Here -y is not changed to -i. (although consonant before -y)

B - Comparison with more - most difficult - more difficult - (the) most difficult all adjectives with more than one syllable (except some adjectives with two syllables - see 2 - 1 to 2 - 4) C - Irregular adjectives Good Bad Much Many Little Little better worse more more less smaller best worst most most least smallest uncountable nouns countable nouns

D - Special adjectives Some adjectives have two possible forms of comparison. Common Likely Pleasant Polite Simple Stupid Subtle Sure commoner / more common likelier / more likely pleasanter / more pleasant politer / more polite simpler / more simple stupider / more stupid subtler / more subtle Surer / more sure commonest / most common likeliest / most likely pleasantest / most pleasant politest / most polite simplest / most simple stupidest / most stupid subtlest surest / most sure

Difference in meaning with adjectives: Farther Far Further Later Late Latter X farthest furthest latest x last distance distance or time

Old

Older Elder Nearer X

oldest eldest nearest next

people and things people (family) distance order

Near

Sentences with comparisons 1. A=B Our car is as fast as Peter's car. 2. A><B a) John's car isn't as fast as our car. (A<B) b) Our car is faster than John's car. (A>B) Our car is faster than Peter's car. Peter's car is slower than our car. NOTE! John is taller than me. Max is as tall as me. Do not mix up than with then. The adverbs Adverbs tell us in what way someone does something. Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Adjectives tell us something about a person or a thing. Adjectives can modify nouns or pronouns. Adjective Mandy is a careful girl. Mandy is very careful. Form Adjective + -ly Adverb Mandy drives carefully.

Adjective Dangerous Careful Nice Easy Horrible Electronic irregular forms Good Fast Hard

Adverb dangerously carefully nicely easily horribly electronically

Well Fast Hard

Tip: Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs. adjectives ending in -ly: friendly, silly, lonely, ugly nouns, ending in -ly: ally, bully, Italy, melancholy verbs, ending in -ly: apply, rely, supply There is no adverb for an adjective ending in -ly. Types of adverbs 1) Adverbs of manner quickly kindly 2) Adverbs of degree very rather 3) Adverbs of frequency often sometimes 4) Adverbs of time now today 5) Adverbs of place here nowhere

The comparison of adverbs There are three forms:

- positive - comparative - superlative A - Comparison with -er/-est hard - harder - (the) hardest We use -er/-est with the following adverbs: 1) all adverbs with one syllable Fast High Faster Higher fastest highest

2) The adverb: early B - Comparison with more - most carefully - more carefully - (the) most carefully adverbs ending on -ly (not: early)