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Seven Years War

By Will McNally Introduction


These rules have been written to give an easily playable game which reflects the style of European land warfare during the Eighteenth Century, particularly the Seven Years War. To simplify the game a standard size of unit is employed and only a few ma or formations are permitted. !igures are not removed but a simple record needs to be "ept of the status of each unit. #f you have any $ueries or suggestions please write enclosing an SS%E to Will &c'ally, ((Willow )ayes, %shton, Chester, C)* +,T. % programme written in ,asic for #,& -C.s and compatibles is currently under test.

Scales, etc.
These rules assume that /0mm figures will be used, but they can be used for (0mm by using /1* the distances specified. The scales are fle2ible and can be ad usted to reflect the size of battle being fought provided the ratios are maintained. !igure Scales ( figure 3 04 men ( gun 3 5 guns 6round Scale 57 3 /44 yards 8/4mm9 (4cm 8:79 3 /44 yards 8(0mm9 Time Scale ( move 3 (4 minutes The close order infantry units represented under the rules are e$uivalent to regiments of (/44 men. ;pen order units represent a battalion, of about 544 men, and cavalry about *1: s$uadrons or :44 men. % twelve gun battery is represented by an artillery unit, but regimental guns are only ta"en account of in an infantry units firing.

Strength Points
Each unit is depicted as having the same number of figures irrespective of its actual strength. )owever it is allocated a number of strength points depending on its actual strength. !ull strength units are rated as having 5 strength points. To represent under strength units reduce this by ( point for each /4< under strength, so a +44 strong regiment will have : strength points. =nits with less than : strength points should be combined whenever possible, and units with more than + strength points must be split. =nits whose strength points fall to zero or less are considered to have become ineffective and are removed from the table.

Guns
%lthough various types of guns are available, for most games it is simpler to ust use medium guns. To convert from actual orders of battle>? @ight 3 *? : pdrA &edium 3 5? B pdrA )eavy 3 (/ pdr or heavier. Cegimental 6uns are not individually represented but units with them receive a firing bonus.

Units and bases


%ll units under these rules are composed of four identical bases of figures 8e2cept artillery and wagons9. Each base measures :0mm 2 :0mm 8/4mm9 and *4cm 2 *4cm 8(0mm9. %rtillery units are made up of two gun bases and two limber bases. Supply 8wagon9 units comprise two wagon bases. The numbers of figures on each base depends on the type of unit>? Close ;rder #nfantry 5 figures in two ran"s 8@ine #nfantry, !usiliers, 6renadiers, &ilitia, !rei?Dorps9 ;pen ;rder #nfantry * scattered figures 8@ight #nfantry, Eaegers, 6renz9 Cavalry / figures in one ran" %rtillery piece ( gun and * figures @imbers ( limber and / horses 8or with : horses on a double sized base9 Wagons ( wagon and / horses 8on a double sized base9 ,rigadier 6eneral ( mounted figure Senior 6eneral ( mounted figure F ( other

Generals
6enerals are allocated on the basis of one brigadier general per * ? 0 units, and one senior general per / ? : brigadier generals. #f there is more than one senior general one e2tra may be added as a C in C.

Formations
;nly three formations are possible for infantry and cavalry, @ine with all the bases in side to side contact, &ass with the bases in a /2/ bloc" and Column with the bases one behind the other.

Marking Unit Status


#t may be useful to have mar"ers to depict the current morale state of units. Either a small card with the appropriate status can be used or the following> Sha"en -lace a dead figure in front of the unit or reverse one of the bases. Couting -lace two dead figures with the unit or reverse half of the bases.

Move Sequence
%n alternate move se$uence is used with one side moving and the other side firing. Test morale of all sha"en and routing units of the moving player. &ove all units that must rout or retire. &ove all other units as player wishes, but not within (7 of any enemy unit. %ny of the moving players units which have remained stationary may test to change formation. The firing player may change the facing of any unit. !iring player fires units at any enemy unit within range and up to :0o to flan", and calculate the morale effect of fire. %ny of the moving players units which are unsha"en may charge any enemy unit directly to their front if it is within *7 for infantry or 57 for cavalry. Test the morale of the defending unit. Counter?charge, evade, or rout the defending unit as appropriate. &ove the charging unit into contact with the defending unit if it stands, or its original position if it routs or evades. !or units in contact calculate the effect of the melee and immediately rout or fall bac" any losers. 'otes>? #f a unit of the moving player routed during the preceding players charge or melee phase it is not tested for rallying this move, neither does it need to be moved. =nits that have failed to change formation cannot charge.

Morale
% units basic morale is its current strength plus the following modifiers depending on unit type>? 6renadiers F/ Cegulars F( 6renz, !rei?Dorps ? ( &ilitia ? ( or ? / Wagons etc. ? :

Testing shaken units


Coll (d5 per unit, add F( if a brigadier general is with the unit, or F/ if a senior general. Cesults>? : or greater the unit will carry on as re$uired. / or * the unit will retire facing a full move. ( or less, the unit will retire facing away a full move and lose ( strength point. %fter testing a unit is no longer sha"en, unless it cannot retire the re$uired distance away from the nearest enemy. e.g. if enemy units or impassable obstacles are in the way.

Testing routing units


Coll (d5 per unit, add F( if a general is with the unit, or F/ if a senior general. Cesults>? 0 or greater the unit halts sha"en / ? : the unit continues routing 8G9 ( or less the unit continues routing and also loses ( strength point 8G9 8G9 =nits reaching the edge of the table are not removed but remain there and lose ( strength point instead.

Retiring units
=nits retiring as a result of a morale test move immediately to their rear by the ma2imum movement possible with no deduction for passing through friendly units. #f they have insufficient movement to move past a friendly unit or obstacle they stop ust in front of it. =nits 7surrounded7 by enemy units within 57 do not move but remain sha"en. =nlimbered artillery re$uired to retire limber up. The net effect is to prevent them firing the ne2t move

Routing units
Couting units move directly away from the cause at rout speed towards the nearest friendly cover. This cover may be behind another friendly unit, into woods, buildings or off the friendly edge of the table. The routing unit may not move such that it reduces the distance to any visible enemy unit, i.e. The routing unit must be further away from any enemy unit at the end of the move than at the beginning. #f it cannot move for this or any other reason such as impassable terrain it will test for surrender. When artillery routs the crew leaves the guns behind and but otherwise moves as above. #f an enemy unit contacts the guns while they are unmanned they are lost. #f a wagon unit routs the wagons become immobilised for the rest of the game.

Units Surrendering
=nits may surrender in the following situations >? =nits charged in the rear which rout either from the charged test or melee. %lready routing units which are successfully charged. %lready routing units which are within 57 of any enemy unit and cannot move. Coll (d5 for units in this position, if the score is : or higher then unit surrenders if foot, 0 or higher if mounted. =nits that surrender are removed from the table.

Movement
The following defines the ma2imum movement allowed in a movement phase 8C9 all distances are given in inches 8for /0mm figures9. Troop Type Line Column Rout

Close ;rder !oot

(/

;pen ;rder !oot

(/

(0

@ight Cavalry

(0

(+

/(

&edium Cavalry

(/

(0

(+

)eavy Cavalry

(/

(0

6enerals or Couriers

/(

/(

/(

Wheeled Equipment

Limbered

Deployed

Rout (Crew Only

@ight 6uns

(/

&edium 6uns

(/

)eavy 6uns

(/

)orse %rtillery 6uns 8light9

(/

(+

)owitzers

(/

Wagons

'%

'%

Effects of terrain as either a percentage of normal speed or proportion of a move Terrain Type C!O! "oot O!O! "oot #ounted Wheeled

Cough ground

55<

(44<

55<

**<

6entle Slopes

55<

(44<

55<

**<

Steep Slopes

**<

55<

**<

'%

;pen Woods

55<

(44<

**<

55<

Hense Woods

**<

55<

'%

'%

Swamps

**<

55<

'%

'%

!ords

55<

55<

55<

**<

Crossing fences or walls

(1/

(1/

Crossing streams

(1/

(1/

Entering buildings

(1/

(1/

'%

'%

@eaving buildings &ovement notes>

(1/

'%

'%

Where '% is shown the troop type cannot move in that situation Heploying or limbering guns ta"es a whole move stationary. Cetiring and maintaining the same facing is at normal speed less *7 for foot, 57 for mounted. =nits may change facing up to :0I with no penalty, but more than that ta"es a whole move. Wheeling should be done around a *7 diameter circle, measuring the distance moved by the outermost base. #f a wagon unit routs the wagons become immobilised for the rest of the game. %ny non routing unit passing through another stationary unit deducts *7 for foot and 57 for mounted.

Formation Changes Changing Facing


To allow for the effect of alternative movement the firing player may change the facing of any unit after movement in order to fire or receive a charge. #t cannot do this if an enemy unit is within charge reach of its current facing. To change facing the unit remains in its current formation and rotates up to (+4o around the centre point of the unit. #f the desired rotation cannot be made due to either an obstacle or other units then the unit cannot change facing.

Road Bonus (optional)


%ny unit in column that moves its full move distance along a road may add an additional *7 if does not pass within /:7 of any enemy unit.

Firing
=nits may fire at anything directly in front of a base and up to :0I to either side provided the whole of the target base is visible, in range and within angle of fire. Ran$es Short #edium Lon$

%ll &us"ets

47? 57

Cifles

47? 57

57? (/7

@ight 6uns

47? B7

B7? (+7

(+7? /J7

&edium 6uns

47? (/7

(/7? /:7

/:7? *57

)eavy 6uns

47? (07

(07? *47

*47? :07

)owitzers

47? 57

57? (+7

(+7? *57

To determine the effect of firing roll /d5 and sum the scores and any of the following factors that may be relevant. #f the result is between J and (( then the target unit loses ( strength point, and if it is (/ or greater it loses / strength points. The same result is then used to chec" the target units morale. 'ote that a targets morale can suffer even though it has not lost any strength points. !iring factors ,ritish and -russian Close ;rder #nfantry F( &ilitia ? ( Cegimental artillery 8per / guns9 F( !iring unit has J strength points F/ !iring unit has 0 or 5 strength points F( !iring unit has ( or / strength points ? ( !iring unit has * bases firing ? ( !iring unit has / bases firing ? / !iring unit has ( base firing ? * !iring unit is sha"en ? ( Cifles at short range ? ( Cifles at long range ? / 6uns at short range 8canister9 F( 6uns at medium range ? ( 6uns at long range ? / Target is in woods or soft cover ? ( Target is in hard cover or buildings ? / Target is in solid cover ? * 'otes Canister can only be used when no friendly units are in the arc of fire. ;verhead fire is only available to guns firing to or from higher ground and howitzers. %ny intervening friendly unit must be at least (/7 clear of both the firer and the target. When firing at targets beyond gaps the gap must be at least ( base wide unless firing overhead. Example A full strength Prussian infantry regiment (strength 6) in line fires a an enemy unit in a wood at 5". It is in short range for a musket whi h is up to 6". It rolls !d6 and the s ore is 6" it adds #$ for ha%ing 5&6 strength points and #$ for 'eing Prussian lose order infantry" then ($ for the target 'eing in woods. )he result is * so the target unit loses $ strength point. )he result is then used to he k the morale effe t of the fire.

Morale effect of fire


This is tested using the same result as that used to determine the effect of firing. #f the modified score of the firing unit e2ceeds the target units basic morale, the target unit is sha"en. Example +ontinuing the example a'o%e, if the target was a -ungarian .renadier /egiment at full strength (6 points)" its 'asi morale would 'e 0 1 6 #! for .renadiers. 2ith a firing result of * the .renadiers morale is un hanged. If the target had 'een a weakened Infantry /egiment with 5 strength points" its 'asi morale would 'e 6 and the unit would ha%e 'e ome shaken 'y the fire.

Risk to Generals
#f a general is with any unit that suffers losses from fire throw /d5 / ? + 'o effect B ? (4 Suffers a light wound and moves at (1/ speed (( ? (/ Head. #f a general suffers a second light wound he is incapacitated and is removed from play. #f a general is "illed all units in his chain of command within (+7 are sha"en.

Charging
%fter all firing is resolved any of the moving players infantry or cavalry units which are unsha"en may declare charges on any enemy units that are in charge reach. Charge reach is *7 for infantry and 57 for cavalry, but the target must be directly to the front of the charging unit. ;nce all the charges have been declared test the morale of the charged units in the order decided by the moving player. %s each charged unit is tested counter?charge, evade, or rout it as appropriate. %fter all charged units have been tested move any charging units that are not already in contact into contact with its target if it is still within charge reach, or its original position if it has routed or evaded out of charge reach. Then calculate the results of the melees.

Testing charged units


Coll (d5 per unit, and add any of the following factors if they apply 'on Cavalry charged by Cavalry F/ ;pen ;rder #nfantry or %rtillery charged by Close ;rder F/ Charged in the rear F/ Charged in the flan" F( =phill of chargers F( Sha"en F( 6eneral with the unit ? ( ,ehind an obstacle or in a building ? / Cavalry only charged by 'on Cavalry ? / Close ;rder only charged by ;pen ;rder #nfantry or artillery ? / #n a fortification ? * #f the modified score e$uals or e2ceeds the charged units basic morale it will rout immediately and lose ( strength point. =nits that pass may either stand, counter charge or evade 8see ne2t section9. %lready routing units may surrender, but otherwise they automatically rout and lose ( strength point.

Counter charging and evading


Charged units which pass their morale test may counter charge or evade if they have not fired. Counter charging is only available to infantry and cavalry in the open who are being charged by an enemy unit to their front. The counter charging unit is moved into contact with the charging unit halfway between their positions. %lternatively @ight #nfantry and @ight Cavalry may evade *7 and 57 respectively directly away from the enemy unit attempting to charge them. 8'ote that the enemy may still be able to contact them in their charge move9

Melee
&elee is resolved on an individual unit basis. %ny unit that has either enemy units touching the front of any of its bases or has the front of any enemy bases contacting any of its bases must engage in melee. Where multiple units are involved try to split it into separate smaller melees Coll (d5 for each unit involved in melee and add any of the following factors if they apply. Cavalry %n&antry Other

=nit is heavy cavalry

F/

=nit is medium cavalry

F(

=nit is charging or counter charging

F/

F(

=nit is irregular

?(

?(

?(

=nit is attac"ed in flan"

?(

?(

?(

=nit is charging over an obstacle 8stream, fence etc.9

?:

?/

?:

=nit is charging uphill

?(

?(

?(

=nit is charging a building

?:

?/

?:

=nit is attac"ed in the rear or evading

?/

?/

?/

=nit is in open order or artillery

?/

?/

?/

=nit is charging a fortification

?5

?*

?5

-er additional enemy base in frontal contact

?(

?(

?(

-er flan" overlapped

?(

?(

?(

two or more bases deep 8e2cept light troops9

F(

F(

Compare the modified score for every unit in melee with the modified scores for all of those units involved in melee with it. #f the unit has a lower score then it has lost its melee. #f the difference is / or more the losing unit will rout immediately and lose / strength points8G9. #f the difference is ( point then the losing unit will retire *7, loses ( strength point, and becomes sha"en. #f the scores are e$ual then all units involved will retire *7. 8G9 #f the losing unit is attempting to charge a building or fortification, or where the defender is immediately behind an obstacle the losing unit does not rout but retires 57 and is sha"en, but still loses / strength points.

Risk to Generals
#f a general is with any unit that routs from melee throw /d5 / ? J 'o effect. + ? B Suffers a light wound and moves at (1/ speed. (4 Captured. (( ? (/ Head. #n any other cases if the general is with any unit that suffers losses from melee throw /d5 / ? + 'o effect. B ? (4 Suffers a light wound and moves at (1/ speed. (( ? (/ Head. #f a general suffers a second light wound he is incapacitated and is removed from play. #f a general is "illed or captured all units in his chain of command within (+7 are sha"en.

Terrain Buildings
,uildings should cover an area of :7 2 :7 which is sufficient to give a scenic edge and hold ( unit. =nits occupying buildings have no flan" or rear and each base can fire or melee out of any side of the building it is in contact with. #solated farms and hamlets should be represented by a single building, Killages by two or three, and towns by four or more.

Woods and Forests


Woods are not consistent and should be made up of a mi2ture of areas of dense and open woodland, rough and open ground consistent with the area being fought in. Troops can be detected and fired at the following ranges in wooded areas>? Dense Woods Open Woods

;pen ;rder !oot

/7

57

;thers

:7

(/7

Rough Ground & Swamps


This represents areas of either difficult movement or where difficulty may be e2perienced maintaining formation. Typical areas include fields of crops and roc"y or uneven ground. Swamps are areas of rough ground which are impassable to mounted or wheeled units.

Rivers and Streams


!or simplicity streams are /7 wide and rivers are 57 wide. Civers cannot be crossed e2cept by fords or bridges.

Hills
)ills are not defined by their height but by the difficulty of ascending them. &ost hills should have gentle slopes but depending on the geography some will have steep or impassable slopes. ;ther terrain features can be combined with hills and their effects on movement should be combined. Hense woods on steep slopes should be considered impassable to all troops e2cept light infantry and rifles.

Roads
These are considered the same as open ground unless the optional road movement is used. Coads on hills can have a different slope than that of the surrounding ground. Where roads cross streams or rivers there must be either a bridge or ford. Coads and bridges are /7 wide.

Engineering (Optional) Engineers


% engineer unit comprises : open order infantry bases with pioneers 8replace one of the pioneers with an engineer officer9. #t is supported by the engineering train with two wagons on double sized bases one carrying e2plosives and the other engineering tools. %n option is a pontoon train with two pontoon wagons on double sized bases.

Engineering Tools
( wagon holds enough tools for ( close order infantry unit. This enables them to dismantle ( strength point every move or construct ( strength point of fieldwor" every other move.

Explosive Charges
( wagon can hold 5 charges. The se$uence is as follows> Spend ( movement phase laying the charge, move away on the ne2t movement phase, then test for effect on the firing phase following moving away. !or effect roll /d5, if it is greater than the targets. defence strength points it is destroyed. #f more than ( charge is used it ta"es ( e2tra move to lay each charge and use one e2tra d5 per additional charge to determine the effect. #f any unit is within *7 roll /d5 for effect as if firing. #ncrease the distance by (7 for each additional charge used.

Bridge Building
#t ta"es an engineer unit with a pontoon train ( move to cross /7 of river. ,uilding a bridge re$uires ( strength point of building materials per (7 and it ta"es * moves per /7 to assemble. #f the engineer unit is under strength roll (d5 per move, if the score e2ceeds its current strength then it does not carry out any wor" this move. !ast flowing rivers ta"e ( e2tra move per /7 to cross.

Defence Values of Buildings and Fortifications


%s with firing at troops a score of J or better is re$uired by artillery firing ball to remove ( strength point. #f troops are in the buildings use the same dice score to determine the damage to the building ignoring the deduction for cover. To

e$uate with cover /?: strength points 3 soft cover, 0?+ strength points 3 hard cover, B or more 3 fortified. Therefore as building are damaged the cover they provide is reduced. Strength -oints>? Wooden ,ridge 8per :79 : Stone ,ridge 8per :79 5 Wooden ,uildings 8per :7 face9 5 Stone ,uildings 8per :7 face9 (/ Timber fieldwor" 8per :79 5 Earth and Timber Cedoubt 8per :79 (4 )hese rules may 'e freely distri'uted as long as 2rexham 3 4istri t 2argamers are redited.