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OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

OUMM3203
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

TABLE OF CONTENT

PAGE 1.0 REPORT WRITING 2.0 REFERENCE 3-10 11-12

OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

1.0 REPORT WRITING


1.0 REPORT WRITING
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OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

The act of bribery is illegal and may corrupt a country if no action taken by the authority. According to the online definition, bribery is the act of giving any form of incentives to someone on the purpose of fulfilling ones needs which may include giving money and any valuable items to influence actions of other people. Meanwhile, Oxford ictionaries stated that bribery is giving a sum of money or other inducement offered or given to bribe someone.

Bribery in criminal law refers to the improper acceptance by a public official, juror, or someone bound by a duty to act impartially, of any gain or advantage to the beneficiary, including any gain or advantage to a third person by the desire or consent of the beneficiary. A gain or advantage may be an economic benefit in the form of money, property, commercial interests or anything else the primary significance of which is economic gain. !"ric #irow, $%&$'

(eople who practice bribery is because of they will not have what they want through normal procedures. )n general, the power corrupts when people misused the power and act for the good of themselves and may practice favouritism. *sually this happens because some might think that bribery is used as one of a shortcut to become rich in a short time. (eople normally overwhelmed by the luxurious life until they forgot and ignore the conse+uences they will get and conse+uently affect the culture.

OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

,ased on O"- , -onvention on -ombating ,ribery of .oreign (ublic Officials in )nternational ,usiness Transactions and /elated ocuments !$%&&', ,ribery is widespread phenomenon in international business and international investment that raises serious moral and political concerns, militates against good governance and economic development, and distorts international competitive conditions0 however, bribery needs a collective responsibility to tackle, because of how personal and environmental interests can help its imposition and existence.

)n addition, according to the Malaysian Anti1-orruption department, there are four main offenses of bribery which include the act of receiving or accepting !money 2 services etc.' as a bribe or reward for doing anything, offering any person or agent inducement or reward to do anything in respect of the transaction or in respect of official or employer, making false claims, and misuse of power for making any decision or taking any action in relation to any matter in respect of, in which the officer, his relatives or his allies have an interest, directly or indirectly. This problem may lead to other social problems as no actions taken by the authority. )n addition, crime and in3ustice will occur rampantly especially those who work in the higher state occupation.

,ased on the economic approach, bribery is classified under the expansion of economic pathology or in other word is corruption. )f corruption occurs in an organi4ation, it will affect the economic growth and may lead to bankruptcy. .or instance, an organi4ation which runs financial banking and their production are among money and credit cards and other forms of financial services. 5ithout a high trust from the public the organi4ation will not be able to gain profit. )f bribe happens in such organi4ation, the economy will drop and conse+uently affect the effectiveness growth of the country economic level. Therefore, special supervision and attention and control must be done thoroughly to such organi4ation to prevent any forms of bribery to happen. Additionally, the economic approach has numerous implications of behaviour that could be falsified. .or example, if a person only not to follow the intellectual, they will concerned more on personal rewards and more concerned with social well1being. Thus, such
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OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

person will act on receiving and demanding for better 3ob or luxurious life. )n this case, the false behaviour may lead to serious problems and one must be aware of the conse+uences therefore one also must know how and which to follow. This also shows that one who not following the intellectual thinking is a person who is lack of moral values and low motivation in life.

According to Tan4i and 6ito &778, corruption to bribery needed to be propounded as for this reasons that bribery is not only an illegal phenomenon in the country but also, it is vast in universal range and it has threatened government seriously in different time periods. 9uch criminal will affect the governments economy in the long run if it is not being handled carefully.

Moreover, through the moral point of view, the act of bribing someone to gain profit or to get better 3ob or even getting rid from punishments is considered as criminal action which may affect peoples rights and provision as well as peoples freedom. The third world countries may have most corruptions and misuses of power and the effects are on the citi4ens of the countries themselves.

)n all cases, the same cost of bribery in the form of an increase in public spending, waste of resources, an increase in transaction costs, a reduction in output, decline in the +uality of infrastructure and services and so on. According to some studies, bribery resulting misdistribution of skills and talents !misallocation of talent' including underemployment problems some of the skills that are important in a community. Often, through the corruption of a given higher positions opportunity to other individuals who are more capable and +ualified. Through the ethical approach, bribery is the act of making secret payments, intended to influence the recipient to act in a manner that is illegal or favourable to the people who making the payment. "thics code clearly states that involvement in bribery is inacceptable behaviour for engineer and also applicable to any person who is working either in private or
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OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

government sector. .or instance, in some cases employees of both government and private industry who deal with various works are not paid with ade+uate salaries. 9ome people may get bonus or extra salaries given by the employer as they might have worked extra time. 9uch situation is different from bribing in that the payments are made, in which no intention to make the workers to do something wrong but rather to get them feel motivated and it is 3ust as recognition for their services. *nlike some other situations where people use money to induce the workers to do something wrong and the payments are made in secret which is wrong and improper.

(rofessor 5an Mohd :or 5an

aud from the )nternational )slamic *niversity

Malaysia !))*M', stated that bribery is considered to be wrong act in )slam and therefore it must be handled seriously according to the awareness of religion and culture because it is the spiritual unethical acts. ;e also claimed that )slam has a very comprehensive view of corruption as it not only covers the economy, bureaucracy and social, but also the reality of human life.

Apart from that, social factors of a country in which science and religion are weak and the faith weakened. )n fact there are some who consider the importance of luxury living is a priority regardless of the halal and haram. ,ased on such factor, it shows that people who involve in this problem have an adverse impact on a country that is able to tear down the moral community in the country, restricting the development, dropping the economy, and monopoli4ed the country<s income. "conomy of the country is monopoli4ed by certain parties and undermines 3ustice in a country.

,ased on the ethical analysis on the act of bribery, the .oreign -orrupt (ractices Acts, prohibits certain issuers, domestic concerns, or their agents from being involved directly or indirectly in bribery. According to 5. Micahel /eisman, in the ,usiness in "thical .ocus, there are three different types of bribes based on purposes and effect of the transaction. The
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OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

three different categories of bribes are0 transaction bribes, variance bribes, and outright purchases. A transaction bribes is commonly related to someone paying some amount of money made to public official to secure the performances or for the safety purposes. 6ariance bribe happens when payments are made to secure deviance from the law. 5hile outright purchases is a type of bribe when an employee who works to actually favouring the interest of the employer.

This bribery cases related to the ethical and moral problems. )ndeed, this was the problem of corruption is rampant in our country and there<s no denying that this symptom is gaining the attention of all parties. This corruption is a case that is very closely tied to the moral and ethical problems. The person or persons involved with these symptoms either give or receive bribes are unethical and lack of moral values. Those who carry out such activities are intended solely for personal use and do not take into account the rights and interests of others. )n order to ease themselves, they do not 3ust forget their responsibilities towards the society but have put themselves in a situation that is dangerous.

The ethical framework also touches on 3ustice and fairness. This framework focus on the concepts to demand that comparative, balanced and fair treatment is given to all members of a group especially the workers in terms of salaries and benefits. ,etter be late than suffer the conse+uences of the bribe. 9ome company would go with transactional bribe as they may get the profit faster. 9uch situation shows that the company is not being fair like other company and one might conclude this as the companies are not treated e+ually as one company paid a bribe. Therefore bribery is unethical as it practices unfairness and lead to in3ustice.

,ased on the Anti1corruption (olicies and (rograms, there are many ways to prevent this problem to happen. One of the ways is by increasing the penalties to employers and employees. 9uch way can be done through three steps which are detection, prosecution, and exacting the penalty. Additionally, in this case where corruption is in the form of bribes, the
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OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

Anti1corruption (olicies and (rograms giving the guidance where government should increase the transparency operation to reduce the opportunity for undetected corruption. .or instance, government should define biding processes clearly and reinforce strict rules on gift1 giving. 9trengthening the laws and regulations also will help on preventing this bribery problem and also help in decreasing the number of corruption in a country.

,ribery is not allowed in any country and rules will be imposed to those who practice it. 5ay of prevention of corruption in economic is using comprehensive supervision from the authority. Another important way to prevent bribery is to increase peoples income to sufficient amount so that people will feel satisfied with it.

-orruption or precisely bribery is indeed wrong and could cause many problems in the country. )n the world of politics too, corruption affects the democratic and efficient administration when formalities are ignored. .or instance, bribery also happens during the elections. 9uch problem also caused in3ustice the governmental system and also violates the supremacy of law, and corruption in public administration affect balance and social e+uality. )n general, bribery affects the ability of an organi4ation.

.urthermore, because of bribery, rules and laws also weakened because every time bribery happens, the government lost profits. .or instance, if negligent for something that has been determined, then the bribes were supposed to replace the tax money collected and benefits en3oyed by only a handful of corruption.

=overnment should enforce law and penalties so that people are reali4e the dangerous and seriousness of the bribery and curbed to save the country. ,esides, provide some reading materials to citi4ens so that they can easily read and improve the education system in the country. Additionally, professional ethics is used to assess the morality of a group that is

OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

designed made to control their performance in carrying out a task or use of resources they have.

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OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

2.0 REFERENCE

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OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MAY 2013

2.0 REFERENCES

&. O)- isaran >adikan *saha ,anteras /asuah 9atu >ihad. http?22web&%.bernama.com2auto2news etail.php@idA$&BBCCDvoA$B $. "tika (rofesional. http?22badri4am.blogspot.com2$%&%2%$2etika1 profesional.html C Mengakibatkan pengurangan dalam pelaburan domestik dan . ) 1 /asuah dari sudut ekonomi. http?22www.utusan.com.my2utusan2info.asp@ yA$%%CDdtA&$$&DpubAutusanEmalaysiaDsecArencanaDpgAreE%F.htmDarcA hiveGix44$H"T6t4gl I *tusan Melayu !M' ,hd .
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-ombating ,ribery as an )ssue of ifferent imensions. http?22www.uva.fi2materiaali2pdf2isbnE7J817F$1KJB1K$&1B.pdf

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efinasi /asuah. http?22seramgiler1hidupsegan.blogspot.com2 ,oris ,egoviL. "conomic )ne+uality and -orruption&. http?22danica.popovic.ekof.bg.ac.rs2$%B.pdf

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