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The Design of Plastic Parts Part II

DESIGN OF PLASTIC PARTS

Basic stages of part design:


1. Defining end-use requirements 2. Create preliminary concept sketch 3. Initial materials selection 4. Design part in accordance with material properties 5. Final materials selection 6. Modify design for manufacturing 7. Prototyping 8. Tooling 9. Production
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A P C D

1.Defining end-use requirements 7.Prototyping 8. Tooling 9. Production

A P C D

2.Create preliminary concept sketch 3.Initial materials A P selection

C D 4.Design part in
6.Modify design for manufacturing (Check for DFMA)
A P C D

accordance with material properties 5. Final materials selection


A P C D

Plastic materials are commonly used in material replacement applications


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The plastic hose nozzle on the right has been developed with little influence from the metal product.(Can we identify the improvements?)
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From Total Design point of view which one would you prefer? PP, HDPE or Nylon? Arrange them in order of descending cost

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Figure 3.19. Typical applications where molded plastic parts are subject to constant stress for extended periods of time (i.e. creep applications)

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Once several material candidates have been selected, the parts can be designed in accordance with the individual plastic material properties. For example, wall thicknesses will be influenced by both the flow properties and rigidity of the material.
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Successful Plastic Part Production with six quality

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Correct Part Design

Successful Plastic Part Production with six quality

Correct Part Design presupposes .also


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Correct Part Design

Correct Mold Design &

Successful Plastic Part Production with six quality

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Correct Part Design

Correct Mold Design

Successful Plastic Part Production with six quality

Suitable Machine Availability


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Correct Part Design

Correct Mold Design

Successful Plastic Part Production with six quality

Use of Optimum Process Parameters

Suitable Machine Availability


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Redesign the part shown

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The part design must be modified for primary and secondary manufacturing concerns (shrinkage, draft angles, flow leaders, etc.) The effect of these changes on the end-use performance of the part should be evaluated

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Which is better; Addition or Deletion of Reinforcement Ribs?


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10 Commandments of Plastic Part design

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Comment on these Designs

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1.Check for Sharp Corners Note on Radii Vs effectiveness


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Comment on these Designs

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2.Check for too thick sections

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Comment on these Designs

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How can we redesign these parts? How thick is too thick? How close is too close? How tall is too tall?
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3.Check for Too thick / close & tall ribs

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Comment on these bosses for receiving Screw threaded fasteners

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4.Check for Too thick & tall Bosses

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Comment on these Designs

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5.Check for zero draft A case with zero draft?


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Comment on this Snap Fit Part Design

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6.Check for rigid snap fit

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Comment on this Design

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7.Avoid Countersunk features for screws

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Comment on this Design

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8.Avoid sharp / square molded threads

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Comment on this Design

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9.Check for weld line formation & location

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Comment on this Design

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10.Avoid non-uniform cooling

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Sketch the sections you would consider for this application


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How will you idealize the part model for analysis?


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How are Golf balls manufactured? (Elastomeric core & Polymeric cover combination)

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Processes used in the manufacture of golf balls can involve injection molding followed by compression molding,

Figure 6.1. Processes used in the manufacture of golf balls can involve injection molding with a more complex mold.
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How are Ping-Pong balls manufactured?

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A number of assembly techniques will be discussed in this chapter. The techniques include: Snap fit assembly Mechanical fastening techniques Welding techniques Press fit assembly Adhesive bonding Solvent bonding
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Figure 6.2. Molded plastic parts such as gears, wheels or bearings are commonly mounted on shafts using a press fit. . Disc or diaphragm gates are preferred for press fit applications, since weld lines are eliminated.
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Hub & Sleeve Press Fit Assembly? Sketch the design Details
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Figure 6.3. Core pins with excessive draft result in non-uniform stress distributions for press fit hubs. Hubs with zero draft are more difficult to mold. The telescoping core pins offer a balance in terms of stress distribution and moldability.

Figure 6.5. The amount of interference for a press fit can be determined using design equations, or graphs similar to that shown, indicating the maximum recommended interference for a particular material.

How will you design the press fit between a Nylon Bush & a steel shaft?

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Figure 6.6. Use of an undercut shaft for press fit hub / shaft assemblies will locate the hub axially. The stresses associated with both the long term and short term interference (as the hub is pushed onto the shaft) must be considered by the designer.

Comment on the two designs

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Figure 6.7. The shafts used with press fit assemblies can be smooth, textured or even knurled. With smooth shafts, torsional strength can decrease with time due to stress-relaxation effects. The torsional strength for textured or knurled shafts involves some degree of mechanical interlock.

What are the stages in any Snap Fit Assembly?

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1.

2. 3.

Figure 6.8. Insertion, deflection and recovery. While there are many different snap fit geometries, the snap fitting process always involves a momentary deflection during assembly / disassembly, followed by elastic recovery

Purchase?

Figure 6.9. Annular snap fits are commonly used with more flexible polymers. A common application for an annular snap assembly is a push on bottle cap. (Typical example : Photo film container)
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Identify which is separable & which is inseparable Write down your answer

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Shown is an inseparable snap fit; Sketch the corresponding separable snap fit

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Figure 6.15. Cantilever snap with a 900 return angle must be manually deflected for separation. How can we address this issue?

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If you desire an easy pull out snap fit, what to do?


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Figure 6.16. Cantilever snap beams with ramping return angles can be snapped in and out. The angles of inclination and the beam geometry control the relative assembly and disassembly forces.

Figure 6.18. A self locking (900 return angle) cantilever snap requires manual deflection for separation. When beams require manual deflection, some type of molded in stop that limits the maximum deflection minimizes the potential of beam breakage due to over stressing.

Design Guidelines for a snap fit assembly which requires repeated usage?

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Figure 6.19. Externally activated V-shaped cantilever snaps are commonly used in the assembly of components such as battery access covers, where repeated deflection is anticipated. The potential for failure is reduced because the maximum possible deflection is self limiting.
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1.Cf. LH vis--vis RH Design & comment 2.Can we improve the design?

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Figure 6.21. Electrical components such as circuit boards or power supplies are commonly mounted to a molded chassis using cantilever snaps. When 900 return angle snap beams are used (i.e. those requiring manual deflection for disassembly), stops can be added to limit deflection and potential beam damage.

How can we redesign the assembly details to reduce the assembling force?

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Figure 6.22. The geometry of the cantilever beam can be altered to control the relative insertion and separation forces.

Figure 6.23. Flexible foam or elastomeric components are commonly used in snap fit assemblies to minimize tolerance demands and to control preload and vibration.

Figure 6.24. Cantilever snap beams are sometimes molded as separate parts, and are attached to other plastic or metallic parts.
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1.Comment on the manufacturability of this part design. 2.Is it possible to simplify the design?
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Figure 6.25. Cantilever snap beams can add to tooling costs and complexity. In this case, the snap beams are positioned in such a way (i.e. the hook facing outwards) that no special mold actions are required.
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Figure 6.27. Certain snap fit geometries can be ejected by simply stripping the part from the core. This is most appropriate for parts produced with flexible, ductile polymers, where tolerance demands are relatively low.
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Figure 6.30. Modified ejector pins can also be used to produce rounded snap beams.
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Comment on manufacturability of this part


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Part geometries can be modified to facilitate molding, specifically with consideration towards part ejection. Design features such as slots should be used in place of sidewall holes whenever possible as no special mold actions are required. No special actions are required for the cantilever snap beam with a slot below the hook.

Comment on the design of this cantilever snap beam


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Figure 6.32. The cantilever snap beams shown can be molded in a simple two plate mold without any special mold actions. This method is appropriate when the resulting slot at the base of the snap beam is acceptable.

Comment on the three different designs of the snap cantilevers

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Figure 6.33. Cantilever snap beams can taper through both the width and thickness. Compared to constant cross section beams, tapered beams have a more uniform stress distribution, and greater permissible deflection.

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Figure 6.35. When a cantilever snap is subjected to a bending load, both tensile and compressive stresses develop The stresses are highest at the outer surfaces of the junction with the nominal wall

Figure 6.36. Maximum permissible strain values vary with material type. The conditions / strain rate associated with the stress-strain data should be similar to those associated with the end-use application
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Figure 6.37. The stress values at the intersection of the cantilever snap beam and the nominal wall are higher than those calculated using standard engineering relations due to stress concentration effects.

Figure 6.39. The angle of inclination, which affects assembly force, changes as the beam deflects during assembly.
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Thank You

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