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HISTOEY

(J

BYZANTINE
FROM DCCXVI

EMPIRE
TO
MLVII

GEORGE
Member

FINLAY,
M

LL.D.

of the American of the Boyal Soeie^ of Llteratare, Member Anttqaarlan of the Axehaolo^lcel Institute at Bome. Society.CorreepondiaA Member Redeemer of the Order of OreOk the Oold CroOT Xn^ht

"OXttos Bans

Urropias rrjs

cN"U
SECOND EDITION

WILLIAM

BLACKWOOD
EDINBURGH AND MDOOCLVI

AND
LONDON

SONS

5?

GIFT

DF

555 .5

190339

PRrWTBD

BV

WILLUM

BLACKWOOD

AKD

SONS,

SDINBUROH.

PREFACE

TO

FIRST

EDITION.

In

the

following pages,
have been
as
a

constant

references order
to

to

the

original
work

historians
serve, not

added,

in

make also
as

the
an

only
who

popular history,but
be
more

index

for

scholars than The

may

familiar
writers.

with

classic literature

with

the

Byzantine

Constantinopolitan era
year

places
on

the the

birth
1st

of

Christ

in

the

5509,
31st

and

commences

September.
Christian

Thus
era,

the
is the
era.

August, of the

first year
5508

of

the

last

day

of the

year

of the

politan Constantino-

The
common

Byzantine
method
of

historians

also

use

the

Indiction mode
a.d.

as

the

recordingthe
the
to 1st

year.

This

of notation

commences no

from is

of

September,
the

312,

but

indication the

given
of

determine

particulartime
1
to

beyond
and
some

year

the

indiction, counting from


unless the year
of

15,
or

then other

recommencing, synchronism
September 1852.

the

world

be added.

Athens,

1st

PREFACE

TO

SECOND

EDITION.

The
as

Illustrations following

have

been better

added

to this

Edition,
their the

tendingto
character
not

make verbal
as

the reader

acquaintedwith
art

than subjects
same are

descriptions. Byzantine

has

and though its Byzantine history;

merits

very

great, they appear,


:
"

nevertheless,to have been

underrated generally

FRONTISPIECE, Basil

II., the
Heaven

slayer of

the

Bulgarians, receiving a blessingfrom

From Psalter of the tenth a homage from men. its Art in the History of by Monuments^ by Seroui century, given No. 4. d'Agincourt,vol. iii., platexlvii.. and

COINS.

1. Gold

by25antof
and
same

Leo

III. and

his

son

Constantine
"

V.

(Copronymus).
in

This

is the nomisma.
"

The

semissis,or
or

half nomisma
"

^the trimissis, or

one-third
not

the

tetarteron,

quarter

are are on

all found
an

of the

emperor. 17

Their

weights

average

gold,but 68 grains^

34

and grains,22 grains,

grains.

PREFACE

TO

SECOND

EDITION.

2. Gold tetarteron of

Theophilus.

3.

Copper coin

of Michael

II. and

Theophilus.

4. Commonest but from

called of John I. (Zimiskes), Byzantinecopper coins, been introduced which appear to have the Macedonian, by Basil I., the o ver original impressions type.

5. Silver coin of John

This is the usual size of I. (Zimiskes).


Basilian

silver coins

duringthe

dynasty. Weight

44

Byzantine grains.

VI

PBBFACB

TO

SECOND

EDITION.

6. Silver coin of Basil II. and Constantino VIII.

7.

Byzant of

Leo VI. the Wise.

8.

Bjzant of

Constantino VIII.

9.

Byzantof Theodora.

The last three, in size, are thoughdiffering

of the

same

weight.

CONTENTS.

BOOK

FIRST.

THB

CONTEST

WITH

THE

IOONOC?LASTa

"

A.D.

717-867.

CHAPTER

I.

THE

ISAURIAN

DTWA8TY.

"

A.D.

717-797.
Page

i 1. Characterigtics
Its divisions, Extent and

of

Byzantine history,
....

10

administrative III.

divisions of the empire,

13 15 16 18

" 2. Reign of Leo


Saracen
war,

a.d. (the Isaurian),


....

717-741,

Siege of Constantinople,
Circiimstancee Fables favourable Leo

to

Leo's

reforms,

24
28

concerning

III.,

and Military, financial, Ecclesiastical Rebellion

legalreforms.

82 40 48 45 51 58 58
55 59

policy.

in Greece,

Pax"aloppositionto the Iconoclasts, Physical phenomena,


" 3. Constantino
Character Rebellion Saracen V.

(Copronymus),
V.,

a J).

741-775,

of Constantino

of Artavasdos,
war, war^
....

Bulgarian
Internal

61
. "

policy of the empire,

63 67

"

4.

Policy regarding image-worship. Physical phenomena. Plague at Constantinople, Reigns of Leo IV. (the Khazar), Constantine
Irene

75
76

VI., and
,

Irene,

a.d.

775-602,

82 88

regent,
of Council of

....

Restoration Second

image-worship.
of Nicsea,

85

87

Extinction Constantine Divorces

Byzantine
assumes

authority at
the

Rome^

92 94 95

VI. Maria

and

marries

government. Theodota,

VIU

CONTENTS.
Page

of monks, Opposition Irene dethrones

"7
..... ....

PerBecation of Theodore Stadita,

98 100 102 104

her son, Constentine VI., of Ck"nstantine and Irene, of Policy goyemment duringthe reigns
.......

Saracen war,

Bulgarianwar,

107
.......

CHAPTER
REIONS
OF

XL

NICEPH0RU8

I., MICHABL
A.D.

I.,AND
802-820.

LEO

T.

(tHE ARMENIAN).

A.D. 802-81 1, I., $ 1. Family and character of Nicephorus

.109 Ill

Rebellion of Bardanes,

.......

Tolerant ecdesiastical policy, Relations with

.112
.

Oppressivefiscaladministration,

.115 .118 120 123 125


...

Charlemagne,
...... ......

Saracen war, Defeat of Sclavonians at P"tras,


.

" 2.

" 8.

Bulgarian war, DeathofNicephorusL, Michael I. (Rhangab6), a.d. 812-818, zeal of liiohael I., Religious Bulgarian war, Defeat of MichaelL, Leo V. (theArmenian), a.d. 818-820, Poli"^ofLeoV.,
.
.

127
128

.128 180 188 184 185 186 137

........

.......

Treadierous attack
over

on

Crumn, king of the Bulgarians,


......
.

Bulgarians, Victory and Sicily, Afi"irsof Italy


the Council of the church

.188
.

Moderation in ecclesiasticalcontests,
favourable to the Iconoclasts,
.

.189
"

148

administration of justice, Impartial Leo v.,and against Conspiracy

.146
.

his assassination,

.149

CHAPTER

in. 820-867. 152 152 154 159


166

THE

AMORIAN

DYNASTY.

"

A.D.

a.d. 820^9, " 1. Michael IL (the Stammerer),

Birth of Michael Loss of Crete and

II.,

Rebellion of Thomas,

Sicily,

Ecclesiastical policy,
Miohaers

marriage and death,


love of justice. concerningthe emperor^s his marriage. concerning

168 169

a.d. 829-842, " 2. Theophilus,

Anecdotes Anecdotes

170
174

Ecclesiastical persecution,

176

CHAPTER

IV.

STATE

OF

THE

BYZANTINE

EMPIRE

DURING

THE

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

"

1. Public administration.

and Diplomatic
a

Constantinople
was

neither

Roman

The

Greek

race

not

the dominant modified the


.......

relations, city, peoplein the Byzantineempire,


nor a

commercial Greek

284 .234 236 238 240


241

Circumstances Extent of the

which

despotic power

of the emperors,

empire, strength, Military Loss of Italy, and Crete, Sicily, Embas^ of John tiie Grammarian Commercial policy,
....... .......

......

248 to

Bagdat,

....

245
248
.

Wealth of the Byzantine empire and the neighbouringstates, in the Byzantineempire during the eighthand " 2. State of society

252 ninth 255

centuries,

........

Decline of ciTihsation, Influence of the Greek

.......

255
......

church,

258 260

Slavery, of Theological spirit


.........

the

people,
.......

......

262 264 267

State of soienoe and art,

Literature,

CONTENTS.

BOOK

SECOND.

BASIUAN

DYNASTY."

A.D.

867-1057.

CHAPTER

I.

CONSOUDATION

OF

BYZiLNTINB A.D.

LBOISLATION

AND

DBSPOTISM.

867-968.
Pftge

a.d. liaoedonian), " 1. Reign of Basil L (tiie

867-886,

271 271 276 279 280 288 289 291 293 299 306

of Basil I., Personal histoiy Eccleeiastioal administration, Financial administration,

Legislation, administration^ Military


.....

....

Panlioian war,

.....

Campaignsin

Asia Minor,

and Italy, Saraoens rayage Sicily Court and character of Basil I.,
.

" 2. Leo YL

Character

a.d. 886-912, (thePhilosopher), and court of Leo YI., Ecclesiastical administration.


.

307
810 313
314

Legislation,

.....

Saracen war, Takingof Thessalonica


.....

by

the

Saracens,
.

816
330

to reconquer Expedition of Italy, Aflfairs


.....

Crete,

881
332

Bulgarianwar,

.....

of Conetantine " 3. Alezandei^Minority

YIL"Romanus

a.d. 912-944, I.,

335 386

Reign of Alexander, A.D. 912-918, a.d. 918-920. Minority of Constantino YIL (Porphyrogenitus),
Sedition of Constantine

337
888 342 848 845 346 348 349 849 851 853

" 4.

Byzantine army at Constantinople, Intrigues makes himself emperor, a j). 920-944, I. (Lecapenus) RomanuB Romanus I., against Conspiracies I. dethroned by his son Stephen, RomanoB Romanus a.d. Constantine YIL (Porphyrogenitus), II., 945-963,
Character of Constantino

Dukas, defeated by Simeon, King of the Bulgariansj


.

YIL,

aj".

945-949,

works Literary Death

of Constantine

YIL

(Porphyrogenitus),

YIL, Conspiracies duringhis reign,


Pride of

of Constantine

854 855 856 361 862

court. Byzantine

Internal condition of the empire,

Sdavonians in the Peloponnesus,

Maniates,

....

CONTENTS.

XI

Sanoen

war,
war
"

.....

868
"

Bulgarian
Character

HungarianinyasionB
....

Italian aflkirs*

868

of Bomanua

a.d. 969-963, II.,

872
874

Conqnestof Crete, Condition of Greece,

....

878

CHAPTER

n.

PJERIOD

OF

COlXq^VBgr

AND

MIUTABT

OLOBT.

"

^A.D.

963-1028.

John I. (Zimiflkee), a.d. S 1. ^noephoma IL (Phokas), 963-976, Administration of Joseph Bringas, Character of
a j". 968-969, NioephorusU. (Phokas),

884 384 387 888 391 894 896

Public administration, Saracen


war,
....

and Bulgaria, Sicily, Italy, of Assassination Nicephoms IL, Character of John I. (Zimiskes), a.d. 969-978, A""irB in Russian
war,
....

897
402 415 428

Bepnblioof Cherson,
Saracen Death war, of John

I.,

426

aj". 976-1026, " 2. Basil II. (Bulgaroktonos),

426 426 428 481

Character Rebellion

of Basil IL, of Bardas

Skleros, Rebellion of Bardas Phokas, Wealth of piiyate indiyidualB,


war, Bulgarian
....

488 486

Defeat of Basil IL, founds the kingdom of Achrida, Samuel, king of Bulgaria, Defeats of Samuel, Basil IL puts out the eyes of his prisoners, Conquest of the kingdom of Achrida,
.

487
488 440
445

450
462 454 456

Basil IL visits Athens,

"

Conquests in Armenia^ Death of BasUIL,

"

CHAPTER

III.

PERIOD

OF

CONBEBVATISM

AND

STATIONARY

PROBFBRITT.

"

A.D.

1025-1067.

" I. Constantino YIIL,


Condition Character Qoyemment of the

1025-1028, empire,
aj".
......

458 468
.....

of Constantine administered

YIIL,

469
....

by

his eunuchs,

460
. .

financial administration, Oppressive Many nobles deprived of sight, of Blarriage Zoe with Romanes

.461 462

.....

Aighyroe" death

of Constantine

YIIL,

464

Xll

CONTENTS.

" 2. Reignsof the hufibands and creatures


Conduct of BomanusIIL,
........

of Zoe, a.d.
.....

1028-1054"

466
.

1028-1034, III.,

466 470

Conspiracies,
Saracen
war"

defeat of Romanus
.......

.....

472
474 476 475 476 477
.

of Maniakee, Exploits

Autographof Christ taken of Perkrin, Acquisition


Nayal Death

at
.......

Edessa,

.....

operations,
of Romanus

.......

in.,
IV.

.......

aj). 1034-1041, (thePaphlagonian), John the Orphanotrophos, Financial oppression, Anecdotes, Conspiracies, Saracens attempt to surprise Edessa, War in Sicily,

Character

of Michael

478 .480 481


483

.......

........

........

485 486 488


490

.....

........

Loss of Servia, Rebellion

........

of the Sclaronlans of Michael

and

Bulgarians,

491
....

conduct Eneigetic Michael Y. (theKalaphates), a.d. 1042, Zoe and Theodora,


a.d.

lY., and his death,


....

.494

496
. .

1042,

.498

Meetingof
Constantine

Zoe and Constantinos IX.

Dalassenoe,

....

499
500
...
.

1042-1054, (Monomachos),A.o.
of Constantine IX., empress,
.......

the concubine Skleraina, Lavish expenditure, of Theodora, Cruelty Sedition in Cyprus, Rebellion Rebellion Court of Maniakes, of

.501 503 605 506 506 609 511 612


618

.......

.......

.......

Tomikios, plots,
........ ........

.......

Servian war,
Russian
war,

........

Patdnakwar,
War in

........

515 518
619

Italy, Conquestof Armenia, Invasion of the empireby


Schism Death of the Greek of Zoe

.......

the

SeljoukTurks,
IX,
.....

....

520 525 526 527 628 580

and Latin chtirches,

....

and Constantine YI.

" 3. Theodora
Character

and Michael

a.d. 1064-1057, (Stratiotikos),

and administration

of Theodora, a.d.

1064-1056,

of Michael Incapacity

YI.,
of the
....

Administnration transferred to the eunuchs of greatnobles Conspiracy Michael General YL dethroned


.......

household, imperial

681 538

in Asia Minor,

687
538

observations,

BOOK

FIRST.

HISTORY
OF TEA

BYZANTINE

EMPIRE.

BOOK
THE CONTEST WITH THE

FIRST.
ICONOCLASTS. A.D.

717-867.

CHAPTER
THE

L
A.D.

ISAURIAN

DYNASTY.

717-797.

SECT.

"

CHAILACTEEISTICS
AND

OP

BYZANTINE

HISTOBY" DIVISIONS
OP THE

ITS

DIVISIONS" EMPIRE.

EXTENT

ADMINISTRATrVE

The

institutions of

ImperialRome

had

long thwarted

great law of man's existence which impelshim to when the accession of Leo the Isaurian better his condition,
the

suddenlyopened a new Constantinople of the Eastern in the history Empire. Both the era had been intellectual progress of society material and A deliberately opposed by the imperiallegislation. of the of conservatism persuaded the legislators spirit if each Roman empire that its power could not decline, of it" citizens was fixed irrevocably order and profession of their own duties by hereditary in the sphere peculiar made to divide the succession. An attempt was really laws which the political into castes. But population were adoptedto maintain mankind in a state of stationary
VOL. I.
A

to the throne of

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK
^'
'"

I.

* ^'

and impoverby these trammels, depopulated prosperity and threatened to dissolvethe very ished the empire, The Western Empire, under their elements of society. fell a prey to small tribesof northern nations ; operation, that it was placed the Eastern ^as so depopulated on the and conquered eve of being repeopled by Sclavonian colonists, by Saracen invaders.

Leo III. mounted

and under his governthe throne, ment b ut the empirenot onlyceased to decline, even of its

vigour.Reformed early of the old Roman modifications new developed authority and still reforms, energy in the empire. Great political mark greaterchangesin the condition of the people, in Roman the eighth centuryas an epochof transition condition of the mass of thoughthe improved history, is in some concealed by the prothe population degree minence to the disputes concerning image-worship given in the records of this period.But the increased strength of the empire, and the energy infused into the administration, that the Byare forcibly displayed by the fact, zantine armies beganfrom this time to oppose a firm barrierto the progress of the invaders of the empire. it seemed as When Leo III. was proclaimed Emperor, if no human power could save from falling Constantinople
much began to regain Saracens considered the of every land, in which any remains of sovereignty Roman civilisation survived, as within their grasp. Leo,
as an

Rome

had fallen. The

and an Iconoclast, Isaurian, a foreigner consequently ascended the throne of Constantine, and a heretic, and

arrestedthe victorious career


then

of the Mohammedans.

He

completely in accordance with the new of Eastern society, exigencies that the reformed empireoutlived for many centuries
with its establishment. every government contemporary iscalledby The Eastern Roman Empire, thus reformed,

the reorganised

whole administration so

.modem

historians the

Empire; and Byzantine

the

term

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

that of the Eastern ^\^q]^


from elapsed

Empire duringthe
the foundation of

nine centuries

ch^i.

in Constantinople
as regarded was

330,

to

its conquestin 1204.


to

Yet Leo III. has strongclaims first of a new series of emperors. of


a

be

the the
first

He

the founder

the dynasty,

saviour

of

and Constantinople,
state.

reformer of the church and


who Christian sovereign

He

was

the

arrested the torrent of Mohammedan

improved the condition of his from their religion ; he attemptedto purify subjects with which the superstitious reminiscences of Hellenism, stilldebased,and to stop the development it was of a in the orthodox church. quasi-idolatry Nothing can to assume the right of his empire decidedly prove more than the contrast presented a new name by the condition of its inhabitants to that of the subjects of the preceding the of Heraclius, dynasty. Under the successors Roman of a declining Empire presents the spectacle and its thinly-peopled to were society, exposed provinces
conquest; he
the intrusion of

colonists and hostile invaders. foreign

oflFers But, under Leo, society an

aspectof improvement
from its lethargy, and

and

prosperity ; the
and
soon

old

revives population

both in number increases,


to

strength,
on

to

such

degreeas
must

drive back

all intruders

its

territories. In the records of human the Isaurian


in

Leo civilisation,
a as high position,

alwaysoccupy

a a

type of what the central power in


a

state

can

efiect even

declining empire. Before reviewing the history of Leo's reign, and recording his brilliant it is necessary to sketch the exploits,
administrative
an

condition to which the Roman reduced the


trace

system had

empire.It

would be

instructive lesson to

the progress of the moral and mental decline of the Greeks,from the age of Plato and Aristotleto the time
of the sixth ecumenical 11. ; for the moral in the reign of Justinian council,

evils nourished in Greek

society

DECLINE

OF

SOCIETY

IN

THE

ROMAN

EMPIRE.

degradedthe nation,before the oppressive goyemment booki. * ^' of the Romans and depopulated Greece. ^ impoverished When the imperial was established, we authority fully in which the t race the intercommunication manner easily of different provinces and orders of society became gradually of material interests, restrictedto the operations and
''

how

the limitationof ideas


until at

arose

from this want

of

munication, com-

roads and commodious


connection
as we see

with

the

civilisation length decayed. Good have a more direct passage-boats of popular education, development
of Phidias and

it reflectedin the works

the

of Sophocles, than is generally believed. Under writings the jealous tion government, the isolasystem of the imperial and classbecame so complete, of place that even the members received their ideas of the aristocracy highest from the inferior domestics with whom theyhabitually

associated in their own intercourse


men

households
with

"

not

from the transitory

they held

of their own Nurses

teachers.

experienced and religious class, or with philosophic and slaves implanted their ignorant
where

able and

in the households superstitions were empire and the provinces assemblies

the rulers of the

where existed,

reared ; and no public discussion could efface such

Familyeducation became a more influential prejudices. than public instruction; and though feature in society from the fourth to the seventh century, education, family the morality of the population, appears to have improved it certainly and limited their increased their superstition understandings. Emperors, senators, landlords,and
merchants,were
and

alike educated under these influences ;

though the church and the law openeda more of fix)m creating circleof ideas, a deeper sense enlarged still the prejudices of earlyeducation responsibility, in each and more circumscribed the sense of dutymore which was successive generation. The military class, in society, consisted almost entirely the most powerful

ICONOCLAST

PEEIOD.

BOOK On.
I.

of

I 1.

resulting degradation, and ignorance, vhich forms from superstition, bigotry, the social feature of the periodbetween the marked of Justinian I. and Leo III., broughtthe Eastern reigns and weakness that Empire to the state of depopulation
mere

barbarians.

The

mental

had

delivered the
fiscal causes

Western

prey

to

small

tribes of

inraders.

of the Roman depopulation volume,as well as empirehave been noticed in a prior had intruded themselves the extent to which immigrants the soil of Greece.^ The corruption of the ancient on took place at the same time, and arose out of language the causes At the acceswhich disseminated ignorance. sion
The

of the

of the

Leo, the disorder in the central administration,


the and provincial government,

the ravages tion of the Sclavonians and Saracens,had rendered the condiin anarchy of the

intolerable. The Roman government people and seemed incapable of upholding order in society, legal its extinction was event.^ All as a proximate regarded
the between provinces the shores of the Adriatic and the had been abandoned
to

banks of the Danube tribes.

Sclavonian

Powerful colonies of Sclavonians had been


and in Bithynia, the Artanas.^

planted
the rich
was same

by Justinian IL in Macedonia of the Strymon and valleys


with filled
race, who

Greece of the

and agricultural hordes pastoral

became in many
and

the sole cultivators districts

of the

and soil,

mountains

effaced the memory of the names of streams, which will be immortal in the all Thrace Bulgarians plundered

world's literature.* The


^

Orues under tke Bamani, 60,70, 238. This feeling be traced as earlyas the reign can of Maurice. Theophylactus Simocatta records that an angelappeared in a dream to the Emperor 'HberiaB and uttered these words : " The Lord announces II., to thee, O emperor, that in thy reign the days of anarchy shall not commence." P. 1 1, edit Par. ' Constant Porphyr.,De Them, ii.23, edit Band. Theophanes, 304,305, 864. P. C. 44, edit Par. Nicephorus, * Constant Porphyr., De Them, ii 25. Strabonis Epit. torn, iii 886,edit Coray. Marathon became Vrana; Salamis,Kiluri ; Platea, Kochla ; Myoene, Kbar"ati ; Olympia, Bfiraka ; and Delphi,Kastri.
'
"

CONDITION

OP

SOCIBTT.

7
rebook i.
'"

Thessalonica was ConstaDtinople.^ peatedly besieged by Sclayonians.^ The Saracens inaDdated Asia
to

to the walls of

had

^''

* ^-

Minor with their armies,and

were

paring pre-

the

in the East. Such was extirpate Christianity crisisat which Leo was proclaimed emperor by the
m

army,

Amorium,
were

a.d.

716.

features in the condition of the peculiar and an inherent vigour in the prinsurviving population, ciples of the Roman that stilloperated administration, in resisting domination. The people powerfully foreign feltthe necessity of defending the administrationof the law, and of upholding commercial intercourse. The ties of interest ants consequently rangeda large body of the inhabitof every province round the central administration at this hour of diflBculty. The very circumstances which

Yet there

weakened
on

the power

of the court

of

the

an people

increase of
measures

ferred conConstantinople, and enabled authority, own

them

to
new

take effectual
energy may and Cherson

for their

defence.

This II. bond

be traced in the resistance which offered to the

Ravenna The

tyranny of Justinian
as an

orthodox church,also, served


among the

additional

the and throughout people, wide extent of the imperial dominions, its influences connected with the general the local feelings of the parish tunes, interestsof the church and the empire. These misforwhich broughtthe state to the verge of ruin, and fiscal oppression relieved commerce from much thus given to trade, Facilities were many monopolies. of the towns additional which afforded to the population of the Eastern of employment. The commerce sources of the barbarians gainedby the conquests Empire had already of union in the classesin the countries, West, for the ruling the Goths

conquered by
trade
^ ' *

and Franks

engagedin rarely
pos-

or

accumulated

The advantageof capital.^

820. Theophtnes,

TMi, JOt ThmoUomica tyuique Agro,proL xoiy. of the Jews, and theiroomThis hct ezpUaxiB the inorease in the nombera

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK
^'
^

I. * ^'

enforced bj administrationof justice, a systematic sessing attached the commercial classes a fixed legal procedure, and the to^n population to the person of the emperor, whose authority considered the fountain of legal was A fixed legislation, and order and judicial impartiality. the administration of justice, an uninterrupted prevented of that prevailed under the successors political anarchy in the Roman Heraclius from ruining ; empire society of while the arbitrary judicial provincial governors, power secure, in the dominions of the caliphs, rendered propertyinand undermined national wealth. There
was

likewise another feature in the Eastern The


number of towns

Empire
was

which deserves notice.

and theywere more generally populous very great, would than the political lead us to state of the country of the urban expect. Indeed, to estimate the density
with the extent of territory in comparison population, from which it apparently derived its supplies, must we compare it with the

actual condition of Malta

and

Lombardy and Tuscany in the middle ages. This density of population, to joined in the price of the produce the greatdifference of the soil in various places, afibrded the Roman government the of taxafrom itssubjects amount tion an power of collecting in modem times,except in Egypt.^ unparalleled The whole surplus drawn of society were annually profits
or Guernsey,

with the state of

meroial importance, in the eeyenth century. The conqueredRomans were bound to their corporations by their own law,to which they dung, and ahnost serfs of their corporations to the trades of their fathers;for the Romans were before serfdom was extended by their conquerors to the soil. Compare God. Theodot. lib.x. t. 20, 1. 10, with Cod, Juaiin. lib. xi. t 8, and lib.xi x. 8. One of the three ambassadors Al Rashid was sent by Charlemagneto Haroun a Jew. He was doubtless charged with the commercial businesa ^ The peculiarities in Egypt, which enabled the goTemment of Mehemet of two All to extract about two millions sterling from a population annuiJly the following millions of paupers, were : The in the produceof the surplus country makes the priceof the immense quantity producedin Upper Egypt Gk)yemment either imposea tax on the produce Teiy low. can, consequently, of the upper country equalto the difference of priceat Siout and Alexandria, lees the expense of transport, constitute itselfthe sole master of the or it can the Nile, and make a monopoly both of the right and on of purchase transport The expense of transport is trifling, of freight. carries a loaded as the stream

OPINIONS

ON

BYZANTINE

HISTORY.

into the coffers the inhabitants only of the state, a book leaviDg Ch. bare sufficiencj for perpetuating the race of tax-payers. shows indeed, History, the labourer
of the
to

t.

1.

1 1.

that the

from classes, agricultural

the

landlord, were

unable

to

retain possession

that depreciation to replace sayings required which time is constantly in all rested capital, producing and that their numbers gradually diminished. After

the accession of Leo

III.,a

new

condition of

is soon society

apparent; and thoughmany old political eyilscontinued to exist, it becomes evident that a greater
of personal for as well as greatersecurity degree liberty, henceforth guaranteed of the to the mass was property, inhabitants of the empire. Indeed,no other gOTernment of which history has preserved unless it be the records, that of China,has secured equal to its subjects advantages and of for so longa period.The empires of the caliphs Charlemagne, though historians have celebrated their cannot, in their best days, praises loudly, compete with the administration organised by Leo on this point ; and continued both sank into ruin while the Byzantine empire to flourish in full vigour.It must be confessed that of different picture eminent historians presenta totally of it to their readers. Voltaire speaks history Byzantine
as a

dis* of declamation and miracles, worthless repertory

Even the sagacious bon, Gibmiud.^ to the human graceful with justpride the extent of his after enumerating
boat while the north wind drives an empty one down the river, up steadily of a locomotive engine. The againstthe current, almost with the regularity nature havingconstructed in this manner, all the advantagesof a railway, Nile offers, the locomotive power ; while a monopoly of the road, and supplied their use is vested in the hands of every tyrant who rules the country. Mecreated an almost universal monopoly in with this, hemet Ali, not content at favour of his government. The whole produceof the country was purchased of perpetuating the cultivator beingonly allowed to retain the means a tariff price, in the and the density of population of towns his class. The number which of se* of immense amount the from ages capital arose Byzantineempire and from its cultivation as gardencurityhad expended in improving the soil, Both these facts are easily proved. Und with the spade and mattock. " With this remark, the records note 1. xv. Le PyrrhomUme de Cffittoire, chap. which witnessed the rise and fallof the Caliphsand the Carof an empire, ** J*6terai aax natiom U bandeau dismissed by one who exclaimed, are

loringians,
di terreur.'*

10
''

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

I should hare labours^ adds, From these considerations,

^'''^'

without regret the Greek slaves and their that the fate of the servile had I not reflected historians, abandoned
is passively connected with the most Byzantine monarchy and important revolutionswhich have changed splendid ^ tory, histhe state of the world/' The views of Byzantine in unfolded in the following pages, are frequently direct opposition to these great authorities. The defects and vices of the political noticed, system will be carefully but the splendid achieyements of the emperors, and the ments, establishand ecclesiastical great merits of the judicial will be contrasted with their faults. into divides itself of the Byzantine history empire three periods, marked by distinct characteristics. strongly with the reign of Leo III. The firstperiod commences

The

in 716, and terminates with that of Michael III. in 867. It of the of the predominance the whole history comprises

and of the reaction Iconoclasts in the establishedchurch, It opens with which reinstatedthe orthodox in power.
of the empire people law and the Christian religion from the saved the Roman Saracens. It embraces a long and violent conquering the between the government and the people, struggle hilating to increase the central power by anniemperors seeking of priand even the right vate every local franchise,

the eflforts by which Leo and

the

opinion, among

their subjects. The contest

ing concern-

from tlie prevalence of ecclesiastical image-worship, of this struggle. became the expression Its object ideas, to consolidatethe supremacy of the imperial was as much of the church. The the practice as to purify authority, emperors wished to constitute themselves the fountains of ecclesiastical as completely as of civillegislation.

The

long and bloodywars


character of the

vehement

and the period, who filled the sovereigns of this

Dtclme

and

xlviii FaU, cfaiap.

12

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK ^'"

I.

tioch and

Edessa

were

reunited

to

the

empire. The

' ^'

and the Danube Bulgarian monarchy was conquered, became againthe northern frontier. The Sclavonians in Greece were almost exterminated. Byzantine merce comand legitimated filledthe whole Mediterranean, of to the title the claim of the emperor of Constantinople Autocrat of the Mediterranean sea.^ But the real glory consists in the power of the law. of this period Respect the administration for of justice more society pervaded than it had ever done at any preceding period generally of the history of the world fact which our greatest a in historianshave overlooked, thoughit is all-important the history of human civilisation. The third period of Isaac I. extends from the accession in 1057, to the conquest of the Byzantine (Comnenus) This is the true in 1204. empireby the Crusaders, of the decline and fallof the Eastern Empire. It period commenced by a rebellion of the great nobles of Asia, who effectedan internal revolutionin the Byzantine empire the administration out of the hands of by wrenching well-trained oflBcials, and destroying the responsibility created by systematic A despotism procedure. supported ruined the scientificfabric influence soon by personal which had previously The upheldthe imperial power. were over groundto the earth by a fiscalrapacity, people which the splendour of the house of Comnenus throws a thin veil. The wealth of the empire its was dissipated, the administration of justice rupted, corprosperity destroyed, and the central authority lost all control over the when a band of 20,000 adventurers, masked population, as crusaders, put an end to the Roman empireof the
"

East. In the
^

and eighth
De Porpbyr.

ninth centuries the


Them. ii. 27
Aia

empire Byzantine
Kavrayrufov'

Constant

"

rh riv AvroKparopa

TToXcooff 6akafTax)KpaTtiv ^UxpirSuf

Koi ndarit rtjsh^ rriXoiV 6fiov 'HpcucKtof

VARIOUS

NATIONS

IN

THE

EMPIRE.

13

from the booki. differing there ^^^^^' Greeks in language and manners* Even in religion and many of the to separation, a was strong tendency heresies noticed in history assumed a national character,

continaed

to

embrace

many

natioDs

while the orthodox church circumscribed itselfmore


more

and

within the

its ecumenical

of the Greeks,and forfeited nationality included characteristics.The empire still

within its limits Romans, Greeks,Armenians,Isaurians, and Gallo Grecians. Lycaonians, Phrygians, Syrians,
-

The greatThracian race, which had once been inferiorin number only in the first and which, to the Indian, century of our era, had excited the attention of Vespasian by the
extent

of the

it occupied, almost disappeared.^ had now territory The countryit had formerly inhabited was surrived population in the towns,

peopled by
while the
race

ished Vallachian and Sclavonian tribes. A dimin-

Greek and Roman from


Mount

ruled as a Turkish tribe, Bulgarians, Hemus


to

the dominant The

the

Danube.

range of Mount

Hemus

formed generally
its mountain

the

Byzantine
were

frontier to

the north, and

passes

Sclavonian colonieshad garrisons.^ guarded by imperial established themselves over all the European provinces, and had even The into the Peloponnesus. penetrated above the passes in the military government of Strymon, formed to prevent the was plainof Heraclea Sintica,

country to the south of Mounts


from

Orbelos and

Skomios

Sclavonian province. an becoming independent The provincial divisions of the Roman empirehad fallen into oblivion. A new geographical arrangement into Themes appears to have been establishedby Herawhen he recovered the Asiatic provinces from the clius, Persians : it was reorganised by Leo, and endured as
* v. 823. Herodotus, v. 3. Eustathius Thess.,Comm. in Dionys, PerUgetemy The connection between the Vallachian and Thracian races is noticed in the second yolume,p. 277. ' The was only ceded to the country within Mount Hemus, called Zagora, in the reignof Michael IIL 102. SyCont.,Scrip, Bulgarians pat Tkeoph., 440. meon Cedrenus, i. 446 ; ii.541. Log.,

14

ICOKOOLAST

PBBIOD.

BOOK

I.

ciLML

The number of government.^ Byzantine ji^gm^gyaried at diflferent stantino The Emperor Conperiods. about the middle of Porphyrogenitus, writing the tenth century, counts sixteen in the Asiatic portion of the empire, and twelve in the European. in Asia Seven great themes are particularly prominent the Thrakesian, tolic, the AnaMinor,^ Optimaton, Opsikion, the Bukellarian, the Kibyrraiot, and the Arraeniae. In each of these a large force was military permanently under the command of the proof a general maintained, vince in and and the the Thrakesian, Opsikion, ; raiot, Kibyr-

long as

the

naval force

was

likewise stationed under its own


of the

officers. The
those Strategoi,

commanders

troops were

called
ordinate sub-

of the navy divisions territorial

Several Drungarioi.

called Tourms, and existed,


were

commands separatemilitary for the defence of

established frequently important passes, traversed by great

lines of communication,called Kleisouras. Several of the ancient nations in Asia Minor still continued to preserve
their national has induced the and this circumstance peculiarities, writers frequently to mention Byzantine divisions of the recognised geographical divided into eight nental conti-

their countryas

empire. The Europeanprovinces were


and five insular
or

transmarine

themes, until the


to

loss of the exarchate of Ravenna


^

reduced the number

The term thema was first diaappliedto the Roman legion.The military the word then called tkemata,and ultimately were garrisoned tricta, by legions, used merely to indicate geographical administrative diTisions. Ducange, was " Ql4"8aarium med. et inf. GracUatU, " 1. Anatolikon, The Asiatic themes were Lyincluding partsof Phrygia, caonia, Isauria, Pamphylia, and Pisidia. 2. Tht jirmeniae,includingPontua and Cappadocia.8. The Thraketian, part of Phrygia,Lydia,and Ionia. 4. the part of and part of Bithyniaand Phrygia. 5. Opiimaton, Opsikion, Mysia, towards the Boephorus. 6. Bukellarion, Galatia. 7. PapfUagonia. Bith3rnia 9. Mesopotamia^ the trifling 8. Chaldia,the country about Trebizond. possessions try of the empire on the Mesopotamian frontier. 10. Eoloneia, the counbetween Pontus and Armenia near Minor, through which the Lycus flows, Neoccesarea. 11. Sebasteia, the second Armenia. Scrip,post TheopK,112. 12. Lyoandos, nia. formed by Leo VI. (theWise) on the borders of Armea theme 18. The Kibyrraiot, Lycia,and the coast of Cilicia. 14. Cyprus. Caria, 15. Samos, 16. The jEyean. Cappadocia is mentioned as a theme. Scrip.
" " " "

LEO

THB

ISAUKIAN,

717-741.

15

twelve. the

Venice

and

of the suzerainty cities. Sardinia independent Leo^s

though theyacknowledged a. d. Naples, Eastern Empire, acted generally as ^^^^


was

lost about the time of

and the circumstances attending its conaccession, quest

by
The

the Saracens

are

unknown.

empireunderwent modifications ; but after the provinces of Epirus, frequent withdrawn from the jurisdiction Greece,and Sicily were of the Pope,and placed under that of the Patriarch of embraced that patriarchate Constantinople by Leo III., the whole Byzantine empire. It was then divided into 52 metropolitan which were subdivided into dioceses, 649 and 13 archbishopricks, in sufiragan bishopricks, which the prelates but were independent {a{noK""i"aXoi), without any sufiragans. There 34 moreover, were, titular archbishops.^

divisions of the ecclesiastical

SECT.

II.

^BBIGN

OP

LEO

IIL

(THE

ISAURUNX

A.D.

717-741."

SaRACEIV
TO AND
"

war

"

SnSOB
"

of

CoSTSTAWTINOPLE
concerning

"

ClBCUMSTANOES Leo
"

FAVOURABLE

Leo's
legal

reforms reforms opposition"

Fables
"

Miutart,
REBELLION

ECCLESIASTICAL Physical

POLICY

"

IN

financial, QrEECS

Papal

phenomena.

When

Leo

was

raised to the

the empire throne, was

threatened with immediate ruin. Six emperors had been


112 ; and Oharsiania, 46. Oenesiut, pott Theopk. theme. The twelve European themes 5. Bellas. 4. Theuaioniea. mon.
Armeniao
were
"

They

had formed

part of the

pdis.

9.

Dprrachium.

10.

2. Macedonict. 3. Str^f1. Thrace. 8. Nico7. CephalleHia. Pelopovnesut. 12. Cherton. 11. Longibardia {CaiahnBi.). JSicilif. 6.

The islands of the Archipelago, which formed the 16th Asiatic theme, were the usual station of the European naval squadron,under the command of a an and their admiral was Drungariof.They are often called Dodekannesos, officer of consideration at the end of the eighth century. TheophaneSfZ^Z. The listof the themes givenby Constantine Porphyrogenitus is traditional, not from official documents. had been conquered by the Axabs Cyprus and Sicily longbefore he wrote. ^ with the index to the Compare Codinus,Notitias Ortxcorum Episeopatvm, first Oriena Christianua, volume of Lequien, * The most complete work on the history of the Iconoclast periodis that of Schlosser, OeswichU der BildenlUrmenaen Kaiser,1812. It is a work of and original research. learning
"

16

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK!,
^'
''

dethroned
* *"

the space of twenty-one years. Of four perished these, executioner,^ by the hand of the public
within after being of sight,^ and obscurity, deprived in the other was onlyallowed to end his dayspeacefully because Leo feltthe imperial a monastery, sceptrefirmly fixed in his own counter Every army assembled to engrasp.'
one

died in

the Saracens had broken out into rebellion. The


and Sclavonians Bulgarians walls of Constantinople ; the

Europe up to the Saracens ravaged the whole of Asia Minor to the shores of the Bosphorus. of the theme Anatothe principal Amorium was city likon.^ The Caliph Suleiman had sent his brother, the conMoslemah, with a numerous quest army, to complete which appeared of the Roman to be an empire, of no extraordinary and Amorium enterprise difficulty, was besieged by the Saracens. Leo, who commanded the Byzantine time to concert the some required troops, To gain operations by which he hopedto raise the siege. the necessary delay, he openednegotiations vaders, with the inthe conclusion and,under the pretextof hastening of the treaty, he visited the Saracen general in engaged with an escort of only the siege 500 horse. The Saracens invited to suspend their attacks until the decision were
of Moslemah
"

wasted

who

was

at the head of another division of


"

the Mohammedan

army

could be known.

In

an

view inter-

which took of

with the bishop bitants inhaand principal place to the profiered Amorium, relating terms, Leo and defence, of

contrived to exhort them to continue their

The besiegers, succour. theless, neverspeedy forward their approaches. Leo, after his pressed interview with the Amorians, proposed that the Saracen should accompany him to the headquarters of general
Tiberias III. (Apsimar), Justinian II., Leontius, Philippicus. Anastasius II. " Theodosius III. * Amorium at the ruins called Hergan Kaleh. was Researches in Hamilton, Asia Minor,I 452. Leake's Tour in Asia Minor,86.
*
"

assured them

LBO'S

DIFFICULTIES.

17
an

Moslemah.
raent

The Saracen
would

agreedto readily
to

arrange-

a. d.

which

enable him

deliver The

so

a important

717-741.

to hostage

the commander-in-chief.

wary

Isaurian,
made which

who well knew that he would be his plan of


a

escape. On

had watched, closely from a narrow defile, reaching of his own posts

cross

road led to the advanced

drew suddenly

army, Leo his sabre and attacked the Saracens about

his person ; while his

for the who were prepared guards, tile the two thousand hossignal, easily openeda way through of the escort,and all reached the Byzantine cavalry Leo's subsequent military dispositions camp in safety. and diplomatic induced the negotiations enemy to raise the siege of Amorium, and the grateful inhabitants united with the army in saluting him Emperor of the Romans. But in his with Moslemah, he is accused arrangements of

by

his enemies

havingagreed to
own

conditions which

facilitated the further progress of the Mohammedans, in


order to
secure

his
was

march

to
son

On Constantinople. of Theodosius his resigned Golden

this march whom


he

he

met

by the

III.,
crown,

defeated.
a

Theodosius

and retired into

monastery;^ while Leo made

his triumphal
was

entry into the


crowned
on

capital by the
717.

Gate, and

by

the Patriarch in the church of St

Sophia

the 25th of March The

of Leo continued to be one of extreme position The CaliphSuleiman,who had seen one pridifficulty. vate succession succeed adventurer the other in quick on the imperial favourable for throne,deemed the moment the final conquest his of the Christians ; and, reinforcing tinople. brother's army, he ordered him to laysiege to Constanreached its The Saracen empire had now

greatestextent.
Indus

From

the banks of the Sihun and

the

to the shores of

the Atlantic in Mauretania and

^ Theodosius where he was huried in the church ended his lifeat Ephesus, but should bear no inscription of St Philip. He ordered that his tombstone

the woKl

YFEIA"

"Health."
B

VOL.

I.

18

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

Spain,the

order

of Suleiman

were

obeyed. implicitly

gana, of Spainin the West, and of Ferch^2. tjj^ recent conquests and Sind in the East,had animated the Cashgar, that no to such a degree confidence of the Mohammedans difficult.The army Moslemah led appeared enterprise that had the best-appointed was Constantinople against
ever

attacked the Christians warriors. The

it consisted of

sand thoueighty

announced caliph

his intention of

should person with additional forces, resistance the capital of the Christians offer a protracted
the field in taking
to the arms

of Islam.

The

whole and

have

employedone
if it be

hundred

and the number

does not

appear

is said to expedition thousand men ; eighty to be greatly ated, exagger-

to include the sailorsof the supposed

fleet,

and

the reinforcements

which

reached the camp

before

Constantinople.^ marched to Moslemah, after capturing Pergamys, where he was Abydos, joined by the Saracen fleet. He the Hellespont, then transported his army across and, inyested Leo sJong the shore of the Propontis, marching The strong walls of in his capital both by land and sea. the engines of defence with which Iloman Constantinople,
and Greek art had covered the ramparts,and the skillof the Byzantine rendered every attempt to carry engineers, the placeby assault hopeless, that the Saracens were so
to trust to the effect of a strict blockade for compelled of the city.They surrounded their possession gaining and strengthened it with a strong camp with a deepditch, then sent out large detachments to dyke. Moslemah collect forage and destroy the provisions, which might otherwise find their way into the besieged city. The
* De Adm. Imp. cliap. 21, p. 74, with. Compare Constantine Porphyrogenitus, der Ckalifenf i.566^^571, note, and Price,Makommedan Empire, Woil, GeschicJtte

i. 518.

enable us to estimate the credit due to the Western These numbers chronicles concerningthe plunderingexpedition into France, of Abd-el- Rahman which was Paulus Diaconus, lib. vi. chap. 47, defeated by Charles MarteL thousand Saracens perishedduring the siege of says that three hundred

Constantinople.

20

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

the on encampedbefore Constantinople besiegers Suleiman died before he ch^2. igjjjAugust 717. The Caliph
BOOK
I.

The

was

send any reinforcements to his brother. The The country all round winter provedunusually severe.
to

able

remained Constantinople many weeks.^


The

covered with

deep

snow

for

greater part of the horses and camels

in the camp of Moslemah perished ; numbers of the best died accustomed to the mild winters of Syria, soldiers,

from

to take the requisite having neglected precautions of procuring northern climate. The difficulty a against

food ruined the


were

of the troops. These discipline death of increased by the untimely In the


mean

tunes misfortlie admiral,

Suleiman.
of

time,Leo

and

the inhabitants

having made the necessary Constantinople, for a longsiege, rity. passedthe winter in secupreparations A fleet, fitted out at Alexandria, brought supplies Four hundred transports, escorted to Moslemah in spring. sailed past Constantinople, and, entering by men-of-war, the Bosphorus, took up their station at Kalos Agros.^ Another fleet, almost equally after numerous, arrived soon and anchored in the bayson the Bithynian from Africa, coast.^ These positions rendered the current a protection of t he the o f ople. Constantinagainst fireships garrison
in great were transports and the weak condition of part composedof Christians,
crews new

The

of the

Moslemah's army filled them with fear. Many conspired the boats of their respective to desert. Seizing vessels

numbers escaped to Constantinople, duringthe night, where theyinformed the emperor of the exact disposition of the whole Saracen force. Leo lost no time in taking of the enemy'sembarrassments. advantage Fireships
love of the Theophanes, 882, and NicephorusPat 85, with the ordinary covered the ground for a hundred days. marvellous, say the snow ' and not a place in Bithynia, as Lebeau, xii. 118, and Schloaser, Buyuk*der6, 151, infer from NicephorusPat. 35. See Ducange, Comt. C%rt"r. 177 ; and De Bosph.Throe, ii.chap, zviii. p. 801. Gyllius, ' 882, says this fleetconsisted of 860 transports. It anchored Theophanes, at Satyros, and Kartalimen. Bryas,
*

SARACEN

WAR.

21

were

sent with

favourable wind

while Greek
was

of ships

war,

the transports, a d. among furnished with engines for throwing'^^J^-

increased the confusion. This bold attack fire, and a part of the naval force of the successful,
was

Saracens

Some destroyed.
were

fella ships
some

prej to the
were

flames, some

driven

on

shore,and

tured capwas

hj
now

the

Byzantine squadron. The

blockade

dyingfrom in plenty were want, while the besieged living ; but the Saracen obstinately in maintaining of persisted possession his camp in Europe. It was not until his foraging parties and all the beasts of burden cut off, were repeatedly
at
an were

end, for Moslemah's troops were

consumed

as

food,that he consented
were

to

allow the

standard of the

to Prophet

retreat before the Christians.

The remains of his army


the and fleet,
on

embarked of

in the relicsof

the 15th

August 718, Moslemab

of the finestarmies the after ruining one siege, Saracens ever in a assembled, persisting by obstinately The troopswere landed at Prohopeless undertaking.^ and marched back to Damascus, through Asia connesus,

raised the

Minor;

but

the fleet encountered

violent storm

in

The dispersed passing throughthe Archipelago. ships and so many were pursuedby the Greeks of the islands, that onlyfive of the Syrian lostor captured were ron squadreturned home.

Leo's defence of Constantinople detailsconcerning military have been preserved, but there can be no doubt that it was of the most brilliant of a one exploits warlike age. The Byzantine to every army was superior fortresses. The Roman other in the art of defending have supplied in their best days, could probably arsenals,
Few
no

scientificor

mechanical contrivance unknown Leo's army,


for
we

to

the

corps of

of engineers

must

recollect

^ Theophanee, 884. Nicepborua Pat 85, however, says the si^e lasted accounts The Mohammedan report, that of the one hundred thirteen months. who oomposed the expedition, and eighty thousand men onlythirtythousand returned.

"22

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

that the

and practice of these engieducatiou, discipline, in uninterrupted succession perpetuated

chm^2. jj^pg

jjj^jijggQ

from the times of

Trajanand

Constantine. science

We

are

not

to estimate the decline of mechanical

by

the de*

of gradation and
was

art, nor by the decayof military power in the field.^ The depopulation of Europerendered soldiers
rare

dear,and

armies

considerable part of the Byzantine of foreign mercenaries. The army composed


a

thoughfar inferior in number to that of Mosskill; while in discipline and military lemah,was its equal the walls of Constantinople with engines were garnished in from the ancient arsenals of the city, far exceeding
of Leo,
power and number any with which the Arabs had been The vanity in the habit of contending. of Gallic writers has the success of Charles Martel over a plundering magnified Arabs into a marveUous of the Spanish expedition and attributed the deliverance of Europe from victory, the Saracen yoke to the valour of the Franks. A veil has been thrown the talents and courage of Leo, a who soldierof fortune, throne, justseated on the imperial
over

defeated the Welid caliphs have


the
no

schemes long-planned and Suleiman.

of

conquest of the
we

It is unfortunate that

Isaurian literature. and the state of II. and Yesid

The

of Moslemah*s army, catastrophe the reigns of Omar caliphate during enabled


to

relieved the empire from all immediate II., Leo the


was

and danger,

carried on for some languidly from expelled gradually years, and the Saracens were In the most of their conquestsbeyondMount Taurus. embarrassed bellions, by seditions and reyear 726, Leo was caused by his decrees against image-worship.
war was
was

and army invasions. The

pursue his schemes for reorganising future his dominions against defending

in the time of ConBtantius, obelisk at Rome a.d. 857"that the largest was It stands at St John Lateran, and is said to from Alexandria. transported weigh 445 tons. (?) Sir Gardner Wilkinson makes the greetobelisk at Kamak il 145. weigh less than three hundred touB." Modem Egypt and T/iebe$,

It

DEFEAT

OF

SID-AL-BATTAL,

A.D.

739.

28

and sent two powerful a. d. opportunity, armies to inyade the empire. Csesarea was taken by 7i7|74i. Moslemab ; while another army, under Moawyah,pushing Leo was well pleased to Nicaea. to forward,laid siege their resources in attacking see the Saracens consume a distant fortress; but thoughtheywere before repulsed oflf Nicsea,they retreated without serious loss, carrying immense excursions of the plunder. The plundering Arabs were renewed by land and sea. In one frequently
of these off
an

Hescham

seized the

the celebrated Sid-al-Battalcarried expeditions, individual who was set up by the Saracens as a the
under throne, Byzantine
son

to pretender

that the pretext Two


sons

he

was

the Tiberius,

of Justinian II.

of

of the than once at the head more caliph appeared In the year 739, the Saracen forces armies. inyading ponredinto Asia Minor in immense numbers, with all their early Leo,who had taken the command of energy. the Byzantine by his sou Constantine, army, accompanied

the

whose great fame rendered marched to meet Sid-al-Battal, him the most dangerous A battle took place at enemy.

Acromon, in the Anatolic theme, in which the Saracens


were

but

defeated. The valiant Sid, the most nowned retotally the field; on championof Islamism^perished has filled the fame of his exploits many volumes of
romance,

Moslem hundred

and

furnished

some

of the tales that

have adorned

three of the Cid of Spain, the memory of Leo.^ The Western years after the victory

Christians have robbed the


in every way.
was caliphate

Byzantine empu:e

of its glory

After this defeat the Saracen power ceased until the energy of the to be formidable to the empire, revived

administration of by the vigorous

the Abassides.
* Acrolnon doubtless at Sid-el-aba2d, nine hours to the south of Eskiwas is stillshowu." shehr (Dorylaeum), where the tomb of Sid-al-Battal-el-Ghazi I 638, calls the hero Leake, Afia Minor, 21. Weil, GetchiehU der Chalifen, " calls him Abd Allah ; while d'Herbelot, Batthal," BiblwtUqueOrientaU,voce See also Hammer, Abu Mohammed. Theophimes, 345, calls him simplyBarak, i. 60, 872. UiiUnrt dt V Empire Ottoman,par Hellert,

24

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

BOOK

I.

Leo's victories over


But the

the Mohammedans

were

an

indiswhich its

pensable stepto ohj^2.


rendered his
most

the establishment of his


in Roman

rity. authopersonal
are history,

measures new

of administrativewisdom
era

a reign

virtues, ordinary and of talents common in every age ; but the ability to in accordreform the internal government of an empire, ance with the exigencies of society, can onlybe appreciated by those who have made the causes and the progress of national revolutions the object of longthought. The intellectual of Leo may be estimated by superiority of sovereigns in the presentcentury to the incompetence of society. availed meet new Leo judiciously exigencies
the result of himself of many circumstances that favoured his reforms. The inherent vigour and which is nourished by parochial of bound together the remnants municipal responsibilities, the free population in the eastern Roman and empire, in resisting domination. The operated powerfully foreign universal respect felt for the administration of justice, and the general deference paidto the ecclesiastical blishment, estathe with inspired inhabitants energies wanting in the West. that Civilisation was so generally diflPiised, the necessity the civiland ecclesiastical of upholding bunals, triand the channels of defending
a

His

feature in important were exploits military

the annals of the human

race.

commercial

course, inter-

in every people to the central administration, province by the strongest ties of interest and feeling. The oppressive of the court of Constantinople authority had been much weakened by the anarchy that prevailed the empirein the latter part of the seventh throughout

reunited

powerful body of

the

century. The
inundate the

government had

been

no

able longer

to

with those bands of officials who provinces had previously consumed the wealth of the curia ; and the local authoritiesin each city had been compelled to for its defence by assuming provide powers hitherto re-

CIECUMSTANCES

PAVOUEABLB

TO

LEO.

25

officers. These new duties had ina. d. imperial 7i7-74i. and developed the people with new unexspired vigour, of fiscal pected talents. The destructive responsibility
seired to the

guarantees,and
which of industry its

the restrictions on

individual action

by

the administration of from subjects,

Rome imperial the senator


to

fettered the

the ticket-

when the Western Empire fella lightened prey to foreign conquerors, and when the Eastern became filledwith foreign colonists.^ The curiales and the cor-

porter,were

at lastrelievedthemselves [K"rations

from the
a

attempt of

the Roman

in government to fix society

dition, constationary

and tliereliefwas

followed by immediate also made


the

ment. improve-

Troubled times had anxious


A
to

more clergy

than conciliate public opinion


more

favour. official
,

class of bishops the replaced popular satirisedby GregoryNazianzenos.^ The worldly priests influenceof this change for the bishop, was as very great, the defender of the curia, and the real head of the people in the municipality, extensive authority the over enjoyed of the labouring of artisans and the mass corporations the From a judge he gradually population. acquired
power of a civil governor, and the curia became his senate. The ordinary tribunals beingcut oflFfrom direct judicial communication usages with

better and

the supreme
a

local courts, peculiar


arose

in many of the code of Justhe application tinian. restricting provinces and gained force, The

customary law

its unity preseiTed and its priests continued to be guidedby of character, their conwhich preserved of centralisation, nection principles at Constantinople, with the seat of the patriarchate ance of theirlocalresistthe energetic without injuring spirit to the progress of the Mohammedan out power. Throughthe priestthe wide extent of the Eastern Empire, hood local of the served as a bond to connect feelings
* *

orthodox church alone

Compare

Cvd, Tkeod, vi.11.

"

and xiv. xxil DeSaecariii, De JSetiatoribus,

v. Carmen, De EptteopU,

150.

26
L

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

^'"*^

with the general interests of the orthodox parish endeared to a Its authority church. was, moreover, from its language being large body of the population national its from Greek, and holj legends embodying and prejudices. as the lives of the Repulsive feelings saints now of the delight appear to our taste,theywere the millions for many centuries. From the earliest periodto the

present hour, the


has been derived

wealth of

most

of the citiesin the East

cation. of commercial communipoints The insane fury of the Emperor Justinian II., and in devastating the flourishing citiesof Ravenna because theywere Cherson,failed to ruin these places, tween commercial intrepots then the greatest of the trade beIndia and Europe. The alarm felt for the ruin the of commerce the Christian world,during throughout and that existed in the last years of the seventh, anarchy contributed much to centuries, early years of the eighth
from their importance as render
even men

contented with the Arm


have

government of Leo,
a

thoughthey may

considered him

heretic.

in the central the other hand, the anarchy prevailing both from much administration had relieved commerce On The mofiscaloppression and many official ment monopolies. the financialburdens of the commercial classeswere of possessall the advantage lightened, theyexperienced ing enforced of administration a systematic by a justice, fixed legal and consequently they procedure, very naturally became warm of the imperial authority, as, in partisans their opinion, the personal influence of the emperor constituted the true fountain of legal order and judicial solution from dissaved society A fixed legislation impartiality. during many yeara of anarchy. The obscure records of the eighth centuryallow us to discern throughtheir dim considerable a atmosphere increase of power in popularfeelings, and they even afibrd some of this new of the causes glimpses energy.

28

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK
ClL
I.

As

long as
with the

Mohammedauism of the fiscalitj

was

in onlyplaced

lision col-

f 1

Roman

goyernment and
were

the intolerance of the orthodox

the Saracens church,

Christian and found everywhere victorious, everywhere in the provinces allies theyinvaded. But when anarchy and misfortune had destroyed the fiscal power of the state, and weakened the ecclesiastical intolerance of the clergy, of comparison between the governments of a new point tention. the emperors and the caliphs itself to the atpresented administered in The question, how justice was the ordinary relations of life, became of vital interest. The code of Justinian was comparedwith that of the Koran. and bishops The courts presided over by judges
were

compared with
which
arose

those of the Moolahs. in the breasts of the

The

victions con-

of subjects

the The
as

the Byzantine emperors changed


torrent

current of events.

of Mohammedan Roman law


was

conquestwas

and arrested,

long as

and empire, the administered under proper control in the provinces, invaders of the Byzantine unsuccessful. were everywhere territory The inhabitants boasted with a justpride, that theylived under the systematic rule of the Roman and not under the arbitrary law, power.^ sway of despotic Such was the state of the Roman when Leo empire commenced his reforms. to exWe amine must now proceed what history has recorded concerning this great

cultivated in the

reformer.

Leo

was

born

at

of Armenia Minor, Germanicia, a city


near was

in the mountains

the borders of

and Cappadocia the

Syria.2Germanicia
*

taken

and by the Saracens,

mula, confession of faith in a certain forthe coronation oath in'Codinus, De OJkiisConpl. with CorptuJuri*Civ. Cod. L xiv. 4 and 5; Boiiliea, chap,xvii., ii. De Adm, Imp. p. 64, edit. also Constantino Porphyrogenitus, YL 9 and 10; see Band ; iii. 84, edit. Bonn, and the Ecloga of Leo. III. Leunclaviiia and Freher, Jus GrcBCO'Romanum, i. 178,ii.83, tit.ii " 4. ' The family of Leo, being neither Greek nor Roman, was regarded by these nations as foreign. The Isaurians appear to have been the subjectsof the

Every emperor
Kara

was
"

bound to make

t6

ii. Compare Genesius, i'SiifAdv.

FABLES

CONCBRNING

LEO.

29
to

with their son parents of Leo emigrated

Mesembria

in

A.D.

Thrace.

They were persons of sufficientwealth to make the Emperor Justinian II. a presentof five hundred he was to regainpossession as of his sheep^ advancing throne with the assistance of the Bulgarians. This welltimed gift the gained young Leo the rank of spatharios, favour of the tyrant, and a high command the on personal Lazian frontier. His prudence and courage raised him, the reign of Anastasius II., to the command of the during
Anatolic theme.
of his life, unknown to the early history historians, Theophanes and Nicephorus, though both these orthodox became notice then fables
to
as

^^"^^^'

But

another

writers

were

his bitter enemies in after times, and

and

tractors, de-

current

deserves

fed

of the taleswhich us with a specimen presenting the mental appetite of the Greeks.^ Some fortunes his
owe

his life and concerning

their existence

were religious opinions regarded us, in all probaby the Greeks. They supply bility, with a correct portraiture of the popular mind, but do not furnish us with accurate materials theycertainly and miracles for Leo's biography.Prodigies, prophecies, believed. Restricted communications were universally education were to an and neglected society conducting infantine dotage. Every unusual event was said to have revelation ; and as the been predicted by some prophetic of futurity belief in the prescience universal, was public the found acting deceivers and self-deceiverswere always It is said to have been foretold to part of prophets. Leontius that he should ascend the throne, by two monks

the aversion with which

empire who
Armenians

share of their origiDal bad retained the greatest nationality.The and Syrians, were always regarded as strangers though numerous, BUt. rather than hereditary subjects. Theophanes, 327, 330, and Anastasius, considered himself an Armenian, to have 128, call Leo a Syrian. He seems
^

and he married

his daughter to an Armenian. to calumniate Leo, with 336, who has no objections Compare Theophanes, the later writers,Cedrenus, 450 ; Zonaras,ii 103 ; Const Manasses,86 ; Glyoac^ 280 ; Leo Gramm., 178,edit. Bonn.

30

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

BOOK

I.

and

an

abbot.^
to

The

restoration of Justinian
was

II. had

^'"*^

exile, by a hermit of Cappadocia.^ had it revealed in a dream, Philippicus him, while he


in that he
was

been announced

to

become emperor

; and

he

was

banished

Tiberius II.

when (Apsimar),

this vision became

bj publicly

known.^

It is not, therefore, wonderful that Leo should have been honoured with communications from the other from his world; though, as might have been expected heretical of his historians, orthodoxy these communications are represented to have been made regions. by agentsfrom the lower rather than the higher A circumstance which it is believed had happened to the CaliphYezid I.,proved most to the satisfactorily Greeks that Satan often transacted business publicly by and opinions, the
means

of his agents on

earth.

Two

Jews

"

for Jews

are

selected by as generally of the demon themselves to the caliph claiming ^presented the gift of prophecy.They announced that,if he should put an end to the idolatrousworship of images his dominions, fate had predestined him to throughout for forty rich and flourishing a reign empire. years over Yezid was of pleasure and a bigot, a man so that the was prophecy peculiarly adaptedto flatterhis passions. The images and pictures which adorned the Christian churches were and destroyed the torn down throughout dominions. But Yezid was caliph^s carrying occupied
the orthodox the fittestagents
"

his decree into execution when

he died.

wyah II., soughtthe Jewish of darkness concealed them from his search, and prince them into the heart of Asia Minor, where transported theyhad new services to perform. A young man named his Conon, who had quitted native mountains of Isauria to gainhis living as a pedlar
1 " "

His son, Moain vain. The prophets

807. TheophaDes,

Pat. Nicephorus

25.

Theophanea, 813. Ih. 811,319.

FABLES

CONOEBNING

LEO.

SI

in the wealthier plains, drove his ass, laden with merchanfounto a grove of evergreen oaks near a bubbling dise,
to seek tain, rest

a. d.

7i7-74i.

and count the heat of the daj, during his recent gains. The ass was turned loose to pasture in the littlemeadow formed by the stream of the fountain, and Conon sat down in the shade,by the chapel of St Theodore, to eat his frugal meal. He soon ceived perlike himself, travellers resting and enjoying two their noontide

repast. These

travellers entered

into

conversation with young Conon, who was a lad of remarkable and intelligence. They allowed the strength, beauty,

fact

to

that they transpire

were

and Jews, prophets

who had recently the court of the astrologers, quitted awakened at Damascus, which very naturally in caliph the mind of the young pedlar his future a wish to know for he may have aspired at fortune, becoming a great The two Jews readily or a rich banker. post-contractor satisfiedhis him

and, to curiosity,
that he
a

his utter

formed inastonishment,

was

destined to rule the

Roman

empire. As

the prophets proof of their veracity, declared that theysought neither wealth nor honours for but they Conon to promise themselves, conjured solemnly

that,when
to the

he ascended

the

he would put an end throne,

which disgraced in the East. idolatry Christianity If he engaged to do this, they assured him that his the will of Heaven would bringprosperity to fulfilling himself and to the empire. Young Conon, believing had revealed the will of God, pledged that the prophets himself to purify the Christian church ; and he kept when he ascended the throne as Leo the this promise, But as the prophets had made Isaurian. no tion stipula-

creed,and their Leo out the true faith, interest in Christianity pointed of ingratitude, did not consider himself guilty when, as
for the free exercise of their
own

the persecuted severity. greatest

emperor, he

Jewish

with religion

the

32
I.

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

histo* bj which the later Bjzantine Leo*s hostility This j^j^jjg to image-worship. explain caj^s. of the adventure appearedto them a probable origin
BOOK

Such is the fable

reforms which ecclesiastical

characterise Leo's domestic Hellenic


into
an

policy.In
the

the

bright days of
woven

such genius, tale ;

materials would have been

immortal

of St Theodore, its fountain, and itsevergreen chapel Jews his ass with the two unearthly oaks,Conon driving mortal imin the shade,would have formed a picture reclining in the minds monks ignorant and of millions ; but in the hands of it sinks into a chroniclers, purblind narrative. dull and improbable it is almost as difficult to ascertain the Unfortunately, and executive acts by which Leo reformed legislative precise the military, and legal financial, administration, account of hisecclesiastical as it is to obtain an impartial
measures.

establishmentof the empire had gradually military of relost its national character, from the impossibility cruiting The
the army the soldier's son the artisan was
to his

from among Roman citizens. In vain fettered to his father's as was profession,

bound
have

to

his

estate.^ Yet
to

and the procorporation, prietor the superiority of the Roman

armies

seems

suffered littlefrom

the loss of

national

as as long spirit,

strict maintained was discipline

in their ranks.

For many centuries the majority of the drawn from the forces consisted of conscripts imperial lowest ranks of

almost

from the rude mountaineers of society, hired as or from foreigners independent provinces, from the yet the armies of all invaders,

mercenaries ;
^

The tendency of Roman able. to castes is remarkdespotismto reduce society Cod. Theod. vii.zxii. R. This feeling be traced to the last days of may the Byzantine power. Gemistos Plethon, in the projects of reform at the of the fifteenthcentury, by which he hoped to save the Peloponnesus beginning from the Turks, insists on the separationof the classes of soldiers and taxpayers. See his memorial on the State of the Peloponnesus, addressed to the despot Theodore, at the end of two books of Stobacus, by Canter, published
"

Plantin, printed by Christopher Antwerp,1575,folio, page

222.

MILITABT

BBFOBMS.

33

Goths to the Saracens, were battles. The state maxims

of the emperor from the after the loss of the provinces

defeated in pitched a. d. repeatedly which separated the servants 7i^-74i in survived the Eastern people,

Western,and served

as

the

basis of the reformed


were

of the Byzantine when policy military empire, Leo.


The

by

conditions of soldierand citizen

The law prevented the citizen incompatible. from assuming the position of a soldier, and watched with the rights jealousy any attempt of the soldier to acquire and feelings of a citizen. An barrier was impassable between the proprietor of the soil, who was the placed and the tax-payer, of the state,who was an after the agent of the imperial power.^ It is true that, lossof the Western armies were the Roman provinces, defender

deemed

recruited from

of the empireto a subjects much greater degree than formerly afterthe ; and that, it became time of Heraclius, to enforce the impossible of the citizen fiscal arrangementsto which the separation from the soldierowed its origin, at leastwith the previous maxims were strictness.^ Stillthe old imperial cherished in the reign of Leo, and the numerous coloniesof Sclaand other foreigners, established in the empire, vonians, ing of seekowed their foundation to the supposed necessity from among the native for recruitsas little as possible These colonieswere governed of agriculturists. population and their most important service regulations, by peculiar of troopsfor the imperial was a number supplying army,

the native

Isauria and

other mountainous

where it districts,

was

' A fixed number of conscripts drawn from each provinceafter the time was of Constantine ; and the proprietors, who were from servingin perprohibited son, had to fiimish conscripts.They were aUowed to hire any freeman, beggar, with youth and strength.When the recruitment beciime stiU or barbarian, the Emperor Valens of the diminished account on more difficult, popuktion, the conscription solidifor each conscript. commuted for a payment of Uurty-siz CW. Tkeod. vii xiii. 7. ' For the Roman Cod, Juit, z. 82, 17 ; to the army, see relating legisUtion zL 48, 18; ziL 88, 2, 4. Dig,zliz. 16, 9, and 18. Colons and serfe were hibited proof public from entering the army even at those periods which calamity the government to admit slaves as recruits. The views of Gibbon dompelled to be modified. (voLiL p. 824, Smith's edit.) require
"

VOL.

I.

34j

iconoclast

pbriod.

difficult to collect any

also supby a land-tax, plied a fixed military contingent.^ Whatever modificationsLeo made in the military tem, sysrevenue

and however
the the troops,

greatwere
army of

the reforms he efiected in


and

of the organisation
mass

of the discipline the population continued in the Byzantine

the

empireto they had


was

be excluded from the

use

of arms,

as

been

in the Roman
cause

times

and this circumstance

which disposition, from the daysof the Goths is made a standing reproach The state of society to those of the Crusaders. dered engenthis the Western opened policy Empire to the by of Charlemagne and the empire to the northern nations,

the

of that unwarlike

Leo^s great merit was, that without any violent change he infused new energy into the political and organised establishment, a force military Byzantine that for five centuries defended the empirewithout acquiring
Normans. army
to

in the state. As the the power of domineering destituteof patriotic it was was feeling, necessary

lessen the influence of its commanders.

This

was

the provinces into themes,appointing a by dividing and grouping of divisionfor each theme, general together stations the various corps of conscripts, in diflferent ject subnations,and hired mercenaries.^ The adoption
done
An anecdote of the time of Theodosius a j). 448,gives a correct idea of II., of the Eastern Empire, the condition of the Qreek population at least until the Phocas. the envoy of Theodosius IL to time of the anarchyunder Priscus, in the Scythianterritory, mentions that, he was addressed in Greek by Attila, in the dross of the coimtry which surprisedhim, as a circumstance a man Latin was the customary language of commimication with foreigners, and few except the slaves brought from Thrace and the coast of lllyria, ever strangers, the Huns. spokeGreek. The man proved to be a Greek who was living among He contrasted his past condition, as a citizen under Uie Roman emperors, with. bis presentposition under Attila. The Roman as a freeman he said, citi^n, because the Roman was compeUed to trust for defence to the arms of others, the use of arms to the citizen. In the time of war, conprohibited sequently, despotism he was a prey either to the enemy or to the mercenary troops of the emperor, while in the time of peace his Ufe was rendered intolerable by and officialinjustice. fiscaloppression Bxc. e Pritei Hutarxii, 190. Corfm" Scrip. Hitt. Byz.pars. L, edit Bonn. ' Leo is said to have had a body of Frank mercenaries in his service during the siege of Constantinopla The authority is too modem to be implicitly relied on." Ck, Arab, 130. Abulpharagius,
"

"

36

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

BOOK

I.

immediate

of superinteudence
over

^'"*^

control special
successors,
so

the treasury ; and this retained by his the finances was duration of the
emperors

that, duringthe whole

the Byzantine empire, their own who


more was

be regarded as may ministers of finance. The grand Logothetes,

the official was minister,

in

nothing reality
central and

than the

for emperor's secretary private Leo unquestionably improvedthe

partment. the de-

while the invasions of the Saracens administration,

cautious in imposing made him extremely Bulgarians burdens on the distant citiesand provinces heavyfiscal tended inof his dominions. But his reforms were certainly and of municipal to circumscribe the authority institutions. The free citiesand municipalities provincial the been intrusted with which had once duty of and collecting their quota of the land-tax, apportioning of burdens of their district, the public were now deprived transferred to this authority. All fiscalbusiness was tors collechad itsown the imperial officers. Each province of the revenue, its own officials to complete charged all the registers of the public burdens,and to verify still Rome statistical details. The traditionsof imperial of information should be reguthat this mass required larly transmitted to the cabinet of the Byzantine perors, emas

at

the birth of

our

Saviour.^

The

financialacts of Leo's

reign, thoughthey show


of taxation levied

that he increased the direct amount from his

improvement subjects, by the general prove nevertheless, which took place in the condition of the

that his reformed system of financial tion administrapeople, the weightof the public burdens. really lightened
il Luke, chap,

t.

1.

in the Analecta

The Book of Accounts or tax tariff of Alexius I., lished puband MontGransa of the Benedictins, Pouget,Loppin,

faucon,Paris, 1688, eni^tlQdj4fUiquumR"UionariumAugu$ti Ccnaris, proves by


its title the uninterrupted transmission of Roman administratiTe traditions. Novel iii of John in Leunclavius,Jus Oraco-Rotnanum, 147. Comnenus Novel vi of Manuel^1 156. MontreuU, HisUnre du Droit ByzatUm^ iii 107.

FINANCIAL

REFOBMS

OF

LEO.

37
a. d.

there Still,
measures census

can

be

no

doubt that the

in Greece and adopted more vas one productive^

of the stringency for rendering the Italy,


of the
causes

^^J^-

of the

rebellions in those countries, for which his Iconoclastic decrees senred as a more honourable war-cry. In Gala* bria and he Sicily
a

added

one-third to the

; capitation

he confiscated to the three talentsand

of the treasury tribute of a profit half of goldwhich had been remitted

time he ordered a to Rome, and at the same annually correct register to be keptof all the males born in his dominions. This last regulation excites a burst of indignation from the orthodox historian and confessor Theo-

who phanes, restrainhis

allows neither his

when bigotry

his memory to the acts of the first recording


reason nor

raoh's He likens Leo's edict to PhaIconoclast emperor. conduct to the children of Israel, and adds that

had never the Saracens, Leo's teachers in wickedness, in his zeal exercised the like oppression forgetting,
"

that the Caliph Abdelmelik had established taxation, against the haratch or capitation of Christians as early the commencement of the reignof Justinian II., as
A.D.

692.1 that earthquake


and many

An

ople, ruined the walls of Constantinand

induced Bithynia, with the treasury for supplying Leo to adopt measures their fund for restoring them, and keeping a special in a state to resistthe Bulgafortifications rians constantly The which and Saracens. revenues municipal citiesin Thrace had
once

upon by to diminish in every way localauthorities. The


care

served for this purpose had been encroached Justinian I.,and the policy of Leo led him the

sphereof

action of all

to which

a duty undoubtedly the centralgovernment required itsdirect to give

of the fortifications was

843. Theophanes,

38
I.

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

BOOK

and attention;
caused

to meet

^"'"^^

by the

calamitous made

extraordinary expenditure of 740, an addition earthquake


to the
census.

the

of one-twelfth was

This

tax

was

because the payment appears to called the dikeratony in the silver coins called have been generally made
two keratia,

the miliaresion, coin which represented one-twelfth of the nomisma, or


of which
were

to equal

"

which diminished the gold Byzant.^Thus a calamity In such burdens. increased the public resources public it seems that a paternal a contingency government and a ing of diminishwise despot oughtto hare feltthe necessity the pomp of the court, of curtailing the expenses of ecclesiastical and of reforming the extravagance pageants, before of the popular of the hippodrome, amusements of the burdens on the suffering new imposing population and charioteersought to have saints, empire. Courtiers, been shorn of their splendour, before the groans of the rious increased. Yet Leo was neither a luxuwere provinces avaricious prince; nor an but, as has been said the monarch can no measure already, despotic wisely burden of taxation.
on provincial spirit

The influenceof the


^

the

legislation

Manaasee, 98. Gljcas, 286, and the words GrcecikOU, It is Oioitarivm Med. et Infimoe is the miliaresion, and which the keration, to determine which very difficult the coins of the lower empire we I possess a medallion of among possess. which weighs 100 grains; a.d. Heradius, and HeraoUus Constantino, 613*641, which weighs another of Ck)nstantine IV. (Pogonatus), in bad preservation, reckoned of which twelve were only 88. These would seem to be miliaresia, Yet some think the silver coin of a smaller size is the to a gold nomisma. miliaresion. Of these I possess two, well preserved, of John I., Zimiskes, and of Basil IL, and Constantino YIIL, a.d. 970-1025, weighing each 44 grains. If the keration was the half of thb piece, the commonest fh"m being once silve^ the rarest. become Of twenty-live coin, it has now gold nomismata in my the heaviest is one of Manuel I., The next is a solia.d. 1 143-1180. possession, in fine preservation, dus of Aelia Yerina,a.d. 457-474, but which weighs only coined out of the nomismata were 684 grains. Seventy-two or seventy-four which contained 5256 Englishgrain" Compare the pound weightof gold, Dm observations of Pinder and Friedlauder in their exoeuent dissertation, MUnsen De Ceremoniis AuIcb ByzantincB, 12, with Const Porphyr., Juttinians,jy. i.459 ; iL 497,edit Bonn. The present rarity of Byzantinesilver is no proof of its being rare formerly.It has been consumed in ornaments and base coin. The gold was preserved medium from Scandinavia by its value as a circulating to India.
845. Theophanea, Constan. and Ktp^Tuwin Duoange's "l)6Ka

leg's "bclooa." of the

89

is strongly marked in the history of juris- a. d. empire which had '^^J^^prudence duringLeo's reign.The anarchy communications between the the official longinterrupted and the capital lent an increased authority to provinces

local usages, and threw obstacles in the way of the administration of justice, to the strict regular according letter of the voluminous laws of Justinian. The consequence
was,
were

that various local abridgments of the law

in and judges, manuals, both by lawyers the provincial where the greatexpense of protribunals, curing
as a

used

its use.

copy of the Justinianean collectionprevented^ Leo published manual of law,which a Greek

in sanction became the primary '^^//" by its official authority all the courts of the empire. This imperial abridgment is called the Ecloga evidence it affords ing concern: some for the state of society and the classes of the people which it was prepared.Little notice is taken of the of the agriculturists rights ing ; the various modes of acquirservitudes omitted are property and constituting The Eclogahas been censured for its imperfections by Basil I., the founder of a legislative who speaks dynasty, of it as an insult to the earlier legislators; yet the orthodox lawgiver, to reject while he pretended every all his imitated act of the heretical Isaurian, servilely of Leo's and precision political plans. The brevity both by the courts of Eclogawere highly appreciated in spite law and the people, of the heterodox opinions of its promulgator. It so judiciously a want long supplied felt by a large of society, tempt that neither the atportion official it by a new of Basil I. to supplant manual, the publication of the great code of the Basilika in nor of the it of value among the jurisconsults Greek,deprived Byzantine empire.^
^ See the works criticism has shed light of Zacharias, whose enlightened on this obscure period Jurii GrcBCO-Romani Delineatio, of hiaXory. "Hiitaria aucL C.B, Zaekanmt 14-41. O' irp6x'iipos Heidelb.,]887" Svo, p. xviil "c. p6imos, Leonis et ComUiniiin, 1852. Ecloga Leipsig,

40
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PBRIOD.

^'^^^

labours of Leo were not circumscribed legislative to the publication of the Ecloga. He seems to have sanctioned various minor codes, by which the regulations in use relating and maritime law to military, agricultural, The collections order. reduced into systematic were under the which are attached to the copies of the Ecloga, heads of military, and Rhodian laws, cannot, agricultural, The
acts of his reign however,be considered as official ; still, to afiFord us a correct idea of the originals theyare supposed he published. Some abstract of the provisions tained conin the Roman was affairs, on legislation military of maintaining rendered necessary by the practice corps of foreign in code A mercenaries the capital. military

likewise rendered necessary, in consequence of the that took place in the old system, as the Asiatic changes
was were provinces

of Saracens.^
exact

bands cleared of the invading gradually rably The agricultural laws appear to be a tole-

of Leo. The work copy of the enactments bears the impress in his time, of the condition of society and it is not that surprising which the title

perpetuated
was are

the merits and

suppressed by

the memory of the heterodox Leo The maritime laws orthodox bigotry.

from aflfording of the a extremely interesting, picture state of commercial legislation in the eighth century,
at the

time when

commerce

and

law saved the Roman

empire. The
not

exact

date of the collection we


commerce, protected

possess is
we

ascertained.

That Leo

may

infer from its

he
or

under his government ; whether reviving a code to sanction or enforce his reforms, promulgated whether the task was completed sors, by one of his succesis doubtful

The

whole

of policy

Leo's

has reign

been estimated
been

reforms. These have by his ecclesiastical and they appear judgedby all historians,
^

severely
en-

to have

HUtcin Montreuil,

du Droit

I 898. BtftatUin,

ECCLESIASTICAL

POLICY

OP

LEO.

41

coQDtered

violentopposition from

The subjects.

of his large portion sufhas preserved genenddissatisfaction


a a

a. d.

^^^"^^''

ficient authentic information to allow of


of the merits and
errors

nation candid exami-

of his policy. Theophanes

considers the aversion of Leo to the adoration of


as

images

in an impious attachment originating His


own

to

the unitarian-

ism of the Arabs. of his

pages,

however,refute some

for he records that Leo persecuted the calumnies, unitarianism of the Jews, and the tendency to it in the Montanists.^ Indeed, all those who differedfrom the of the Trinity, received acknowledgment Christian charity at the hands of the Isaurian, very little who placed of many of his gold, the cross on the reverse and copper coins, and over the gates of his palace, silver, In his Iconoclast as a symbolfor universal adoration. Leo is merely a type of the more opinions, enlightened the superlaymen of his age. A strong reaction against stitions creasing inthe introduced into the Christian religion by the educated of the people, pervaded ignorance who were anxious to put a stop to what mightbe classes, considered a revivalof the ideas and feelings of paganism. into frequent who were The Asiatic Christians, brought
most

orthodox

and with the followers of Mahomet, Zoroaster, collision of to observe that the worship Moses, were compelled

the

common

people among

themselves

was

when sensual,

with the devotion of the infidels. The worship compared and his service transferredto some of God was neglected, human one symbol. The favourite saint was usually whose faults were found to bear some to the analogy to vices of his worshipper, and thus pardon was supposed
* I in his Ektoire du DroU Byzantin, Theophanes,836, 843. Montreuil, the Jews and Montanists from Bonefidius,Jvri$ OrienS48,cites the law against But most of the laws cited by BonetaHs Libri Tre$, and refers to Cedrenus. fidius from Cedrenus wiU be found in Theophanes and the older Byzantine ; and reference writers,not publishedwhen Bonefidius made his compilation

oughtto
to have

be made to these authorities. In this case, what is called a law seems been a series of edicts. Theophanes say" that the Jews submitted to conscientious Montanists the sacraments ; the more bi^tiam and mocked of worriiip. burned themselTes in their places

42

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

BooKL ^'
'"

be obtained for sin


^^

on

easier terms

than

accords with

and rice was rendered more consequently justice, The clergy had yielded to the popular prevalent. rance ignowalls of with covered the churches were ; pictures which were to have wrought miraculous cures ; reported their shrines were enriched by paintings with not made ^ hands ; the superstitions of the people were increased, and the doctrines of Christianity were neglected. Pope in that II., 4 letter to Leo, mentions the fact, Gregory men expendedtheir estates to have the sacred histories

Divine

in paintings.^ represented In
a

time of

reform, and general


as

in

government

where ecclesiastics acted


it was centralauthority,

of the administrativeofficials

the for Leo to permit impossible in ecclesiastical church to remain quiteindependent unless he was prepared for the clergy a affairs, assuming the gradual being supremacy in the state. The clergy, affairs nected cononly class in the administration of public with the peopleby interest and feelings, was of a powerful sure always popular support. It appeared,

therefore, necessary
there
and
was some

to the emperor
out carrying

to

secure

them

as

sincereinstruments in

allhis reforms, wise otherstitute theymightconin Greece people

reason

to fear that

themselves the leaders of the done Asia,as theyhad already the


at

Rome, and

trol con-

the whole administration throughout imperisd did in the ByzanEastern Empire, as completely as they tine in central Italy. possessions

Leo commenced

726, by an

his ecclesiastical reforms in the year in churches to be all pictures edict ordering
to

so high as placed
^

from kissing them, preventthe people

better prove the extent to which saperstition than the assertion of the Patriarch Qermanos, that had contaminated religion and that miracles were daily wrought by the images of Christ and the saints, hand of an image of the Virgin Maiy. beJsam distilled from the painted and Church (Torrey's translation), Neander, History of the CkriitianReligion iU. 206. t Neander, iii. 212.

Nothingcan ^AxuporroirjTO'

"

44
BOOK 1.

ICONOCLAST

PEEIOD.

^'"^^

unnoticed by historians, Leo, to which localcircumstances, and which the edictagainst imageviolence, gave peculiar of all unanimity zeal in favour of and the violence of the popular classes, the and superstitions, their local privileges suggested Greek on the a Leo, and placing hope of dethroning A naval expedition, throne of Constantinople. composed in the Cyclades, of the imperial and attended by an fleet

worshipfanned

into

flame.

The

fitted out was army from the continent, who commanded the capital. Agallianos,
at placed

to

attack the
was Greece,

forces imperial

stationed to watch the Sclavonians settledin the head

of the army destined to assailthe of the new peror emconqueror of the Saracens. The name In the month of April the Greek Kosmas. was It soon appeared Constantinople. in the goodness of their cause, that the Greeks,confiding had greatly valour and strength, overrated their own or the overlooked the resources of Iconoclasts. strangely Leo met the fleet his capital, and completely as it approached with the spirit defeated it. Agallianos, of a hero, when he saw the utter ruin of the enterprise, plunged rather a rmed into than the surrender. Kosmas sea fully with another leader, and immediately taken prisoner, was beheaded. Leo, however, treated the mass of the prisoners with mildness.^

fleet before appeared

Even if

we

admit that the Greeks

able considerdisplayed

we

in attacking the Isaurian emperor, still presumption must of the populous condition acceptthe fact as a proof of the cities and islands of Greece, and of the flourishing

condition of their trade,at a period generally of and wretchedness as one represented poverty. Though the Peloponnesus filledwith Sclavonian emigrants, was
and the Greek
were peasantry

in many

districts excluded

^ and Cedrenus, i.454, Helladtkoi, Tbeophanes,339, calls the iosurgents Had the insurrection been believed to have copiesthe scornful expression.

in religious the originated feeling, surely have regarded the sufferers as martyrs.

orthodox

confessor

would Theophanes

PAPAL

OPPOSITION.

45
a.d.

from the cultivationof the land in the seats of their ancestors, nevertheless their cities then contained the mercantile wealth and influence, which passed some turies cenlaterinto the possession of Venice,Amalfi,Genoa, and Pisa.
The in his

"^^J^'

Leo opposition that persuasion

encountered it was

onlyconfirmed him indispensably necessary to

increase the power of the centralgovernmentin the provinces. As he was the of attached to sincerely opinions the Iconoclasts, he was led to connect his ecclesiastical
reforms with his

political measures,
In order to

and
secure

to

with additionalzeal.

pursue both the activesupport


clude ex-

of all the officers of the

and administration,

allimage-worshippers from power, he convoked an of the senators and calleda silention, assembly, consisting the
in functionaries highest
manner

the church and state. In this

solemn removed

it was

decreed that

imageswere

to be

the empire. throughout In the capital the change met with no serious opposition. The population of Constantinople, of its at every period has consisted of a mixed multitude of different history, Greek nations ; nor has the majority been purely ever for any great length of a of time. Nicetas,speaking time when the Byzantine of its at the height was empire than a Greek city more was power, and when the capital at any preceding declaresthat its or subsequent period, of various races.^ The cause of was population composed the popular was, however, generally image-worship cause, and the Patriarch Germanos steadily resisted every change in the actual practice of the church until that change should be sanctioned by a general council.^ The turn now given to the dispute put an end to the power of the Eastern emperors in central Italy.The Latin provinces before their of the Roman even empire,
from all the churches
^ '

Nicetaa

iL 152. Alexius,

Pat. 88, itytv avv6dov Pyypa"l"ov irirtP NioepboroB ovk cjcri3c/uuu. oUoviigpuajs

46
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

had sunk into deeperignoconquestbj the barbarians, jjj^j^ jjjQ Eastern. Civilisationhad

CHj^a. pj^jj^

penetrated

farther into

society among

the Greeks,Armenians, and

than among the Italians, Gauls,and Spaniards. Syrians with the Constantinopolitan dissatisfied was Italy already reforms roused when Leo^s fiscal and religious domination, local interests and national prejudices to unite in opposing had longbeen his government. The Pope of Rome regarded by orthodox Christians as the head of the church ; even the Greeks admitted his right of inspection in virtue of the supethe whole body of the clergy, over rior the heads of of the Roman see.^ From being dignity the church, the popes became the defenders of the liberties of the people. In this character, leaders of a as lawful
to the tyrannyof the imperial tration, adminisopposition fluence of immense intheygrew up to the possession in the state. This power, havingits basis in democratic feelings and energies, alarmed the emperors, and many attemptswere made to circumscribethe papal But the popes themselves did more nish to dimiauthority.

influence than their enemies, for instead of the people, of remaining the protectors they aimed
own

their

who making themselves their masters. GregoryII., of the the papal chair at the commencement occupied of sound judgment, contest with Leo, was a man as well He availed himself of all as an able and zealous priest. the advantages chief of the of his position, as political and moderation ; nor did he Latin race, with prudence the power he derived from the circumstance that neglect Rome instruction for all the fountain of religious was and ecclesiastical western Europe. Both his political entitled him to make a direct opposition to any position of the emperor of Constantinople, measure oppressive when the edicts of Leo III. concerning image-worship
at

EeeU$, Sozomen, JBitt.

iii ohap. 8.

PAPAL

OPPOSITION

TO

LBO'S

KEF0EM8.

47

the contest, which soon ended a. d. promptedhim to commence in separating central Italy from the Bjzantine empire. 7i7^. of the Eastern in The possessions were Italy emperors stiU considerable; Venice, Rome, Ravenna, Naples, Bari, of well-peopled all capitals and Tarentum and were Venice and wealthydistricts. The province embracing Rome was or exarch who by an imperial governed viceroy resided at Ravenna, and hence the Byzantine possessions in central Italy called the Exarchate of Ravenna. were the orders of the exarch,three governors or dukes the troops in Ravenna, Rome, and Venice. commanded Under
As

province formed a considerable portion irom the Lombards of the of the Italiansexercised the popular force, military feelings influence over the soldiery. The Constantinopolitan some account of the fiscal disliked, on generally governor was of which he was the agent; and nothing but the rapacity dread of greater the part of the Lombards^ on oppression
to

the native militia enrolled

defend the

whom

the Italianshad not the courage to encounter without the assistance of the Byzantine the troops, preserved
in their central Italy

of people the

allegiance. They hated

feared the Lombards. Greeks,but they II. sent Leo strongrepresentations his Gregory against
the

firstedictson

of image-worship, and afterthe subject silentionhe repeated these representations, and entered decided course of opposition to the emperor's on a more ecclesiastical reforms, beingthen convinced that there his heretical opinions. was no hope of Leo abandoning It seems like the rest of the empire, that Italy, had in some from the oppressive burden of escaped degree the anarchy that preceded taxation during Leo's imperial
tinople election. But the defeat of the Saracens before Constan-

had been followed fiscal system. To


was overcome

by the re-establishmentof the opposition made now


and

the
to

the exarch Paul the financialand ecclesiastical reforms, ordered


to

march to Rome

the supportMarinus,

48

ICONOCLAST

PBKIOD.

BOOK
OH.L

I.

|i.

the against burst into papalinfluence.^ The whole of central Italy its civil rebellionat this demonstration against gious and reliinterests. The exarch was compelledto shut himself up in Ravenna ; for the cities of Italy, instead of obeying elected magistrates the imperial of oflBcers, in some their own, on whom they conferred, cases, the of duke.2 Assemblies were held, and the project of title an electing adopted ; but the emperor of the West was unfortunate resultof the rebellionof Greece damped the named courage of the Italians; and though a rebel, in Tuscany, Tiberius Petasius, assumed the purple really who suche was easily defeated and slain by Eutychius, ceeded Paul as exarch of Ravenna. kingof Luitprand, vaded inthe Lombards, taking of these dissensions, advantage of the imperial and gainedpossession territory, of saving Ravenna ; but Gregory, who saw the necessity wrote the countryfrom the Lombards and from anarchy, to Ursus the duke of Venice,one of his warm partisans, and persuaded him to joinEutychius.The Lombards Ravenna defeated by the Byzantine were was covered, retroops, and Eutychius entered Rome with a victorious died in 731. army.s Gregory Though he excited the Italiancities to resistthe imperial power, and approved of the measures for stopping the remittance theyadopted of their taxes to Constantinople,* he does not appear to have adopted for declaring Rome dent. indepenany measures of That he contemplated the possibilityevents lead him to throw off a turn that mightultimately taking his allegiance to the Emperor Leo, is neverthelessevident,
of his letters to that emperor, in which he boasts that the eyes of the West were fixed on very significantly his humility, to injure the and that if Leo attempted
one
1

duke,who found himself unable

to contend

from

The

Latins accused

Leo of

Marinus ordering

to assassinate the pope.

* '
*

De VU. Pont Rom. 69. Anastasius, Ann, Ecdes. xii. 348, No. xxvii Baronii, 838. Theophanes,

PAPAL

OPPOSITION.

49

readyto defend him, and a.i". The allusionto the pro- ^^^^^ to attack Constantinople. eyen and Charles Martel tection of the kingof the Lombards in this case, a treasonable threat on the was certainly, of Rome Besides to his sovereign.^ part of the Bishop this, GregoryII. excommunicated the exarch Paul,and all the enemies of image-worship who were under acting to avoid the guilt the orders of the emperor, pretending of treason by not expressly namingthe Emperor Leo in his Pope,he
anathema.^
Leo
was

would find the West

On

the other

hand, when

we

consider that

to extend the bounds of the imperial fitriving and that his object in an arbitrary was manner, authority the exercise of despotism to sweep away every barrier against must in the church and the state, we acknowledge of Gregory founded injustice, and that the opposition was institutions that he was entitledto defend the municipal and the constitution of the and local usages of Italy, of declaring Romish at the price himself a church, even

rebel
The

election of

confirmed
was

the usual form ; nor that pope consecrated until the mandate from Constantinople This was the last time the reached Rome.

by the

III. to Gregory Emperor Leo in

the

papalchair was

solicited to confirm the election emperors of the East were Leo steadily of a pope. Meanwhile pursuedhis schemes his
measures

of ecclesiasticalreform, and

the

to opposition

III. assembled gathered strength. Gregory at which the municipal a council in Rome, authorities, to circumscribe, whose power Leo was endeavouring were with the nobles ; and in this council the present along excommunicated. whole body of the Iconoclasts was Leo
now

felt that force alone could maintain

Rome

and

1 EitUnre de$ Souveraint Pontifos Bomains, i"r le Chev. Artaud de Montor, i.438. than for historical This work is more remarkable for popish bigofcry Two epistles of Gregory 11. are preservedamong the acts of Uie accuracy. second conncil of Kicsa, yiil 651, 674. * De VU, Pont Bom, 69. 342. Anastasius, Theophanes,

VOL.

I.

60

lOONOOLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK Ch
1.

T.

in their its bishops

IS.

With his usnal energy, allegiance. he despatched of Manes, nnder the command an expedition of the Kibjrraiot the general theme, with orders to send the pope a prisoner to be tried for his to Constantinople, treasonable conduct. the lakeAdriatic, conduct of the Greeks in the imperial and serrice, warm of Ravenna, whose municipal the conrage of the people
A
storm

in the

still enabled them institutions


ner, caused the

to act in an

man* organised

overthrow of Manes. complete

Leo

venged re-

himself for this loss bj of the

see in the eastern papal the ecclesiastical by separating government of southern and Macedonia, from the Greece, lUyria, Sicily, Italy, and placing these countries under the papal jurisdiction, of the Patriarch of Constantinople. immediate authority this time,a.d. 733, the city of Rome From enjoyed the a nd under political independence guidance protection of the Byzantine of the popes ;^ but the officers emperors allowed to reside in the city, administere were was justice publidy and the supremacy of the by Byzantine judges, Eastern Empire was still So completely, ever, howrecognised. III. thrown off his allegiance, that he had Gregory with Charles Martel, in order entered into negotiations to take an active part in to induce that powerfol prince The pope was the affairsof Italy.^ more now a much the Exarch of the than for Ravenna, powerful personage citiesof central Italy, which had assumed the control of

all the estates confiscating of his empire, and provinces

intrusted the conduct of their extheirlocalgovernment, ternal

relations to political

the

care

of

who Gregory,

thus

held the balance of power between the Eastern emperor and the Lombard king.^ In the year 742, while Constantine V
.,

the

son

of Leo, was
on

the Lombards
^ ' '

were

the

eve

with a civilwar, engaged of conquering Ravenna,

AuMtasiuB, I"" ViL P"mL JUm, 74. CUr. Oallio, iL tl ohap. xriiL Bossuet,jirfenM, Pftulus DiAoonos,Ti. chi^ 54.

52

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.
exgradually

BOOK

last a

new

island rose

out of the sea, and

^'"^^

tended itselfuntil it Hieron.^

the joined

older

isletcalled rocky

In the year 740, a terrible destroyed great earthquake the walls of The Constantinople. statue of Arcapart of

and the Xerolophon, the golden statue of Theodosius over gate,were both and thrown down.^ Churches, monasteries, private ruined walls cities in of Thrace : the were buildings many and Bithynia, and Nicomedia, Prsenetus, particularly to require immediate restoration. Nicaea, so injured were as This greatearthquake caused the imposition of the alluded to, termed the dikeration. tax already Leo has been accused as a persecutor of learning. It is by no means that his Asiatic education and impossible rendered him hostileto the legendary puritanical opinions literatureand ecclesiastical art then cultivated by the Greeks ; but the circumstance usually forward in brought column in

the Theodosian dius, on

supportof his barbarism is one of the calumnies invented and re-echoed by orthodox bigotry. He by his enemies,
is said to have ordered of 33,000 library consisting in the neighbourhood of St Sophia's, to be burned, volumes, and the professors of the university to be thrown into the
a

flames.

valuable collection of books


to

seems

to have

fallenaccidentally a prey and


neither his

the flames

Greeks induced the loss.^

the nor liberality them to display any

his reign, during of the public spirit in replacing activity

1 Theopbanee, 889. NicephorusPat 37. This addition to Hieron (Palaia du Voloan de SarUorin, et Phinominet Kamlen^) may stillbe traced, ffistoire 186. Ross, JUiten a^f den GrieohUchen Intdn, L 89. The par I'Abb^ Ptfgues, author is reminded he derived from a visit to by this note of the pleasure Santorin in 1837,with Professor Ross of Halle, a most accompli^ed and profotmd scholar, and Professor C. Ritter, the greatgeographer of Berlin. ' H Christiana, Ducauge, CoHstantinopolis 78, 81. Scarlatos Byzantios,

"

The latter is a work of more than value. pretension Manasses, 87. Schlosser,Oe$ekichte der hUdentHrmenden Kaiter,163. Spanheim, HUtoria Jmaginim Re$tituta, 115. Maimbouig (J7i"toirede VHeresie dcs JeonoclatUs, L 58)believes and magnifies the accounts of

Kavs-ayrtvovnoKis,i. 289.
'

1. Constant

CONSTAKTIKB

V*, A.D.

741-775.

53
a. d.

Leo. III. died in the year 741.

He had crowned his son

Constantine emperor in the year 720, and married him to the daughter of the Khan of the Khazars, in 733. Irene,

^^*'^^^'

fiBOT. HL-CONSTANTINB

T., (COPBONTMUB,) V.
"

AJ).

741-778.

Character
WAR
"

of

Constantinb
WAR

"

^Reseluon

of

Artayasdos
OV THB

"

Saracen
EMPIRE
" "

BULOARIAN
BBQARDINa

InTBRNAL
"

OOin)mOir

POUCT
AT

IMAGE-WORSHIP

PhTBIOAL

PHENOMENA

PlAQITE

CJONSTANTINOPLB.

Constantino throne
at

ascended the V., called Copronymus/ the age of twenty-two,but he had already

borne the title of emperor as his father'scolleague one and twentyyears, for the Byzantine so empirepreserved
the elective of the Roman strictly imperial dignity, tjrpe that the onlymode of securing the hereditary sion transmisof the empire for the reigning was emperor to obtain his son's election during his own lifetime. Historians tellus that Constantine was a man possessing every vice combined with habits and tastes to humanity, disgraceful and which must have rendered his company disgusting his person contemptible. Yet theyrecord facts proving when his and that, that he possessed even great talents, he found many devoted fortunes appeared desperate, fore friends. The obloquy must thereheapedon his name be ascribed to the blind passion inspired by religious and forbearance The not of one charity. bigotry. age was considered freedom of opinion The wisest generally a of anarchy with religious incompatible feeling, species both and good government; consequently, moral duty, of persecuIconoclasts and image-worshippers approved
in spite of the silence of Leo's earlier enemies. tbe later Byzantine chronicles, had been destroyed of 120,000 volumes to Ephrsemius, v. 1007,a library Iliad the and the MS. of the which firein of in was sey, OdysZeno, reign by This MS. was 120 feet long. skm. written with letters of gold on serpent's ^ Constantine received his name of Copronymus from having defiled the to the Patriarch plunged him into the water according font when baptismal the usage of the Greek Chmrch.

Aooordmg

64

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

BOOK
Cv.
I.

and practised tion, calumnyin fayoor of what each the

sidered con-

{ 8.

Constantino tortured the imagogood cause. the themselves by defaming revenged ^they worshippers which rendered Constantino But the persecutions emperor.
"

in the eyes of the Greeks and Italians, of a elevated him to the rank of a saint in the opinion
a

monster

who regarded of the empire, largo body of the population abhoiTont of pictures of idolatry the worship as a species His religious to Christianity. rage, zeal, success, coupolitical with the prosperity that talents, together military all conspired attended his government, to make him the who regarded his tomb as a sacred idol of the Iconoclasts, shrine until it was destroyed by Michael the orthodox

drunkard.^ Constantino ho
was was

and brave able, active, prudent,

but

not

more

tender of human

The Patriarch are. generally him of driving monks from their monasteries, and converting In modern times, sacred buildings into barrack" orthodox papist have frequently done the same sovereigns without exciting much ecclesiastical thing, indignation. But when the Patriarch assures that the emperor's us mind was his name, we may be allowed to as as filthy instead of suspect that his pen is guidedby orthodoxy find grave historians recording truth ; and when we that ho loved the odour of horse-dung, and carried on with old maids,we are reminded of the Byzantine amours in the anecdotes of love of calumny which could delight and believethat the EmperorJustinian was a Procopius, that ho was not ashamed of such diabolical man principles, for many hours of the night to walk about his palace out withof Constantino by his hoad.^ An account of the reign ifhe represented the emperor even Iconoclast, an intelligent
^
'

than monarchs suffering accuses Nicephorus justly

post Tkeophanem, Symeon Log.,449. Scriptoret

Nicephorus Pat 88. ill 80, edit Bonn.

Oeorg.Mon., 541. Hidoria Arcana, t. Koovromrtvor, Suidas, Procopius.

BEBBLLION

OF

ABTAVASDOS.

55

as

would be saint,

one

of the

most

raluable illastrations

a.d.

of the eighth history centurywhich time could hare the practice of inspared He was accused of rejecting it is yokingthe intercessionof the Virgin Mary,though

of the

^^|^

admitted he called her the Mother


said to have denied the

of God.

He

was

also

of any man to be called a right saint ; and he had even the audacity to maintain,that ings, thoughthe martyrs benefited themselves by their suffertheir merit,however great it might be, was not a that could be transferred to others. His enemies quality these opinions crimes.^ Few repuas damnable regarded tations, such an ordeal of however,have passed through malice as that of Constantine, and preserved so many
*

undeniable virtues.
after his succession, Constantine lost possession Shortly of Constantinople the treachery of his brotherthrough

in-law Artavasdos, who assumed


of the keptpossession
was an

the titleof emperor, and years.

throne for two

Artavasdos
the

Armenian

of the Armeniac and aided Leo

troops theme in the reign of Theodosius III.,


the throne. He
was

who had commanded noble,

to mount

rewarded

with the hand of Anna, the Isaurian'sonlydaughter, and with the dignity of curopalates, second only to that of

imperial ing blood. Artavasdos had increased his influence by favouradministrative the orthodox ; his longservices in the highest offices had enabled him to attach many partisans service. in every branch of the public to his personal cause in a civil The manner in which Constantino was engaged
war

rank Csesar, a

then

reserved usually

for the

with his brother-in-lawreflected no emperor.

dishonour

on

the the the


ad-

character of the young The Saracens had


command of

pushed their incursions into under theme, where the imperial Opsikian guards,
Artavasdos,were
stationed.
to oppose

Constantine

took the field in person


1

the enemy, and

218. Neonder,Hitioryof the Christian RdigUm, iii.

56
BOOK
I.

iOONOCLAST

PERIOD.

vanced to the

^''^^

of Krasos. Here he ordered Artaplains to joinhim with the yasdos,who was at Dorylaeum, order alarmed The troops of the Opsikiantheme. in who seems to have been already engaged Artavasdos, he assumed Instead of obeying, treasonable intrigues. of emperor, and the title that the

attacked Constantine

so

pectedly unex-

and dispersed, imperial army was easily taken prisoner the young emperor could onlyavoid being horse sank from off alone. When his own by galloping Constantine was compelled to seize a post-horse, fatigue, in order to which he happenedto find readysaddled, continue his flight. He was fortunate enoughto reach Amorium in safety.^ Artavasdos marched to Constantinople, where, it appears from coins, he affected for
of Constantine; and colleague
some

time to act that possible

as

the

it is

some

treaty may

have been concluded between

the brothers-in-

law.^ The usurper, however, considered himself strong soon stantine with the support of the orthodox,to set Conenough, aside. The
were pictures

him as emperor, pope acknowledged in the churches, a strong body of replaced

the and Nicephorus, collected, troops was eldest son of Artavasdos, crowned as his father's was the second, took the command colleague ; while Niketas, of the Armeniac theme, where the family possessed great

Armenian

influence. All persons suspected of favouring Constantine were to picture-worship. as hereticshostile persecuted
Constantine assembled an following year (742) of the troops of the Thrakesian and chiefly army composed Anatolic themes. With this force he marched to Chrysopolis, (Scutari,) hopingthat a party in Constantinople would declarein his favour ; but, he was being disappointed, the to withdraw to Amorium, where he passed compelled
^

In the

Theophanea, 847.
was a

KrasoB ' Do

xii 190.) NioephoroaFftt 88. Saint Martin, {Lebeam, of Phrygia Pacatiana. "9ai de ClataificoHon dtM SuUet MonStairei Byzantme$, 156. Saulcy,
town

KEBELLION

OP

ARTAVASDOS,

A.D.

743.

57

Artavasdos marched to dislodge him, a. d. spring, his son Niketas to bring ordering up the Armenian troope ^^^^^ All flank of the young emperor. to operateon the right the countryin the usurper's line of march was ravaged, he never as if it was a territory hoped to govern. Conhad been cultivatedby his whose military Btantine, genius formed a daring and executed father, planof campaign,
In

winter.

it in the

most

brilliantmanner.

While

his enemies with

believed that

they were

to advancing
move

attack him

he resolved to forces, superior

forward with such

to become the attacking as celerity party,before they could approach ous near enough to combine any simultaneHis first attack was directed against movements.

pline in disciwhose numerous inferior Artavasdos, army was and over which he expected to that of Niketas, an easier victory. A general near engagement took place watered by the the Kelvian plain, Sardis,on quitting
was complete.The usurper was victory from whence he escaped to Cyzicus, by closely pursued to Constantinople. Constantine then moved forward sea to meet Niketas,who was defeated in a bloodybattle at Modrina,in the Boukellarian theme, to the east fought of the Sangarius.The Armenian auxiliaries and the troops of the Armeniac theme sustained their highreputation, and longdisputed the victory. The emperor then marched to invest Constantinople, with one division of his army, the Bosphorus crossing and sending of Sisinnios, under the command another,

Kaister.

The

the the

of the Thrakesian theme,to general and Abydos, The Propontis.


at

cross

pont the Helles-

reduce the citieson fleetof the

the shores of
was

theme Kibyrraiot

tions capital by sea. All communicaof the imagewith Greece,one of the strongholds thus cut off, Constantine repulsed were worshippers, made frightful by land, and famine quickly every sally of the capital, where no ravages in the dense population ordered to blockade the

68

lOOKOOLAST

PBBIOD.

BOOK

I.

had preparations acted


on

been made
a

for

siege. Constantine
from He jects; sub-

^'"^^

this occasion in

Artavasdos

very differentmanner daringthe campaignin Asia Minor.


were besieged people suddenly

feltthat the
and

his own

his enemies record that he allowed all the

in his camp.^ to seek refuge population starring of his Niketas quickly reassembled the fugitives

own

and his father'sarmy, and made Constantine^s communications in

an

attempt to

cut off

leftthe camp before defeated himself at the head of the troops in Asia,again Niketas near Nicomedia. Niketas and the orthodox The both taken prisoners. of Gangra were archbishop beheaded as a traitor; was belligerent immediately prelate but Niketas was carried to Constantinople, where he was
exhibited before the walls laden with fetters. Artavasdos

peror Bithynia ; but the emand, putting Constantinople,

and Constantine at capitulation, the lastordered a general assault, by which he captured the 2d November 743. Artavasdos escaped on by city to called in fortress the sea theme, a Opsikian Pyzanitis, after where he was taken prisoner. His eyes, and soon those of his sons, Nicephorus and Niketas, were put out; and in thiscondition they exhibited as a triumphal were at the to the inhabitants of Constantinople, spectacle chariot races givenby the emperor to celebrate his reall terms of still rejected

establishment

on

the throne.

His

brother-in-law and

in a monastery. Some of then immured were nephews their principal adherents were The head of beheaded. the principal minister of the usurper, was Vaktageios, exhibited for three days in the Augusteon a custom stances perpetuated by the Ottoman emperors in similar circum"

times,the heads of rebel viziers of adorned the gate of the Serail during the reign having
our own

until

the late sultan.

The

Patriarch Anastasios

was

par-

Pat Nicephorus

40.

852. Theophanes,

60
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

themselves for these losses by the


This

of Cyprus. conquest

^'"*^'

island appears to have been reconquered by Leo for it had been abandoned to the Mohammedans III., sailed from by Justinian II. The fleet of the caliph and landed Alexandria, but the fleetof the
an

army at the

portof Kerameia

theme arrived in time to Kibyrraiot blockade the enemy's medan and of a thousand Mohamships, The war vessels three onlyescaped, 748. a.d. armies took the continued. In 752 the imperial was but some citiesof Melitene and Theodosiopolis, years later the CaliphMansour recovered Melitene and Germanicia : he seems, however, to have considered the tenure of the last so insecurethat he transported the inhabitants into Palestine. The Saracens invaded the every
summer,

almost empire

but these incursions led

to no

permanent

tiers population agricultural alongthe fronnished dimiof the two empires must have been greatly thesesuccessiveravages ; for farm-buildings during and fruit-trees were and slaves constantly destroyed, formed the most valuable bootyof the soldiers. The

conquests. The

mildness and Romania

tolerant government of the emperor of that name to the began now to be applied (for

to the Byzantine empire^) part of Asia Minor belonging in of in the his celebrated so was East, spite persecution

that many at Constantinople, image-worshippers Christians escapedby sea from the dominions of the CaliphAl Mansour to settle in those of Constantine.^ In the year 769 an exchange of prisoners took place, but without interrupting of hostilities, which the course the frontiers of the continued almost incessantly were on two empires.^ to Constantinople The vicinity of the Bulgarians renAlmighty!
^ "

of the

who holyEternal,
uses

was

cnicified for

us

1"
"

Mosheim.

Murdook's

Trans. Soomes's edit L 494.

Theophanes
Ibid. 874.

Romania

in frequently

this sense.

876. Theophanes,

"

BITLGABUN

WAR,

A.D.

*!S7'TI5. than the


the most

61

dered them

more

enemies dangerous
was

Saracens,

a. d.

thoughtheir power
were means
a

much
on

inferior. The
war as

Bulgarians
honourable

^^''^^'

who looked people

it theyhad long pursued the Byzantine frontiers were with profit : for as long as sions theyobtained bootyand slavesby theirincurpopulous, became depopulated as soon as they by these ; while, enabled to occupy the waste were ravages, the Bulgarians and thus increase districtswith theirown pastoral hordes, To resist Contheirnumbers and strength. theirincursions. allthefortifications of the towns stantinegradually repaired and then commenced fortifying the northern frontier, on found theirpredatory cursions inthe passes, until the Bulgarians attended with lossinsteadof gain. Their king was of the predatory to make the cause bands now compelled and an embassy sent to Constantinople a national question, was
to

and of acquiring wealth,

demand

payment of
some

under the
to

pretextthat
passes were

annual tribute, of the fortifications erected


an

tory, terriBulgarian the loss of the plunder to replace but, in reality, which had enabled many of the warlike Bulgarians to live in idleness and luxury. The demands of the king and he immediately invaded the empire were rejected, The Bulgarians carried their with a powerful army. wall ; but thoughthey derived ravages up to the long assistancefrom the
in
own were Thrace,they numerous

guardthe

situated in the

Sclavonian coloniessettled

and driven back into their defeated, with greatslaughter, a.d. 757. territory Constantino carried on a seriesof campaigns, tically systemafor planned, power.

the purpose of weakening Bulthe garian his enemy to make Instead of allowing

he was always readyto any incursionsinto the empire, their into The difficulties of his territory. carry the war
were enterprise great,and he suffered several defeats; but his military talents and persevering energy prevented the Bulgarians from profiting success by any partial they

62
BOOK
Cb.
X.

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

{8.

the superioritj. In the and he soon regained obtained, of 760, 763, and 765, Constantino marched campaigns far into Bulgaria, and carried off immense year 766 of

booty.In

the

he intended to

the by opening country,

the conquest of the complete campaignat the commencement consisted of two thousand six

which spring.His fleet,

hundred vessels, in which he had embarked a considerable in order to enter the Danube, was assailed body of infantry

by one
the Euxine. would
soon

of those furious storms


The

that often sweep emperor

force which
master

the

render him

of

was Bulgaria were

expected suddenly

ruined.

The shores of the Black Sea

covered with

and the bodies of his soldiers, ships of conabandoned all thought Constantine immediately tinuing and employedhis whole army in the campaign, and in securing the calamity to the surrivors, alleyiating
the wrecks of his Christian burial and funeral honours
truce
was

to

the dead.

concluded with

the enemy,
to

and the Roman

vices employtheir serhe had as religion, and conquest. been to lead them to the fieldof glory ever him as much popuHis conduct on this occasion gained larity with the with the peopleof Constantinople as troops.* In the year 774 he again assembled an army of thousand men, accompanied eighty by a fleet of two The Bulgarian and invaded Bulgaria. thousand transports,

army beheld the emperor as eager in the cause and of humanity

monarch

concluded
as soon

a as

treatyof peace
was

"

^which,

however,was
the
moment

broken

Constantine returned to
not

his capital. But

the emperor

he heard that the enemy fend of the fortresses he had constructed to deVerzetia, one he quitted the frontier, in the month Constantinople
The

and unprepared, had laid siege to

1 368. KioepbonisPat. 47. Theopbanee, of Constantine in the Bulgarian were war DiaconoB, 104,edit. Bonn.

greatserrioeB and TiotorieB

Leo acknowledgedby posterity.

0"OANISSD

BRIGAFDS.

63
a.d.

of

ronted October,and, faUing on the besiegers, suddenly their army with great slaughter. The following year his
was

^^^"^^'

army

tino again readyto take the field; but as Constanit he was attacked by a morto join was on his way tal which compelled him to retrace his steps. illness, in order to reach Constantinople Hayingembarked at Selymbria, with as little he died on as possible, fatigue board the yessel at the castle of Strongyle, justas he readied the walls of his capital, the 23d September on

775.1
carried on was Bulgarians of securing rather with the object to the northern tranquillity than from any desire of a of the empire, provinces barren conquest. The necessity of reducing the Sclayonian colonies in Thrace and Macedonia to complete obedience to the central administration, and of secluding them from all political with one another, communication and Dalor with their countrymen in Bulgaria, Seryia, of maintaining the emperor the necessity on matia,imposed the policy and suggested of strong bodies of troops, and Asiatic coloniesalong a line of Greek towns forming this was the northern frontier of the empire. When done, Constantino began to root out the brigandage, extended itself during the anarchy which had greatly and which Leo had his father'selection, which preceded
neyer

The

long war

with

the

been

able

to

exterminate.

Numerous

bands lived

within the bounds in a state of independence, by plunder, called Skamars, and, like the of the empire. They were confederaciesof outlaws, Bagaudsof Gaul, formed organised of men driven to despair by originally consisting
wiih the Cyolobionor Seyen Towers." Banduri, ihe same OnefU. edit. Ven. ii 530, Ducange, Comt, Chrut. 46, 102. Magnaura was Imp, of the western pointof Constantinople, Zonaras, ii 89 ; though the authority howAnother Hebdomon. the at would it 294, passage, place Theophanes, were and proyes that both Magnaura and (p.831,) eyer, corrects this, towards without the chain which dosed the port at the pointsof the triangle
1

is StroDgyle

Cyolobion

the

CantL Piopontis."Ducange, lib.iy. chap. 4. OomtL,

(^riti,127. Gylliusseems

wrong"

2"" Topog.

64
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

^"'"^^

of the intolerableburden of taxation, and the seyerity garians the fiscal the incursionsof the BulWhen legislation.^
had wasted the fields of the
ment

the govemcultiyator,

of still called upon him to pay the full amount taxation imposedon his estate in prosperous times : his his cattle, his slaves, and his seed-corn were produce,
oflBcers. He could then carried away by the imperial who had his fellow-subjects, only live by plundering

hitherto

the escaped

calamities by which

he had been

ruined ; and thus the

of the imperial oppression ment governthat submitted to it was avengedon the society without striving to reform its evils. Constantino rooted
out these bands.

celebrated chiefof the Skamars

was

with the greatest executed at Constantinople publicly his living barbarity, body beingdissected by surgeons tual afterthe amputation of his hands and feet. The habiin the Byzantine of legal barbarity punishments of Constantino empirecan hardlyrelieve the memory of cruelty, which this punishment from the reproach to employagainst the enemies of his proves he was ready His whether brigands or image-worshippers. authority, not only laws against was error, therefore, liberty passing
of conscience
"

which
"

was

fault in accordance with the


into
tion execuon

of spirit
with

the age
a

but in

these laws carrying


human

offensiveto cruelty

Yet feelings.

of humanity, as many occasions Constantino gave proofs well as of a desireto protect his subjects. The Sclavonians
on

the coast

of

fitted out Thrace, having

some

piratical

carried off many of the inhabitants of Tenedos, vessels, Imbros, and Samothrace,to sellthem as slaves. The emperor hundred
on

this occasion ransomed

two

thousand five

to lower hb own subjects, preferring rather than dignity, by payinga tribute to the pirates, allow those who looked to him for protection to pine
^ Compare Ducange, Olosiarium Med. wit;h Wallon, Bistoirede l'"$davage dam

of his

et Infin, voce LaJtinUatu, iii 287. VAntiquiU,

Bagauda

INTERNAL

POLICY.

65

misery. No act of his reign a. d. away their livesin hopeless shows so much real greatness of mind as this. He also ^^^'^^^'
concluded of
one

the convention

with the Saracens for

an

change ex"

which has been prisoners, and the

of the earliest examples of

mentioned already the exchanges between


*

the Mohammedans became


on frequent exchangedfor man,

which afterwards Christians,


Man
was

the

frontiers. Byzantine
for woman,
to
save

woman

and child for the lives of tween be-

child.i

These

conventions tended

innumerable

and prisoners,

rendered the future wars lessbarbarous.

the Saracens and Romans


Constantine and
was

active in his internal administration,

his schemes for improving tants the condition of the inhabi-

of his

scale than modern

gigantic cable. practiOne of his plans tivated unculin for reviving agriculture districts them with coloniesof was by repeopling
on
a

were empire

carriedout

far more

governments have considered

to whom emigrants,

he secured favourable conditions and the banks of the Artanas in


two hundred

On efficient protection.
of a colony Bithynia,
was

thousand Sclavonians

formed.2

The

Christian

and Doliche,Melitene, Thrace,to watch and restrainthe rude Sclavonians settled in that

of Germanicia, population established in was Theodosiopolis

tinued province ; and these Asiatic colonists longconand flourish to multiply.^ They are even accused the heretical which they of spreading had brought opinions from the East throughout greatpart of western Europe,

by the
^

extent

of their commercial

relationsand the

ample ex-

and of their prosperity


S74. Theophanes,
carried
"

It is not honesty.*

to be

this time the slave-trade was very active, and the in Christian with the hammedans. Mocommerce slaves flourishing De Vtt, Pont. Jtom, 79, Evist. Hadriani, L ep. xiL AnastasiuSy Even during the anarchy that prevailedin western Europe at the end of the seventh century, Roman slave-merchants imports slaves from Britain, as we from the anecdote of St Gregory, know repeatedby all our historians. ' Pat 44. 364. Nicephorus Theophanes, " Pat 43. 854, 360. Nicephorus Theophanes, * How "ar the Albigenseswere indebted for their doctrines to these colonies is stilla question. See Schmidt, Hitioir4et Doctrine de la Sectede" Catkares ou 2 vols. 1849. Albigeoii. Venetians
on a

At

VOL.

I.

66
BOOK
Ch.
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

{ 8.

that the measures of Constantine's administrasupposed however greathis political abilities tioD, mightbe,were

competent to
and land
such
as

remoye

was Agriculture

of the socialeyils of his age* still carried on in the rudest manner ; many
were

communications

and difficult

and insecure,
on

could hardly be laid out expensive, capital transport


to

any extent with much

As profit.

usual under

find years of famine and plenty circumstances, we

in close succession. Yet the bitterestenemy alternating the abbot Theophanes, of Constantino, confessesthat his abundance. It is true,he reof general proaches one was reign him with loading the husbandmen with taxes ; but he also
accuses

him of

beinga

new

Midas,who made

goldso
The
so

common

in the hands of allthat it became be

cheap.

abbot's political economy, it must


as

is not confessed,

Nicephorus, is to be believed, another enemy of Constantino, grain that of so abundant, measures was or goldso rare, sixty sold for a of barley, were wheat, or seventy measures severe nomisma, or goldByzant.^ To guard against in its and supply the gardens droughtin the capital, immediate vicinity with water, Constantino repaired the of Valens. The flourishing condition of great aqueduct in Greece at the time is attested by the fact, the towns that the best workmen in cement were soughtin the
Hellenic citiesand the islandsof the
The time and attention of

orthodox

his calumny. If the Patriarch

Archipelago.^

Constantino, during his

whole

in military principally engaged tions. occupaIn the eyes of his contemporaries he was judged andindeabilities conduct* His strategic by his military
As a contrast of barley was
to this

were reign,

1 Pat 48. Theophanes, 878. Nicephorus Theophanes,852, mentions that a measure

cheapness,

twelve while Artayasdos was besieged in Constantinople. ' were Theophanes, 871. Six thousand nine hundred workmen employed. and two hundred One thousand masons were brought fh"m Asia plasterers Minor from Greece and the and Pontus ; five hundred workers in cement labourers from Thrace, with two islands of the Archipelago five thousand ; hundred potters. nomismata

sold

for

68
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

much to the

^''*^

of the emperor to govern the church, as right to the question whether pictures to be worshipped were and archbishops or not, he ordered the metropolitans to hold provincial in order to discipline the people synods, for the execution of the edicts he proposed to carry in a council of the Eastern church.i general This general council was convoked at Constantinople in the year 754. It was attended by 338 bishops, ing formthe most numerous of the Christian clergy assembly which had ever been collected together for ecclesiastical of Ephesus, of Theodosius, son legislation. metropolitan the Emperor Tiberius III., for the patriarchal presided, chair had been kept vacant siuce the death of Anastasios in the preceding Neither the Pope nor the year. of Antioch,Alexandria, and Jerusalem sent patriarchs which was solely to this council, composed representatives of the Byzantine to assume so that it had no right clergy, the rank of
an

ecumenical council. Its decisions were

all

which it declared to be contrary against image-worship, to Scripture. and picIt proclaimed the use of images tures in churches to be a pagan and antichristian practice, the abolition of which was necessary to avoid leading Christiansinto temptation. Even the use of the crucifix was condemned, on the groundthat the onlytrue symbol of the incarnation was the bread and wine which Christ had commanded to be received for the remission of sins.
of pictures, the council worahip led into the display was of some animosity ing paintagainst itself jects sacred sub; and every attempt at embodying the dead and accursed art, foolishly by what it styled The invented by the pagans, was strongly condemned. thus deprived of a source of ideas, common were people liableto abuse, tended in general to civilise which,though gious and relitheir minds,and mightawaken noble thoughts We may fully aspirations. agree with the Iconoclasts
^

In its opposition to the

TO

atkhrrta iujQ!* 858,fieXrrcoy v6Kuf r^ XcAp ^ctSc Theopbaneei iicdnpf idtov"f)p6injfta doKiws nrccrdcu.

vp6s

POLICY

BBGARDINa

IMAGB-WORSHIP.

69

of not worshipping religious importance images, a.d. and not allowing the people to prostrate themselves on ^*^^' the pavements of churches before pictures of saints, whether said to be

in the

painted by human

artists or

lous miracu-

time we think that the agency ; while at the same walls of the vestibules of sacred edificesmay or porticoes with
be adorned with pictures propriety representing those sacred subjects of most to awaken feelings likely Christian charity. It is by embodying and ennobling the of feelings to allmankind,that modern common expression artists can

alone unite in theirworks that combination of

truth with the

glowof

creativeimagination which
as

diyine stamp to many pagan works. the circle of human affairs so democratic
"

a gives in There is nothing

art.

The

Council of 754, however, deemed that it was necessary to art sacrificeart to the purity of religion. The godless
of

"

All who manufactured crucifixes proscribed. in public for worship, sacred paintings or or vate, priordered to be whether laymen or monks, were excommunicated by the church and punished by the state. criminate the indisin order to guardagainst At the same time, and shrinesposdestructionof sacred buildings sessing and jewels, and rich plate valuable ornaments by

paintingwas

"

the council commanded Iconoclasticzeal, or under its pretext, that no alteration to be made in existing was

of the patriarch without the special churches, permission and the emperor a regulation bearing strongmarks of
"

of the central treasuryof the Roman the fiscal rapacity in the of the age was displayed empire. The bigotry three of anathema which thiscouncil pronounced against and virtuous advocates of imagedistinguished Germanos, the Patriarch of Constantinople, worship, and John Damascenus, the lastof the Georgeof Cyprus,
the most

fathersof the Greek church.^


* from the garbled The acts of this council are onlyknown portions pretile serred by its enemies in the acts of the second council of Nicsea and the hosActa 8. ConcUiorum, torn. viii. 1457. hi8torians.~Ck"letiy

70
BOOK ^'
'"

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

I.

The

decisions of the council serred as the ecclesiastical


enactments penal

^^

cess by the civilpower. The sucof the emperor in restoring to the empire, prosperity tined desto believe that he was induced many of his subjects

basis for

to

reform the church

as

could doubt men thinking deep into both. In many minds there was a contest and the feeling of picture-worship between the superstitions of
were

the state,and few had entered that corruption well


as

for the emperor respect

still in the Roman

administration ; but there empire many persons of education,


s

who regarded the superstiunconnected with the church, tions them the To of the people with aversion. reverence
to imagessaid to have fallen from paidby the ignorant who heaven,to pictures painted by St Luke, to virgins before the lampsburning wept, and to saintswho supplied with a perpetual fountain of oil, their effigies appeared rank idolatry.^ There were also still of philoa few men sophic minds who exercised the right of private judgment both and and who civil on ecclesiastical, public questions, felt that the emperor was making popularsuperstition the pretext for rendering his power in the despotic His conduct appeared church as in the state. to these law and of Roman men a violation of those principles which rendered the systematic ecclesiastical legislation in the Roman to government of society superior empire rule of Mohammedan the arbitrary or the wild despotism, licenseof Gothic anarchy. The Greek church had not hitherto made it imperative its membei*s to worship on abuse in the reverence images; it had onlytolerated popular paid to these symbols so that the ignorant monks who i*esisted the enlightened Iconoclastsmight, by
" "

liberal-minded of the

men,

be considered

as

the true defenders


as

and of private right judgment,

benefactors of

^ At Athens is a ohiurch of the blessed Vixigin Mary, which has a lamp that burns always, The Travki "(f and never wants oiL SamU/, 82. Early TraveU Bohn's edit. in Palestine,
"

POLICY

RBGABDINQ

1MAGB-W0R8HIP.

71

eridence that such feelings a. d. positive and theycould not existwithout producing existed, reallj 7^|^influence on society L ess than some generally. forty years
after the death of
numerous

mankind.

There is

the tolerantparty was Constantino,

so

in the imperial cabinet to struggle heretics from persecution, the ground that the Bare on church had no authority should be conto ask that men demned for death God to matters of belief, as may always turn the mind of the sinner to repentance. Theophanes

that it could

has recorded the existenceof these humane

sentiments in

his eagerness to blame them.^ resistedthe edictsof Con* boldly Many of the clergy stantine
to

enforcethe

new

ecclesiastical legislation against


acts of

images and pictures. They held that all the


council of

the

void,for a general coun-* were Constantinople cil could onlybe convoked by an orthodox emperor; and of Con** they took upon themselves to declarethe opinions
stantine heterodox. in the The

monks

engagedwith
The

eagerness

which controversy

arose.

the Pope,

patriarchs

and Jerusalem,replied to the of Antioch,Alexandria, excommunications of the council by condemning all its The emperor, enraged to eternal perdition. supporters he met with,enforced the execution of at the opposition and energy of his character; his edictswith allthe activity his views urged him religious and passion to be a persecutor.It is evident that policy the much connected with his violence against were as for he treated as religious feeling, image-worshippers who appeared to be quiet many hereticswith toleration of offering and inoffensive tion incapable subjects, any opposischemes. The and ecclesiastical to his political and the Monophysites the Paulicians, Theopaschites, his whole reign.2 toleration during religious enjoyed

well as political

as

his

dc ofua"s n^ i(rj"aftu Uptwruf oiro^ali^a^iu 419, cdoy^iarffoy Theophanes,

'

354, 860. Theophanes,

72
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

In the year 766 the edicts against were image-worship tional extended in their application, and enforced with addich^^s.

of rigour.The use of relics and the practice to saints were praying prohibited. Many monks, and banished ; several members of the dignified were clergy, inflicted lossof the eyes and of the tongue, were stripes, before a picture, for prostration or as legal punishments of the before a relic. Yet, even at this period praying the emperor at times displayed excitement, great greatest forbearance ; when, however, either policy or personal him to order punishment to be inflicted, passion prompted it was done with fearfulseverity.^ Two cases may be mentioned as afibrding a correct elucidationof the personal conduct of Constantine. A himself named Andreas the Kalybite, hermit, presented sension dishim for causing before the emperor, and upbraided in the church. If thou art a Christian, why
^^

dost thou

Christians1''shouted the monk persecute audacious


to

to

his

with prince, him

be carried

dered orthodoxy.Constantine orfor insulting the ofl^to prison

He imperial authority.
to

then called upon the decisionsof the general council; and


was

to

submit he

when

refused

to

admit the
After

of its canons, validity


was

and to

obey

the edictsof the emperor, he


to death.
was

tried and condemned

he in the hippodrome, beingscourged of to the practice beheaded,and his body, according


was

the age,
was

cast

into the abbot of

sea. a

the Stephen,

monastery near

Nicomedia,

the island of Proconnesus,on account of his firm opposition edicts; but his fame to the emperor's banished
to

for

drew piety who

numerous

votariesto his
to

flocked thither
and seditious

hear

of banishment, place him preach. This

of assembly
of the
^

pious persons roused the anger and Stephen to Concivil was authorities, brought
Bonefidius

870. Theophanes,

4) quotes this (Jut Orientate,

edict against

from Cedrenas. relics

i.849. Mortreuil,

POLICY

EBQABDma

IMAGE-

WORSHIP.

73

to be staDtinople,

more

still drew crowds to the


ence so

watched. His eloquence a.d. strictly door of his prison '^^^^ ; and the rever-

shown

much,
"

his followersyexed the emperor that he gave vent to his mortificationby exclaiming " It seems, in truth, that this monk is really
to

him

by

emperor, and I
was

am

in nothing

by some of the Like that of Henry II. concerning it Thomas-a-Becket, caused the death of Stephen. He was dragged from his and cruelly dered. murprison by some of the emperor's guard, The soldiery in dragging and the people joined his body through the streets, and his unburied remains left exposed in the place destined to receive those were of the lowest criminals. Both Stephenand Andreas declared martyrs, in the and rewarded with a place were
calendar of Greek saints.^
a

heard

empire/' This speech officers of the imperial guard.


the

Orthodox zeal and party ambition combined to form


Constantino. dangerous conspiracy against rank engaged in the plot, and even highest Men

of the

the Patriarch
to

Constantinos, though himself


have

an

Iconoclast, appears

He was removed from the the conspirators. joined and the dignity conferred on a Sclavowas patriarchate, nian prelate, Niketas.^ The deposedPatriarch named tinos, Constanto death. to trialand condemned was brought with the after his condemnation,and apparently his life spared, a declaration that hope of having signed that he believed the worship of imagesto be idolatry, contained the decrees of the council of Constantinople

Their festivalis celebrated on the 28th November, old style.Menologiwn Jtum Banlii Imp,, 8 torn. fol. Urbini,1727, torn, i 216. ' tion has preservedan anecdote which affords an amusing illustraQlycas (284) not of the "ct that the Greek element in society was at Constantinople The Patriarch Kiketas may have spoken Latin better yot the all-predominant than Qreek, for there was something far from Hellenic in his accent and ideas. of the evangeOne day,reading the New Testament, he pronouncedthe name list
1
"

Qnecorum

McnUaioVf and
of the my

not McrfSialov,
were

One

of his suite observed


^

that the vowels

diphthong

not

to be

turned at the correction, " I sonl utterlyabhors diphthongs and triphthongs

pleased dissepamted. The Sclavonian patriarch, round, and said, Don't talk nonsense; angrily

74
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

the trae doctrines of the orthodox

and that the church,

^''^^

faith of the emperor was This last article was pore. added because the patriarch accused of having tenanced counwas the emperor reportscharging the Virgin. opinions concerning he was mercy by his pliancy,
was

with heterodox
pected extence sen-

If Constantinos mistaken. His

carried into execution in the crudest of the Greek

manner.

The

head

church and tail,

was

with his face towards the


streets of the

on an ass, placed the conducted through

while the mob treated him with capital, his head the amphitheatre, every insult. On reaching when struck off. It may easily be supposed was that, the highest treated in ecclesiastic in the empire was this manner in the capital, of the imperial the severity often fearfully was agents in the distant provinces

tyrannical
of ecclesiastical which has so often spirit bigotry led popes, princes, those who and Protestants to bum differedfrom them in matters of opinion, gave the imagefortitude to resist as it gave their as much worshippers and polito persecute. The religious opponents cruelty tical reforms of the Isaurian emperors were a equally of aversion to the Pope and the Italians ; and all subject the possessions had been of the emperors in central Italy rendered virtually before Constantine even independent, convoked the council of Constantinople. His struggle with the Saracens and Bulgarians his had prevented making any effort in Italy.At Rome, however, the the civil and judicial popes continued to acknowledge after the supremacy of the emperor of the East, even Lombards had conquered the exarchate of Ravenna. But the impossibility of receiving stantine any supportfrom Conthe encroachments of the Lombards, induced against II. to apply to Pepinof France for Pope Stephen The

assistance.
to

Pope Paul I. afterwards carried his eagerness create a quarrel between Pepin and Constantine

76
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

places.The
Palus in the month

Black Sea
of

was

covered with ice from the


When the thaw

^''^^

MsBOtis to Mesembria.

began

764, immense mountains of Februarj ice were and dashed with the Bosphorus, driven through such violence against the walls of Constantinople as t-o threaten them with ruin. These icebergs were seventy and Theophanes when a mentions that, feet in thickness; of his young he mounted on one of them with thirty boy, companions.^ in the age of Constantino appears One greatcalamity
to have travelled over
was

the whole habitable world; this


its appearance in It had pre745. viously

the

which made great pestilence, carried off


a

the

as Byzantine empireas early

of

and Syria,

of the lation considerable portion popuof the Caliph Yezid III. perished From

it visited Egypt and Syria into Sicily. from whence it passed After making Africa, and Calabria, it spread to Greece; great ravages in Sicily and
at

the disease in 744.

in the year 749, it broke last,

out with terrible

violence in

the most poputhen probably Constantinople, lous in It the universe. t o have been was city supposed and dispersed Christian countries, introduced, through by the Venetian and Greek ships on employedin carrying
a

contraband

trade in slaves with the Mohammedan

and it spreadwherever commerce extended. nations, Monemvasia, one of the great commercial citiesat the of its with the return time, received the contagion and disseminated the disease over all vessels, trading On the Greece, and the islands of the Archipelago. this plaguethreatened to exterminate the continent,

Hellenic race. Historians have left us disturbed inspired


a

vivid

of picture
us

the horrors

of thisfearfulvisitation, which show

that the terror it

the fabricof

Strange society. super-

'

865. Theophanes,

PLAGUE

AT

CONSTANTINOPLE,

A.D.

747.

77
a. d.

stitions men's minds,and annihilated every preoccupied of duty. Some appeared to be urgedby a demosense
niacal
to commit impulse

'^^^^

heinous but useless crimes,with


crosses

the wildest
matter
were

recklessness. Small
to supposed
on

of

unctuous

invisible hand

traced by an appear suddenly, the clothes of persons as they were

engaged

in

narrated of
eyes of the the priest as thus marked
on

pursuits ; examples were ordinary their having visibleto the appeared suddenly the vestments of assembled congregation on
he officiatedat the altar.
out
was

their

The individual
the disease
were

assailed by invariably
soon

his return

home, and

died. and

Crosses
outer

found traced on the doors constantly huts,and buildings palaces, ; houses,

walls of
were

monasteries
as

alike marked,
that
some

This

was

considered
were

an

intimation

of the inmates death. of the In

immediate paroxyms

ordered to prepare for the delirium of fear and the first

plague, many declared that theybeheld hideous spectreswandering about; these apparitions the crowded streets of the city, were seen through flitting into the passengers, at times walking at times questioning houses before the inmates, and then driving the proprietors
from the door. At times it was said that these

spectres
That

had

even

attacked the citizenswith naked swords.

not reported on the delusion of were solely things the fancy of persons rendered insane by attacks of disease, is asserted by a historian who was bom about ten and who certainly his youthat Constantinople.^ passed years later, of Theophanes The testimony is confirmed cities. by the records of similardiseases in other populous punity The uncertainty of life offers additional chances of im-

these

to

and thus relaxes the power crime, the bonds


man

of the

law,
is

and

weakens

of moral restraint. when little, there

Danger
are

what generally
^

fears

several

355. Theophanes,

He

was

bora

a.d.

758.

78
BOOK I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD,

chances of escape.

The

bold and

the wicked, deriding

^"'"^^

of pestilence make periods times frequently general panic, of revelry and plunder as ; the very individualscharged order in to preserve themselves finding society, policemen

have been known to assume freefrom control, the disguise of demons, in order to plunder the terrifiedand superstitious
find of all impunity.The predominant passions fiiU scope when the feeling of responsibility is removed avarice the most unfeeling ; shame is thrown aside, the wildest debauchery are But, at the displayed.

with

and
same

time, it is

on

such fearful occasions that

we

see

the noblest courage, the most devoted selfand the purestcharity. Boccaccio and Defoe,in sacrifice,
of examples the describing and at London
scenes

which occurred

in 1665, afibrd a in 747. at Constantinople happened

Florence in 1348, correct picture of what


at

The

number

of dead of

was

so

great,that when

the

means ordinary were

the bodies to interment transporting the pack-saddles boxes were over insufficient, slung
were

of

mules,into which the dead


of rank. When constructed to

cast without

tion distinc-

the mules became


drawn

chariotswere

low insufficient, of human bodies, receivepiles


the through
men

and these frightful hearses were


to receive their loads, by
a

streets
a

crowd of

who

received

fixed

sum

of money

with each

body. Long trenches were

without prepared noble youthful

the walls, hunto serve as graves for dreds and into these the aged beggarand the of bodies,
were

side by side. When all precipitated the cemeteries around the capital and the filled, were shut up in their panickept the mass of the population bodies were interredin the fieldsand vineyards dwellings, Dearest to the city or theywere cast into vacant gates, for a houses and empty cisterns. The disease prevailed whole houses tenantless, exterminated having year, and left

many

families.^ We
1

possess

no

record of the number

of

Pat 43, 87. NicephoruB

PLAGUE

AT

CON"TAKTINOPLB,
we

A.D.

747.

79

of a.d. suppose the population at the time to have exceeded a million, ^^^^' Constantinople lossit sustained, we maj form an estimate of the probable deaths
it

but if caused,

at Milan, in the great plague that, by obserying during in the thousand persons perished 1630, about eightj-six of a year, in a population course one hardly exceeding hundred and fifty thousand souls.^ the After the plaguebad completely disappeared, inhabitants. immense influx of new an capital required To fillup the void caused by the scourge, Constantino

induced many Greek families from the continent and the islandsto emigrate to Constantinople. These new citizens
a immediately occupied

well-definedsocialposition ; for

whether

artisans, tradesmen, or householders, merchants,


members

and of establishedcorporations, knew how to act in their new relationsof life without It was by the perfection of its corporate embarrassment.

they became

societiesand

that police regulations,

the

empire Byzantine

effected the translocation of the inhabitantsof whole

cities and

without misfortune or discontent. provinces, the fiscal of the Roman By modifying severity ment, governfrom of the the members by relieving municipality the ruinous obligation for the of mutual responsibility of the land-tax, total amount the laws and by relaxing that fetteredchildren to the profession handicraftof or the Byzantine their parents, administrationinfused new preserved, system. It still energy into an enfeebledsocial inheritancefrom Rome, an intimate knowledge of as an the practical methods of regulating the relativesupplies of labour, in the manner leastlikely and population food, to inconvenience the government, though undoubtedly with little best calculatedto reference to the measures advance the happiness of the people.^
^ dal origifial La PesU di MUano del 1630 dal Canonico G. Ripamonti Latino da Francesco Cusani. Milano,1841. At Florence, hundred thousand are one said to have died of the plague; at London, ninetythousand. ' For the Byzantme system of taxation,as far as direct payment by the

80

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

^'"^^

as greatchanges produced pestilence in the provinces While the population as in the capital. character and lostmuch of its Roman of Constantinople number of Greek traditions by the infusion of a large

This memorable

Greece itselflost also much emigrants, character and ancient and

of its Hellenic
a

of traditions, by the departure

stantinople for Conof itsnative middle classes considerableportion the destruction of


a

large part by

the

itself. The middle classesof the Hellenic cities plague while an inferior classfrom the flocked to Constantinople, and thus a general their place, crowded to supply villages of the population eficcted translocation was ; and though this emigration to may have been confined principally the Greek race, it must have tended greatly to separate from those of an earthe future traditions of the people lier period.The Athenian or the Lacedemonian who lost all local characteristics settled at Constantinople, ; the their f rom who and the emigrants islands, supplied their traditions at Athens and Lacedemon, mingled place and dialectwith the Attic and Doric prejudices of their thus consigned homes : ancient traditions were to new oblivion. The depopulation on the continent and in the also so great that the Sclavonian was Peloponnesus extended their settlements over the greater population

part of the open country; the Greeks crowded into the


towns,
had
or

into the districts under immediately

the protection

of their walls. been attained Heraclius,

which Sclavonian colonies, since the reign of ever increasing gradually

The

at this time their

extension greatest
wrote

and the
the
two

caused depopulation

is said by by this pestilence that the Sclagreat, of the open country in


so

who Emperor Constautine Porphyrogenitus, centurieslater, to have been the whole occupied and the Peloponnesus, and
Zonaras, iL 22i
;

vonians Greece

reduced it to

state

individiial is concerned, see iii 105.

Cedrenus, 706-728 ; Mortreuil,

PLAGUE

AT

CONSTANTIKOPLB, emperor

A.D.

747.

81

of barbarism.^
some

The

perhapsconfounded

in

a.d.

the general translocationof the Greek podegree itselfwith the occupation of extensive districts, pulation then abandoned It is
to

^^^'^^^

Sclavonian cultiyators and herdsmen.

certain, however, that from this time the oblivion of the ancient Hellenic names of villages, districts, rivers,
and mountains of those became

general ; and
a

the final extinction

which marked dialects,

direct affiliation of the the ancient Hellenic

inhabitants of

particular spotswith
same came

of the population
new names

consummated. districts, was

The
or

which

mark Greek, equally In it is necessary to


care

into use, whether Sclavonian the loss of ancient traditions.^ the of reign

of the history closing with which

Constantino V., observe that he deserves praise for the he educated his

family.The
us

most
so

inform bigotedimage-worshippers
mild in his domestic
a protect nun

that he

was

his third circlethat he permitted named

wife to

Anthusa, who
one

was

most

devoted

of images ; and worshipper received from this nun daughters education. The

of the

emperor's
and

both her
was

name

Princess Anthusa

for distinguished

; she is said to have founded piety tian establishedin the Chrisof the first one orphanasylums ob* world; and her orthodox devotion to pictures the saints of the Greek tained for her a place among also to her godmother and church, an honour granted

her benevolence and

teacher.^
1 s

De

ThemaUbua, iL

25.

edit AlmeloTen, 1251-1261. Strabonis EjpUime^

Edit

Coray,torn, iii 878of Constantine's Anthusa on

886.

Menohffium Orcecorum,torn. iii.60-188. The festival and that of the celebrated on Uie 17th April, was daughter
the 27th July.

'

nun

VOL.

I.

82

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

BOOK

I.

CH.I.S4
SECT.
IV."

REIGNS

OP

LEO AND

17.

(THE
A.D.

KHAZAR,)
776-802.

CONSTANTINE

YL,

IRENE,

Leo

IV.,A.D.
woRSHiP AUTHORITY DIVORCES
"

775-780." Irene
Second
AT council

regent of

por

her
"

bon"

Restores
of

dcaob-

Nicjka

Extinction
THE

Btzantinb
"

ROME
and

"

CONSTANTINE
marrif.s

ASSUMES
"

GOVERNMENT
of monks

Maria
of of

Theodota
"

Opposition
dethrones

"

Persecution VI.
WAR"
"

Theodore
reigns war. of

Studita

Irene

Conbtantinx Irene
"

Policy

Constantinb

VL

and

Saracen

Bulgarian

Leo
five.

IV.

His
or

succeeded his father at the age of twentythe daughter of the mother, Irene, was

chagan of the Khazars, then a powerful whose territories the greater through part of the people,
emperor commercial intercourse between
rich countries in eastern from his mother
nor a

the Christians and carried


on.

the

Asia

was

herited Leo in-

mild and amiable

disposition ;

does he appear to have been destituteof some tion porbut the state of his health of his father'stalents,

him from displaying the same His activity. prevented and his administration lasted four years and a half, reign conducted in strict accordance with the policy of his was The weak state of his health father and grandfather. of the attention fixed on the question kept the public succession. Constantino V. had selected an imperial Athenian of great beautyand accomplishments, lady,
named

Irene,to be his son's wife,and Leo had a son named Constantino, who was born in the year 771. The indefinite of the imperial fancy nature and the insuccession,
of Leo's

child, gave

the two

half-brothersof the

emperor, who had been invested by theirfather with the rank of Casar, some the throne on hope of ascending

their brother's death.


of the title and this was

Leo conferred
order to
secure

on

his infant
than

son

in Emperor, done in
a

his succession;

more

manner popular

usual,

the desire of the senate, in order to give election. The' ceremony all the character of a popular

at the express

84

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

Cb.l(4.

sessed the power of awakening of moral respona sense of the the officersof state,the intrigaes sibilitj among
court

ended

The

murder,and treason. conspiracies, for power soon selves parties struggling rangedthem-

in

under the banners of the ecclesiastical factions that did many probably, longdivided the empire.Little, in the reli- ^^ of the leaders care what party theyespoused themselves gious question ; but it was necessary to proclaim had members of
an

faction in order ecclesiastical

to secure

The Empress Irene was known to -^ popular following. and a Greek, this favour image-worship : as a woman natural ; yet policy would have dictated to her to was of securing adoptthat party as the most certain manner enough to counterbalance the family support powerful influence of the Isaurian dynasty, which was now wielded The conflictbetween by the uncles of the young emperor. the image-worshippers and the Iconoclasts soon commenced. The Caesar Nicephorus, who was tious as ambias

his

sister-in-law, was eager


members

to drive her from the

He regency. ministers and

in which a organised conspiracy, of the senate

several

took part. Irene


spirators con-

of all its ramifications before the obtained full proof


were

to act,seized her five brothers-inprepared them to enter the priesthoodIn law, and compelled order to make it generally known that theyhad assumed the sacerdotal character, to officiate they were obliged the Christmas ceremonies at the highaltar of St during while the young emperor and his mother restored Sophia's, to the church the rich jewels of which ithad been deprived of by the Iconoclast emperors. The intendant-general the general of the Armeniac theme,the commander posts, of the imperial and the admiral of the Archipelago, guard, who had all taken part in the conspiracy, were and in distant immured monks monasteries. as scourged, the of assumed the title Helpidios, governor of Sicily,

emperor

as

soon

as

he found that his

in the participation

IRENE

BBOBNT,

A.D.

780-790.
was

85

was plot

known

at court ; but he

to compelled

seek

a. d.

shelter among
wards served.

in whose armies he after- '^J^^ the Saracens, Doukas, another conspirator, Nicephorus

fledalso to the Mohammedans.^ Constantino VI. had assumed


own

when years later, the government into his


Some

formed by the partisans hands,a new conspiracy was of his uncles, then treated were 792.) The princes (a.d. with great severity. prived deThe Caesar Nicephorus was of sight cut ; and the tonguesof the others were

before he lost not long out, by the order of theirnephew, his own eyes by the order of his mother.
The

influenceof the

in clergy

the

tion administraordinary which ecclesiastical

and the greatextent of justice,

to

civilrights, rendered councilsof the legislation regulated church an important feature in those forms and usages that practically circumscribed the despotic power of the and convictions emperor by a framework of customs, opinions, and which he could with difficulty alter, rarely ambition of Irene, oppose without danger. The political the national vanity of the Greeks,and the religious ings feelof the orthodox, tional the sanction of a constiturequired before the laws against imagepublic authority, The Byzantine worshipcould be openlyrepealed. had at this time an ecclesiastical, thoughnot a empire constitution. The will of the sovereign was political alone insufficient to change an law, forming part organic It was of the ecclesiastical administration of the empire. council to legalise imagenecessary to convoke a general for council fitinstrument a worship ; and to render such a the proposed much arrangement was revolution, necessary*
moving endued with greatertalents for rethan and conciliating personal support opposition the empress. The Patriarch Paul,a decided Iconoclast,

No person

was

ever

the admiral of Rhangab^, :^ TheophaneB, was son 883, 884. Theophylactos, of the Archipelago, This ia the earliest of Dodekannesos. or DruDgarioB mention of the twelve islands as a geographical and administratiTe division of Oreece. the empire. It was retained by the Crosaders when theyconquered

86
BOOK
Oh.
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

8 4.

of his and declarethat he repented resign, because ithad cut offthe church to imageworship, hostility of Constantinople from communion with the rest of the out the necesChristian world. This declarationpointed sity in order to re-establish of holding council, a general The crisis Patriarch of that communion. a new required and perfect stainless character, acquaintance greatability,
was

induced to

with the party connections and individual characters of No person could be selectedfrom the leading bishops.
among of the church, who had been generally dignitaries appointed by Iconoclast emperors. The choice of Irene the
a

of the the chief secretary civilian. Tarasios, considerable of noble birth, cabinet a man imperial fellon
"

for learning and a highreputation and propopularity, bity elevated to be the head of the Greek was suddenly rank. of the high and allowed to be not unworthy church, The orthodox would probably have raised a question cerning conit had the legality of nominating not a layman, would favour the interests been evident that the objection
"

of their opponents. The empress and her advisers were not bold enough to venture on an irretrievable declaration
until theyhad obtained a image-worship, of popular of the assurance public support.An assembly of inhabitants of the capital convoked in the palace was in order to secure a majority to the cause Magnaura, pledged of Tarasios. The fact that such an assembly considered was of the rival that the strength necessary,is a strongproof tion and that this manifestawas balanced, parties very nearly of public in order to relieve the was opinion required Irene proposed to responsibility. empress from personal the assembly that Tarasios should be elected Patriarch, and the proposal acclamation. received with general was that he Tarasios, howevei,refused the dignity, declaring would not accept the Patriarchate unless a general council should be convoked for restoring to the church. unity The convocation of a councilwas and the nomination adopted, of Tarasios ratified. Though greatcare had been in favour of

SECOND

COUNCIL

OF

NICJSA,

A.D.

787.

87
a. d.

taken to fill this assembly with

neverimage* worshippers,

theless several dissentient voices made the proceedings as protesting against of the empire.^ legislation existing The Iconoclastswere
of the the opposition

themselves heard, 775^


an

attack

on

the

and capital, excited by the determination was soldiery of Tarasios to re-establish imageworship. They declared that they would not allow a council of the openly church to be held,nor permit of their the ecclesiastics treated by the court. More than party to be unjustly
the empress held at Constantinople. It was
one

still strong in the

tumult warned

that no councilcould be found necessary to disperse


and provinces,
to

in distant the Iconoclasticsoldiery form any


new

cohorts of The

guardsdevoted
to

taken stepscould be publicly


was more

the court, before changethe laws of


as
a

the church.
state

of Tarasios experience

ministerof

useful to Irene

the first of during period

than his theological It his patriarchate learning.

threeyears to nearly
which council,
was

smooth the way held at at length


and
a

required for the meeting of the in September Nicsea,

787.
of

Three hundred

members sixty-seven
were

not whom, however,

few

attended, abbots and monks, who


been ejected having

assumed

the titleof confessorsfrom

from their monasteries

by the

decrees of the Iconoclast

Some of the persons presentdeserve to be sovereigns. for they have individually ferred conmentioned, particularly greaterbenefits on mankind by their learned ous than theyrendered to Christianity labours, by theirzealin this council. The of image-worship advocacy
of the secretary
two

commissioners who

the represented

was authority imperial

quently subsethe historian, Nicephorus

His sketch of the Constantinople.^ from the year 602 to 770, is a of the empire, history of judgvaluable work, and indicates that he was a man ment, not obscured by whenever his perceptions were

Patriarch of

' *

Acta 386. Colcti, Theophanos, Patriarch from was Nioephorua

278. 677. Schlosser, S. ConcUiorum,viii. 806 to 816 ; he died in 828.

88

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

Two other emiand ecclesiastical prejudices. theological called writers were also present.George, ^^^^ Byzantine CfiuM^4. from the officehe held under the Patriarch Syncellus, Tarasios. He has left us a chronological work, which facts the knowledge of many has preserved important recorded by no other ancient authority.^ Theophanes, has continued the friend and companion of the Syncellus, and Byzantine this work ; and his chronography of Roman of the forms the best picture with all its faults, history, that we possess for a longperiod. condition of the empire the honour of becoming, at a later enjoyed Theophanes worship ; he was day,a confessor in the cause of imageBOOK I.

monastery which he had founded,and died in the island of Samothrace,a.d. 817.^


exiled from
The
a

second council of Nicasa had

no

than better title

the Iconoclast council of

to be regarded Constantinople council of the church. The Pope Hadrian, as a general from the Latin church ; but the indeed, sent deputies

churches of Jerusalem,Alexandria, and Antioch,whose


under the government of the were patriarchs groaning did not dare to communicate with foreign rities. authocaliphs, An world into
two

attempt was
a

neverthelessmade

to

deceive the

belief that "they were


from

ing represented, by allow-

monks

Palestine

to

present themselves

as

the

of these patriarchs, without scrutinising the syncelli of their credentials. Pope Hadrian, though he validity time to Tarasios, wrote at the same sent deputies, making demands several to establish the ecclesiastical tending in strong supremacy of the papalSee, and complaining that the Patriarch of Constantinople terms had no right the title of ecumenic* The hope of recovering to assume the estates of the patrimony of St Peter in the Byzantine
^

George SynoeUus died

in 800.

His

extends chronography

fh"m

Adam

to

Diocletian.
A.i".

The chronography of Theophanes extends from Diocletian, ".". 285, to 818. It is the best authority for Byzantinehistory after the time of Leo III. His life, is preby Theodorus, abbot of Studion in Constantinople, fixed to the editions of the chronography.

SECOND

COUNCIL

OF

NIC^A,

A.D.

787.

89

and which had been sequestrated a. d. proTinces, by Leo III., of re-establishing the supremacy of the See of Rome, ^7^^ made Hadrian overlook much that was offensive to papal pride.^ of The second councilof Nic"a authorised the worship orthodox practice. as an images Forged passages, pretending
from the earlierfathers, and ine genuthe cited the from favour of in modem, were quotations
to be extracts

evil in the a prevailing practice. Simony was already had purchased Greek church. Many of the bishops their of these naturally lence most preferred doingviosees, and rather than lose their revenues. to their opinions From this cause, unanimity obtained by court was easily that not onlywas the influence. The council decided, of reverence, but also that the imagesof cross an object of angels, and the pictures of the VirginMary Christ, in colours, and holy men, whether painted or saints, in sacred ornaments, or formed in worked in embroidery mosaic in the walls of churches were alllawful objects of worship.At the same time,in order to guard against the accusation of idolatry, it was declared that the worship which of an image, is merely a signof reverence, not be confounded with the adoration due only to must held in 754 was The council of Constantinople God.
" "

and all who maintained its doctrines, declared heretical, anathematised. and condemned the use of images, were and Niketas Constantinos, Anastasios, patriarchs doomed to eternal condemnation. were especially but he the decrees of this council, The Pope adopted because the empress refused to confirm them officially, the estates of St Peter's patrimony. restoring delayed In the countries of western Europe which had formed of the Empire,the superstitions parts of the Western viewed with as much dissatisfacwere image-worshippers The
^

279. Schloeser,

Ada Coleti"

S. ConcUiorum, viii 748.

228, Neander, iii.

translatioD). (Torrey's

90
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

^''

'"

' *'

tion as the fanaticismof the Iconoclasts; and the council ople of Nicsea was as much condemned as that of ConstantinThe ecclesiastics. body of enlightened by a large mind in the West was almost as much divided as public councilof the Latin church in the East ; and if a general its unbiassed decisionswould pro^ had been assembled, by the bablyhave been at variance with those supported

Pope and the council of Nicsea. a refutationof the doctrines Charlemagne published His of image-worship. of this council on the subject
work,called the Caroline Books, consists of
and of
was

four

parts,
sonal per-

certainly composedunder he was though superintendence,


At

his immediate

doubtless incapable
the

published as tious superstiin cided deof the Greek image-worshippers a bigotry time it onlyblames the manner, while at the same itis a very zealof the Iconoclasts. Altogether, misguided remarkable production, and gives correct idea of a more
it himself.^ writing his

all events, it was


condemns

This work composition.

the extent Western

to

which Roman

stillsurvived in civilisation

and society,

fluence, incounterbalanced ecclesiastical

In than any other contemporary document.^ assembled a council of three hundred 794 Charlemagne
at bishops

Frankfort

and, in the presence of the papal


"

The tiileof the firstedition is Opus lUiui. viri Caroli Magni Regit Franete contra Synodum qucB in Partibus Greed pro Adorandit ImaginQms Stalide tive A rroganUr gestaett,"c. 1549. 16mo. It was published by Jean afterwards bishopof Meaux. du Tillet (Eli There is an edition, with a Phili), learned preface, A. Heumann. Hanover, 1731: 8vo. Alcuin, by Christopher of course, deserves all the credit due to the literary merits of and theological the Caroline Books. * that Charlemagnementions that he had learned from his ambassadors, decorations and paintings, though the Greeks expended largesums on the^ allowed their churches to fallto ruin ; and he contrasts the magnificent dowments enof the Frank It is churches with the meanness of the Greek. how few churches of any size appear to have been constructed really surprising in the Byzantine empire,when we remember that for many centuries it was the richest country in the world,and the one most occupied with ecclesiastical affkirsand church ceremonies. Several small Byzantine churches at Athens said to have been constructed by Irene ; common treiditionsays twelve. are A few exist ; some were destroyed duringthe war of the Revolution ; others were swept away by the Bavarian plansof the town.
eorum

92

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

for slaves then constitutedthe pean export to of the produce countries. The
vessels at

^'"^^

article of Europrincipal and Egypt, in payment of Africa, Syria, from those the East,which was brought Greek Pope seized and burned some

because the (Civita-Vecchia), of the the people accused of kidnapping crews were of Hadrian,in The violent expressions neighbourhood. of the Greeks,could not failto produce a great speaking where the lettersof the popes effectin western Europe, read and formed the literary most generally productions have sunk studied by all ranks.^ His calumnies must on mind, and tended to impress deepinto the public Centumcellse Western nations that aversion increased by subsequently
strife. The

the Greeks,which was reliand gious mercantile jealousy


to

extinctionof the last traces of the supremacy of the most gratifying the Eastern Empire at Rome was
On Christmas the popes. revived the existenceof the day,A.D. 800, Charlemagne from Western Empire, and received the imperial crown Pope Leo III. in the church of St Peter's. Hitherto

resultof theirmachinations

to

a titular acknowledged supremacy in the Eastern Empire, of Patrician and had borne the title of the Roman conferred on of dignity as a mark empire, him by the emperors of Constantinople; raised but he now himself to an equality with the emperors of the East,by the title of Emperorof the West. The assumpassuming tion

the Frank monarch

had

of the title of emperor of idle vanity.Roman

of the Romans

was

not

an

act

usages, Roman

and prejudices,

Roman

law stillexercised a
most
numerous

minds of the

influence over the powerful subbody of Charlemagne's

^ Badriani I. EpUt. 12, 13. GnecL"" 262. Schlosser, Pope

calumny.
rum

gens

"

odiblles et Deo Nefandissimi Neapolitani of national had III. an example given Stephen He wrote to Charlemagne"** Perfida et foetentissimi Longobardocomputatur, de cujusnatione gentium nequaquam quae in numero
**

et

to extract est.*' It is a task of difficulty leprosorum genus oriri certum from the records of an age when the head of the Christian impartial history church used sudi language.

END

OP

BYZANTINE

AUTHORITY

AT

ROME,

A.D.

800.

98

; jects

his a. d. and lawyers throughout by all the clergy dominions and prerogatives the rights of the Roman ^^^^^ held to be legally vested in emperors of the West were such as it was, and his person by the fact of his election, his coronation by the Pope. The political of allegiance the Pope to the emperor, which was then undisputed,
and

became thus transferredfrom the emperor of the East to the emperor of the West as a matter of course ; while the of papal rights administration over
the former
chate exar-

and the dukedom of of Ravenna, the Pentapolis, of the Franks,the under the protection Rome, acquired,
character of

sovereignty. Many towns of Italy of municipal at this time acquired a degree independence which made them almost independent The republics. influenceof Roman law in binding the together, society weakness of the papal power, and the rapid military in the empireof the decline of the central authority their peculiar Franks,enabled these towns to perpetuate constitutionsand independent down to the jurisdictions
a

decided

French
A

Revolution.^

female regency in an absolute government must liableto be affairs alwaysrender the conduct of public
When Irene wished to gain intrigues. the Iconoclasts in order to deprive as an ally, Charlemagne of any hope of foreign she had negotiated assistance, a of marriage between her son and Rotnid, the treaty eldest daughter of the Frank monarch,a.d. 781. But when the question of image-worship she began settled, was of to fear that this alliance might become the means her from power, and she then broke off the excluding and compelled her son to marry a Paphlagonian treaty, of the court named Maria,whom the young emperor lady with aversion. Constantine, soon however, regarded submitted quietly to his mother's domination until his

directed by court

^ Niebuhr's BUtoryofJRotMj from L. Schmitz, L 424. ttaruine^hy

the Fir$t Punic

War

to ike Death

of Con-

94

ICOKOCLAST

PBBIOD.

dissatisfaction twentieth year. He then began to display in which he was gjg^j^ ^f tutelage ^^ jjj^ held,and at his oh^m^4.
BOOK
L

seclusion from publicbusiness. A plan was complete in the administration to formed by many leading men but it was discovered him at the head of affairs, place for execution. Irene on this occasion before it was ripe in her eagerness to retain a violence, displayed unseemly to have resigned. The power she ought immediately and banished. When seized, were scourged, conspirators her
son was

conducted

and overwhelmed

into her presence, she struck him, him with reproaches and insults. The

in the palace young emperor was then confined so strictly that allcommunication with his friends was cut off. This

the

conduct of the regent-mother became unprincipled The of general reprobation. troopsof the object

Armeniac
to the

theme refused to

and marched obey her orders,

On the way they to deliver Constantino. capital and Irene found herself were joinedby other legions, hastened to release her son, who immediately compelled A total revolutionwas to the advancing effected aimy.
at court.

The from

ministers and and office,


some

creatures

of Irene

were

removed

who

Constantine against animosity beheaded.^


years

Constantine ruled the

displayed cular partiand were scourged for about six empire

had

glected (a.d. 790-797). But his education had been nein a disgracefrd and his mind was perhaps manner, fickle. Though he displayed the courage of naturally his family for at the head of his army, his incapacity and his inconstancy in his friendships, lost business, soon him the support of his most He devoted partisans. lost his popularity out the eyes of his uncle, by putting and cutting of his four uncles, out the tongues Nicephorus, who were of accused of having taken part in the plots

theirbrother.

He

alienated the attachment

of the Ar-

893. Theophanes,

CONSTAIITINI

VI.

DIV0ECB8

MARIA.

95
d.

meDian Alexis

oat the eyes of their general,a. troopsby puttiog

who had been the Mouselen,

means

of

delivering '^J^^

him from

foUj of this last act was than the ingratitude, for it was done to graeven greater tify mother. of his the revengefiil These of acts feelings and ingratitude his influence, and foUy, cruelty, destroyed
confinement induced his sincerestfriends
to

The

make
son

Irene,whom
The
been
cause

it

was

evident her

their peace with would ultimately

allow to rule the

empire. into which Constantino had unhappy marriage forced by his mother,she at lastconverted into the

of his ruin. The emperor fell in love with Theoand determined one of his mother's maids of honour, dota, divorce Maria in order
to

to

marry

her.

Irene,whose

tered flatambition induced her to stoopto the basest intrigues, him in thisproject, to increase as it seemed likely

her

influence and
was

ruin his

The Empress reputation. and the monastery,

Maria
emperor

induced

to retire into a

to expected

be able to celebratehis

marriage

with Theodota without

But the usage of the difficulty. that the Patriarchshould proempire required Byzantine nounce
and this Tarasios, who divorce, and active political was a devoted partisan agentof Irene, of Constantine, longrefused to do. The imprudence involved the and the insidious advice of Irene,soon the sentence of emperor with the whole body of monks,who dispute influencein society. had an overwhelming The Patriarch at lastyielded to the influenceof Irene, so far as to allow his catechist to give the veilto the EmpressMaria,whom the celebraand then to permit tion he pronounced divorced, of the emperor's with Theodota by Joseph, marriage and of the patriarchal of the principal one chapter, clergy abbot of a monasteryin the capital.^ In the Byzantine at this time, constant religious empire, in
a

897. Theophanes,

96
BOOK
Ch.
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

had introduced to superior and pretensions discussions, sanctity,


ranks into the highest spirit profound religious of society. Numbers of the wealthiest nobles founded the into which they retired. The manners, monasteries, of these abbots, and the pure morality extensive charity, and secured them the love and admiration of the people, than standard of morality tended to disseminate a higher This fact in Constantinople. had previously prevailed the various causes must not be overlooked in estimating of the Eastern Empire which led to the regeneration of lifeand prounder the Iconoclast emperors. Security perty, and all the foundations of national prosperity, are than the ruling connected with moral purity more closely classes It may not be quite useless, are inclined to allow. to illustration of the state of the Byzantine as an empire, remind the reader of the violence, and debauchery injustice, cluding inwhich prevailed at the courts of the west of Europe, that of Charlemagne.While the Pope winked the monki of Charlemagne, at the disorders in the palace of the East prepared mind for the dethronement the public of Constantino, because he obtained an illegal and formed a second marriage.The corruption divorce, in the monasand the irregularities of morals, teries prevalent of the West, contrast strongly with the condition of
a

S 4.

the Eastern monks.^ of retreat, monasteries as a place building also adopted was adopted by some from motives of piety, wealth of ttfeir a portion by others as a mode of securing from confiscation, in case of their condemnation for political in reserved the crimes, teries monaspeculiar privileges being .^ founded for members of the founder's family so
1 iL 143, Hittorv (translated Mosheim, Itutitutet of Eeeleticntieal by Murdoch), 198 ; Soames' edit But not to wrong St Eligius, also Arnold, Introductory see Lectures on Modem 102. Maitland (The Dark Ages,102) makes the Bittori/, most of Mosheim's The times, error. however, were not better than Mosheim represents them. ' The abuse of fictitious donations to monasteries had become so great an eyil in Western Europe, The laws to restrain the praotioe. as to require numerous

The habit of

OPPOSITION

OP

THE

MONKS.

97
a. d.

At this time
on

Mount
was a

abbot of the monasteryof Sakkoudion, Plato, and his nephewTheodore, Oljmpusin Bithynia, relation of the
a

^^^^

who

new

the leaders of

powerful party of monks


Theodore

were Empress Theodota, possessing great

iniSueneein the church.


name

abbot
a

(whois known by the Studita,from havingbeen afterwards appointed of the celebratedmonasteryof Studion) had founded

in which he assembled monastery on his own property, and a young sister, his father, pating two brothers, and, emanciallhis household and agricultural established slaves, them

laybrethren on the farms. Most of the abbots round Constantinople of family and wealth, were men as well as learning and piety the sincere ; but theyrepaid with which they were regarded by the people, by respect in that be cannot we so popular participating prejudices, the part of to find them acting surprised constantly himself from all spiritual demagogues. Plato separated
as

communion
to have

with the Patriarch

whom Tarasios,

he declared

violated the

of Christianity in permitprinciples ting

were

of the emperor. the adulterous marriage His views warmly supported by his nephew Theodore, and monks the began openlyto preachboth against the emperor. Irene
now
saw

many

Patriarch and
movement
was

that the

favourable to her ambition. a turn taking Tarasios for the monks, and prepared She encouraged Plato and Theodore the party of his sovereign. quitting and from their greatreputation enemies, were dangerous and into and ecclesiastical extensive political connections, Constantine rashly contest with these men a personal

plunged.
Lombard nations the faculty of revoking these doto reserve law allowed the grantors and they reserved possessionon paying a smaU during their lives, tions annual sum to the monastery. Charlemagne declared all such donaas rent existed among the The Empress Irene his divorced Constantine, founded the monastery of St Euphrosyne, where her son buried ; and also the monastery wife Maria, and his two daughters were sent after her dethronement, and in Prince's Island,to which she was irrevocable in order to chedc the evU. The
abuse

Lingard'sHistory of England^ i. Anglo-Saxons."

517.

before her banishment VOL.


L

to Lesbos.

98

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

BOOK

I.

^'"^^

in conplaced who finement under the wardship of the abbot Joseph, had celebrated the imperial marriage.Theodore was whither he was conveyed banished to Thessalonica, by a detachment of police soldiers. He has leftus an account which proves that the orders of the emperor of his journey, not carried into execution with undue severity.^ were seized by the Theodore and his attendant monks were officers at a distance from the monastery, and imperial the first horses their journey to commence on compelled their escort could procure, instead of being to permitted hurried send for their ambling mules. They were forward for three days, the night at Karesting during thara in Liviana,Lefka, and Phyraion. At the last they encountered a melancholy place array of monks, Plato
was

and arrestedat hismonastery,

driven fix"m the

greatmonastery of Sakkoudion after the arrest of Plato ; but with these fellow-sufferers, though rangedalongthe road, Theodore was not allowed to them his blessing on communicate,except by bestowing he rode past. He was then carried to Paula,from as whence he wrote to Plato that he had seen his sister, with the venerable Sabas, abbot of the monastery of
Studion.

but had been They had visited him secretly, in his society. allowed by the guards to pass the evening Next nightthey reached Loupadiou, where the exiles treated by their host At Tilin theywere were kindly but they joined by two abbots,Zacharias and Pionios, The journey not allowed to travel in company. were continued by Alberiza, was Perperina, Anagegrammenps, Parium, and Horkos, to Lampsacus. On the road,the the greatest bishops expressed sympathyand eagerness them ; but the bigoted to serve Theodore declared that

his conscience would not

permithim

to hold any

commu-

^ Theodori Studikd Opp, 230. letters of Theodore 319. Some Schlosser, Studita aro given by Boronius. I have extracted the acoount of the journey from Schlosser, Qftohicku der bildentUrmenden Kaiser, for I have not been able to supplymyself with the works of Theodore.

100

ICONOCLAST
was palace

PERIOD.

BOOK

^'^*^

of by liberal promises wealth and advancement : a band of conspirators was but a timely to seize Constantino, then appointed warning He him Triton the enabled to escape to on Propontis. had of the capital, have recovered possession mighteasily doned Abanhe not wasted two months in idleness and folly. at lastby every friend, he was seized by his mother's After being to Constantinople. emissariesand dragged time a prisoner in the porphyry detained some ment apartin the officers

secured

in which he 19th

was

bom, his eyes


Constantino

were

put

out

on

the

August 797.^

had

given his

cruel

marks of that affectionwhich he appears public to have feltfor her,and to which he had sacrificed really mother his best friends. He
her had erected
a

statue

of bronze to

of Constantinople honour,which longadorned the hippodrome of proclaimed sovereign time been allowed by her and it administration, affection which
course

Irene

was

now some

the

empire.
his
fidence con-

She had for

careless son
was

to direct the whole

in her maternal

enabled her

to

work
and

his ruin.

She

of

released all immediately


son

the ecclesiastical opponents of her


restored them
to
was

from and

confinement,
offices. The

their honours

Patriarch Tarasios
the monks

by

his peace with his creature, the abbot excommunicating ordered to make between

Joseph; and the closest alliance was formed him and his former opponents, Plato and
the latter of whom
was

Theodore,
his the

for after rewarded shortly elevated to the dignity of abbot of sufferings by being The

greatmonastery of Studion.
her
five years, during which Empress Irene reigned of her intrigues peace was disturbed by the political

1 QibboD, iz. 88. The authorities which prove that Constantine did not die of the inhuman treatment he receiTed, but was throned livingwhen Nicephorus dehis mother, are, ConHn Const. Porpkyr. Leo Qramm. $c p. Theoph. 83. r-^ r r 202, edit. Bonn. * De Orig. 62. Codinus, ConttanHnop,

CHAEACTBR

OP

IBENB.

101

for a. d. interesting subject ^^^'^^ than for history, for it is more biography striking by its than important in its political effects. details, personal Bat the records of private life in the age in which she and of the state of society at Athens,where she liyed, to be was educated,are so few, that it would require written by a noyelist, who could combine the strange yidssitudes of her fortunes with a true portraiture of human feelings, coloured with a train of thought, and en" riched with facts gleaned from contemporarylives and lettersof Greek saints and monks.^ Born in a private and in a provincial, and popustation, a wealthy though bus city, it must have required a rare combination of personal native grace, and mental superiority, to fill beauty,
more

ministers. Her lifeoffers a

the rank of empress of the Romans, to which she was suddenly likeher at the court of a haughty raised, sovereign father-in-law Constantino
but vested with
even

with

rassment, only without embaruniversal praise. when Agi^n,

V., not
as

the regency,

widow

of

an

Iconoclast

firmness of purpose, great talent, emperor, it required and conciliation of manner, to overthrow an ecclesiastical
than half a party which had ruled the church for more century. On the other hand,the deliberateway in which of her son, whose character authority and the callousness she had corrupted by a bad education, his confidence in order to with which she gained him of his throne, and send him to pass his lifeas deprive she undermined the
a

blind monk

in

empress, whose endowed was saint, demon.


was

secluded cell, proves that the beautiful cherished as an orthodox was memory
a

with

the heart and

of feelings

to say, when Strange


soon

of Irene's crimes the object of gratified satiety the interest she had

reached,she
She
no

felt all the

ambition.

took longer

taken in

the conducting

viously prebusiness of the public

There is a work on the lifeof Irene,by Abb6 Mignot,Hittaire de VImpiraand worthless as biogre^hy. is inexact as history, Ifc 1662. triceMnSf Amst

102
BOOK

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

I.

^'^^*'

abandoned the exerciseof her power to seven she selected to performthe duties of eunuchs,whom and empire, elevationto that her own forgot the throne offered a temptingpremium to successful her the grand treasurer,cajoled treason. Nicephorus, throned, favouriteeunuchs to joina plot, by which she was deministersof
state.

She

and

exiled

to a

monastery she had founded in

bos, Prince's Island ; but she was soon after removed to Leswhere she died in a few months, almost forgotten/

Her

fate afterher death

was was

as

as duringher singular

life. The unnatural mother


as
an

canonised

by the Greeks

and at her native Athens several orthodox saint, churches are stillpointed out which she is said to have
not founded, though

Under the

any certain authority.^ the government of Constantino VI. and Irene,


on

both imperial policy,

in the civiladministration and

external relations, followed the course traced out by Leo the Isaurian. To reduce all the Sclavonian colonists who had formed settlements within the bounds of the

submission, was empireto complete

the firstobject of

Irene's regency. The extension of these settlements, after the great plague in 747, began to alarm the government.
and

Extensive districtsin Thrace, Macedonia, pendent the Peloponnesus, had assumed the form of inde-

hardlyacknowledged allegiance at Constantinople. Irene naturally than ordinary interest in the took more She kept up the closestcommunicastate of Greece. tions with her family at Athens,and shared the desire of every Greek to repress the presumption of the Sdaand restore the ascendancy of the Greek popuvonians,
to

communities,and

the central administration

^ Irene must have felttbat there was in the sayingby which some justice the Qreeks characterised the hopeless demoralisation of her "Touritee : " If you have an eunuch, kill him; if you haven't one, buy one, and kill him.** ' It is to St Irene the martyr, and not to the imperial that the presaint, sent cathedral of Athens is dedicated. The festivalof the empress saint is on the 7th August. Mmologium,m, 195.
"

POLICY

OP

THE

BBIGN

OP

IRENE.

IDS
a.d.

lation in the raral districts. In the year 783 she sent Stavrakios at the head of a well-appointed to army
to reduce the Sdavonian Thessalonica,
to

^^5^

tribes in Macedonia

and directdependence,

enforce the

regular ment pay-

of tribute.^ From

Stavrakios marched Thessalonica,

and Greece to the Peloponnesus, throughMacedonia the Sclaronians for the disorders they had punishing and carrying off a number of their able-bodied committed,
men

to serre

as

soldiers or to be sold

as

slaves.

In the

following year
to Tisit the

Irene led the young

Sdaronian

Emperor Constantino settlements in the ricinity of

mission. which had been reduced to absolute subThessalonica, like several Greek cities, had fallen Berrhoea, into ruins ; it was now of and received the name rebuilt,
were garrisons Irenopolis. Strong

in Philippopolis placed between

and

to Anchialos,

cut off

all communication
their

the

Sdavonians
the

in the

and empire,

countrymen under

Bulgarian government. The Sdavonians in Thrace and Macedonia, thoughunable to maintain their provindal independence, still took advantage of their position,
when removed

form bands

to the eye of local administration, of robbers and pirates, which rendered the

from

communications with
times insecure both After Irene had

and Constantinople by land and sea.^

Thessalonica at
the Sclavonian

dethroned her

son,

of dangerous A conspiracy activity. population gave proofs tino formed to place of the sons of Constanone was V.
on

the throne.

Irene had banished her brotherssure

in-law to Athens,where they were who were watched by her relations,

carefully being interested in strongly x"f The project of the partisans her cause. supporting to seize Constantinople the exiled princes discovered, was
and it was found

of

that the chief reliance of the Isaurian


was

party in Greece
1

in placed

the assistance
"

theyex-

884. of Irene's "yoarite eonnoha. Theophanes, Stavrakiofl was one at page "9. See the danger to which Theodore Studita was exposed,

10*
BOOK ^'"^^
L

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

to pected

deriye from tbe Sclavonian


was

The populatioD.
sons

chief of Velzetia

to

have

carried off the

of

covered disConstantine V. from Athens, when the plan was and frustrated by the vigilance of Irene's friends.^ who had already losttheir princes, and exiled with of sight, now were deprived tongues, to Panormus, where they their brother Nicephorus were in the reign of again made the tools of a conspiracy The four unfortunate

Michael L The
varied
war success

with the Saracens

was

carried

on

with

VI., and

the reigns of Leo IV., Constantine during Irene. The military talentsof Leo III. and
an

Constantine V. had formed


forces of the

army

that resisted the

under caliphs
even

the

powerful governmentof

afterthe veterans had been disbanded the celebratedHaroun Al Rashid was unable to by Irene, Mansur
;

and

make

thoughthe empirewas any permanent conquests, and in war with the Saracens, the Bulgarians, engaged the troops of Charlemagne time. at the same
the year 782, Haroun was sent by his father, the at the head of one Caliph Mahdy, to invade the empire, hundred thousand men, attended by Rabia and Jahja the Barmecid.
was,

In

The

of object

the Mohammedan
to

prince

and

the country, pillaging off prisoners the slave-markets of to supply carrying


to

however, rather directed

his father's dominions,than The

effect permanent

quests. con-

absence of which
was

considerable part of the

engagedin Sicily ing suppressthe rebellionof Helpidios, enabled Haroun to march all Asia Minor to the shores of the Bosphorus, through
and

Byzantine army,

from the hillabove Scutari to gaze


400. Theophanefl,

on

Constantin-

It is difficult of Yelzeiaa. The geoto fix the podtion graphical nomenclature of the of the Sclavoniana giTosus the same repetition colonies. Theoflame that we find in our own districts, names, in widely-distant This pas876, mentions Verzetia as a frontier district of Bulgaria. phanes, sage is remarkable for containingthe earliest mention of the Russians in

Byxantine history.

8ABACBN

WAB.

105

a more imposing a.d. presented than Bagdad. Irene was compelled to purchase aspect 775^ peace, or rather to conclude a truce for three years, bj annual tribute of seventy thousand pieces of an paying and Btipnlatiug gold, to allow the Saracen army to retire unmolested ivith all its plunder and his ; for Haroun

which opie,

must

then hare

found generals many taken

that their advance


an

had involved them in

of which difiSculties,

advantage.Haroun in person agaiust in eight the Byzantine empire him to respect the valour campaigns. Experience taught
and of the Christian armies,whenever able discipline officers nople enjoyedthe confidence of the court of Constanti;

active enemy mighthave Al Rashid issaid to have commanded

and

when

he ascended

he deemed the throne,

it

the Mesoponecessary to form a permanent army along tamian frontier, the fortifications of the to strengthen towns with additionalworks, and add to their means of defence by planting medan in them new colonies of Moham-

Duringthe time Constantine VI. ruled the empire, several times at the head he appeared of the Byzantine and his fickle characterdid not armies, firmness in the field. His popuprevent his displaying larity with the soldiers with viewed was jealousy by his
inhabitants.^

mother, who laboured


him from

retard his movements, and vent preThe obtaining any decided success.
to
were

Saracens acknowledged that the Greeks

theirsuperiors

in naval afiairs; but in the year 792 theydefeated of Attalia with greatloss. the Byzantine fleetin the gulf

The admiral, and solicited taken prisoner, was Theophilos, and enter his service. to abjure by the caliph Christianity The
admiral

refused to forsake his


Al

or religion

serve mean

his country, and Haroun against

Rashid

was

enoughto
When

order him to be

put to death.
that Constantine had

the

Saracens heard

WeU, Gnckiehte

der

iL 155. CkaJAfen,

106
BooKL

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

^'"^*'

againruled by a whom theyhad already to pay tribute, woman compelled and plundered Asia Minor theyrenewed their inyasions, whose ministers were up to the walls of Ephesus.Irene, with court intrigues, took no measures to resist occupied to pay tributeto the enemy, and was once, more obb'ged The annual incursions of the Saracens into the caliph.^ made principally the Christian territory for the were away slaves ; and great numbers of purpose of carrying the caliph's dominions Christians were sold throughout into hopeless took the field Haroun, therefore, slavery. in his wars with the Byzantine empiremore as a slavebeen

dethroned,and the empirewas

merchant than which made Mohammedans

war

But conqueror. commercial a

this very circumstance,

introduced speculation,

into the humanity


:

of the Christians and hostile operations the lower classeswere

as spared,^ they would in were they bring price of the better class the firstslave-market ; while prisoners in order to draw from them a higher som ranwere retained, than their value as slaves, them for to exchange or rank who had fallen into the hands of the of equal men This circumstance had brought about regular enemy. of Constantino of prisoners as early as the reign exchanges

sold for the immediately

v., A.D. 769.2 In the year 797, a new clause was of prisoners, ing bindfor the exchange inserted in a treaty
to contracting parties the payment of a on captives,

the

release all supernumerary dual.^ fixed sum for each indivi-

were

who arrangement enabled the Christians, the greatest to save their friends suflFerers, generally This
or

from death

but perpetual slavery,

it added

to

the in-

^ account of the Saracen war, which has Theophanee gives the Byzantine been compared with the Arabian authorities by Weil, Oe$ehiohU der C^alifen, iil55.
"

874. Theophanes,

Three thousand seven hundred prisoners were exchanged, ezclusiye of the additional individuals ransomed cluded by the Christians. A similar treatywas conbetween Haroun and Nicephorus in 805. Notion et ExtraUt tUi MS. viii 198.
"

'

108

ICONOCLAST

PBRIOD.

BOOK
CB.L

I.

fi.

the Mohammedans has arisen rather reputation among his Christian than his yirtues, from his orthodoxy persecuted and at lasthis oppression with greatcruelty, subjects their natiye induced twelve thousand Armenians to quit in the Byzantine Some years and settle empire.^ country, ortho* of Michael III. the drunkard, in the reign later, administration doxy became the greatfeature in the Byzantine Christianorthodoxy strongly ; and,unfortunately, of persecution. in the spirit resembled Mohammedanism The Paulicians were then persecuted by the emperors, as and had previously the Armenians been by the caliphs, fled for toleration to the Mohammedans.

Chamich, History Armenia, ii 898. "tf

CHAPTER

11.

THE

REIGNS

OF THE

NICEPHORUS
ARMENIAN.
"

I, MICHAEL
^A.D. 802-620.

L, AND

LEO

V.

SECT.

I." NICEPH0RU8

L"

803-811.

His

VAJflLT

AKD

OHABAOIEB
POUOT"

"

RiBBLLION
FISCAL war"

Of

BikRDAHBB
ADMINIBTBATIOir

"

TounUHT
"

XOOLEBIASnCAL
noiro AT WITH

OPPREBBIYB Sabaokn
WAS"

RSLA-

Chablemaonb" BULQABlAir

Dkvsat NlOIPHOBUS.

or

Sclayoniaks

PaTBAS"

DBATH

Of

NiCBPHORUS
snrer, when

held the office of


he dethroned Irene.
a

treaor grand logothetes,

He

was

bom

at

Seleucia,
the Christian

in

of Pisidia,

Arabian

familywhich kings. His ancestor


of Ghassan

claimed descent from


the Djaballah, of

monarch
the

in the time

Heraclius, abjured

and embraced of the Roman the allegiance empire, the stem and Mohammedan He carried among religion. and arrogance Moslems the monarchical pride independent of a vassal court. As he was the religious performing rites of the pilgrimage in the mosque at Mecca, an Arab trode on his cloak ; Djaballah, that accidentalljr enraged stmck the a king should be treated with so little respect,

careless Arab teeth.


The

in the

and knocked face, the

out

some

of his

tion CaliphOmar knew no distincof persons, and the kingof Ghassan was ordered to mit to the injured make satisfactory Arab, or subreparation monarch's pride to the law of retaliation. The was wounded 80 deeply by this sentence that he fled to Conof justice

110

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

and renounced the Mohammedan religion.^ stantinople, jjjQ Arabs, who paid the most minute jjjjgj-jjjg py^m cb^u^i. allow that Nicephorus attentionto genealogy, was lineallj
BooKL

descended.^ of Nicephorus features of the reign were leading His character was order and fiscal oppression. political said to be reiled in impenetrable hypocrisy; yet anecdotes
The
are

recounted which indicate that he made

no

secret of

and his avarice,


was orthodoxy

the other vices attributedto him.

His

but,on certainly suspicious,


able and humane

the whole,he

appears to have been an has certainly obtained a

prince.He in history than worse reputation of greater crimes. many emperors who have been guilty his rapacity. Many anecdotes ai*e recounted concerning As soon as he receivedthe imperial crown, he bethought
treasures

himself of the
to

Irene had

and resolved concealed,

of them. These treasures are conceived possession gain historiansto be a part of the immense by the Byzantine Leo III. and Constantine V. were supposed to have sums of provisions accumulated. The abundance and low price which had prevailed, in the reign of Constantine particularly of specie caused by v.,was ascrib^to the rarity the hoards accumulated by these emperors. Irene was said to know

where all this wealth

was

concealed ; and

thoughher administration had been and a diminution of the expenditure

marked

by

lavish

believed to possess immense sums. himself to Nicephorus story of the chronicles, presented
Irene in
a

she was taxes,still If we believe the

and assured her that he had only private garb, assumed the imperial her and save her to serve crown life. By flattery with intimidation, he obtained mingled and then,in violationof his of her treasures, possession banished her to Lesbos. promises,
Chron, Syr.139. Oakley,Bidory of the Saraeem, L 150. Abulpharagiufl, Uist, Arab. MimumeiUis, 171,gives De AtUiquiu. of tUe account an Eichhorn,
same
'

event

from Ibn

Kathaiba. 66.

de VEgj^pUy Conquete par Wakedy, publi^e par Hamaker, liiitoiredu Bcu- Empire, xiv. 893,note 2, edit St Martin.

LebeaU|

REBELLION

OF

BABDANES,

A.D.

803.

Ill

The mother

dethroned
in

Constantine bad

been

of great wealth. possession himself into the confidence of the accnsed of ingratiating blind prince, of these treasures,and possession gaining Loud complaints him. made against tben neglecting were in the reigns the extortion of the tax-gatherers of Constantine VI. and Irene,and Nicepborus established a court of review to revise the accounts of every public But his enemies accused him of converting functionary. this court into a means of confiscating the propertyof the guilty, instead of enabling the sufferers their to recover

by bis is Nicepborus

left

a.ix

^^^^"*

losses. The both


man was an event Nicepborus unexpected of a and the army ; and the success by the people whose name almost unknown was previously beyond

accessionof

held out a hope to every the circleof the administration, of influencethat an emperor, who owed his elevation man
to

of eunuchs and a court intrigue, conspiracy might whom be driven from the throne. Bardanes, easily of the troops of five appointed general Nicepborus
a

Asiatic themes to march

the Saracens, instead of against

this army against Haroun Al Rashid,proclaimed leading himself emperor. He was by Thomas the supported and Michael Sdavonian,^ as well as by Leo the Armenian mounted the throne. the Armorian,who both subsequently of extreme The crisiswas but Nicepborus one difficulty, convinced the world that he was worthy of the throne. soon The rebel troops were discouraged by his preparations, and rendered ashamed of theirconduct by his reproaches. of proLeo and Michael were over gained by a promise motion his army rapidly dispersing, ; and Bardanes, seeing for his own negotiated pardon. He was allowed to retire
to

but monasteryhe had founded in the island of Prote, danes while Barhis estates were confiscated. Shortly after, in seclusionas an humble monk, a band was living
a
^

Thomas, Concerning

see

page 185,note 1, and page 154,note 8.

112
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

of

crossed over brigands Ljcaonian


out

from the Asiatic coast

^"""*^

and put
were

his eyes.

As the

of this atrocity perpetrators

moved evidently by personal cion vengeance, suspithat fellso strongly the he deemed it on emperor, that he had no necessary to take a solemn oath in public and never entertained a thought of the crime, knowledge of violating the safe-conduct he had givento Bardanes. be observed, This safe-conduct, it must had received the ratification of the Patriarch and the senate. Bardanes

himself did

not

appear to

the emperor; he showed suspect

and piety the greatest resignation ; gave up the use of and fish, ley barwheaten bread,wine,oil, on living entirely which he baked in the embers. he In summer cakes,
wore a

leather garment,and single he lived

in winter

mantle of died

hair-cloth. In this way


the reign of during The

and contentedly,

Leo the Armenian. of Nicephorus reign sent prehe Though a brave soldier,

transactions of the civil

some was

facts. interesting

a statesman, and his conviction that the essentially the peculiar business of the sovefinance department was reign, and the key of public be traced in afiairs, can many He eagerly the centralising events. significant pursued of his Iconoclastpredecessors, and strove to render policy the civilpower supreme over and the Church. the clergy

forbade the Patriarch to hold any communications he considered as the Patriarch of with the Pope,whom
He

Charlemagne ; and

this prudent measure

has caused much

of the virulencewith which his memory has been attacked and orthodox historians.^ The Patriarch by ecclesiastical

Tarasios bad

shown himself

of the emperor, and he was of the heads of the as one

enemy to the supremacy esteemed by Nicephoinis highly


no

both in the church and party,

which the emperor was anxious to conciliate.When state, Tarasios died, made a solemn disa.d. 806, Nicephorus
^

419. TheophaneB,

I
}
TOLBEANT BCCLBSIA8TICAL POLICY.

118
a.d. patriarchal ^^^"' the episco-

playof

his

The body, clad grief.

in the

crowned with the mitre, and seated on robes, to the usage of the East, ported transwas palthrone, according to a monastery founded by the deceased Patriarch
on

the shores of the Bosphorus, where the funeralwas with greatpomp, the emperor assisting, em* performed it with his purple the body, and covering robe.^ bracing in succeeded an able and popular Nicephorus finding his secular to support to views, prelate, disposed worthy succeed Tarasios. This was the historianNicephoros. He had already from public retired and was residing life, in a monastery he had founded, he had not yet though On his election, taken monastic vows. he entered the and took the monastic habit. This laststep was clergy, rendered necessaryby the usage of the Greek church, which now only admitted monks to the episcopal dignity. the ceremony additionalsplendour, To give Stavrakios, the son of the EmperorNicephorus, who had received from his father, the imperial crown was to be deputed at the tonsure. present The PatriarchNicephoros installed than was no sooner the emperor began to execute his measures for establishing the supremacy of the civil power. after Tarasios, Constantino and of the divorce VI., sanctioning allowing had yielded the celebration of his second marriage, to the influence of Irene and the monks,and declaredboth The EmperorNicephorus consideredthisa acts illegal. and resolvedto obtain an affirmation dangerous precedent, of the validity of the second marriage. The new in which the marriage Patriarch assembled a synod, was and the abbot Joseph, who had celebrated declaredvalid, The it,was absolved from all ecclesiastical censure. monastic party, at the emperor seeking cipation emanenraged from their authority, broke out into a furious
^

407. Theophanes,
H

VOL.

I.

114

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

calls this Theodore Studita,their leader, opposition. and ch^jlji. gynod an assemblyof adulterers and heretics, the interests the Patriarch with sacrificing reproached succeeded in bringof religion.^ ing But, Nicephorus having in of monastic ire on a question about this explosion who now the people, which he had no personal interest, the unfortunate Constantino VI. as hardly regarded of his marriagewith Theodota, used on the subject could not be persuaded to take any part in the dispute. also supposed Theodore's violence was to arise from his elected Patriarch. at not being disappointment became so favourable to the empePublic opinion ror's that a synod assembled in 809 ecclesiastical views, to possess the power declared the Patriarch and bishops from rules of ecclesiastical law, of granting dispensations and that the emperor was not bound by legislative sions proviconsidered the enacted for subjects. Nicephorus for compelling the monks to obey time had now come He ordered Theodore Studita and Plato his authority.
BOOK I.

ceremonies with the part in the ecclesiastical he abbots refused, Patriarch;and when these refractory and then deposed banished them to Prince'sIsland, them.
to

take

Had

the

able opposedthe emperor on the reasonhe that the principles was on which ground violating of society vidual security depended, by setting up his indiwill against the systematic the rules of justice, now

the monks

maxims

of Roman

law, the established usages


in

of the

and empire,
found
a

the eternal rules of

response

doctrines

might have

equity, theywould have the hearts of the people. Such led to some reform in political

the government,and to the establishment of some stitutional concheck on the exercise of arbitrary power;
and

the exclamation of Theodore,in one of his letters is the gospel for kings ? to the Pope, Where now
" " ^

In

letter to the

Pope" Boronii Annalet

Eeeles.iz. 37d|A.D. 806.

116
BOOK
CiL
n.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

was

not

fix)in ill-judged economy, but from want

of mili-

1 1.

that his campaigns were tarj talents,

unsuccessful.

restored the duties levied at the entrance Nicephorus which had been and the Bosphorus, of the Hellespont after her cruelty remitted bj Irene to purchase popularity to furnish a He ordered all the provinces to her son.^
stated number

of able-bodied recruitsfor the army, drawn from among the poor ; and obliged to pay each district nomismata a-head for their equipthe sum of eighteen ment"enfo the old Roman of principle mutual for the payment responsibility of any taxes,in

case

the

recruits should possess property liable to taxation.^ Onelikewise added to the dutyon public ments. docutwelfth was

imposed all domestic slaves purchased on beyondthe Hellespont. The inhabitants of Asia Minor who merce engagedin comof to purchase a certain quantity were compelled landed propertybelonging to the fiscat a fixed valuation: and, what tended to blacken the emperor's reputation than anything h e extended the hearth-tax more to else,
An
two
was

additionaltax of

nomismata

the propertyof the church, and charitable to monasteries, which had hitherto been exempted from the institutions, burden ; and he the commencement
which monasteries,
so

enforced the

payment of

arrears

from

of his reign. The innumerable it was the fashion to

private

drew withmultiply,

was

propertyfrom taxation that this measure absolutely necessary to prevent frauds on the fisc;

much

thoughnecessary, it was unpopular. Nicephorus^ the sale of gold and silver plate moreover, permitted dedicated as holyofierings superstition by private ; and, like many modem he quartered princes, troopsin monas1

but

401. Theophanes,

Ws see from this that the indiTidnal "10. is nearly in the ranks was more in ancient than in modern He acted times. expensive also a more then inferior, and less ezpensive. was important part Artillery We must not foigetthat,during the period embraced in this volame, the Bysantine army was the finest in the world.

'

Bighteen nomismata

OPPRESSIVE

FINAKCIAL

ADMINISTRATION.

117

bis goyema.d. accusation against menty that he furnished the merchants at Constantinople in foreign trade with the sum of twelve pounds' engaged
an

teries. It is also made

"

for which theywere to pay weight of gold, compelled from the state* twenty per cent interest It is difficult,
ments

of the

acts, to form
some

writers concerning the legislative Byzantine idea of the emperor's in a precise object the effectsof the law in others. among establish His
mies ene-

cases, or

do not hesitate to enumerate


exertions he made
to

his crimes the

colonies in the military waste districts the Bulgarian secured by the on frontier, line of fortresses constructed by Constantino V. His allcommunication between to cut off effectually was object the unruly Sdavonians in Thrace and the population to the north. There can be no doubt of his enforcing every of the with He daim government rigour. ordered a strict who were of all agriculturists not natives to be census vated made throughout and the land theycultithe provinces, domain. declared to belongto the imperial was
He then conyerted

these cultivatorsinto slaves of the


land for the space of to the condition restricted

of an old law,which declared that fisc, by the application all who had cultivated the
same were thirty years consecutiyely,

of

or serfs attached colonic

to the soil.^

The
cannot

which conspiracies be admitted


as

were

formed

evidence of

Nicephorus against his unpopularity, for

the best of the

monarchs were as often victims Byzantine of secret plots the worst. The elective titleto the as empire rendered the prizeto successful ambition one laws the respect due to their country's which overpowered It is in the breasts of the courtiers of Constantinople. that we can judgeof the insurrections onlyfrom popular of humanity The principles sovereign's unpopularity. to religious that rendered Nicephorus averse persecution,
1

414. Tbeophaaes, 411,41$, zi. 48-9. Cenntis,

Cedreniu,ii 480.

Cod. JntUn.-^De

AgrkolU

118

ICOKOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK ^'
""

I. * ^'

with much less cruelty conspirators than most Byzantine Perhapsthe historians emperors. hostileto his government have deceiyed posterity, giving considerable importance to insignificant see as we plots, their courts by modem continually deceiving diplomatists into dan^ of dissatisfaction magnifying expressions trifling discontent. In the year gerous presages of widespread formed to place was a conspiracy 808, however, really of questor, Arsaber who held the oflSce or a patrician, minister of legislation the throne. Though Arsaber on of an Armenian was family, many persons of rank were with him; yet Nicephorus leagued only confiscated his and compelled him to embrace the monastic life.^ estates, An attempt was made to assassinate the emperor by who rushed into the palace, seized the sword of a man of the imperial of the guards one chamber,and severely caused him
to treat
"
"

wounded criminal

many
was
a

persons

before he
was

was

secured.
to

The

to according ordered him to that he was a maniac, on learning in a lunatic asylum. Indeed, thoughhistorians be placed of of inhumanity, the punishment accuse Nicephorus

the torture, the cruel practice phorus, of the time ; but Nice-

monk, who

put

death,in
The for
a

cases

of treason, was

never

carried into efiect

his reign. during relationsof with Charlemagne were Nicephorus


A

short time amicable.

treaty was

concluded

at

in 803, regulating the frontiersof the Aix-la-Chapelle, two empires. In this treaty,the supremacy of the Eastern Empire over Venice,Istria, the maritime parts of Dalmatia, and the south of Italy, was acknowledged ;
1 Axeaber and Bavdanee were both of Armenian Qiamich descent (or Tchamtchian)says, In this age, three Armenians were elected at different throne of the Greeks. Two of them, Vardan and Arto the imperial periods shayir, onlyheld that high post for a few days. The other, Levond (LeoV.), an Prince Manuel, of the tribe seven Arzunian,reigned years. Not longafter,
**

of the Mamiconiansy greatly himself at the court of the emperor distinguished by his undaunted valour and skill in war/' Hiitory of Arwienia translated by Avdall), vol. i 899.

iTheonhilns)

"

RELATIONS

WITH

CHABLBMAGNB.

119

while the

of the authority

Western

exarchate of

Ravenna, and

Empire in Rome, the a. d. the Pentapolis, was ^^^* recognised


of Venice with the East

administra* Byzantine tion afforded so many of guaranteesfor the security in spite of that the Venetians, of the menaces property, to Niceremained firm in their allegiance Charlemagne, the other hand, placed quently itselfsubseon phorus. Istria, under the protection of the Frank emperor, and paidhim a tribute of 354 marks. Pepin, kingof Italy, also charged was by his father to render the Venetians, and the alliesof the Byzantineempire in the north of to the Franks ; but Nicephorus sent a Italy, tributary his fleet into the Adriatic, and effectually protected friends. A body of people, who maintained called Orobiatae, themselyes as an independent communityin the to preserve their allegiance to the Apennines, pretending of Constantinople, plundered Populoniumin emperor how much easier Charlemagne Tuscany.They afford us proof

The commerce by Nicephorus.^ and was so important, already

the

found it to extend his conqueststhan to preserve order.2 Venice,it is true,found itselfin the end compelled
to

purchase peace
of
an

with the Frank tribute of

payment

annual
secure

by the empire, pounds of thirty-six


relations from this tribute
the during of presentcity

gold,in

order to

its commercial the Great.^

interruption ; and

it

was

not released from

until the time of Otho

It

was

of Nicephorus that reign

the site of the

Venice Rivalto

became

the seat of the Venetian

government,

the residence of the duke and (Rialto) becoming the principal who retired from the continent inhabitants, to escape the attacks of Pepin. Heraclea had previously been the capital In 810, of the Venetian municipality. and Charconcluded between Nicephorus peace was again
1 " *

A. Dandolo. Btr, ItcU,xii. Muratori, Scrip. Eginbard,Ann. Franc a.d. 809. Ck)n8taQtme Porphyr. De Adttk Imp.chap. 28,a.d. 962.

120

ICOKOCLAST

PEBIOD.

BOOK ^
""

I. * ^'

of the in the frontier without makingany change lemagne, two empires. The power of the caliphate more was never actively than under Haroun Al Rashid, but the reputaemployed tion of that prince was by no means so greatamong his in after times. Nicephorus as it became contemporaries
was no sooner

seated

on

the

than he refuised to throne^

Irene. The the tribute imposed on pay the caliph Arabian historianspretend that his refusalwas nicated commuto

Haroun

in

an

insolent letter.^ To

resistthe

attacks of the Saracens, which he well knew would follow his refusal, he collected a powerful army in Asia Minor ;
but this army

broke

out

into rebellion, and, as has been

The Bardanes emperor. mentioned, already proclaimed himself of the defenceless state of the caliph, availing laid waste Asia Minor ; and when the rebellion empire, of Bardanes afraid to was extinguished, Nicephorus, of trust any of the veteran with the command generals and was defeated a large army, took the command himself, in
a

great battle

at

Krasos

in

After Phrygia.^ the

this

the victory

Saracens

laid waste

country in every

Haroun until a rebellionin Chorasan compelled direction,


to withdraw

his best

troops from the Byzantine


a

and frontier,
new

army.

time to re-assemble gave Nicephorus the affairs in the East were As soon as

the caliph tranquillised, againinvaded the Byzantine at Tyana" empire. Haroun fixed his headquarters where he built a mosque, to mark that he annexed that division of his and
was

to city

the Mohammedan

empire. One
strong, took
Mount

sixty thousand Ancyra. Heraclea on


army, and in
1

destroyed
also captured,

Taurus

sixteen thousand

a.d. campaign,^ single

carried off were prisoners unable to 806. Nicephorus,

the
" '

answer

Weil, OeichkhU der ChaWen^ ii 159,giyesthe letter of the emperor and of the oalipb. I cannot suppose they are authentio. Theophanes, 406. that the Pontic Heraclea was taken in Gibbon, z. 65,adopts the opinion

SABAOEN

WAB.

121

arrest these ravages, endearoured to obtain peace ; and in

of spite

the

which religions bigotry

is

to supposed

hare

802-811.

^^^"

envenomed

Haroun, the imperial embassy consisted of the bishop the abbot of Gulaias, of Synnada,
and the
economos

the hostilities of

of Amastris.
were

As
averse

winter

was

proaching, ap-

and the Saracens

to remain

longer

beyond
was

sadors ambasTaurus, the three ecclesiastical succeeded in arranging a treaty ; but Nicephorus Mount

and degrading tions. condito submit to severe compelled He engaged tions not to rebuild the frontier fortificawhich had been destroyed armies, by the caliph's and he consented to pay a tribute of thirty thousand of goldannually, pieces addingthree additional pieces for himself, and three for his son and colleague Stavra-

which we must suppose kios, since theywere size, superior

to have

been medallions of
as

offered

that the emperor of the Romans to the caliph.^


seems Nicephorus

proof tribute paida personal


a

direct

to have been
moment

in deficient sadly

ings feel-

of evade

honour,for,the
the

he conceived he could

he of the treaty without danger, stipulations jects the ruined fortifications. His subcommenced repairing The caliph suffered for his conduct. again sent were ; Cyprusand Rhodes troopsto invade the empire to pay compelled ravaged ; the Bishopof Cyprus was
one were

thousand dinars carried away

as

his

ransom

; and many

Christians settled in

from

Asia

Minor,

and

Syria.
The from
a

death of Haroun, in 809, deliveredthe Christians barbarous enemy, who ruined their countrylike a conqueror.

without endeavouring to subdue itlike a brigand,

an

earlier campaign; but St Martin, in his notes to Lebeau, xii.426, points 860. Weil, it 160. 407. Schlosser, oat that this is not probable. Theophanes, tinian ^ If these medallions like the celebrated medal of Juswere tribnte-piecee the of at one National Paris, sight Library L, which was stolen from the Die the heart of a numismatist" See Finder and Friddl"ider^ would

gladden

ii Iiihu"m JuiUniant,phite

122
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

his liberality his charity, to men valour, persoDal ^f letters, and his religious have secured him interested CM^n^i. zeal, which have drowned the voice of justice. The panegyrics, hero of the Arabian Tales and the ally of Charlemagne is vaunted as one of the greatest who ever ocotprinces murder of the Barmecides, a throne. The disgraceful pied and many other acts of injustice and cruelty, gave him a His plundering cursions incharacter in history. very diflPerent into the Byzantine empiremight have been of courage in some chieftain, glorious proofs petty Syrian but they the ruler of the richest and most extensive degrade slave-dealer.^ on the earth into a mere empire The

Haronn'a

Saracens continued

their

and in the incursions,

year 811, Leo the Armenian, then lieutenant-governor of the Armeniac theme, left a sum of thirteen hundred which pounds' weightof silver, without taxes, at Euchaites, Leo
a

had

been

collected

as

sufficient guard. A band


; and for his negligence

of Saracens carried off this money


was

ordered
was

emperor

where the future Constantinople, and deprived of his command.^ scourged,


to
were now so

The Sclavonian coloniesin Greece that

ful power-

of rendering themselves project and expelling the Greek masters of the Peloponnesus, in the early The Byzantine expedition, population. these part of the regency of Irene,had onlysubjected intruders to tribute, their numbers without diminishing their power.^ The troubled aspectof public or breaking after Nicephorus induced them seized the throne, affairs, to consider the moment dependenc favourable for gdning their inforce under They assembled a numerous of attack. arms, and selected Patras as theirfirst object

theyformed the

^ The in the Arabian Nightsgives a correct idea of storyof the three apples the violenoe and iigustioe whose hasty temper was of the celebrated caliph, weU known. to the BarmecideB, see For the causes of Haroun's injustice Weil, GetekiekU der OuilVeH,iL 187. ' 414. 6. Theophanes, Script, pott Th4oph. Anon" Ckmt, 7. QenesiaflL, s Theophanes, 885.

124
BOOK ^" I.

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

*^'

which he found the superstition of the accounts, popular that St Andrew, the circulated, peoplehad already had shown himself on the fieldof battle. patron of Patras, the The devastations committed bj the Sclayonians, of the Greeks, and the miraculous appearance victory
of the

all were besieged, announced to the Emperor Nicephorus, whose political views rendered him more to reward the church willing to for St Andrew's assistance, than to allow his subjects
at apostle

the head

of the

that their own perceive

valour was

sufficient to defend

their property: he feared theymight discover that a well-constitutedmunicipal government would alwaysbe able
was

to

protectthem, while
was

distant central authority

often

phorus and generally indifierent Niceincapable, too a statesman, with the experienced

Cherson before his eyes, not to fear that such a discovery the Greek population among in the Peloponnesus would tend to circumscribe the of examples Venice and fiscalenergy of the Constantinopolitan treasury. The and not the people, church, profited by the success of the Greeks
:

the

share imperial

of the

taken spoil

from the
on

both propertyand slaves, Sclavoniaus, was

bestowed

the church of St Andrew; and the bishops of Methone, of the Lacedemon,and Corone,were declared sufiragans
of Patras. This charter of Nicephorus was metropolitan ratified by Leo VI., the Wise, in a new and extended

act.i
were Bulgarians alwaystroublesome neighbours, as a rude people tion. populagenerally proves to a wealthy warlike and Their king,Crumn, was able an he was occupied prince.For some time after his accession, with the Avars, but as soon as that by hostilities of plunderhe seized an opportunity war was terminated, ing eleven hundred a Byzantine chest, military containing

The

ii 179. Ju$ Grcdco-Romamm,278. Leqnieii, Orieiu Ckriaiiamu, LeuudaTiuB,

BULGABIAN

WAB.

125
a.d.

destined for the payment of the troops pounds of gold, stationedon the 8nd
as

^|^Strjmon. After sarprising the troops, the officers, murdering camp, dispersing the treasure, he extended his ravages capturing
the banks of the
as

far

where he slew six thousand Roman Sardica,

soldiers. assembled a considerable Nicephomsimmediately army, imd marched to re-establish the security of his northern frontier. The death of Haroun left so large a force at his disposal that he contemplated the destructionof the in Europe Bulgarian kingdom ; biitthe Byzantine troops in a disaffectedstate, and theirindiscipline rendered were the campaignabortire. The resolutionof Nicephoms his life was in remained,nevertheless, unshaken,though from the seditious conduct of the soldiery danger ; and he in the end compelled to escape from his own was camp, and seek safety in Constantinople. In 811, a new of conscripts chiefly army, consisting and raw recruits, and hurried into assembled, was hastily tliefield. In preparing for the campaign, Nicephoms financialseverity, and ridiculedthe extreme displayed of with a degree of those who counselleddelay timidity character of this which paints well the singular cynicism bold financier. Having resolved to tax monasteries, and levy an augmentation of the land-tax from the for the eightpreceding nobility years, his ministers him of the impolicy of his pro* endeavoured to persuade but he only "What can you expect! exclaimed, ceedings; God has hardened my heart, and my subjects can expect from else me.'' The historian nothing Theophanes says that these words were repeated the to him by Theodosios, minister to whom theywere addressed.^ The energy of but it was not Nicephomswas equaJto his rapacity,
ii 124. Theodosios perished ii 481. Zonaras, 414. Cedrenus, Theophanes, while he was a fiiTOurite with his master, therefore these words were repeated minister. It may thence he inferred that some misoonstruction has been put the oLroamstances by the prejudices of Theqphanes. on
^

126
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

^"""*^'

skill. corresponding degreeof military He led his army so rapidly to Markelles, a fortress built by Constantino VI., within the line of the Bulgarian that Crumn, alarmed at his vigour, sent an frontier, was rejected, embassyto solicitpeace.^This proposal and the emperor pushedforward and captured dence resia in of the Bulgarian monarch's near the frontiers,

supported bj

which

considerable amount

of treasure
to

was

found.

offered at this loss, Crumn, dispirited


terms

accept any

of peace
but

with the existenceof his independence, compatible would agree to no terms but Nicephorus

absolute submission.
The is in
eyents onlycontemporaryaccount of the following and it leaves us in the chronicle of Theophanes, whether the rashness of Nicephorus the treason or

doubt
Even
success

of his generals was


if we of the

the real cause


credit for

of his disastrousdefeat.

Crumn give

the skill, greatmilitary

a Byzanby which he destroyed tine stratagem,

to his own, could not have superior army greatly in been achieved without some treasonable co-operation

It is certain that an officerof the enemy's camp. household had deserted at Markelles, emperor's canning and the wardrobe hundred pounds' one emperor's away in and that one of the ablest engineers weightof gold, the Byzantine fled to Bulgaria. service had previously It seems of these officers that by means not improbable,

the

treasonable communications disaffected in the

were

maintained

with the

Byzantine army. When entered the Bidgarian Nicephorus territory, Crumn had a much larger force in his immediate vicinity than the emperor supposed. The Bulgarian troops, in the defeated advance, were though consequently
of the invaders, allowed to watch the movements and intrench at no great distance without any attempt to

894. Theophanes,

DEFEAT

AND

DEATH

OF

NIOEPHORUS

I.

127

them. dislodge
to work for two

It is eren

said that Crumn

was

allowed

a.d.

to cir- "^^' a strong palisade days, forming of the imperial comscribe the operations army, while his time collecting the booty was Nicephorus wasting found in the Bulgarian thef palace ; and that, when

he exclaimed, We have emperor saw the work finished, chance of safety no except by beingtransformed into
"

in this desperate the emperor position is said to have neglected the usual precautions to secure
even

birds !" Yet

his camp
Crumn

attack. a night against made


a

Much

of this

seems

incredible.

grandnocturnal attack on the camp of six daysafterthe emperor had invaded Nicephorus, just the Bulgariankingdom. The Byzantine was army taken by surprise, and the camp entered on every side ; the whole baggage and military chest were taken ; the with many and six patricians, Emperor Nicephorus garian ofl^rs of the highest rank, were slain; and the Bulof the skuU of the empekingmade a drinking-cup ror of the Romans, in which the Sclavonian princes of the Bulgarian court pledgedhim in the richest wines festivals.^ of Greece when he celebrated his triumphal have abandoned their strongpaliThe Bulgarians must sade when they attacked the camp, for a considerable of the defeated army, with the Emperor Stavraportion the general who was of kios, wounded, Stephen severely and Theoctistos the master of the palace, the guard, in safety. ately immediStavrakios was reached Adrianople his father'ssuccessor, and the army was proclaimed had he able and willing to maintain him on the throne, health and ability to the crisis. But the equal possessed of his father had created a host of enemies fiscal severity
to the

tine existing system of government,and in the Byzana change empirea changeof administration implied
1

416. Theophanee,

was slainon Nicephorus

the 25 th

July 811.

128

ICONOCLAST

PKBIOD.

BOOK

I.

of the emperor.
to

The

namerous

statesmen

who

expected

^""'i*'

profit by a revolution declared in favour of Michael who had married Pro* an noble, insignificant Rhangabe, copia the daughterof Nicephorus. Stavrakios was compelled by his brother-in-lawto retireinto a monastery, the where he soon died of his wounds. He had occupied
throne
two

months.

SECT.

IL"

MICHAEL

(RHANGABlC) AJ["*
WAB"

81S-61S.
OV

RlUOIOUB

ZEAL

or

MiOHAXL"

BULGABIAV

DKPBAT

MIGHAXL.

Michael I.

was

crowned

by the

Patriarch

Nicephoros,
defend

after signing a written declarationthat he would

and never the church,protectthe ministers of religion, put the orthodox to death. This election of a toolof the

church was a reaction Byzantine of Nicephorus.The new the tolerant policy against all the additional by remitting emperor began his reign taxes imposedby his predecessor which had awakened He was a weak, well-meaning clerical man opposition. ; but his wife Procopia was a lady of superior tions, qualificawho united to a virtuous and charitable disposition of mind. of her father's Michael's reign vigour something the necessity of always a firm hand to guide having proved that complicated administrative machine which the Byzantine the of inheritedfrom Rome. sovereigns empire Michael purchased in the capital popularity by the lavish manner in which he distributed the wealth left by in the imperial Nicephorus treasury. He bestowed large and other sums on monasteries, hospitals, poor houses, charitable institutions, and he divided liberalgratuities of the clergy, members the chief dignitaries among the leading of the state, and the highest officersof the army.^

bigoted party

in the

"

418, 419. Theophanes,

The

soms following

ire

recorded

in detail ^"

Fifty

of goldto the Patriarch Nioephoroe to the oleigy, pounds' weight ; twenty-fire

BELIGIOUS

ZEAL

OF

MICHAEL,

A.D.

812.

129

His

as piety,

veil

as

his

induced bim partyconnections,

A.D.

in his council ; and he "^^^ place made it an object of political to reconcilethe importance Patriarch Nicephoros with Theodore Studita. But by of his predecessor, the policy after it had abandoning
to a

to admit

seYend monks

received the Patriarch's sanction and the

become

the law of

church,Michael lost more


the alliance of
a

gainedby

than he public opinion monks, who troop of bigoted

in

the power of the emperor and the subject of the state to their own ideas. The policy narrow

laboured to

abbot

who had celebrated the marriage of the Joseph, excommunicated, as Emperor Constantino VI., was again the peace-offering which allowed the bigots their to renew communion The with the Patriarch. Studita
soon

counsels of Theodore

involyed the his signalise

gOYemment
zeal for

in fresh embarrassment.

To

the emperor to perse* he persuaded orthodoxy, cute the Iconoclasts; who, duringthe preceding reign, without moleshad been allowed to profess tation. their opinions also proposed, in an It was of the assembly senate, to put the leaders of the Paulicians and Athigans
to

death,in order
them
men couYcrting

to intimidate their

and perfollowers, suade This method

to become

orthodox Christians.

of

on

church excited strong opposition tolerant the of the members the partof senate ;

to the Greek

deserted the cause of but,the Patriarch and clergy having the permanent interests of Christianity were humanity,
sacrificedto the
cause

of

orthodoxy.

While the emperor persecuted a large body of his the northern and eastern frontiers of his on subjects
the he neglected to defend the provinces against empire, who ravaged incursions of the Bulgarians, great part of Thrace and Macedonia, and took several largeand

of those who fell lb. of gold to the widows at the coronation ; five hundred lb. of gold, besides robes and ornaments, to with NicephoruB ; one hundred the Patriarch and clergy, at the coronation of his son Theophylaotus.

YOL.

I.

130
BOOK I.

ICOKOCLAST

PBEIOD.

^""*^

weightof taxation which fell on when the not lightened of the population the mass was from the and the nobility emperor relieved the clergy them by Nicephorus, additional burdens imposed on in a A lunatic girl, Discontent spreadrapidly. placed the the emperor passedthrough as position, prominent Descend from cried aloud streets of Constantinople, for another 1 The and make room thy seat 1 descend,
towns. wealthy

The

"

"

"

continual disasters which frontiermade the

were

garian announced from the Bul-

and the army remember people the prosperous daysof Constantino V., when with regret filledwith their the slave-markets of the capital were the enemies. Encouraged dissatisfaction, by the general of Iconoclasts formed a conspiracy to convey the sons blind and mute, in then* Constantino V., who were living, The plotwas covered, disexile at Panormus, to the army. to be and Michael ordered the helpless princes small island in the Propontis, to Aphiusa, a conveyed where theycould be closely spirators guarded. One of the conhad his tongue cut out. The
sons wars

of Mohammed

of Haroun

and Almamun, the Al Rashid,relieved the empirefrom all Alemen

dangeron the side of the Saracens. But the soon Bulgarian war, to which Michael owed his throne, provedthe cause of his ruin. The army and the people not to his him, because he owed his elevation, despised but to the accident of his marriage, his populartalents, ity
serious
with the which made

monks, and the weakness of his character,


him
an

instrument in the hands of decided that he


was

party.

soon opinion empire. The year after the death with a numerous invaded the empire

Public

unfit to rule the

of

Crumn Nicephorus,
army, and took the

town

of Develtos.

Michael leftthe

by

the

in order to EmpressProcopia,

accompanied capital himself at the place

head of the troopsin Thrace ; but the soldiersshowed so much dissatisfaction at the presence of a female court,

132

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

BOOK ^
""

I.

would

be

an

act of

to death, or to consign infamy

to a

^^

than death,men who had been received as worse slavery that it was an act of ; and Theodore pronounced subjects Christians into the hands to think of delivering impiety of pagans, quoting St John, All that the Father giveth
"

me

shall come
no

to

me,

and him The

that cometh to

me

I will

emperor, from motives of Could he have to the advice of The()dore. yielded piety, in wise cast out/*^ of adopted something the firm character of the

abbot,he
terms, or

woidd
secured

either have
to victory

obtained his
arms.

peace

on

his

own

While Crumn

the emperor pushed forward

fell into his hands in

at Constantinople, debating the siege of Mesembria, which November He acquired 812. great
was

as the place was booty, importance ; and

commercial

town

of considerable of

he made

himself master

twenty-

Greek fire, propelling with a quantity for of the combustible material prepared this artillery. had Yet, even after this alanning news reached Constantinople, the weak emperor continued to
six of the brazen tubes used for devote his attention to
seems

instead of aflPairs ecclesiastical

He military. Roman

to
war

have felt that he

was

utterly

unfit to conduct the

army demanded In the spring of 813, Michael had

in person ; yet the Byzantine or to be led by the emperor.


an

army

in the

field prepared to resistthe

ing Bulgarians ; and Crumn, findthat his troops from a severe epidemic^ were suffering retreated. The emperor, proud of his success, returned to his capital. The epidemic which had interrupted the of the enemy ascribed to the intervention was operations

of Tarasios, who

had been

canonised for his services to

orthodoxy ;
covered

and the emperor, in order to mark his gratitude for his unexpected of acquisition military renown, the tomb of St

Tarasios with

of plates

silver

'

Gospelof St John, vL 87.

DEFEAT

OP

MICHAEL

I., A,D.

813.

133

a. n. act of piety which added to lb., an weighing ninety-five ^^^^ the contempt the army abready felt for their sovereign's courage and capacity. In the month of May, Michael againresumed the

command

of the army, but instead of listening to the advice of the experienced the who commanded generals
to

he allowed himself troops,

be

he listened to the or priests, in There were at the time three able officers timidity. the army Leo the Armenian, the general of the Anatolic theme ; Michael the Amorian, who commanded one wing of the army ; and John Aplakes, the general donian of the Macetroops. Leo and Aplakesurgedthe emperor to triguing inbut the Amorian, who was attack the Bulgarians; Theoctistos the master of the palace, against
"

and guided by civilians of his own suggestions

seems

to have been

disinclinedto

serve

the emperor with

The Bulgarians were sincerity. encampedat Bersinikia, about thirty miles from the Byzantine army; and Michael, his plans than once, resolved at last afterchanging more who commanded donian to risk a battle. Aplakes, the Maceand Thracian troops, of hardy consisting chiefly defeated the Bulgarian division opSclavonian recruits, posed seized a party of the Byzanto him ; but a panic tine

accused was troops;and Leo, with the Asiatic troops, when he to be surrounded and slain, of allowing Aplakes saved his own certainly for the fugitives and made it the rallying-point division, ; does considered not o f he to have been guilty yet appear the themselves. The soldiers by emperor any neglect

might have

saved

him.

Leo

fledto
to

while Constantinople, Adrianople.

the defeated army

retreated

Michael

assembled his ministers in the

and capital,

his crown resigning ; for he deemed his defeat a for mounting the throne of his brother-in-law. judgment him to abandon and his courtierseasily persuaded Procopia

talked of

his half-formed resolution. The

army in the

mean

134

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

BOOK

time decided the fate of the

empire. Leo

the Armenian

^"""'

of the crown. The defeated troops alone worthy appeared saluted him Emperor,and marched to Constantinople, the weak Michael ; where nobodyfeltinclined to support and without opposition, so that Leo was acknowledged the 11th July 813. crowned in St Sophia's on The dethroned emperor was to embrace the compelled

monastic life, and li?ed unmolested in the island of Prote, where he died in 845. His eldest son, Theophylactus, who had been crowned
as as

his colleague, emasculated; was


forced into
a

well

as

his brother

and Ignatius,

tery. monas-

the

became Patriarch Ignatius of Michael III.^ reign

of

in Constantinople

SECT.

IU.~LEO

T.

(THE ARMENIAN).!
ATTACK AND OK

A.D.

813-830.

POUOT
RIAN8"

Of

LbO"

TuXAOHBBOUa
OF

CbUMK" MODERATION

ViOTOBT
IN
"

OVTO

BULOA-

AVFAIBS

ItALT

SlOILT"
to

ECCLESIASTICAL
tration adminis-

CONTESTS"

Council
OF justice
"

favoubablb

Iconoclasts LSO"

Impartial

CONSPIRACT

AGAINST

HiS

ASSAaSINAflON.

When

Leo

entered the

the capital,

Patriarch Nioe-

which phorosendeayoured to conrert the precedent Michael I. had given, of signing a written declarationof into an established usage of the empire orthodoxy, ; but the new ment emperor excused himself from signing any docubefore his coronation, and afterwards he denied the it.^ Leo was inclined to favour the rightto require
but he Iconoclasts,
was no

bigot.The

Asiatic party in

the army and in the

which supported administration, him,

^ 481. Contin. Const. Anonymous chronicle at the end of Theophanes, in the 8eriptore$ 13. Porphyr., poU Theophanem, * Leo was of Bardas, a patrician the son Armenian of the distinguished of the Ardzrounians. 16. family Gtenesius, Ghamich,L 899. ' of his Theophanes,426, says Leo gave the Patriarch a written assurance and he is followed by the anonymous orthodoxy, chronicle, page 481, by Leo Orammaticus,p. 445, by Symeon Mag. 402, and Georg. Mon. 499. But the written by the order of Constantino Porphyrogenitus in history anonymous the Scriptoret 18,and Genesius,il,givethe statement in the pott Theophanemt in his life tezt"which is oonftrmed by Ignatius of the Patriarch Nicephoros.
"

POLICY

0?

LEO.

185
a. a
*

were

both enemies to
the

the To strengthen image-worship. the naturally


first stepof his

infinenceof his friendswas

reign. Michael
imother

Amorian, who had warmly supported his election, made a was Thomas, patrician.
who general, is said to have been descended

from the Sclavonian colonists settledin Asia Minor, was of the federates.^ Manuel, an Armenian general appointed
of the noble command

of the Mamiconians,receivedthe of the Armenian troops, and subsequently of


race

the Anatolic theme.^ At Christmas the title of


was

Emperor

conferred Leo

on

Sembat, the eldest


to

son

of Leo, who

then

his name changed


was

Constantine.

allowed little time to attend to civil business, six daysafterhis coronation, Crumn appeared before for, the walls of
The Constantinople. in the suburb of St
camped king enBulgarian and extended his Mamas,"^

linesfrom the Blachernian to the Golden Gate ; but he that his army could not long maintain its soon perceived and position, order
was

and dehe allowed his troopsto plunder stroy the property of the citizens in every direction, in
to

hasten the conclusion of


save

of peace. treaty

Leo

from of his subjects possessions ruin,Crumn was eager to retreat without losing any of the plunder his army had collected. A treatymight have been concluded, had not Leo attempted to get rid A conof his enemy by an act of the basest treachery. ference and the to which the emperor was appointed, attended onlyby a fixed number of kingwere to repair, Crumn for assassinating at this guards. Leo laid a plot

anxious to

the

Ada

weighs of the Patriarch Ignatiusfar outMart, 710. The authority 391. Neander, ill 632. The Emperor Leo every other. Schlosser, doubtless made the customary general declaration of orthodoxy contained in the coronation oath,which had appearedso vague as to requirethe written signedby his predecessor. supplement ^ oonolude that Qenesius,3-14. Ck"ntin. Const Porphyr.32. We must Armenian of the parentsof Thomas one a Sdavonian, the other an (see was

Sanet

p. 154,note 3). " Cont. Const.


'

1568. Porphyr.

Between Eyoub and the walls of

Constantinople.

136
BOOK
1.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

with the monarch escaped and the Bulgarian meeting, his chancellor dead, and most cau^s. leaving diflSculty, gj.gj^jgg^ This infamous act was of his attendants captives. so of feelings religious generally approved by the perverted that the historian Theophanes, the Greek ecclesiastics, his chronological in concluding an abbot and holy confessor,
record of the transactionsof the Roman

emperors,

remarks that the

empire by this ambuscade, in consequence sins.^ of the multitude of the people's The Bulgarians on treachery avengedthe emperor's inhabitants of the empire in a terrible the helpless the suburb of St manner. They beganby destroying and private Mamas ; palaces, churches, buildings public burnt to the ground torn from the were ; the lead was domes, which were fire-proof ; the vesselstaken at the bead of the portwere added to the conflagration ous ; numerbeautiful works of art were and many destroyed, mention is made of a carried ofi^, among which particular
was

not

to witness permitted

the death of Crumn

garians hydra.^The Bulthen quited their lines before Constantinople, and marched to Selymbria, on their way the destroying immense stone bridge the river Athyras, over (Karason,) celebrated for the beautyof its construction.^ Selymbria, Rhedestos,and Apres were sacked ; the country round Ganas was but Heraclea and Panion ravaged, celebratedbronze
a bear,and lion,

resistedthe assaults of the invaders. Men put to the sword, while the young
and cattlewere

were

where every-

women,

dren, chil-

driven away to Bulgaria. Part of the army penetrated and into the Thracian Chersonese, laid waste the country. Adrianople to was compelled surrender
and booty,
^ "

by famine,and
an

after it had been


with
an

plundered,
incredible

the barbarians retired unmolested

innumerable train of slaves.


Ant. No. CofuL,

427. Theophanes, 427. Leo arammaticiis, 446. Anonym., Lt Theophanee, 168, No. 246, GyUius. Banduri,Imp, OrUtU, I 416. " Steph. Byz. A'^vpw. Plimi,H. N. iy. 11-18.

VICTORY

07EB

THE

BULGAEIANS,
a

A.D.

814.

137

a. d. bodyof 30,000 the winter. They ^^^^ to invade the empire Bulgarians during detained capturedArcadiopolis ; and thoughtheywere for a fortnight, of the theirretreat, during by the swelling river Rheginas, Ijcocould not venture to attack (Bithyas,) tbem.^ the Bulgarian frontier, They regained carrying and immense and t housand fifty captives booty, away ^ behind them a terrible of desolation. scene leaving Emboldened by the apparent weakness of the empire, Crumn made preparations for besieging Constantinople, of in use.^ Leo allthe machines then war by collecting it necessary to construct a new wall beyondthat thought in existence at the Blachemian gate,and to add a deep for in this quarter the fortificationsof the capital ditch, of the appearedweak. Crumn died before the opening exertion at campaign by the greatest ; and Leo, having last collectedan army capable marched the field, of taking the to Mesembria. There he succeeded in surprising The defeat attack on their camp. Bulgarians, by a night lated, The Bulgarian most sanguinary. was army was annihiand the place where the dead were buried was long called the Mountain of Leo, and avoided by the Bulgarians this the a as victory spot of evil augury. After with as which he ravaged invaded Bulgaria, emperor the much cruelty had ever shown in plundering as Crumn concluded empire. At last a truce for thirty years was with Mortagon,the new king. The power of these weakened by the recent was so neighbours dangerous exertions they had made, and by the wetJth theyhad to that for many disposed acquired, years they were

The

success

of this campaign induced

remain

at peace.

The influence of the much though

Byzantine emperors in the West, of Charlemagne, diminished by the conquests

* 81, and Constant. H. N., 11-18. Hierocles, 28. Plinii, Erginusl Scylax, De Them. iL 2, mention Ganos. Porphyr. ' The and brazen clothing, blankets, carpets, bootyconsisted of Armenian 434. of the end at tin. 410. Con Theophanes, Symeon Mag. pans. * Contin. of a curious listof the ancient machines 434,who giTes Theophanes,

then in

use.

138
BOOK Ca.lL
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

the

la.

of the popes, and the formation of two independence in Africa and Spain, Saracen kingdoms neyercontinued,

in consequence of the extensiye to be Terj great, theless, mercantile connections of the Greeks,who then possessed

the most lucrativepart of the


At

commerce

of the Mediterranean.

this time
of

the

of Aglabites
a

Africa and

the Om-

miades

Spain ruled

rebellious and
not

ill-organised
races,

of Mohammedan society even arbitrary power

chiefs of Tarious could bend


to

which
a

the habits of
sent out

settledadministration. Both

these states

tical pira-

expeditions by sea, when their incursions by land restrainedby the warlike power of their neighbours. were Michael I. had been compelled to send an army to Sicily, both from to protectit from the incursions of pirates Africa and Spain. Lampedosa had been occupied by before Saracen corsairs, and many Greek ships captured, with the joint and Naples, forces of the Dukes of Sicily the vesselsfrom Amalfi and Venice,defeated the plunderers, of and cleared the sea for a while. The quarrels the Aglabites and Ommiades induced the former to conclude with for and truce ten years to jointhe a Leo, naval forces of the Greeks and Venetians in attacking the Spanish Saracens.^ in the East during The disturbances which prevailed the caliphate of Almamun insured tranquillity to the Asiatic frontier of the empire, and allowed Leo to devote
his whole attention to the internal state of his dominions. institution immediately onlypublic of the whole population. connected with the feelings By its conduct the peoplewere interested in the directly of the imperial proceedings government. Ecclesiastical of public the onlyfieldfor the expression aflfairs, oflfering the centre of all political ideas became naturaJly opinion,
was

The

church

the

403. Schlosser,

Pope

Leo's Letter.

Colettl

Acta 8* ConeU. ix.157.

140

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

members and H

of the

were clergy

; opposedto image-worship
were

^^""^^

of these the

most

eminent

the abbot

John

of the illustrious of the Morochorzanians, jlilas, family from his of Syllaeum. and Anthony, John, called, bishop the Grammarian, was accused by the learning, superior of studying magic; and the nickname of Lekano* ignorant mantis was givenhim, because he was said to read the in a brazen basin.^ The Iconoclasts secrets of futurity of the also supported son were by Theodotos Kassiteras, whose sisterhad been the Michael Melissenos, patrician third wife of Constantino
to

V.

These three endeavoured

Leo persuade

to

declare openly worship. against image-

On
was

of the Greek nation the other hand, the majority attached to image-worship was firmly ; and the cause Theodore

by supported by the Patriarch,


host of monks.
emperor should be able to bringabout

and Studita,

The

flattered himself that he


an

amicable arrangement and commanded to insure general John Hylilas toleration, to draw up a report of the opinions by the expressed
earliest fathers of the church
on

the

of imagesubject this

worship.
As
soon as

he

was

in

of possession
some

he report,
on

asked the Patriarch to make


of pictures, in order subject
to

concessions

the

the satisfy

peace in the church. He should be placed as to preventthe so high

serve army and prewished that the pictures

making people

the gross display nessed witof superstitious constantly worship in the churches. But the Patriarch boldly pronounced

himself in favour of he declared, was worship,

and pictures, whose images tion, authorised by immemorial tradi-

and the foundation of the orthodox faithwas

formed

of the church on tradition as to the opinion according well as on Holy Scripture. He added that the opinions of the church were as well inspired by the Holy Spirit

See note 2, p. 169.

MODBBATION

IN

ECCLESIASTICAL

CONTESTS.

141

as

the

The Scriptures.
the two
state
a

emperor

then

ference between thrown into


The

and parties, doubt

a conproposed the clergy was

a.d.

^^^^'

of the

excitement greatest
his

at

this

which implied a proposition, prayers for the cathedral of St Sophia. The


to

of their diyine

Patriarch summoned

inspiration. to pass partisans


in the church,

the

in night

of safety

the

regardthis as

reason emperor had some and he was alarmed at the seditious,

disorders which
to appealing to

must

arise from eyidently


He

both

parties
contro-

the

popular support. where the night was palace,

summoned

arch the Patri-

spent in

Theodore Studita was one of those who attended rersy. the Patriarch on this occasion, assertion of and his steady
from his worthy, bold and uncompromisiug the views, to have occupied chair of St Peter. He declared plainly to the emperor that he had no authority to iuteifere with the doctrines since his rule onlyextended over the civil of the church, and military government of the empire. The church had fnll authority at this to govern itself. Leo was enraged

ecclesiastical supremacy

rendered him

arch, with the conduct of the Patriand dissatisfied boldness, who


as

anathematised

of Sylteum, the bishop Anthony,

the leader of the Iconoclasts; but for the


to onlyrequired

the present

dergy were
assemblies. The and

abstain from

holding public
remove

however,now Iconoclasts,
the churches in

began to

from pictures the

images of the clergy possession


sulted several occasions inof the Leo

of their

party,and the troops on

imageover
been
once

the entrance removed

imperial palace,
and Isaurian,

which had

by

the

replaced by Irene. The emperor now ordered it to be removed, on the groundthat this was necessary to again disturbance. These acts induced Theodore avoid public
Studita to callon the monks
to

subscribe a declaration

that theyadhered with

to the doctrines of the church, firmly to image-worship, as then established. The respect

142

ICONOCLAST

PSBIOD.

BOOK

^"""*^

schism a new emperor, alarmed at the dangerof causing himself called upon to resist in the church,but feeling made on his authority, the attacks now determined to relievethe civilpower from the
a

contest with

council of the

in of engaging necessity the ecclesiastical, a general bj assembling and leaving in the the two parties church,

differences. As he was in to settletheir own priesthood ithappened that both the Patriarch doubt how to proceed, in and the abbo^ John Hylilas, were together officiating
and that present, of his duty, had to repeatthe John, in the performance then will ye liken God ? or words of Isaiah, To whom the Christmas ceremonies while Leo
was
"

what will ye compare unto him ? The workman melteth a it over with and the goldsmith spreadeth graven image,
and gold,
most

casteth silverchains."^
A few

In

these pronouncing

words,he turned

to the emperor, and uttered them in the

days after this scene, a band of mutinous soldiers broke into the patriarchal the pictures of the saints with palaceand destroyed other which the building was adorned,and committing until they were driven out by the regular disorders, in the month of April815, Leo gu^d. At length, ordered a provincial synodto assemble at Constantinople, the Patriarch Nicephoros and before this assembly was for he denied its competency to take brought by force, and conof his conduct. He was fined deposed, cognisance
manner. emphatic

in

monastery which he had founded,where


"

he
fully usewe tests con-

survived twelve years for the world,in


of the

time which he

more passed

works the historical compiling

possess,than he could have

them passed

amidst the

dignity.^ patriarchal both rendered the moderate o f The bigotry parties attention of the emperor of no effect ; and public policy
^

zl. 18, 19. Isaiab,

ffistoricum de Rebui died a.d. 828. His works Bre"Breviarium Nicephoros in the Byzantine Crettii ab Obitu Maurieii ad Constantinum usqve Coprontftnum, annexed of SynceUus, The to the work ooUection,and a Chronographia
'

COUNCIL

FAYOUBABLl

TO

ICONOCLASTS.

148

became

so

that it was

absorbed bj the state of the church, a. d. exclusively for him to remain any longer neuter. 8^^820. impossible

His firstdecided stepwas to nominate a new Patriarch hostile to image-worship ; and he selected Theodotos who held a high Melissenos, mentioned, a laymanalready of the election The example court. post in the imperial
of Tarasios

the votaries of image-worship puting disprevented of the electionof a layman; but they the legality refused to acknowledge the ground that the on Theodotos, of Nicephorus and that he was was deposition illegal, still their lawful Patriarch. Theodotos was consequently neyertheless ordained and
was a man

a.d. consecrated,

815.

He
a

of

but and ability, learning and


a

his habits as
too

man military

courtierwere
was

said to be visible in with living

his

manners,

and he

accused of

great

and indulging tually habia luxurious table, keeping splendour, in society of too worldly a character. council of the church was now held at ConA general stantinople,
in which the
new

and Constantino Patriarch,

the

son a

ing Leo, presided ; for the emperor declined takin order to allow the personal part in the dispute,
of
to

church

doctrine without any This council redirectinterferenceof the civilpower. established the acts of that held in 754 by Constantino
on

decide

of questions

and it anathematised the v., abolishing image-worship,


and allimage-worNicephoros, shippers. The clergy, who adhered to the therefore, of the imageworshippers principles were, in consequence, of their ecclesiastical and sent into dignities, deprived

Patriarchs Tarasios and

banishment

quently the party revolutions that had freoccurred in the Greek church had introduced a
;

but

dishonourable system of and most of the faction,

with the reigning compliance readier to yield were clergy up

Patriarch Photius,in a letter to the Emperor Basil I.,mentions that Leo treated the deposed Pfitriarch with indulgence.He enjoyedthe use of his books and the society of his friends, the possession of his private as well as fortune." PAofu Eptstolas, 97,page 136, edit. Lond.

14*

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

than their benefices.^ This habitual practheir opinions ^j^ ^" falsehood received the mild name of arrangement, CH^n^s.
BOOK
L

economy, to soften the duct.2


or

arersion public

to

such

con-

The Iconoclast party, on with unusual mildness. bold monks

this occasion, used itsvictory their opponents


some

drove They naturally

from their ecclesiastical oflBces ; and when

in preaching the acts of the persisted against council, they banished these non-conformists to distant that the civil power with the customary called upon to enforce conformity was The council had decided that images and picrigour.^ tures

monasteries

; but it does not appear

were

to be removed

from

the

and if the churches,

resistedtheir removal,or the clergy placed or monks repeople inflicted for this were them, severe punishments violation of the law. a feature in the Bywas zantine Cruelty of religious without any impulse civiladministration, fanaticism. Theodore who feared neither patriarch nor Studita,
in ecclesiastical authority as the nothing recognised
own no emperor, and acknowledged but the church, aflairs while he

church but what accorded with his


set the

standard of

thodoxy, or-

decrees of this council at defiance. He

lowed folthe streets of the capita), openly through proceeded aloft bearing by his monks in solemn procession, which had been removed from the churches, the pictures to give them safe asylumwithin the walls of the a of contempt for monastery of Studion. For this display the law he was banished by the emperor to Asia Minor ; and his conduct in exileaffordsus a remarkable proof of the practical the monks had acquired liberty by their

"

The

hiBtoriao
our

auUior Theophanes,

of the

which Chronography,

has been

only,and often our best, guidein the preceding pages, was a noble wore those who exception to the system of compliance.He was among and died shortly after in exile in Samothrace. banished, ' the word. was O'lKovofila Neander, iiL 641.
at times
"

Pkotii

Ep,,97.

COUNCIL

FAVOUBABLB

TO

ICONOCLASTS.

145

honest and

steadyresistance
as

to

fixed on Theodore eyes were astic party ; and so greatwas


any

the ciyil power. the leader of the

All
monover ploy em-

a.d.

^^t^'

the power he exerted that the emperor did not yenture to public opinion,

the bold monk he had illegal against severity in the Indeed,the administration of justice imprisoned. to have been more seems never Byzantine empire regular and equitable the reign of Leo the Armenian. than during Theodore with from his prison not only corresponded the most eminent bishops and monks of his party,and with ladiesof piety and wealth, but also with the Pope, to whom, though the bold abbot a foreign now potentate, sent if he were himself an as deputies, independent Patriarch in the Eastern church.^ His greatobject to was allthose oppose the Iconoclastsin every way, and prevent whose minds he exercised any influencefrom holding over communion One with those who conformed
to their

authority.
him,and

seems thing

to have distressed and alarmed to expose eloquence


no one

he exerted all his Christ's sake,who

its

The fallacy.
a

Iconoclasts declared that


was

could be

martyr for

onlypunished by the usual power for imagesince the question at issue had no connection worship, with the truth of Christianity. Theodore argued that the night darker than that of ignorance, of heresy was and the merit of labouring at least as to illuminateit was to great. The Emperor Leo was, however,too prudent ing give hope of claimany of Theodore's party the slightest the crown of martyrdom. He persisted in his policy ness, the decrees of the council with so much mildof enforcing and balancing his own of personal ion opinexpressions that he excited with such a degreeof impartiality,
the dissatisfactionof the violentof both

parties.^

^ He of the foundation of the monastery to have been the chief mover seems of St Praxedes at Rome, in which the Greek monks who fled from persecution j4n"utani de Vitis Pont, 150. were established by Pope Paschal. * The ness letters of The"Klore Studita furnish information concerningthe mildof Leo*s government that the banished abbot could carry on so The fSact
"

VOL.

I.

146
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

^""*^

most men cormptedand factious societj, rest Inteadministration of justice. the equitable appreciate and ambition may indeed so far pervertthe feelings

Even

in

the administratireor aristocratic as to make class, the equal societiesregard of such priTileged members of
an

of the people to the mass an as justice of their rights engendered ; and the passions infringement zeal may blind those under its iufluence to by religious of different committed agaiust men opinions. any injustice

distributionof

Hence

it is that of

goremment,

to

secure

tion the administraa

must justice,

be established on

broader basis

than administratiyewisdom, aristocratic or pre-emiuence,

public empire, orthodoxy.In the Byzantine religious found no home among the mass of the population, opinion and enslayed by whose minds and actions were regulated administratiye influence, by the power of the wealthy, and the monks.^ of the clergy One and by the authority is yisible in the violeuce of resultof this state of society matters displayed concerning insignificant party passion in the capital ; and hence itarose at lastthat the political of the empire interests disconnected with were frequently that exercised the greatest the subjects influenceon the
fate of the goyemment. The moderation of Leo, which, had public possessed opinion ought to have any vitality,
with the rendered his administration popular his

of majority

in the provinces, rendered it unpocertainly subjects pular in Constantinople. Crowds, seeking excitement, of the people before deliberation express the temporary feelings has fixed the public opinion.Leo was hated by

extensive a correspoDdence, goanmteed by the lawB proTos that the liberty when these laws were of Uie Roman administered, was not an empire, equitably idle phrase at Constantinople under the Iconoclasts. 1 in the Boman in the Byzantine, as empire,the administration, including the emperor and all his servants,or, as the servants of the state were his called, household,formed a class apart from the inhabitants of the empire, governed under the civil laws of Bome were by different laws,whUe the subjects again whom separatedinto the rich and the poor, oi dvvaroi and ol ircVi;rcf usage , than legislation constituted into separate classes. more

148

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

unprincipled to ce^^s.g^iji^rled hjna to think that he had as good a right that a general the throne as Leo ; and when he perceiyed to the emperor's felt in Constantinople was opposition and his ambition got the better of his gratitude, conduct, It was the throne. to mount ported rehe plotted generally the imperial that Leo had refused to accept crown, at Adrianople, when proclaimed emperor by the army with which he would of the difficulties from his knowledge have to contend,and that Michael forced him to yield either accept the that he must his assent,by declaring
BOOK I.

frieDd. The ambition of this turbulcDt and

crown,

or

be

The

date. candiway for a new turbulent character of Michael gave currency

put to death

to make

to this anecdote.

Michael's conduct had


his length
was

share in

and discovered,
to

death.

when at long been seditious, the government a conspiracy against and conhe was tried, found guilty, demned the the chronicles that It is said by

court

of

left it to justice

in any way him to be condemned used for attend the heating

the emperor to order his execution he might think proper, and that Leo
cast into the furnace immediately baths of the palace, and prepared to

execution in person. It is needless to say the vice of the Byzantine was that, court, though cruelty rank this storyas a tale fitterfor the legends of must we the saints than for the of history the

the

empire. The event took place when the empress, hearing on Christmas-eve, what was about to happen, and moved with compassion for one who had long been her husband's intimate friend, hastened to Leo, and implored him to defer the execution until after Christmas-day. She urgedthe sin of participating in the holy communion with the cries of the dying of his youthechoing in his ear. Leo who, companion cruel not personally to his though severe, was yielded
" "

wife's entreaties, and

consented

with

greatreluctance to

LEO's ASSASSINATION,

A.D.

820.

14"
extent
a. d.

of the for his knowledge postponethe punishment, of the After


to

conspiracy gave
givingorders
for

of danger. presentiment the execution, he turned staying


a

him

^'^"^^^

the empress and said," I grant your request : you think only of my eternalwelfare ; but you expose my life tune misforand your scruples to the greatest peril, may bring you and on our children.^' Michael was conducted back to his
on

and dungeon,

the

It was afterwards to Leo. brought told in Constantinople that during the emperor the night turbing disunable to sleep.A sense of impending was danger, him to risefrom his bed, his imagination, impelled himself in a mantle, and secretly visitthe cell in envelop

key of

his fetters was

which

Michael

was

confined.

There
on

he found the door

and Michael stretched unlocked, the criminal's bed

the bed of his jailor,


was

himself while the jailor buried in profound sleep,


on was on

lying

the floor. The

alarm emperor's
to

increased at this
measures

He spectacle.

withdrew

consider

what

he should take to watch both the

and the

But jailor.

Michael had

already many
one

prisoner partisans

within the walls of the

and palace,

of these had,

nocturnal visit observed the emperor's to the crimihaving There was not awakened Michael. naPs cell, immediately duced confessor had been introto lose. As a friendly a moment criminal into the palace to afford the condemned this priest sent to Theocthe consolations of religion, was unless a blow was instantly tistos to announce struck, that, his own Michael would at daylight pardonby purchase This the names of the principal conspirators. revealing message The caused the
to resolve conspirators
on

diate the immethe

assassinationof the emperor.


was palace imperial a

fortress

from separated
was

like the present serai city of Leo


a number Christmas-day,

the tice pracand as it was to attend matins in his chapel, of the sultan. It of the best in singers

Constan-

160
I.

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

BOOK

were tiuople

OH.n.fS.

morning admitted at a postem-gate in the celebrationof the in order to join before daybreak,
that

then the admiration of whose solemn chant was Berrice, turn of a religious the Christian world.i Leo, who was roioe his deepsonorous in displaying of mind, delighted in the choir. He

Michael and the

delayedhis to hasten jailor

measures

for

securing
the

to the

and chapel,

the themselves of his presence during guised celebrationof divine serviceto execute their plans.Diswith daggersconcealed in their as choristers, availed conspirators

clothes, they obtained

admittance

rangedthemselves chapel. The morning was


and the

among

and the postern, in the imperial the singers


at
peror em-

dark and cold, and both the

in enveloped furred mantles, which,with the thick bonnets theywore concealed the damp, effectually a as protection against voice of Leo the powerful their faces. But as soon as
were oflBciating chaplain was

ward forthe assassins pressed hymns, the chaplain to stab him. Some, however, mistaking for the emperor, wounded the priest, whose criesrevealed

heard in the solemn

the

and then mistake, His hand

all turned
a

on

Leo, who defended

himself for some


up.

time with
was soon

crucifix which he snatched

cut

before the and he fell off, hewed in

where his body was communion-table,

pieces.
the

The assassins then hurried to the cell of

whom Michael,

theyproclaimed emperor,
revolution for which Few of sovereigns exerted themselves more
he
was

and

thus

consummated

under sentence

of death.

the

Byzantine empireseem to have than Leo V. to perform sincerely

^ affected by the solemn music of the Qreek was Charlemagne profoundly service. We may conclude that itbore a closer resemblance to the music of the Russian church of to-day Greek psalmody. than to the nasal melody of modem See the enthusiastic manner in which Joannes Cameniates speaks of ByEan* tine church-music in the tenth century,De Exeidio Tk"$"alonic"nsi, x. ; chap. Soriptora poit Theophanem, p. 826.

LEO's ASSASSINATION,

A.D.

820.

151

the duties of their station, yet few have received less for their good qualities praise ; nor did his assassination
create

^.d.

"^^;^-

any reaction of publicopinionin his favour. Though he died with the crucifix in his hand, he was
as

condemned
wife and

if he had been

children were

Iconoclast His bigoted to adopta monastic compelled


a

life.i
^ For the reignof Leo V.,see the author at the end of Theophanes; anonymous Leo Grammaticus, 445 ; the continuator of Theophanes, by order of Constan-

tme

in Scriptore$poit Porphyrogenitus, Theophantm;Symeon Log. et Mag. 411,


"

both in the ScripUfrei and Qeorg. Hon. 500 Qenesius;Cedrenus, po$t Theoph,; 487 ; Zonares, iL 152 ; and the shorter chronicles.

CHAPTER

III.

THE

AMORIAN

DYNASTY,

A.D.

820-867.

SECT.

I.~1UCHAEL

n., (THE II.


Rebeluok

STAMMERER,)
of poliot

A.D.

820-829.

BiBTH SioiLT

OF
"

Michael ^Michael's

"

Thomas
"

"

Loss

of and

Crbtb
death.

aitd

eoclesiastioal

Marriage

with the fetters on proclaimed emperor the the first spectacleof his reign was his limbs ; and him from felon's bonds. When lieved rea jailordeliyering from his irons, he proceeded to the church of St Sophia, where he was crowned by the Patriarch. Michael born in the lowest rank of society.He II. was had entered the army as a privatesoldier in earlyyouth, but his attention to his duties, and his military talents, quicklyraised him to the rank of general. His influence the troops aided in placing Leo V. on the imperial over Amorium throne. his birthplace an important and was inhabited by a mixed wealthy city, populationof various interests.^ and languages, collected together races by trading The the majority,still retained Phrygians,who formed native usages, and ideas adverse to some religious many Greek prejudices.Many Jews had also been established in the cityfor ages, and a sect called the Athingans, who held that the touch of many thingswas a contamination, Michael
II.
was
"

had
1 '

numerous

votaries.^
16, note
**

See The

page

4. their
name

Athingans took ii 21 Touch Coloflsians,


"

jfh"m

and Biyydyct^ not"

the

allusion

is to

not, taste

not, handle

FAMILY

OP

MICHAEL.

153

of Michael, and the half-suppressed a.". origin Roman pride,"^^^' contempt he disclosed for Greek learning, in and ecclesiastical awakened some tradition, animosity the nobles, and the orthodox the breasts of the pedants, that of Constantinople.^ It is not surprising, therefore,

The

low

the historianswho

mies patronageof the eneshould represent its founder of the Amorian dynasty As he and a stammerer. a heretic, as a horse -jockey, showed no particular faTOur to the Greek party in the church,his orthodoxy was questioned by the Byzantine

wrote

under the

; and great body of the clergy

he very himself with hesitation in the Greek


as

expressed probably as language,

at spoken

calumnywould find credit with the who of Hellenic populace, have always been jealous and eager to avenge, by words,the compliance strangers, to yield by deeds to foreign theyhave been compelled
court,any
masters.

to observe the diflBsagacity in the church and court cultieswhich the various parties his administration. had the power of raising up against he began by conciliating To gaintime, every party. The orthodox,headed by Theodore Studita and the exiled Patriarch Nicephoros, the most were powerful. He flattered these two ecclesiastics, by allowingthem to Theodore to and even return to the capital, permitted

Michael, however, had

resume

his functions

other

hand,

of Studion ; but, on the for a he refused to adopttheir suggestions


as

abbot

He seems to have image-worship. and he was inclinedto religious been naturally toleration, within the paleof the anxious to repress all disputes tranquillity. the public of maintaining church, as the best means for the spirit In order to give a public guarantee reaction in favour of of the civilpower, which
81

he desired should characterise

So, post Tkeoph. mxi^cwftv btanrwov,Contin. ConBt Porphyr. ^Trjp'EXXiyvHci/v Abulpharagius {Ch.Syr.150) says Michael was the son of a converted Jew. of the Labb, viii.1183), in his Life of Ignatius(ConcU, says he was Niketas, and the both the emperor wish to make modems Sabbatian heresy. Some
.

Athingans gypseys

without

any

reason.

164
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD,

toleration of he held a silentionto announce reign, 1. clared dein ecclesiastical cvjiM questions ; but it was priyi^te opinion laws against the exhibition of that the existing in churches were to be strictly enimagesand pictures his
of Michael to the ecclesiastical forced.1 The indiflference of whose doctrines to many which agitated a church, disputes did not create so violent heart ad?erse, as the sincerer conduct of his predecessors, opposition he
was

at

an

who banished
The

imageson religious grounds.


a

few possessed the hopes of claims to distinction, awakened, as usual, ererj ambitious general A formidable rival appeared in the person of Thomas, the only of eminence who oflScer
eleyation of
new

emperor, who

had remained faithful to the rebel Bardanes,when Leo and Michael deserted his standard. Thomas, as has been of the federates was mentioned, already general appointed by Leo V.,but,owing to some circumstances which are
not

he had retired into the dominions of the recorded,

and caliph,

remained
His

for

some

time

on

the borders of
or

Armenia.^

whether origin,

Sdavonian

Armenian,

him in an unusual degree from the ruling by separating classesin the empire ^for he was, like Michael, of a very low rank in societycaused him to be regarded as a friend in the empire of the people races ; and all the subject his cause, which in many provinces took the form espoused
"

"

of of

an
a

attack

on

the Roman
a place new

rather than administration,

emperor on the throne.^ This rebellionis remarkable for assuming of the more character of a socialrevolutionthan of an ordinary insur^
^ "

revolutionto

Pagiad Baron, Ann,

Ecdet, a.d. 821, torn. ziy. QeschiehU der bild. Kaiser, The letter of Michael SchloBser, 437.

le Debonnaire.
art
*

Ann, Baronii,

Ecde$, xiv. 62.

HiH. Fleury,

to Louis EcoUs, lib.xlviii

2,4. iiL14,with continuator {Scrip, who eays Compare Genesius, post Tkeopk, 6), Thomas born at the lake Qazouraa was The town of Gazotiria, the river near Iris in Pontns,is mentioned by Strabo, lib.xii. chap.ii." 15,p. 647. Hamilton, Re$ectrohe9m Atia Minor, i. 369. He is said to have lived long racens, among the Saand to have given himself out for Constantino VL Some of the reports seem and look as if the history irreconcilable, of two persons had be^i eonfounded.

156
BOOEL

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

^'""'^

of obtaining diflSculty suplies. On the other hand, Constantinople, closely though with all kinds of provisions well supplied inyested, was and the inhabitants displayed and stores, great firmness in opposing an theysaw bent on plunder, enemy whom the while Michael and his son performed Theophilus made to duties of able generals. Two attempts were in 821, storm the fortifications, one duringthe winter, and the other in the spring of 822 ; and both were and entailed considerable loss on unsuccessful, equally the besiegers. In the mean time the partisans of Michael pelago in the islands of the Archicollecteda fleetof 350 ships and Greece ; and this force, plete a comhavinggained the comthe fleetof Thomas, cut ofi* munications over victory of the besiegers with Asia. in order to profit The Bulgarians, by the civilwar, invaded the empire, and plundered the country from which the rebels drew their supplies. Thomas marched
increased ingpropensities

the

to

oppose

them much

with

and defeated, He
was so

lost the

part of his army, but was greater part of his baggage.

by this defeat that Michael salliedout from Constantinople, again routed him, and the rebel army to retire to Arcadiopolis, compelled For five where Thomas was soon besieged.^ closely months the placewas defended, but at obstinately last Thomas followers; delivered up by his own was and his adopted son, who had been invested with the title of Emperor, was after in Byza. shortly captured Both were after their limbs had been cut oflf.^ hanged, This junction of a son with the reigning emperor as his tion, constitusuccessor, had become a rule of the Byzantine Two which was rarely neglected by any sovereign.
weakened
^

Genesius,19
81, and

384, mention Georg.Mon. 8erip,pott Theopk,


later writers, Cedrenus and

Arcadiopolis.
this

Contin.
*

the

Zonares, say Adrianople.


for authority

446 Schloaser,

note.

Michael's own letter to Louis le Dobonnaire is the historians. Baronius,xiy. 64. as well as the early cruelty,

CAUSES

OF

THE

REBELLION

OF

THOMAS.

157
a.d.

chiefs attached
some

to the

party of Thomas
of Kabala

continued for
and Saniana

time to defend

the towns

^^^'

in Asia
one

Minor, until the latter place was


to be bargained
a

who

cesarea^
one

fact recorded

betrayed by Neoof archbishop appointed in a satirical verse preserved by


lasted three nearly years,
occur*

of the This

historians.^ Byzantine civil war features of unusual

remarkable

and
rence

is distinguished by some from most of the

great rebellionsin the Byzantine

empire. The largefleetscollected on both sides prove that the population and wealth of the coasts and islands of the Archipelago had not declined under the administration of the Iconoclasts, this part of the empire though to be least favoured by the central power, as was likely Leo III., and having to dethrone having attempted the party of the image-woralways firmly shippers.^ supported of The most numerous partisans Thomas, and those who gave the strong revolutionary to impulse the rebellionat its commencement, were that body of the Asiatic population which national distinctionsor religious excluded from participation in public and local opinions
and to whom the ecclesiastical courts were affairs, even of their heretical opinions account shut, on ; and to the

ecclesiastical courts
discontent of

alone

recourse

could be had

for the

administration equitable

by
with

excessive

The in some cases. justice these classes, to the povertycreated joined of Thomas the army taxation, supplied of bands of

those

numerous

revenge, who
men

marauders, eager to seek desolation far and wide,alarmed all spread

to

and ultimately ruined his enterprise. possessing property, and his incapacity The indiscipline of his troops, and religious applyany remedyto the financiidoppression of the which the population intolerance against
Saniana Const Porphyr. De in the mountainB of the theme Charsianon. 11. De Adm, Imp. chap. 50. Cont. Scrip, 45. Theoph. pott
"

was

lib.I 6,page Them.,


*

Contin. 40.

Genesius,18.

158

ICONOCLAST

PBKIOD.

BOOK

^"^'^^

Asiatic proyinces had taken up arms, alienatedthe minds of all who expected to find in him an instrament for
been a the empire. But had Thomas really reforming of a powerful tion man mind, he mighthare laid the foundaof a new in the Eastern Empire, state of society by out toleration the burden of taxation, lightening carrying for religious administration an impartial securing opinions, and giving of justice to heretics, jects, even every classof subwithout distinctionof nationality or race, equal of the for their lives and property. The spirit security age was,

however,averse

to

and the toleration,

sense

of

defective that these equitable was so justice principles could onlyhave been upheld ciplined the of a well-disby power mercenary army.
proving of adopting for ima general measure necessity the condition of the peoplewas not felt by when this rebellion was Michael II., even suppressed ; and thoughhe saw that some reduction of taxation to the lower classeswas required, he restrictedthe boon to theme and Opsikion, the Armeniac because these provinces Thomas in the civil had not joined war;^ and even in them he onlyreduced the hearth -tax to one-half of I. The rest of the the amount imposedby Nicephorus than usual, as a punishment. more was empire oppressed It is certain that this unfortunate rebellion caused immense
no an

The

destructionof propertyin Asia Minor, and was inconsiderablecause of the accumulation of property the estates, which began to depopulate of a new race prepare it for the reception

in immense and country,

of inhabitants. under every known government society The seeds of troubled by civil at this period wars. was be soughtin some these convulsions may, therefore, the relationsof the various classes cause affecting general

The

state of

CoDtiu.

411. S4. Theophanee, poit Tkeoph. Scrip,

LOSS

OF

OBETB

A19D

6ICILT.

169

of

of social progress,and so far a-d. deyelopment it lay beyond the immediate influence of the political ^'^^^ medan laws of the respectiye goyemments, whether Mohamin the Christian. The frame of society or Saracen and Frank empires of as many betrayed signs decay as in the Byzantine. One of the remarkable
men

in the

features of
men,
so

the age

is the

appearance

of bands

of

to set the existing as powerful goyemments in great bands consisted These defiance. at eyerywhere

part of
their

men

of what

may

be called the middle and

with driyen by dissatisfetction higherclassesof society,


in life to seek their fortunes as brigands prospects and pirates; the extent
to which

and

slaye-trade
The
new

afforded preyailed,
forces with in
our

them

and slayery readymeans


to

the of

their recruiting

men. daringand desperate

which feeling

nations days impels

colonise

and improye uncultiyated lands,in the countries, ninth century led the Saracens and Normans to rayage and capital, eyery country they could enter, destroy

diminish cultiyationand population. consequently Crete and Sicily, of two of the most yduable proyinces the Byzantine inhabited almost exclusiyely by empire, in of and both ciyilisation and state a Greeks, high perity, proswithout the Saracens were offering conquered by the resistancethat might haye been expected from the wealth and numbers of the inhabitants. Indeed,we are to infer that the changefrom the orthodox compelled
sway of the emperors of Constantinople tion to the dominaof the Mohammedans, was not considered by the

of majority as calamity

the Greeks of Crete and


we

so Sicily

seyere

belieye. In almost eyery case generally tory hisin which the Saracens conquered Christian nations, reyeals that theyowed their success unfortunately to the fayour with whidi their progress was garded rechiefly of by the mass of the people.To the disgrace
most

Christian goyemments, it will be found that their

160

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

BOOK ^
"'"

^ ^'

than that of the Araoppressive commenced when the rude bian conquerors. Oppression of a ruling the corruptions tribes of the desert adopted welcomed the first followers class. The inhabitants of Syria the Copts of Egypt contributed of Mahomet; their country under the domination of the Arabs; to place administration was
more

the Christian Berbers All these nations


ment at
were

aided in the

conquestof Africa.

induced, by hatred of the gOTcm-

themsehes under the to place Constantinople, The of the of the Mohammedans. treachery sway made Spain and the indifierence of the people, nobles,
and the south of France The
same

easy prey to the Saracens. be traced to the must conquestof Crete and Sicily
an

causes, for if the

mass

of the

indifferent to could

the

the change, retained

had not been people Byzantine government these valuable tian Chris-

have easily The


same

of possession

islands.

characteristic of disgraceful

monarchies The

apparent at a much later period. and Vallachians conquest of the Greeks, Servians,
is also Othoman Turks
was

by the
by

effected rather
mass

by

the

luntary vo-

submission the power

of the

of the Christians than This fact is


dered ren-

of the Mohammedans.

apparentby the effective resistance offered by the


Albanians under divide between
is difficult to Church Scanderbeg. this blot
on

and

state

must

them

Christian

for it society,

the apportion

of Roman

share due to the fiscal pression opand to the unrelenting centralisation,

of ecclesiastical persecution orthodoxy. Crete fella prey to a band of pirates. The reignof Al Hakem, the Ommiade of Spain, disturbed was caliph by continual troubles;and some theological disputes havingcreated a violent insurrection in the suburbs of to Arabs were Cordova,about 15,000 Spanish compelled The greaterpart of these in the year 815. emigrate where establishedthemselves at Alexandria, desperadoes

theysoon

took

an

active

part in the civilwars

of

Egypt.

LOSS

OP

GBETE,

A.D.

823.

161
a. d.

The

rebellion of

Thomas, and the

absence of the naval

forces of the

left the
Arabs

Byzantine empirefrom the Archipelago, island of Crete unprotected. The Andalusian

^^'^^*

in Alexandria availed themselves of this circumstance


to

on

and establisha settlement invade the island, it,in the year 823.^ Michael was unable to take
measures

anj
soon

for expelling these

and invaders,

an

event

to the happenedin Egypt which added greatly of this Saracen colony. The victories of the strength lieutenants of the CaliphAlmamun the remainder compelled of the Andalusian Arabs to quitAlexandria ; that Abou Hafs, called by Greeks Apochaps, so joined his countrymen in Crete with forty determined to ships,

make

the

new

settlement their writers Byzantine

permanent home.
that

It

is said

by

the

their conquest of the island and a constructing strong fortifiedcamp,

they commenced their fleet, by destroying


suiTOunded
name

by
of

an

immense

from which it received the ditch,

Chandak, now
The

corrupted by

the Western
a new

nations the

into Candia.^

construction of

as city,

of their conquests, was capital part of the Saracen system of establishing The foundation of their domination. the result was Cairo,Cairowan,Fez,Cufa,and Bagdat, tutions, instiand new of this policy. A new state of society, in a new introduced with greaterfacility were

residence.
The Saracen derived pirates
some

towards facilities

their conquestspermanent, from the circumstance rendering that their bands generally consisted of young men, destitute of domestic ties, estawho were family seeking
1 Contin. 85,47. Genesius,21. The Saracens are said to Scrip, post Theoph. ha,ye established themselves first at Suda. " of the Cretans is indicated by the of a portion The favourable disposition that a native monk pointed out to the Saracens the siteof Chandak ; tradition, effectual resistance than and the power of the islanders to have offered a more laws and leave to preserve its own theydid,is shown by one districtobtaining This was bably prousages, without any interference on the part of the Saracens.

Sphakia. Contin.
VOL.
I.

48.

21. Genesius, L

162

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

BOOK

I.

blisbments
the nsuallj The
ease,

as

well

as

wealth.
a

It

was

thus that

thej
is

CH^m^i. Yy^^Yne

real

to colonists,
case

much

greaterextent

than

with

moreover,

conquerors in civilisedcountries. of with which the Saracens, even

with the lower orders, rank,formed marriages highest the followers of which reigned and the equality among fewer barriers to the increase of the Prophet, presented in the various orders and than prevailed their number of The native population classesof Byzantine society. if not a declining Crete was in a stationary, at condition,

the

the time of the arrival of the colonists were

while these new Saracens, introduced into the countryunder circumstances

favourable to a rapid increase of their extremely numbers. enables us to mark, however, rarely History, from age to age, the increaseand decrease of the different whose affairsit and nations concerning tribes, classes,
no fact is treats, though more

to important

enable

us

to

form

correct

estimate of the virtues and vices of

society,

the progress of civilisation, and understand the foundations of political power.


to trace

The of

Emperer Michael
to

II.

was some

at

length, by the

defeat

Thomas, enabled
the command
a

make

attemptsto drive the

invaders out of Crete.


to

The first intrusted was expedition and

of of

of the Anatolic Photinos,general

theme,
of the

man

high rank

family ;

it

was

also

strengthened by a reinforcement

under

Damianos, count

stables and protospatbarios imperial ; but this defeated. Damianos was slain, was expedition completely and Photinos escaped with a single The to Dia. galley second attack on the Saracens was commanded by Kraof the Kibyrraiot teros,the general theme, who was The accompanied by a fleet of seventy shipsof war. that their army was victorihistorians ous Byzantine pretend in a battle on shore, but that the Saracens, rallying the night, the Christian camp, and capduring surprised tured the whole fleet. Krateros escaped in a merchant

164
BOOK I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

punished by the loss of his nose ; for thoughMichael tino the daughter of Constanchjim ijjnag^jf Euphrosyne, espoused
be
1.

he did VI., after she had taken the veil, that any of his should subjects be

not
a

intend

allowed

similar

license.
in time to

Euphemioswas
save

informed of the

order emperor's

sedition in Syraa cuse, exciting the this tumult, Gregoras slain. Michael then deputed Byzantine governor was to Crete has Photinos,whose unsuccessful expedition the place of Gregoras, been already mentioned,to supply and carry on the war the Saracens of Africa, against tract had already invited into Sicily, to diswhom Euphemios Ziadet the attention of the Byzantine military. of Cairowan, had paid Allah, the Aglabite sovereign that he was well preattention to his fleet, so particular pared the and to to carry on war, delighted gain an for his troops into Sicily. In June 827 his entrance with the ships admiral effected a junction of Euphemios, who had been driven out of Syracuse, and the Saracens his nose, by his native city.^ In

landed
near

at

Mazara.

Photinos

was

defeated in Enna.

battle

Platana,and retreated

ta

The

Saracens

but theywere not strong enough to Girgenti, occupied fleet until the Byzantine offensiveoperations commence of driven off the coast by the arrival of a squadron was and enabled which joined the Aglabites, from Spain, ships fresh reinforcements
was

to

arrive from

Africa.

The

war

taken in : Messina was activity 831 ; Palermo in the following capitulated year; and Enna was besieged, The war for the firsttime,in 836.
on

then carried

with

continued with various

success,

as

the invaders received

^ The storythat Euphemios carried off a nun is not quitesure, and looks something like an invention of the orthodox,-who wished to point out that the sin of Michael had been punished by a divine judgment. John the Deacon, in. his historyof the Bishops of Naples,only says that he fled to Africa with his wife and son. L pL 2-31 3. Euphemios issaid Eer. Italicarum, Scrip. Muratori, to have been killed before the walls of Syracuse, the inhabitants as he was inviting to change the oppressive government of the Byzantine emperors for the ii 51SL lighter yoke of the Saracens. Cedrenus,
" "

LOSS

OP

SICILY, 827-878.

165

assistancefrom Africa, and the Christians from ConstanThe Bjzantine forces recovered possession tinople. of

^'
'

Messina,which
much

was

not

Saracens until 843.

engaged by his

occupiedby the permanently The Emperor Theophilus too was in Asia Minor military operations

to send

eflFectual aid to the Sicilians ; ^ while his father Michael II. had been too fond of his ease on the throne

to

devote the requisite attention to the business of the distant provinces. Michael III. thought of nothing but

At length, in the year 859, Enna pleasures. was taken by the Saracens. in order to preserve Syracuse, its commerce from ruin, had purchased peace by paying
a

his

tribute of 50,000

byzants ;

and

it

was

not

until the

of reign

Basil I.,in the year 878, that it was to surrender, and the conquest of Sicily was

compelled completed

by

the Arabs.^

Some

however, continued, districts,

by treatyor by force of arms, to preserve their and the exclusive exercise of municipal independence, the Christian religion, within their territory, to a later period.^ The loss of Crete and Sicily to have been viewed seems with strange The apathy by the court at Constantinople. stance of this is probably to be attributed to the circumreason that the surplus was small, revenue comparatively and the defence of these distant possessions a required force which could not always be spared from the military The indifferenceof the of the capital. neighbourhood doubtless increased by of Constantinople statesmen was the circumstance that a portion of the population, both
Alexis Mouscl, Strate* his brother-in-Uw, to have named seems Theophilus merely to send him into exile. Symeon Mag. 418. gos aod Duke of Sicily, ' Chronicon Siculunu 6. Symeon Bibliotheea BitL Rtgni Sioilim a Garutio, which would in the ninth year of Basil I., Mag. placesthe taking of Syracuse be nearlytwo years earlier. ' reviewed by Schlosser, are The authorities for the conquest of Sicily ii. 249. Gttehiehte der Hid. Kaiser, 456 ; and Weil, Qe$6kichU der Chali/en, as the The Byzantine writers who lived nearest to the time conceal the facts, of ultimate loss of the island reflected disgraceon Basil L, the grandfather their patron Constantino YIL, (Porphyrogenitus.)
"

either

166

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

of municipal had acquired a degree Sicily, which rendered it extremely adrerse to CH^nnji. independence, of the imperial cabinet. the fiscalpolicy The bold and indefatigable abbot,Theodore Studita, Btillstruggled to establish the supremacy of the church the emperor in religious and ecclesiastical afiairs. over He appears to deserve the creditof having discovered the of creating trary restraint on the arbia systematic necessity ing of the sovereign authority ; but his scheme for makthe ecclesiastical to the executive legislation superior inasmuch as it sought to confer on power was defective, and dangerous the church a more authority irresponsible than that of which the emperor would have been deprived. sponsible had not yet taughtmankind that no irreExperience or priest, power, whether it be intrusted to king be exercised without in a monarchyor a republic, can abuse. Until the law is superior to the executive government, there is no true liberty pire em; but in the Byzantine the emperor was above the law,while the imperial and the clergy had a law of their own, so that officials the people was doubly oppressed. The conduct of Michael in conducting ecclesiastical
BOOK L

in Crete and

business indicatesthat he

was

not

destituteof statesmanlike

of
to

rather of enjoying qualities, thoughhe generally thought his ease on the throne than of fulfilling duties the his high station.^ Duringthe civil he was anxious war the goodwill of the monks and of the Greek secure
"

partyin the church.


and This and of
an

He

recalledTheodore

from banishment,

declared himself in favour of


was

toleration. perfect

far from

the enthusiasticabbot satisfying

to

ecclesiastics.After the establishment bigoted to tranquillity they incited the image-worshippers presenting pictures open violationof the laws against the adoration of the people. Theodore also engaged

the

^ Con"tantine Michael of neglecting aoooses the interests of Porphyrogenitas the empire in Dalmatia as much as in Sicily De A"h%, Imp, chap. and Crete. 29.
"

ECCLESIASTICAL

POLICY,
an

A.D.

820-829.

167

with

fresh zeal in
The

extensive

with correspondence
to be favourable

a.d.

all persons
to

of influence whom emperor ventured


a

he knew ordered
a

"^^^-

his

party.

him

to

tinue discon-

this

of as correspondence, abbot
to

seditious

tendency ;

but the bold


his works. 1

Michael himself in
The

with argue the case which is preserved in long letter,

of formingfriendly relations with the policy western nations of Europewas every day becoming more the as apparent to the rulers of the Byzantine empire, and the influence of the Popes extended itself, political nations increased. Michael II., power of the western in order to prevent the discontented image-worshippers

receiving support from the Franks, opened negotiations with the Emperor Louis le Debonnaire, in the lar simiof image-worship, a condemnation hopeof obtaining to that of Charlemagne.In the year 824, an embassy, and bombastical letter, bearinga vainglorious the defeat of Thomas, reached the court of announcing the reliLouis.^ In this epistle gious Michael recapitulates which oughtto guide the emperors of the principles
Romans
afikirs. He in their ecclesiastical alludes to the fort, image-worship by the council of Frankand declares that he has not destroyed holyimages tion and pictures, them to such an elevabut onlyremoved as was necessary to prevent the abuses caused by He considers the councils held popular superstition.^ local for the condemnation of image-worship as merely and fully the existence of a higher recognises synods, at the in general councilsof the church, giving, authority

from

condemnation of

same

time,his

own

in confessionof faith,

terms

which he

Paris,1696, lib.il ep. 199. 8, Theod. Stud. EpUt.el alia Scripta Bogmatica, ix. 642; Mann For this letter, see Baronius,torn. xiv. 66; Colet. Coneil,, 419. ConcU, xiv. ' Pictures were and godmothersat the baptism sometimes made godfathers from the mixed with paint scraped of children. The sacramental wine was and the consecrated bread was placed on the hand of the of saints, figures in the sacrament. Keander, ilL 546. hnage to make it co-partaker
* '
"

168

1C0N0CLA8T

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

knew would
the

secure

the assent of Louis and the Frank emperor to induce from the rebellious his protection
had fled from

CH^nMi. ^iQYgy,Ho
Pope

the Frank then solicits

to withdraw

who image-worshippers

the

Bjzantine

empire to

Rome.

synod was

convoked at Paris in

consequence of this communication,which condemned in the same of images terms as the Caroline the worship Books, and blamed the second council of Nicsea for the
it had reverence superstitious the same time, approvedof Eastern emperors,

shown

for

but,at images,

the rebuke

givento

the

for their rashness in

removing and

The by Pope Hadrian, a.d. 825. images, destroying ward by the synodto forEmperor Louis was also requested liim to write to a letterto Pope Eugenius, inviting in order to re-establish the Emperor Michael, peace and in the Christian church. But the Pope,the two unity emperors, and Theodore

Studita,were

all afraid of

discussions at this period; into ecclesiastical plunging had been so exercised in these polefor public mics, opinion that it was to foresee the result of the impossible
contest.

Matters

were

thereforeallowed

to go on

during

reignof Michael without any open rupture. The of Methodios, afterwards Patriarch of Conimprisonment and the condemnation to death of Euthystanthiople, of Sardis,were the only acts of extreme mios, bishop with which the image-worshippers could reproach severity from politiMichael ; and these seem to have originated cal and partymotives rather than from religious opinions, of the zeal these ecclesiastics rendered them though eager be considered to as martyrs.^ The marriage of Michael with Euphrosyne, the daughter of Constantino VI.,who had already taken the veil, was for exciting also made a ground reprobation public against is It the emperor. however,that more imporprobable,
the
^

Contin.

31. Scrip, poH Theopk,

23. Geneeius,

THBOPHILUS,

829-842.
a

169
A.D. religion, 829-842. contemporaries.

tance is giyen to this marriage, as

violationof

it received among The Patriarch absolved Euphrosyue from her vows, and the senate repeatedly himthe emperor to unite self solicited with the last scion of Leo

than by later writers,

the second the Isaurian,

foander of the Eastern


averse

to second

to be Empire. Michael aflfected to the puband to yield lic only marriages,

the emperor with a nun excited the animosity of the monks, who regarded riage marof marriage
as
an

wish.

That the

and second marriages evil, as

is very delict,

natural ; and it would, of course, supply a fertile source of calumnious gossip to the enemies of the Amorian

dynasty.
Michael II. died in October

829, and

was

buried in

of green Thessalian marble,in the sepulchral sarcophagus erected by Justinian in the Church of the Holy chapel Apostles.^

SECT.

IL"

THEOPHILUS,
THB

AJ".

830-8^
of
"

AnECDOTBS
HIS ON MABRIAQB THE

CONCBRNINO
"

EMPER0R*8

love

JUBTICB

"

CONCBRNINO
ART
"

ECCLESIASTICAL
Saracen
war
" "

PERSECUTION

LoVE

OP

CoLONT
"

Don

"

Theophilus DbATH
OF

destroys

Zapetra

Mo-

TAS8EM

destroys

AMORIUM

ThEOPHILUS.

No

emperor

ever

ascended the throne of

Constantinople

philus. than Theowith greaterpersonal and political advantages His education had been the best the age could and supply, The
to
as

he

considerable possessed

talent and

industry.

direction of his education had been intrusted general the


as

John well

Grammarian,

one men

of the most

accomplished

the most

learned

of the time.^ In arts

62. Contin. Scrip, post Theoph,^ called LekanoJohn Hylilas, as has been dready mentioned, page 140,was basin for the purpose because he was said to use a polished mant by the people, from 832 to 842. He was of divination. He was Patriarch of Constantinople Ck)ntin. 96. of the distinguished a member family of the Morocharzaniana of Armenian Cedrenus, 536. St Martin conjectures that tJiis family was is an Armenian and his brother's name Arsaber,which,at least, was origin, Contin. 97. Lebeau, ziii.14. name."
'
"

170
BOOK
L

ICOKOCLAST

PERIOD,

^""'"^^

and arms, in law and theology, the emperor was well instructed : his taste made him a lover of

equally
poetry,

and architecture ; his courage rendered him a brave music, his sense sound legislator of justice : but his soldier, a made theology virtues from him
a

stem

bigot ;

and

discontented

and his accomplishments temperament of mind prevented ledged union. All acknowa harmonious producing attached to his merit,none seemed affectionately

his person ; and in the midst of his power he was called the Unfortunate. During his father'slifetime he had

been intrusted with


and had devoted

an

active share in the government,


to the ecclesiastical

attention particular embraced the

department.He

party of the Iconoclasts

rate with fervour ; and though his father endeavoured to modehis influence seems the his zeal, to have produced of Michael, the reign during persecution which were at variance with that emperor's general policy. the the of observed that Theophilus population empire from the defects of the central was everywhere suffering government, and he was anxious to remedythe evil. He attributed the greatestpart of the sufferings erroneously of the people of the administration, stead into the corruption

isolatedacts of

of assumed

it to ascribing duties which

the fact that the centralauthorities

theywere

unable

to

execute, and

have performed easily these duties in an eflicientmanner, from attempting to undertake them. believed however,justly Theophilus, that a great reform might be effected by improving the administration of justice, and he set about the task with for enforcing vigour ; still equitable many of his measures conduct on the partof the judges marked were so strongly that his severity, when necessary, .withpersonality, even in the habit of riding was was as cruel. He stigmatised the streets of Constantinople visitto a weekly on through the church of St Mary at Blachern, in order to afford his of presenting such petitions a public subjects opportunity

who local bodies, prevented

could

172
BOOK
L

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

lessliable of the emperor's were examples severity to suspicion. the emperor's cujtuii, ApoorwidowaccusedPetronas,

Other

of talents and courage, of having, brother-in-law, an officer in violation of law,raised his house so highas to render

hers almost uninhabitable from The laws


in

want

of air and

light.

the disposition of private buildings concerning

as an were Constantinople alwaysregarded important of imperial ordered the object Theophilus legislation. quently subseto be redressed ; but the complaint was grievance

and the emperor reiterated,

discovered that his


He
now gave levelled with

brother-in-lawhad
orders that the the the and ground,

his decision. disobeyed house should be newly-built condemned Petronas


to

be

in scourged

Some time after this, Petronas was public highway.^ to the highpost of governor of Cherson, and appointed the reign of his nephew, Michael III.,he defeated during Asia Minor, as will be hereafterrelated. This anecdote illustrates the state of
an

the Saracens in

battle in important

court,by the contrast it presents Byzantine between the servilefeelings and Greeks of the Romans of Constantinople, and the independent of the Franks spirit and Germans of western Europe.In the Eastern Empire, the shame of blows was nothing, and a bastinado inflicted an on who retained his official brother-in-law, emperor's The rank,was not likely to be a very painful operation.
of degradation
nature

at society

the

the

was punishment

trary efi^aced by tha arbisense

of the power that inflictedit. The inherent in mankind is always wounded justice

of

by the infliction of arbitrary or punishment ; cruelty caprice to dictate the sentence ; the public are supposed attention is averted from the crime,and pity is often created
*

rules to be followed in constructing private in the CorputJuris CivUit OxL Jutt, Tiii. D" jEdificitt FrivatU, 10-12, Dirksen has publisheda memoir containing much information explanatory of this law,in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy for 1844 : it is entitled, Dot Polizei-OeaeU du Kaiten Zeno iiber die baulioksAnlage dm* Privalh"uter in ConttantinopU.

The law of

Zeno,givingthe

houses at

is contained Constantinople,

"

THEOPHILUS'S

LOVE

OP

JUSTICE.

173
with
a.ix

vhen
On

the sufferer another


man

deserves really

to

be branded

infamy.
the rode through as occasion, Theophilus
"

''^

his hand on forward, and, laying stepped the horse the emperor was riding, exclaimed, This horse is mine,0 emperor ! the circumstances, On investigating it appeared that tliehorse had really been taken by force from its proprietor by an officerof rank,who wished to presentit to the emperor on account of its beauty. This act of violence was also punished, and the proprietor recieved two pounds' for the of goldas an indemnity weight
a streets,
"

loss he had
hundred

sustained.

The

horse

was

worth about

one

byzants.^ in examiningthe also indefatigable was Theophilus details of the capital, into the state of and looking police the markets. It is true that the abundance of provisions, and their price of great at Constantinople, a matter was to the Byzantine importance government,which,like the of the provinces Roman, too often sacrificedthe prosperity to the tranquillity of the capital ; yet stillthe minute attention which Theophilus the duties gave to performing of a prefect, indicate that he was deficientin the grasp of intellect of the duties of for the clear perception required
an
an was Theophilus age of anecdotes and smothered in tales. It had many poetic aspirations, of saints. Volumes of tales were chroniclesand legends then current,which would have given us a better insight into Byzantine than the foliosof the historians, manners outline of a few of these stories. who have preserved an of Byzantine to have been a kind seems Theophilus the Iconoclasts apHaroun Al Rashid. Unfortunately pear literature of this of embodied have to more species in silly who delighted in their habits than the orthodox,
,

emperor. The reign of

Leo Gramm.

454.

were byzanta Seventy-two

reckoned to the pound of gold.

174
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

legends concerning
tures

saints rather than in


men

picimaginative

^""""'^

of the deeds of

; and

thus the mirror of truth

while the fables that have been preserved perished, from theirunnatural stupidity.^ are neglected when unmarried he ascended the was Theophilus in choosing At and he found difficulty a wife.^ throne, last he arrangedwith his stepmother, a Euphrosyne, suitable him for enabling to make a or selection, project collection.The at least to make his choice from a goodly invited all the most beautiful and accomplished empress-mother to a fgte in her private at Constantinople virgins of the assembled beauties the gaiety apartments. When their firstshyness, had removed entered the Theophilus rooms, and walked forward with a goldenapplein his of Eikasia, with hand. Struck by the grace and beauty have been already whode features he must acquainted, he had often heard,he and of whose accomplishments The proud beauty felt herself to address her. stopped commenced his conversation an already empress ; but Theophilus is the with the ungallant remark, "Woman of evil ; too promptly to which the young lady source of much good."' But woman is also the cause replied, mind of the captious The answer the tone jarred on or has
'' "

the emperor, and he walked on. the modest features of the young
were

His

eye then

fell on

Theodora,whose eyes

fixed

on

the

ground.

without

a word. risking

her he gave the who for a moment Eikasia,


To
not

apple
had

felt the throb


from the shock.

of

could ambition, gratified


She retired into
a

recover

monastery which she

her time between founded,and passedher life dividing the

She

of devotion and the cultivation of her mind. practice some hymns,which continued longin use composed

1 I either time or opportunity few persons have now to read much presume of the Acta Sanctorum^fifty-three volumes of which werepuhlished at Antwerp from 1643 to 1793. This onlygoes as far as the I4th of October ; yet much of the middle ages can be sought for in no other source. of the social history ' It he was the age of his daughters.See seems a widower, from probable

page IBZ,note 2.

COMMBBCIAL

AKBCDOTB.

175 the Emafterthis,


a.d.

in the Greek press


an

church.^

short time

Euphrosyneretired into the monasteryof Gastria, "^^ the retreat, selected also by Theoctista, agreeable
of

mother

Theodora,as her residence.^


herself is the heroine of another of corruption the officials about

Theodora
the and the

trating illustale,

the court, love of justice inflexible of the emperor. The

courtiers in the service of the

had been imperial family in the habit of drawinglarge from evading the profits custom-duties to which other traders were liable, by the emperor-colleague or the empress in commercial engaging adventures.
commerce

The

revenue

of the state

and the
knew of

of the honest merchant of

both suflFered by this

aristocraticmode the

who trading. Theophilus,

abuse, learned

to lend persuaded and that speculations,

that the young empress had been her name of these trading to one
a

laden ship,

with

valuable cargo

in her name, was about to arrive at Constantinople. In order to put an end to these frauds by a striking he example, the

took

care

to be

informed

as

this ship entered

this vessel arrived, it displayed the port. When and stood proudly towards the public standard, imperial warehouses who had led Theophilus, the port, to be the court to a spot overlooking pretending struck by the gallant demanded appearance of the vessel, and whence she with what military stores she was laden, with
a

fair wind.

came.
a

The

truth

was

soon

and when elicited,

he obtained

full confession of the nature it to


was

ordered

be
never

landed heard

and that

of the cargo, he burned ; for he publicly


a

said,it

Roman

emperor

or

empress turned trader.3


Zonarasyii.141. ii 717, ed. Par. tale,
' *

Const, 61, 204. Codinus,De Orig. 527, ed. Ven.

Orient Banduri,Itnp,

of exile, not selected as a place Contin. 56. Gastria was as modem certainly have been writers have supposed,or Euphrosyne would, in all probability, which she had quitt^to ascend sent bock to the monastery in Prince's Island, the throne. ' Contin. 55. Zonaras, ii. 143. The reference to Syriaby Zonaras is,as in the cf ovpias of the elder historian. Schlosserobserves, a mistake originating

176
BooKT.

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

^'""'^

of toleration which had guided the principles administration during the preceding reigns imperial laid aside and not were entirely by Theophilus, though his religious he preferred was bigotry punishing strong, the image-worshippers for disobedience to the civillaws for their ecclesiastical them to persecuting opinions. in The emperor's divine favour of the own prejudices of kings were as intolerant as his aversion to imageright have acted as much on so that he may really worship, as religious grounds. His father had not political removed from the walls of churches when they pictures in elevated situations ; and had Tlieophilus were placed followed his example, Iconoclastsand image-worshippers the compromise, and dwelt might at last have accepted in the Eastern church. The monks, peaceably together allowed considerablelatitudewithin too, had been wisely forbidden the walls of their monasteries, were they though in favour of imageto preachpublicly to the people inclined to imitate the policy was worship.Theophilus of Leo the but he could Isaurian, and
not venture to dissolve

The

the monks. The imprison an on government of the earlierIconoclastsreposed army and all their enforce to themselves, organised by ready the army neither orders ; but in the time of Theophilus, it equally the same nor was possessed power over society,

the

monasteries refractory

devoted

to the emperor.

In the year 832, an edict was issued prohibiting every of that and the display picture-worship, commanding word
name

in holy, usually placed of


a

lettersof

gold before
was

the
at

should be erased. This edict saint,

and oppressive arbitrary and caused discontent and opposition.^ A celebrated manner, of ecclesiastical named Lazaros, subjects, painter who acquired of Michael fame duringthe reign gi'eat

times carriedinto execution in an

Con tin. 62.

514. CedrenuB,

ECCLESIASTICAL

PERSECUTION.

177

III., was
dora.^ Two

but subsequently and scourged, a. d. imprisoned confinement


at

released from

the intercessionof Theo-

^^'^^

and Theodore the Singer monks, Theophanes much tion for,in additreated, were more cruelly Graptos,
to other tortures,some
verses were

branded

on

the
ceived re-

forehead of Theodore, who from that circumstance his surname of Graptos.^


Some time after the

of this edict against publication

arch. John the Grammarian was elected Patriimage-worship, he Though a decided opponent of image-worship, and more intellect tolerant disposiof a larger a man was tion than his imperial whose mind, however, over pupil, he fortunately retained considerable influence.^ Still,
when

the emperor
the

found his edict


to

he unavailing,
a

pelled com-

synod,which was As induced to excommunicate all image-worshippers. it to these violentproceedings, the Patriarch was averse niuch eflFect be supposed that theyproduced can hardly tended within the pale of the church ; but they certainly to inflame the zeal of those marked out for persecution, the minds of the orthodox to perform and strengthened what theyconsidered to be their duty, armingthem with The spirit of religious faith to resistthe civilpower. strifewas awakened, and the emperor was so imprudent in controversies with monks to engage as personally These discussions ruffledhis temper and and priests.
Patriarch

assemble

^ while he was enfferiDg of St John the Baptist LazaroB paioted a picture which was from the stripes he received, reportedto have performedmany miraculous cures. ' Geschtchte der bild, Kaiter,523. Schlosser, ' Schlosser diflBculties. The chronology of John's patriarchate some presents Banduri in 882. his election in 883 see his note, page 486. Pagi and places is given differently in the of his patriarchate Imp, Orient, ii.908. The length various listswe possess. Some fix it at nine years. Zonaras, ii.153, says he was only six years Patriarch. Symeon Mag.,421, says he was elected the eighth year of Theophilus. These two writers consequentlyplacehis election in 837. The continuator {Scrip, 76) says he was elected on Simday, poit Tkeophaneniy day le$ Date* that Easter Sun21st April. Now it appears from L*Art de Virifer fell on the 21st of Aprilin 832 and 838, and not in any intermediate year. The embassy of John to Bagdat preceded his election. It is placed by Symeon ii Mag.,419,in the fifth year of Theophilus.Weil, Gesekkhte dtr Ckalifen, 297) considers that it ooonrred at the end of the year 833.
" "

VOL.

1.

178
BOOK
I. 8.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

cauM

the lofty pretensions severity, by exposing and talents to be wounded h^ entertained of his dignity their contempt for in displaying by men who gloried aU earthly Theophilus soughtreyenge for his power. in publicly playing disThe monks who persisted injured vanity. driven from tlieir and pictures teries monaswere images members of the clergy, distinguished ; and many beloved for and for learning and were virtue, imprisoned of his resentment^ the height Yet,even during scourged. of those who the emperor winked at the superstition of tolerated the prejudices kept their opinions private, releasedMethothe EmpressTheodora,and at her request from prison.^ the future Patriarch of Constantinople, dios, The wealth of the Byzantineempirewas at this in the most flourishing period very great,and its industry in expensive condition. Theophilus, thoughengaged and disastrous wars, found the imperial revenues so much increased by the augmented commerce of his that he was able to indulge inordinate an subjects, for pomp and display. His love of art was passion gratified by the fantastic employmentof rich materials in luxurious ornament, rather than by durable works of useful grandeur.His architecturaltaste alone took a direction at times advantageous to the publia The walls of Constantinople towards the sea were ened, strengthand their height increased. He founded a hospital, increased his which
the
^

remained

one

of the most

useful institutionsof

to city

the latest days of

Byzantine but, history;^

the cruelty of the Qibbon, Decline and Fall,ix. 12, has exaggerated 524, remarks that he has puniahmentsinflicted by Theophilus.Schloaser, of ezoessive tyranny. Even found no authority to authorise the reproaches the Jesuit Maimbourg,UUtoire de VHiritie dei leonodaitet, ii.238, mentions of Methodios with a dead robber, the imprisonment and the branding on yerses the latter suffered this punishthe foreheads of Theodore and Tbeophanes, (if ment), inhuman acts of Theophilus.Contin. 65. as the most her husband to believe that some The storythat Theodora persuaded images of saints in her possession were onlydolls for her children'samusement, is a in the duU Legends of the Saints popular anecdote more deservingof a place than in the Bysantine tales.
'

Codukus,De Orig,ContL 28.

Banduri, Imp, OnemL

il 648.

180

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

BOOK

I.

of which tales,

we

still see

reflected imagein the Arabian


one

^'""*^

Nights.!
Two laws of

exhibits him in
Roman

deserve especial notice : Theophilus the character of a capricious tyrant;


to

the
to

other reveals the extent

which

elements adverse
that

and Greek

nationality pervaded Byzantine society.


"

The firstof these edictsordered all the Romans all the


"

is,

of the empire to wear theirhair cropped subjects under the painof the bastinado. Theophilus short, tended pre-

that he wished to
him ashamed

restore

old Roman

but fashions,
of others rendered The

the world believed that the of his own

locks flowing bald head.

other law

did of Persians and Romans marriage of those who were in no way derogate from the rights citizens of the empire ; and it shows that a very great of Persian Christians from the dominions of emigration have taken place, must such a law would the caliphs or of the have become not necessary. Theophobusone leaders of the Persians, who claimed most distinguished

declared that the

descent from

married the Sassanides,

Helena, the

peror's em-

sister.2

The wide

extended frontiers of the relationswith


and

Europe. To secure allies his great of Bagdat, he renewed against enemy, the Caliph the ancient alliance of the emperors of Constantinople with the sovereign of the Khazai's ; but this people was too much in defending its own territories now occupied of intruders, called Patzinaks, to renew a new race against their invasions of the northern provinces of the Mohammedan empire. The progress of the Patzinaks alarmed of the Byzantine for the security commerce Theophilus with the northern nations, from which the imperial trea1 Contin. 107; Leo Oramm. 292; Ce460; Const Manasses, 107; Glycas, drenus, Zonaras, and the later writen. Many of these works were executed

to maintain Theophilus of Asia a large portion

empirerequired of the sovereigns

under the direction of John " Contin. 67-70.

and Hylilas

Leo the Blathematiciaa."

See ixMt

COLOKY

ON

THE

DOK.

181

sury drew immense duties ; and he sent his brother-in-law a. d. ^^-^'-^ Petronas (whom, have mentioned, he had condemned as we
to

be

to Cherson,which scourged)

was
a

then

free

city
the
Sar-

lite Venice, with orders to construct banks of the Don. This commercial

fortress on

called colony,

kel,was
and

trading depotwith the north.^ A intercourse was kept friendly up with Louis le Debonnaire
as

used

the

his son, Lothaire. assist in the naval war southern

The

Venetians

were

invited to and Sicily An

for the defence Saracens

of

the Italyagainst

of Africa.^

of II., the caliph embassywas sent to Abderrahman to secure the commerce of the Greeks in the West Spain, from any interruption, and to excite the Ommiad caliph to hostilities the Abassides of Bagdat.^ against When the Byzantine ascended the throne, Theophilus and Saracen empires soon enjoyed peace ; but theywere
mvolved in
a

which bears fiercecontest, combat between

some

resemblance
and Persian

to the mortal

the Roman

in the time of Heraclius. Almamun, who ruled empires the caliphate and from 813 to 833, was a magnificent liberal for his love of science and sovereign, distinguished and eager literature, and the Romans in
to surpass the

Greeks in

knowledge
a

arms.

Though

not himself

soldier,

his armies

by several celebratedgenerals. of oflBcials of a moral check on the highest The want the existence of a prevents arbitrary governmentsusually and hence rebellions of dutyin political relations, sense mamun, of AlIn the reign become prevalent. and civil wars the disturbances in Persia reduced the population, to despair whether fire-worshippers Christians, or ;
were

commanded

It
no

was

Cherson then

and importance as Sebastopol. is now its ancient celebrity regaining and governed by a presidentand senate, elected by the citizens,
"

succeeded in reducing Theophilus governor was sent from Constantinople. Porphyr. De it to completedependence. See post. Contin. 76. Constant. near Adm, Imp. ii.chap. 42. Sarkel is supposed to have been at Bielaveja, ewr Cossacks. Lehrberg, Untertuchungeu of the Don the capital Tcherkask, 1816. Cedrenus, 415. OesohiehU Ruttlands. der UUem Petersburg, triOmterung
*
"

Dandolo, Chr"m, viiL 4-6.

of the Mohammedan Murphy'sHittory

Empire in Spain,93

a-d.

889.

182

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

BOOK

I.

and

greatnumber,unable

to livein theirnatiye omntrj,

8. and establishedthemselves into the Byzantine CH^tM empire, escaped to have conat Sinope. This immigration sisted seems who feared equally of Christians, the gOYemchiefly and of the rebel Babek, who, though ment of Almamun of all mankind, was accused of the equality preaching followers. The Persian allowing every licenseto his own placedunder the command of troops at Sinopewere tion and their number was increased by an addiTheophobos, of of seven thousand men, when Afshin,the general the Caliph Motassem, defeated Babek, and extinguished

the civilwar
The

in Persia.^

from to refugees protection granted by Theophilus the caliph's to invade the dominions,induced Almamun Abu in the year 831 ; and the Saracen general, empire defeated the Byzantine manded Chazar, completely army, comThe emperor repaired in person. by Theophilus this disgrace in the following a victory year by gaining
over

the Saracens in and

which he celebrated wiUi Charsiana,


tinople.^ Constan-

great pomp

of in the hippodrome vainglory

Almamun himself putting

the revenged

defeat of his

at by and capturing Heracleia. Cappadocia, The armies of the Byzantine empireat this period consisted in great part of foreign mercenaries. Some of connected with the development causes, secondary which have escapedthe notice of historians, society, than to render the recruitment of armies more operated
is said by the Byzantine historiana to have fled into the thousand followers, was a differentperson from the oertainly celebrated leader of the rebellion. The arrivalof this refugee before the is placed commenoementof the war between Theophilusand Almamun, a.i". 881. The great rebel Babek sustained an important defeat in 833, when many of his foUowen fled into Armenia torians and the Byiantine provinoes, accordingto the Arabian hisin Adzerbgao. Compare Ck"ntin. 70 ; ; but he stiU continued the war 415 ; Cedrenus, n. 523 ; and Weil, Ge$ekichU der ChtU^eH, u, Symeon liCag. 239. ' Constant Porphyr. De Certmoniii Aula ByMHtinas, 290, edit.Leioh ; torn, i 503,edit Bonn. Reiske considers that this account of the triumphof Theophilus refers to his return after the destruction of Zapetra." Tom. iL 590.
*

the head of his army,

generals ravaging

The

Babek who
seven

empire with

"

SABACBK

WAB.

183

difficult Qsuallj among


and

the ciyilised of portions

mankind,

a.d.

of the age to ^^^ powerful soyereigns exdude their natire subjects from the as much as possible In the Saracen empire of arms. this feeling led to use the transferenceof all military power into the hands of Turkish mercenaries ; and in the Frank empire it led to

caused all the

without defence, the exposure of the country, to the incursions of the Normans. It is true that jealousy of the Arab in one aristocracy
case, and

fear of the hostiledisposition


the had other,

of the Romanised

in population

considerableinfluenceon the conduct of the the Western

The emperors. under the influenceof similartendencies, was


a

and of caliphs Byzantine though empire,

saved from

civilisation. of political by a higher degree The distrust of Theophilus shown by for his generals was with which he treated them. the severity Manuel, one of the best officers of the empire, at his suspidisgusted cions, and served with distinction in fled to the Saracens, their armies against the rebels of Chorasan.^ Alexis

similar fate

Mousel,an Armenian, who received the favourite daughter in marriage, of Theophilus with the rank of Caesar, was

d^raded

and

in scourged

consequence death of

of his father-in-

law's suspicions.^ after the Immediately


peror
sent

Almamun, the
on
an

em*

John

the

Grammarian

embassy to
The caliph. lasting peace, fame in the

Motassem, who had succeeded his brother


of object this

as

and at
^

to conclude a was embassy allevents to persuade Manuel,whose


acooont

See

the romantic

cannot at defiance, chronology

of the exploits of Manuel, which, as they set be receiyed as historicaL" Contin. 74 ; Cedrenus, been married before his other's death.

11627.
'

It would

seem

that

had Theophilus

and her marriage, the youngest of five daughters, was Maria,the wife of Alexioe, even acconlingto Symeon Mag., who says she was the daughter of Theo* (417,418). We dora,took placein the third year of the reignof Theophilus named Theodora, and must suppose that both the wiyes of Theophilus were that he was a widower at his fSeither's death,after which he married the second. is of this period But even then difficulUes will be found, and the chronology received the of Theophilus, oonfused. Thekla,the eldest daughter tio^olarly titlefrom imperial her father before the birth of Michael IIL

184
^^

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

BOOK
cr

I.

"'%^'

to of Chorasan had reached the ears of Theophilus, the negotiations With the caliph return home. appear

successful as the emperor expected, The magnisucceeded perfectly. but with Manuel they ficence
not to have been
as

this occasion gave rise to many and the Greeks were tales^ longamused
on

of John

derful won-

accounts

of the marvellous wealth

by the by the displayed

ambassador. priestly Not very long afterthis embassy, availing Theophilus, ions dominhimself of the troubles occasioned in the caliph's out of the heretical opinions by the civilwars arising the of the Koran, which conceming human composition had been favoured by Almamun, invaded the caliph's dominions. The Byzantine the country troopsravaged called Commagene, to the south of Melitene, anciently defeated the Saracens with greatloss, captured Zapetra, far and penetrated which as Samosata, as Theophilus also took and destroyed.Zapetra, or lay Sosopetra, about two days^ to the west of the road from journey Melitene to Samosata.^ The Greeks pretended that it of Motassem, the birthplace and that the caliph sent was him to spare the to the emperor entreating an embassy to ransom philus at any price town, which he oflFered ; but Theoand razed Zapetra dismissed the ambassadors, to the ground.2This campaign able to have been remarkseems for the cruelty with which the Mohammedans were and the wanton ravages committed by the Persian treated, in the Byzantine service. The Saracens repeated emigrants of in the tales connection with this expedition one which was current among theircountrymen, and applied, from the banks of the Guadalquivir to as occasion served, those of the Indus. In Spainit was told of Al Hakem, in Asia of Motassem. A female prisoner, when insulted
^ *

cited by Weil, iL 309, note Abulfeda, Contin. 77.

2.

of Motassem's mother. Genesiua, 81,says it was the birthplace the destruction of Zapetra in the seventh year of Symeon Mag.,421,places

Theophilus.

THE0PHILU8

DESTROYS

ZAPETEA,

A.D.

836.

186

by a
stance
same

Christian
"

to have exclaimed was. reported soldier,


on

in

a. d.

her agony,
was

Oh, shame

Motassem

"

The

circum-

"^^^^'

to repeated

the

who caliph,
woman

learned at the
was

time that the unfortunate

of the tribe

to the clannish Hashem, and consequently, according tassem Moof the Arabs, a member of his own family. feelings

of

swore

by the Prophethe
time

would do

ever

in j thing

his power In the

to revenge her.
mean

of his easy victories, Theophilus, proud and instead of strengthening returned to Constantinople, his frontier, and placing the mountain-passes, near stronggarrisons his to brought best troopsto Constantinople attend on his own As he entered the hippodrome person. in a chariot drawn by four white horses, wearing the colours of the blue faction, his happy return was hailed by the people with loud shouts. His welcome was

more

like that of

successfulcharioteer than of had

torious vic-

general.
The Persian
to

whose number mercenaries,

now

creased in-

in winter-quarthousand,were placed thirty ters where they and Amastris, at Sinope beganto display could neither trust his a seditious spirit ; for Theophilus the confidence of his soldiers. These nor generals acquire

mercenaries
to

at last broke out

into

and resolved rebellion,

kingdomin Pontus. their general Theophobus king; but


form
a

Persian

They proclaimed
that oflBcer had
no

ambition

to

insure the ruin of his brother-in-law's pire em-

ances a doubtful sceptre ; and he sent assurby grasping that he would remain faithful to his to Theophilus in his power to put an and do everything allegiance, fore, thereend to the rebellion. Without much diflBculty, this army of Persians was gradually dispersed obthe diflFerent was themes, but tranquillity through

medan Mohamas told of Motassem, is givenby Price, QibboD,X. 68. The story, the Mohammedan it 147 ; as told of Al Hakem, by Murphy, History "(f History, 90. Empire in Bpain,

186

ICX)KOCLAST

PBRIOD.

BOOK

I.

tained

GiLifi. f 2.

of the best of one the efficiencj bj sacrificing armies in the empire. in the alsore-established Motassem, having tranquillity

turned his whole attention to interiorof his dominions, the war with the Bjzantine empire. A well-appointed
suparmj of yeterans, composedof the troopswho had pressed assembled on the the rebellion of Babek, was himself at the of Cilicia, frontiers and the caliph placed in the head of the army, on the banks of the Cydnns, thousand men, A second army of thirty year 838.^ under Afshiu, at a considerable advanced into the empire

distance to the north-east of the immediate orders of the the rebellionof Babek
and On
was

grandarmy, under the Afshin had suppressed caliph.


lasted

after it had

twenty years,

of the Saracens. considered the ablest general

that the army of Afshin had invaded Lykanhearing intrusted the defences of the Cilidan dos, Tbeophilus to advance, to proposed passes, by which the caliph the general of the Anatolic theme, and hastened Actios, to stop the progress of Afshin,whose army, strengthened by a strong body of Armenians under Sembat the native governor of the country,and by ten thousand Turkish mercenaries, who
were

then considered the best

in Asia, was Theophilus, Cappadocia. troops overrunning and that this army might turn his flank, apprehensive alarmed lest the Armenians and Persians, of which it was part composed, might seduce those of the same nations in his service, anxious to hasten an engagewas ment

The

battle

Byzantine army,
Saracens.

at Dasymon, where the fought and Manuel, commanded by Theophobos


was

under the immediate

orders of

The fieldwas

attacked the Theophilus, and for some contested, fiercely

^ Contin. 78. the defeat of Theophiliis Symeon Mag. 428. This last places of and the deaUi of Manuel in the ninth year of Theophilus,and the taking commenced in October 829. Amorium in the tenth. The reignof Theophilus occurred in one campaign, and the Arabian historians give tha They evidently 23d September888 as the date of the captureof Amorium. Weil^ii 815.
"

188

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK Gh.
m.

L f 8.

and Bosphorus, But all the Asiatic suburb of Constantinople. plundering with his attempts to storm Amorium, thoughrepeated defeated hy fresh troops on three successive days, were who had thrown himself into the city with the Actios, best soldiers in his army, and the caliph found himself to commence a now siege. Theophilus obliged regular and the leading sued for peace. The bishop of Amorium for the numerous citizensoflFered to capitulate, army within the walls soon But exhausted the provisions.
arms

of carrjiDg his

to the shores of the

Motassem

declared that he would

neither conclude

peace
what

capitulation ; vengeance was Amorium was victory. valiantly defended for fifty-five at length days,but treachery his passion, to gratify enabled the caliph as he was just assault. to try the fortune of a fourth general preparing
nor

grant terms

of

he

not sought,

The traitor who into the


was city

sold his post and admitted the Saracens


named Voiditzes. In this
case

both

the Christian and Mohammedan

accounts

ingthe

success

of the

to treason besiegers

agree in ascribin the Christian

and the defence appears ranks, far exceeded that of persons


were were

to have been conducted

by

Actios both with skilland valour.^

tassem of Mocruelty sand thouTheophilus. Thirty

The

massacred,and the inhabitants who


sold
as

of Amorium city burned to the ground, and the walls destroyed. The was ambassadors sent by Theophilus to beg for peace had been detained by the caliph, to witness his conquest Tell your They were now sent back with this answer, that I have at last discharged master the debt contracted
were spared
"

slaves. The

at

Zapetra.''
that Motassem, however, perceived
a

considerable

changehad
in which the

taken

placein the empiresince the days He Saracens had besieged Constantinople.


1

81. ConUnuator,

DEATH

OP

THEOPHILUS,

A.D.

842.

189
a. d.

did not

consider it prudent to attempt adrancing to the shores of the Bosphoms,but returned to his own
eren

^'^^

with him Aetios and forty officers of dominions, carrying rank in Amorium. For seven captured years these men were faith ; yainly urgedto embrace the Mohammedan at last theywere put to death by Vathek, the son of Motassem, and they are regarded as martyrs by the orthodox church.^ Theophilus is said to have offered the CaliphMotassem the sum lb. of gold to of 2400 purchase peace, and the deliverance of all the Christians who had been taken prisoner duringthe war ; but the in addition that a Persian refugee caliphdemanded named
not to

Naser, and
have

Manuel, of whose death he appears been assured, should also be given up.
himself by delivering disgrace up off. Naser broken was was shortly treaty
to

refused Theophilus

Naser,and the
after killed in

an

engagement on the frontier.


for prosecuted
some

The
manner,
arms.

war

was

years in

and The

success

rather inclined to the

languid Byzantine
a

was port of Antioch,on the Orontes,

taken
Meli-

and
tene

plundered by a
was as ravaged

Greek
far
as

fleet; the

of province

Marash

; Abou

who had Said,

defeated and
and taken

slain Naser,was

in turn

himself defeated

to have been At last a truce seems prisoner. took place.^ of prisoners but no exchange concluded, recovered from the wound his pride never Theophilus defeats he sustained received at Amorium. The frequent in those battles where he was trasted conengaged, personally rankled in his with the success of his generals, His sensitive temperament and melancholy disposition. his health. To undermined the fatigues of his campaigns for building his passion diverthis mind, he indulged ; and of the Byzantine the resources 80 great were treasury,

Their No

martyrdom is celebrated

on

the 6th March.

It occurred

in 845"

iii. 7. OrcBcorum, Menologium


*

843. until September 845." Weil^ ii. took place exchangeof prisoners

190

ICONOCLAST

FEBIOD.

BOOK

that

eren

at
sums

this period of misfortane he could layish


in idle ornament. It would hare been

^"''*^

enormous

both for him and for the Christian world,had he well"


some employed

of thiswealth at erected a

an

in fortifying earlier period

the frontier and

the diminishing
new

burden

of the

calledTriconchos, chapel pering a whisa circusfor public races, a staircasecalled Sigma, tain founand a magnificent called the Mystery, gallery health continued calledPhiala.^ But the emperor's not yery that his end was and he perceived to decline, land-tax. He
now

dbtant.

for death with prudenceand prepared Theophilus his character. which disgraced courage, but with that suspicion dora. councilof regency was named to assist TheoHis habitual distrust induced him to exdude
A

from this council He feared lest TheoTheophobos phobosmightseize the throne by means of the army, or establishan independent kingdomin the Armeniac theme on by means of the Persian mercenaries. The conspiracy after the defeat at Dasymon had augmented the night with which the emperor regarded the jealousy hisbrotherin-law oyer
of the Persian troopsat Siafterthe rebellion He now resolyed to secure his son's nope and Amastris. and ordered throne at the expense of his own conscience,
to Theophobos

be beheaded.

the Recollecting

fortune
manded com-

of his

and the fate of Leo the Armenian, he father,

to brought his bedside. The agitation of the emperor^s mind, after this order, increased his malady; and when issuing greatly the lifeless head of his former friend was before placed his him, he gazedlong and steadily at its features, mind doubtless wandering the memory of many a oyer battle-field in which they had fought At last together.
Contin. 62, 86. Sjmeon Mag. 424. An account of the buildings of Theophilus will be found in the Historyof Art, by Dr Carl Bohn9"ae.~-Oe$ehickte der bildendm EUntU im MUtelalter. AUchristlickeund Mokammedanitdk
*

the head of his brother-in-lawto be

KuntLuUl.

REGENCY

OF

THEODORA,

A.D.

842.

191

exclaimed, Thou art no longer slowly Theophobos, a.d. ^^^^ and I am no more ;" then, Theophilus turning away his and never head, he sank on his pillow, again openedhis lips.
he
"

SECT

IIL"

BnCHAEL

m.

(THE
and
of

DRUKKARD),
rilioious
the OF in the

A.D.

843-867.

REOEif CT OF
or VESU8

Theodora
war

"

^Moral

rkactiok
in

"

Restoration
the
"

ncAOE-woRSHiP"
"

Rebellion
"

Sclavonians
THE

Pblopon^PERSONAL
"

SaRAOXN
OF

^PERBEOUnON
"

PaULXOIANS
"

CONDUCT
TIOS AND

Michael
"

IIL

^Wealth
OF

treasurt

^Bardas
THE war
" "

^Igna"

PhOTIUS
council
"

OrIQIN 861
"

PAPAL

AUTHORITY war
"

IN

CHURCH

General
OF

in

Bulgarian
attack

Saracen

Victory
of
"

Petronas

Russians
"

CJonstantinople
of the the tale of

State

the

court"

Assassinations
OF

Origin

Beusarius

sination ^Assas-

Michael

III. by

Basil

Macedonian.

Michael the

son

of

was Theophilus

between

three and dora, Theo-

four years old when

his father died.

His mother

own as a

havingbeen crowned right The will of her


in the

empress, was husband had

regent in her
with her, joined
press em-

council of administration, the ablest Theoktistos,

statesman ; and

empire ; Manuel, the

uncle of the

Bardas,her brother.^ Thekla, an elder sister of Michael, had also received the title of Empressbefore
her father'sdeath.
The

between the Iconoclasts and the great struggle

terminated during the regency of was image-worshippers Theodora,and she is consequently dox regarded by the orthoof excellence, as a pattern thoughshe countenanced the vices of her son, by beingpresent at his most disgraceful of debauchery. The most remarkable scenes at the termination of this longreligious circumstance, test, conis the immorality which invaded all ranks of society. The moral and religious and strictness which, sincerity the government of the early had raised Iconoclasts, during
^ Theoktistos was of the dromos, a eunuch, and held the officeof logothetes kind of postmaster-generaL He was made kanicleios, or keeperof the purple ink,with which the emperor signed. The postmasterwas a most important officerin the Saracen as weU as in the Byzantine empire at this time.
"

192

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

to dignity from the verge of socialdissolution empire 3. gree been supplanted had subsequently j^jjj by a destrength, CB^nM that became at lastintolerable. of cant and hypocrisy in theirearly of both the ecclesiastical The sincerity parties, of the people obtained for them the respect ; but contests, of the subjection when the political concerning question to the civilpower became the principal the ecclesiastical ambition of dispute, official tyranny and priestly object for the veil of religious phrases onlyused a hypocritical their interestedends from popular purpose of concealing much farther than As usual,the people saw scrutiny. both and the consequence was that, their rulers supposed, of hypocrisy, the influenceof true being suspected parties weakened, and the most sacred tiesof society was religion The Byzantine showed themselves rent asunder. clergy readyon all occasions to flatterthe vices of the civil tinction, disgovernment : the monks were eager for popular and acted the partof demagogues ; while servile ferent indifand seditious monks were both equally prelates the people's burdens. to alleviating that it was at last proclaimed Every rank of society discussion and domestic strife. Inweary of religious difiference to the ecclesiastical so longpredominant, questions and the indifi^erence to religion itself, produced dormant ; enjoyment was power of conscience became under the considered the object of life; and vice, soon of pleasure, became the fashion of the day. In name this state of society, of which the germs were visiblein of Theophilus, the reign to be more was sure superstition than religion. It was easier to pay adoration powerful to a picture, to reverence a relic, or to observe a ceremony, than to regulate one's conduct in life of by the principles and the doctrines of religion. Pictures, morality images, and ceremonies became consequently the great relics, of veneration. of the The Greek population objects had identified its national feelings with traditional empire
BOOK L

the

MORAL

AND

BELIGIOUS

REACTION.

193
a. d.

and itsoppousages rather than with Christian doctrines, of the Isaurian, sifcion to the Asiatic puritanism Armenian, the reverence emperors, ingrafted and the worship the adoration of pictures, of and Amorian the
for

^^^'^'

relics, into saints,

fabricof the Eastern church, of as essentials religious the church has gained Christian worship. Whatever in this way, in the amount of popular to have devotion, seems been lost to popular morality. The senate at thistime possessed considerableinfluence in administrative business. It was called upon to ratify and a majority the will of Theophilus, of its members to the party of the empress, who was were over gained known to favour image-worship.^ of Constantinople The people had alwaysbeen of this party ; and the tired of the persecutions Iconoclasts of the higher ranks, which had been the result of the ecclesiastical quarrel, than victory. desired peace and toleration more The John the Grammarian, and some of the highest Patriarch, in the church,were, nevertheless, tiously consciendignitaries of devotion which they opposedto a species and from them no resembled idolatry, too closely thought could be expected. Manuel, however, compliance public of the regency who had been a fervent the onlymember abandoned the defence of his Iconoclast, suddenly that it was was so unexpected ; and his change opinions he had been converted by a miracle. A sudden reported illnessbroughthim to the pointof death, when the of the monks of Studion as suddenly prayers and the images restored him
to

health. Such

was

the beliefof the

and it must have been a belief of Constantinople, people to the monks. extremely profitable council in order to It was necessary to hold a general efiect the restorationof image-worship ; but to do this remained Patriarch was as long as John the Grammarian
^

85. CoDtinuator, N

VOL.

I.

194
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

^'"*''

ordered him The regency, however, impossible. evidently and and invite to it allthe bishops to convoke a synod, abbots sequestered or elseto resign as image-worshippers, John refused both commands, and a the patriarchate. in which he was wounded by the disturbance occurred, a reportthat guards. The court party spread imperial he had
"

wounded

himself in
a

an

attempt

to

commit

suicide the

crime greatest

Christian could commit.

of John, and his studies The greatmechanical knowledge in natural philosophy, considered by the were already
as ignorant

criminal in

an

ecclesiastic ; so that the

lumnious ca-

like that already circulatedof his accusation, credence among the orthodox magical powers, found ready Greeks. The court seized the opportunity of deposing him.
He
was on an

firstexiled

to

quently, monastery,and subsehad

accusation that he

of a the eyes in a picture his own put out. eyes were

much the as perhaps religious opinions.

cause

pickedout he was and saint, scourged, His mental superiority was of his persecution his as

Methodios,who had been released from imprisonment of Theodora,was named at the intercession by Theophilus and a council of the church was held at Constantinopl Patriarch, in 842, to which all the exiledbishops, abbots,
themselves as confessors distinguished in the cause of image-worship admitted. Those were who remained firm to their Iconoclastic bishops opinions from their and were Sees, expelled replaced by the most eminent confessors. The practices and doctrinesof the Iconoclastswere formally and banished for anathematised,
ever

and monks who had

from the orthodox church.

crowd of monks

cended des-

from the secluded monasteries of


and favour of and images, pictures,

Olympus,Ida,

in Athos, to revive the enthusiasm of the people relics mains ; and the last reinterwoven carefully
of traditionalidolatry were

196
BooKL
8.

ICONOCLAST
on Sophia,

PERIOD.

cborch of St

the 19th

chjim ^jjjj^y ^^yg^j^y


of

^^^ ^^ ^jjj^f

842, just February TheophUus. This festival


as

continues to be observed in the Greek church

the feast

the firstSunday of Lent.^ on orthodoxy of the regency was to reThe firstmilitary press expedition a rebellionof the Sclavonians in the Peloponnesus* of Theophilus. which had commenced duringthe reign On this occasion the
to
mass

of the Sclavoniau colonists was

reduced Mount

and subjected to submission, complete

the

regular system of

taxation ; but two tribes settled on succeeded in the Ezerits and Melings, Taygetus,

of independence, a certain degree retaining governing to their own themselves according only usages, and paying
a

fixed annual
to

tribute.

For

the

Ezerits this tribute

amounted

three hundred

Melings to
was

the

who commanded

of gold, and for the pieces of sixty. The sum trifling general the Byzantine troops on this occasion

who Theoktistos Briennios, In the

held the officeof protos-

pathario8.2
mean

time Theoktistos the

of power degree from as in the Roman was Byzantine empire, inseparable took the command of a great experenown, n)ilitary dition into Cholcis, to conquer the Abasges. His fleet was destroyed by a tempest,and his troopswere defeated In order to regain the reputation he had by the enemy. he made an attempt in the following lost, conquer year to rethe island of Crete while he
was

obtain that

anxious to regent, and influence which,in the

from

the Saracens.
Chandax

But

in engaged
a

the

of siege

the reportof
^

revolution at

(Candia,) induced him Constantinople

The Patriarch Methodioe did not note zv. his had been employed by his partisans against predecessor. An accusation of adultery was brought againsthim, but the to the assembled oleigy Patriarch is said to have proved itsfalsity in a singular escape the

Pagi id Baron, xiv. 266,

calumny which

99. Continuator, 50. This Theoktistos must not Porphyr. De Adm, Imp, chap. be confounded with the regent" who never returned successful from any expedition."
manner. * Constantine
"

Contin. 126.

SARACEN

WAR.

197

inte- a. d. quithis armj, hi order to look afterhis personal ^^^^' rests and political suffered severely The troops intrigues. after tliey whom abandoned by their general, were they at last to follow.^ were compelled The war with the caliph of Bagdat stillcontinued, and the destruction of a Saracen fleet, of four consisting hundred galleys, in the by a tempest off Cape Chelidonia, theme, consoled the Byzantine Kibyrraiot government for its other losses. The caliph of had expected, by means
to

this great naval force, of the the command to secure and assist the operations of his armies in Archipelago,
Asia Minor.

The hostilities on

the Cilicianfrontier were

without any decided advantage to either party, prosecuted until the unlucky Theoktistos placed himself at the head of the Byzantine a on brought troops. His incapacity in which the imperial pletely general engagement, army was comthe called Mauropotamos, at a place defeated, near
range of Mount

Taurus.^

After this

officerof an battle,

from Ferganah,) with reputation, disgusted (Theophanes, and blunders of Theoktistos, the severity deserted to the At a subsequent Saracens, and embraced Islamism. vice serhowever,he againreturned to the Byzantine period, and the Christian religion.^ effected In the year 845, an exchange of prisoners was the banks of the river Lamus, a day's to the on journey This was the firstthat had taken place west of Tarsus. of of Amorium. since the taking The frequent exchange between the Christians and the Mussulmans prisoners

Cod tin. 126.

About

threatened to blockade
* ^

this time Weil,ii 848, mentionB the Hellespont.

that

Cretan fleet

Oeorg. Mon. Scrip, post TheopK 629. Leo Oramm. 457, 461. Georg. Mon. 688. Guards from Fergana {"l"apy6poi L, Mp"s) are mentioned as having been sent to Italyin the time of Romanus Aulce ByzatUincBf A.D. 881, 484, edit 935." Constant Porpbyr. De CeremoniU Leich. It must be observed,however, that there was a country called FerPolabia. the Sclavonians in Schafarik gunna, and Fraganeo Civltates, among the I'elationsof the Slawische AUertkUmer, ii. 607, 630. So extensive were Byzantine empire, that it is not easy to decide between the SclaToniaos of the
"

West and the Turks

of the Eafit

198

ICONOOLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK ^-

I.

'""*'"

cruelty which inflictedmartyrdom on the forty-two prisoners of this year, in the beginning of rank taken at Amorium of the to have been connected with the interruption seems these which had preriously so oftenfacilitated negotiations exchanges.^ A female regency was supposed by the barbarians to be of necessity The Bulgarians, of weakness. a period hostilities under this impression, threatened to commence unless the Byzantine goremment consented to pay them dora, annual subsidy. the partof TheoA firm answer an on of a considerablemilitary accompanied by the display force on the frontier, however,restrained the predatory Peace was of King Bogoris and his subjects. disposition re-establishedafter some an hostilities, exchange trifling between of prisoners the commercial relations took place, who the two states became closer; and many Bulgarians, had lived so long in the Byzantine quired as to have acempire the arts of civilised tianity, of Chrislifeand a knowledge their countryto their homes, prepared returning men and for receiving of social culture, a higher degree with it the Christian religion. under the The disturbed state of the Saracen empire, would have enabled the Vathek and M otawukel, Caliphs pelled zeal not imhad religious tranquillity, regency to enjoy
tended always
of war; to soften the miseries the orthodox to the inhabitants of the persecute Minor. of the

and the

empirein
The

the south-eastern

regency

of Asia provinces followed the counsels unfortunately

bigoted party,which regardedthe extinction of heresy the most important as duty of the rulers of the state. A numerous with body of Christians were persecuted much driven to rebellion, that they were so cruelty and compelled for their lives and to solicit protection
property from the Saracens,who
"

seized the

opportuBysanHncs,

Ck. Arab, 167. Abalpharagios,

De Cer, Auict Ck)n8tant. Porphyr.

829.

PBB8ECUTI0N

OP

THE

PAULICIANS.

199
a.d.

hostilities within nitj of transporting fit)ntier8. The Panlicians


vere

the Byzantine
at this time
were

"^^the heretics who


of Constantinople. orthodoxy They

irritatedthe enemies of

and showed little respectto image-worship, the authority of a church establishment, for theirpriests

dcToted themselves to the serviceof theirfellow-creatures

formingthemselves into a separate order of to establish or attempting a hierarchical society, tion. organisaTheir social and political viewed were opinions with as much hatred and alarm by the ecclesiastical sellors counof Theodora,as the philanthropic of the principles Christianshad been by the pagan emperors of Rome. early The
same

without

calumnies

were

circulatedamong

the orthodox

the Paulicians, which had been propagated against amongst of the heathen against the Christians. The populace was Constantinople taughtto exult in the tortures of those accused of manicheanism, of Rome as the populace had been persuaded in the cruelties committed to delight
on

the

Christians as early

enemies of the human

race.

From the time of Constantine V. the Paulicianshad erally genof toleration some enjoyed degree ; but the regency
of Theodora resolvedto consummate the

doxy, of orthotriumph

by a

of all who refused to conform cruel persecution of the established church.

to the ceremonies

Imperial

commissioners

were

to sent into the Paulician districts

every individual who either conresistedthe invitations of the clergy demned was
enforce ecclesiastical union, and
to death
or

his

propertywas

confiscated. It is

cians the boast of orthodox historiansthat ten thousand Pauliin this manner. Far greater numbers, perished of Melitene,where into the province however, escaped them protection, and assisted the Saracen emir granted them to plan schemes of revenge.^
1

103. Ck)ntinuator,

200

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

of the Byzantine administration at last cruelty 8, to resistance within the empire ch^^oM ; gQ^^Q^ tjjg oppressed of the governand the injustice displayed by the oflBcers ment
BOOK
L

The

induced the

many, who

were

themselves indifferent

on

to take up arms against oppression. religious question, officers on the staff of Karbeas,one of the principal the general of the Anatolic theme, Theodotos Melissenos, for his adherence that his father had been crucified hearing to

fled to the emir of the doctrines of the Paulicians, and collecteda body of fivethousand men, with Melitene,

which
were

empire.^The Paulician refugees in two citiescalled established, order, by the caliph's


he invaded the Amara
; but their number
soon

Argaous and
a

increased

so

that they formed much, by the arrival of fresh emigrants, third establishment at in the districtof

of difficult access,
and dwelt in of
a

calledTephrike place (Divreky), Sebaste (Sivas), in a secluded country constructed a strong where they fortress,
a

state

of

Omar, independence.^
of
a

the emir

at the head Melitene,


a

Saracen army, and Karbeas

with

the frontiers of strong body of Paulicians, ravaged

the brother empire. They were opposed by Petronas, of Theodora,then general of the Thrakesian theme. The to defence ; while Byzantine army confined its operations and been defeated, Alim,the governor of Tarsus,having civilwar breaking out in the Saracen dominions in consequence of the cnielties of the Caliph Motawukel,the incursionsof the Paulicians were confined to mere dering plunIn the time considerable mean a forays. body of Paulicians continued to dwell in several provinces of the to empire, persecution escaping by outward conformity the Greek church,and by payingexactly all the dues leviedon them by the Byzantine clergy.The whole force
^ *

the

of PArnUnie,i. 188. The secluded position almost independent band of Kurds when it was visited by Otter in 1743. Vouage en TurguU "t en Perse,ii.306. It contains at present about two thousand houses,situated in a fertilevalley amidst luxuriant gardens. Ainsworth, TraveU and Beseareha in Ana Minor, ii 7.
sur

108. CoDtinuator, St Martin, Mimoirez


"

Divrekymade

it the seat of

an

"

MICHAEL

III.

201

of the
In

empirewas
years

not

directed

the against

PaiUicians

a. d.

until some

of Basil I.^ the reign later, daring

842w.

flicted the year 852, the regency revenged the losses inthe maritime districts of on by the Saracen pirates

landed fleet Egypt. A Byzantine by invading empire, and a body of troopsat Damietta,which was plundered and six hundred burned ; the countryround was ravaged, female slaves were carried away.^ Irene, Theodora^ like her female predecessor displayed the considerable talents for government. She preserved and increased its prosperity of the empire, in tranquillity of her persecuting she neglected ; but, like Irene, policy spite her dutyto her son in the most shameful manner. from Leo III. (the In the series of Byzantine sovereigns unfit to Michael III., Isaurian) onlytwo provedutterly
the for the duties of their been and both appear station,
to

have

by the education theyreceived from their corrupted and the heartambition of Irene, less mothers. The unfeeling the original of the of Theodora,were causes vanity of Constantino VI. and the vices of Michael III. folly at the time The system of education generally adopted well adapted to form men to have been singularly seems of ability, V., see in the instances of Constantino as we who were all educated as Leo IV., and Theophilus, and heirs to the empire. Even if we take the princes shall find extended view of Byzantine most we society, in that the constant supplyof great talents displayed have been the result of careful the public service must cultivation and judicious systematic study. No other such a longsuccesmonarchical government can produce sion of able ministers and statesmen as conducted the Byzantine and tenth the eighth, administration during ninth, of original centuries. The remarkable deficiency genius
"

ill 248.
'

Mosheim, Soames' edit. iL 251. Neander, see Conoeming the Paulicians, 168. x. Gibbon, to the Arabic Ckronicle of Abul" the knowledge of this expedition We owe

pharagius, p. 170.

202
BOOK
L

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

^^"''*^

that the thisperiod onlyadds an additionalproof daring mind was disciplined by a rigid system of education. Theodora have been With abandoned the
care

education of her child's

of whose tastes and talents she may to her brother Bardas,

bauched but of whose dejudge, very incompetent she must hare seen and heard too much. manners
a

the assistance of Theoktistos she the sole directionof the

to arrogated

self her-

and administration, public the course of idlenessand profliviewed with indiflFerence gacy of her son the principles by which Bardas corrupted
in his endeavour to
secure a over mastery

his mind.

Both

mother and uncle appear to have vices. Bardas the young emperor's he favourite, as
not

to profit expected by became a soon prime

onlyafforded the young emperor for gratifying but supported his passions, eveiy facility with the regency that originated him in the disputes on Michael at last came account of his lavish expenditure. He had fallen in with his mother. to an open quarrel love with Eudocia,the daughter of Inger, of the great dora of the Martinakes, a connection which both Theofamily and Theoktistosviewed with alarm, to create as likely influence.^ To to their political a powerful opposition Theodora succeeded in compelling prevent a marriage,
then in his sixteenth year, to marry the daughter of Dekapolitas. named Eudocia, another lady who Michael, The
was

debauchee, however,made Eudocia Ingerina bestowed his mistress, and, towards the end of his reign,
young

her in

on marriage

Basil the Macedonian

as

mark

of

his favour.

She became the mother of the

EmperorLeo

VL, the Wise.2


enabled Bardas to excitethe aniThis forced marriage
^

A
a

IB said to have announced prophecy succession of emperors than longer

the emshould give that this fiunily pire the Amorian dynasty. Continuator,
"

75. firstson, after her marEudocia Ingerina*s There seems riage a doubt whether named Constantine. with Basil, was Symeon Mag. 449 ; Lea Gramm. at page 468, 472 ; or Leo George the Monk, 540 ; and Leo Gi*ammaticus himself, edit. Par. This child, whether the one or the other, was genenJlysupposed to be the child of Michael II L
"

'

204
BOOK
L

ICOKOCLAST

PERIOD.

Cb.111. fS.

EmpressTheodora contiDued to livein the imperial after the murder of Theoktistos, until her regency palace, her son attaining the age of eighteen.^ Her on expired,
residence there was, mind of her from

The

however,rendered
The

torture

to

her

exhibitionsof by the unseemly


son.

the debauched

ciates asso-

livered eagerness of Michael to be deher presence at length caused him to send his sisters to reside in the Carian the Patriarch attemptpersuading After her banishment still hopedto
recover

both his mother and

Palace,and

even

to

the veil. to givethem Ignatius from the imperial Theodora palace,

her influence with her son, if she could separate him from Bardas ; and she engaged in intrigues with her brother's whose enemies,
was conspiracy

secret

was object

his assassination.^ This


to

and onlytended discovered,

increase

He was now raised to the dignity the power of Bardas. of Michael were of curopalat. Theodora and the sisters
removed
to the

the usual residence monastery of Gastria,

of the ladies of the from the world.

who imperial family


some

were

secluded she

After the death of influence over

Bardas, however,
her
son

Theodora recovered allowed


to occupy at
a

was

and it was

of St Mamas, apartmentsin the palace partyin her rural residence at the Anthewas

mian Palace that Michael

assassinated.^ Theodora

of Basil L ; and Thekla, died in the first year of the reign the sisterof Michael, who had received the imperial title, and
was as

debauched

in her

manners

as

her

brother,

continued her scandalous lifeduring greatpartof Basil's


of the value of four times that sxim in the rest of Europe. But all comparisons be mere at different times most conjecture. Coin travelsalong bad money than merchandise. roads with greater difficulty ^ 92. death. than three years old at his fisithers He was more Continuator, than fourteen years. Krug. CknmologU der He reignedwith Theodora more murdered in the thirteenth year of his reign. 3. Theoktistos was Biftantiner, Symeon Mag. 485. From the conclusion of Theodora's regency Michael Chrom^ Ckron, ad caL Spncdli reignedupwards of eleven years. JS,Nicephari 572. iOi, Many anecdotes confirm this chronology.Schlosser, s Symeon Mag. 435. Georg. Mon. 584. " Symeon Mag. 451. Geoig.Mon. 541. Leo Qramm. 468,edit Par. ; 250,edit Bonn.
" " " " "

MICHAEL'S

DEPRAVITT.

205

;^ yet Theodora reign church, and


calendar.

is eulogised as a saint by the eccleas a

a. d.

writers of the Western siastical is honoured with

well

as

the Eastern

842-867.

placein

the Greek

by the counsels and exampleof Bardas, Encouraged obtained Michael plungedinto every vice. His orgies of the Drunkard of his for him the name ; but,in spite
vicious his devotion conduct;
to

chariot-races and his love

the of festivals gave him considerable popularity among The people of Constantinople. amused by were people his and the citizensprofited follies, by his lavish expenditure.

Many

anecdotes

but theyare preserved, of the great demoralisation then existing at as proofs it is profor, as facts concerning Michael, Constantinople, bable from the flatterers theyhave received their colouring of his assassin. Michael's unworthy of the dynasty duct, conrendered him contemptible to however,ultimately

his vices have been concerning of detailednotice only deserving

allclasses. Had

ing as
to

confined himself to appear* charioteer in the Hippodrome, itwould have been but he carried his extravaganceso far as

the emperor

pardoned easily ;

and caricaturethe ceremonies of the orthodox church, the religious of the clergy. to burlesque processions publicly The indifibrenceof the
to people

this ribaldry seems

when strange,
which the

we

reflecton

the state of

doubly into superstition

had fallen, and on the important Constantinopolitans place occupied by the Eastern church in Byzantine however, the endeavours which had Perhaps, society. been made, both by the church and the emperors, to render of public church ceremonies an attractive species mind for amusement, had tended to prepare the public this irreverent caricature. It is always to imprudent
with especially At thistime, and religious music, feelings. singreligion triflewith
a

serious

and subject,

more

Qeorg.Mon.

545.

Leo

Qramm.

471.

206
I. BOOK ^'^**'

IC0K0CLA8T

PERIOD,

of costume, and scenic effect, magnificence iDg, eloquence, tion decorablended with architectural had all been carefully of the richest kind
to Sophia,

in the

church splendid
and engage

of St

excite the admiration

the attention.

the thing was consequence was, that religion when theyassembled toof by the people, gether least thought

The

at

festivals. Their ecclesiastical

was object

to

enjoythe music,view the pageantry,and criticisethe criticsby the supercilious Michael gratified performers. entertainments and givevariety his caricatures, to the public sity bythe introduction of comedyand farce. The necesof this was

feltin the Roman

which Catholic church,

to preventthe groundbeing authorised similar saturnalia, by opponents. The Emperor Michael exhibited occupied

caricatureof the ecclesiastical clever but very irreverent of the Patriarch and clergy of Constantinople. processions
a

consisted of an excellentbufibon arrayed masquerade in the patriarchal attended by eleven mimic metropolitan robes, in full and costume, embroidered with gold, bishops followed by a crowd disguised as choristersand priests. This cortige, accompanied by the emperor in person, as if in a solemn procession, walked through the streets of ridiculous songs to psalmtunes, and the capital singing the of debauchery, mingling burlesque hymns in praise

The

richestmelodies of Oriental church-music with the


discordant nasal
screams

most

of Greek

exhibitionwas disgraceful

ballads. popular and on repeated, frequently


whom Patriarch,

This
one

occasion encountered the real

the buffoon of

saluted with ribald courtesy, without from the pious Greeks.^ indignation The
most

a burst exciting

in of society depravity

all ranks had reached the


at placed

scandalous pitch. Bardas,when

the head

124. If the fable of the female Pope Joanna provee anything, Continuator, be received
at
as

it may

evidence that the state of

at society

Rome
was

was

Constantinople. The imaginary female cotemporary of the roal drunken emperor.

than

pope

supposed

little better to be a

IGNATIUS

DEPOSED,

A.D.

867.
care

207
to conceal his
a. d.

of the

took administration, public


was

no

Tices ; he
his son's

accused of

an

incestuous intercourse with


man

^^^^'

highoffice the of the Europeantroops.^ of generalissimo Ignatius of the highest Patriarch was a man character, eager to
held the obtain for the church in the East that moral supremacy which the papal in the West. to itself power now arrogated with Disgusted
was

while the young wife,

the vices of
to him

Bardas, he refused
on

to

nister admi-

the sacrament receive the this

usual for all the 857. of

when it Sunday, of the empire to great dignitaries


Advent

holy communion

from

the hands

of the

Patriarch, a.d.
mark public

Bardas, to revenge

himself for

of recalled to the memory infamy, had made to the young emperor the resistance Ignatius the veil, Theodora's receiving and accused him of holding self himcommunication with a monk who had given private out to be a son of Theodora,bom before her marriage As this monk was widi Theophilus. known to be mad, and many senators and it would have been Ignatius,
as

attached to were bishops difficult to convict extremely


on

the Patriarch of treason


no appeared him. against heresy

there

accusation ; and of framing possibility any chargeof

such

an

Michael

was,

however, persuaded

to arrest acts of

him

on

of various charges
to

havingcommitted
to

and sedition,

banish him

the island of

Terebinthos. necessary to look out for a new Patriarch, of Ignaand the circumstancesrequired that the successor tius
It
was now

highcharacter as well as talent, for the deposed Patriarch had occupied no ordinary tion. posiHis father and his maternal grandfather (Michael
a man

should be

of

I. and

had Nioephorus I.)


; he was

stantinople both filled the throne of Conand piety his his devotion

celebrated for his


of the church.

to the

cause

But

partyzeal

Symeon Mag. 439

duroccM^. rSnif fiovorpctnfyU

208

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

BOOK

had

raised already

^^"^^^

in the bosom

to his measures up a strongopposition of the church ; and Bardas took advantage

of these ecclesiastical dissensions to make the

the contest

cerning con-

without a clerical patriarchate struggle,

ing bring-

the state into direct collision with the factious

whose church,

did the work of its own degradation. spirit of the the Leo Armenian, a son V., Emperor Gregory, was by Bishopof Syracuse,He had been suspended the Patriarch Methodios for consecrating out of a priest his diocese. During the patriarchate the of Ignatius, of the sons of two rival emperors had hereditary hostility the quarrel, and Ignatius availed had probably perpetuated of the opportunity himself with pleasure offered him of excommunicating Gregoryas some reyenge for the loss of the imperial throne. It was pretended that Gregory had ayersion to image-worship, and the suspia hereditary cions of Methodios were of magnified by the animosity into absolute heresy.^ had been This dispute Ignatius referredto Pope Benedict III., and hisdecisionin favour of Ignatius had induced Gregory who and his partisans, and powerful, the legato call in question numerous were lity of the electionof Ignatius. himself Bardas,availing of thisecclesiastical and strained threats, contest, employed the influence of the emperor to the utmost, to induce the patriarchate to resign Ignatius ; but in vain. It was, decided that Photius should be electedPatriarch therefore, without of the a formal resignation obtaining whose electionwas declared null. Ignatius,

from office

the chief secretary of state, who was thus suddenly Photius, raised to the head of the Eastern church, was a man of highrank,noble descent, and great learning, profound influence. If we believe his own declaration, personal and frequently he publicly repeated,
*

was

elected against

gory,

QeneriuB, 47. Symeon Mag. 443. Schloeser, out that Orep. 692,points of the sons of Leo the Armenian, was the same one person with Gregory of Syracuse."Ck"Ieti, Asbestas, Concil. archbishop x. 698. Nioetas,Vita IgnatH

PHOTIUS

ELECTED

PATRIARCH,
no

A.D.

867.

209
a. n.

his will ; and there seems

doubt that he conld not hare

selectionof the emperor without forfeiting ^^^' all rank at court,and perhaps danger.^ incurring personal His popularity, and his intimate acquaintance with civil

opposedthe

canon

and his family alliance with the imperial house, law, him

in his new rank. Like bis advantages celebrated predecessors, Tarasios and Nicephorus, he was his election took place.On the 20th a layman when December 857, he was consecrated a monk by Gregory, of Syracuse ; on the following archbishop day he became an a sub-deacon ; next day he anagnostes; the day after, deacon ; and on the 24th he received was appointed elected Patriarch orders. He was then formally priest's in a synod, consecrated and on Christmas-day solemnly
gave

many

in the church of St

Sophia.^

election of Photius, which was evidently illegal, in increased the dissensions only existing the already church
in drew off the attention of the people they from political and enabled Bardas to some abuses, degree constitutethe civilpower judgein ecclesiastical matters* and the leading of hispartywere imprisoned men Ignatius and ill treated ; but even of the party of the clergy insulted and carried bePhotius could not escape being fore refused to comply the ordinary if they with tribunals, the iniquitous demands of the courtiers, or ventured to of the government officials. Photius oppose the injustice rendered himself the agent soon bitterly having repented
;

The

but

of such

men

as

Bardas and Michael

and

as

he knew

" Photiiis the gnnd-nephew of the Patriarch Tarasfos, who like himself was had been raised from the post of secretaryof state to rule the church. Letter of Photius to Pope Nicholas in HUUnrt de PkcHut, par I'Abb^ Jager,448 ;" a sister of the Empress Theodora, and not very accurate work. Irene, prejudiced Fam, Aug. Byt.135. married to Sergius, the brother of Photius. was Ducange, 109. who Continuator, Cedrenus, 545. The Abb6 Jager says that Arsabcr, married another sister of Theodora, (Kalomeria), uncle to Photius. was * jinnal^s EeeUs. ziy. ; Coleti, Conoiliorum CML ix. and z. ; Pkotu BaroniuSy of ecclesiastical for this London, 1651,are the chief sources Sputola, history De ByumUnarum period. The account of Photius in the work of Haukins, Herum Seriptorifnu Orwoii, p. 269, deaenreB attention.
" "

VOL.

I.

210

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

"""'"*^

their conduct and charactersbefore his election, we may believe tlieassertionhe makes in his lettersto Bardas
and which he repeats that to the Pope, himsdf, In the
mean

he

was

his wish.^ to acceptthe patriarchate against compelled allowed so much liberty was time, Ignatius ment Bardas,whofoundPhotius a lessdocileinstrubythe crafty than he had

synod in the Photius assembly


a

that his partisans assembled expected, church of Irene for forty days. In this
and his adherents
were

ed. excommunicat-

and Bardas,however,declared in favour of Photius, allowed him to hold


in the Church of the counter-synod in which the electionof Ignatius clared dewas Holy Apostles, been made by the Empress uncanonical, as having Theodora in opposition of severalbishops.^ to the protest The persecution of Ignatius renewed ; he was exiled was and his property in the to Mitylene, was sequestrated, he would be induced to resign hope that by these measures the patriarchal Photius, however,had the dignity. increasedhis rival's to see that this persecution sense only and strengthened his party; he thereforeperpopularity, suaded
a

the emperor
that his
own

him in the to recallhim, and reinstate

of his private fortune. possession

Photius

must

have felt

former

with intimacy

his debauched relation

had Bardas,and his tolerationof the vices of Michael,


fixed
a

deep stain
now

on

his character in the eyes of all

sincere Christians. It and

the election of Photius, necessary to legalise obtain the ratification of the deposition of Ignatius
was

by

council general The

of the church ; but

no

general

council could be convoked

without the sanction of the

Emperor Michael consequently despatched ambassadors to Rome, to invitePope Nicholas I. to send for the purpose of holding to Constantinople, a legates Pope.
^ Fkotii 602. EpiMce, iil and yl SchloBser, the Abb^ Jager,givesa letter to Pope Nicholas pp. 34 and 43.S. ' 603. Schlosser,

The Bistoire de Phoiiu$, by this unwillingness, confirming

212
BOOK

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

I.

^"'**'

increased as the civiland military bishops power of the Western Empire declined ; and when the imperial the of the Eastern Empire, became a provincial city city and chiefs of Roman society, popes became the political of the influence formerly small portion inherited no administration over the provinexercised by the imperial cial could Rome ecclesiastics. is the It of true, Bishops in the opinion not exercisethispower without control, but, of the barbarian conquerors of the subjects of a majority of in the West, the Pope was the legal representative of imperial Rome as well as the legitimate the civilisation of St Peter,and the guardian of the rock on successor founded. Unless the authority which Christianity was of the popes be traced back to their original as position and patriarchs of Rome of the Western archbishops Empire,and the institutionsof the papalchurch be viewed as they existed in connection with the originally claims the realvalue of the papal administration, imperial founded on traditionalfeelings, to universal domination, imitated the estimated. The popes only cannot be justly Roman ; emperors in their most exorbitant pretensions and the vicious principles while he was of Constantine, stilla pagan, continue to exert their corruptinfluence the ecclesiastical of the greaterpart of institutions over

Europeto

the present day.

assumed that Constantine had conThe popes early ferred ecclesiastical the of on Bishop Rome a supreme minions, the three European of his dodivisions over jurisdiction

when he divided the empire into four prefectures. There

indeed, many factswhich tended to support this claim. Africa, in so far as it belonged to the jurisdiction
were,

the Europeanprefectures, acknowledged of the Bishopof Rome after the authority ; and even finaldivision of the empire, Dacia,Macedonia, Thessaly, and from the Epirus, Greece,though theywere separated
"

of the

Zosimiis,iL 38.

OEIGIN

OP

PATKIARCHATES.

213

of lUyricum, and formed a new province of the prefecture Eastern Empire, continued to be dependent the eccleon siasticaljurisdiction of the Pope, The Patriarch of

a. d.

"^2^.

Antioch East
as

was

considered the head of the church in the


a

Egypt formed
had its

districtin peculiar

the ecclesiastical,

it did in the civil administration of the Roman


own

and empire, modem

andria. head, the Patriarch of Alexand

The Patriarchsof Jerusalem


were

Constantinople

creations.

The

of Jerusalem, who bishop

had been

the Patriarch of Antioch, received the honorary title of Patriarch at the councilof Nicaea, and the Emperor Theodosius II. conferred on him an independent
on dependent

over jurisdiction

the three

the Palestines,
not

two

and Arabia Phoenicias,

but it was

until after the

council of Chalcedon that his authority was

acknowledged
restricted to

by

the

body of

and it was the church,


451.

then

the three The

Palestines, a.d.

of Byzantiumhad been dependent the on bishop or exarch of Heraclea before the translation metropolitan of the imperial residence to his See,and the foundation of Constantinople. In the council held at Constantinople in 381, he was first because he was ranked as Patriarch, the bishop of the capital of the Eastern Empire,and of Rome in the ecclesiastical after the Bishop placed immediately and his successors St Chrysostom cised exerhierarchy. both in Europeand Asia, the patriarchal jurisdiction, the Eastern Empire, over as the popes of Rome cised exerjust in it in the Western, yielding a precedence merely ecclesiastical of St Peter .^ honour to the representative In spite of the opposition of old Rome, the of the bishops of power thus attained an equality of new Rome bishops the popes tremble for their supremacy, and rather the Patriarchs of Constantinople theyregarded

which made

as

rivalsthan
1

as

rulersof joint
23.

the church.

Their

am-

Socrates,Bi$t. Eeeies, vil

Cod.

xri. torn. 2. lib. 45. Theodotianut,


canons.

Council of COialcedon, 9th,17tb,and 28th

214

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

^^'"'*^

to the aspiring bitiousjealousy, joined arrogance of their tween becaased all the evilstheyfeared. The disputes rivals, of and Photius now Ignatius gave the Pope hopes

the whole the supremacy of Rome over re-establishing the Patriarchs of the East church,and of rendering See. of the Roman merely vicegerents sent by Nicholas were The papallegates presentat in the year 861, council held at Constantinople a general attended by three hundred and eighteen which was bishops.Bardas and Photius had succeeded in securing of the majority of the Eastern clergy.They the goodwill the support of the representaalso succeeded in gaining tives it. if the did of not purchase Ignatius, Pope, they of Posis,was who was residing in his mother's palace himself before the council. He was to present required and to the Pope's legates, thoughhe appealed deposed, in protesting that the council did not possess a persisted It is said that a pen was to deposehim. legal right between his fingers, and a cross drawn placed forcibly He with it,as his signature to the act of deposition. then ordered to read his abdication, the day of was on in the Church of the Holy Apostles Pentecost, ; but,to in the disguise of a slave he escaped avoid this disgrace, and concealed himself among to the Prince'sIslands, innumerable monks
to galleys

the
in

who

those deliciousretreats.
examine

had taken up their abode Bardas sent Oryphaswith


one

sii^

every in order to arrest the fugitive in succession, ; but the vain. After the termination of the council, search was returned privately where to his maternal palace, Ignatius he
^

of the insular monasteries

was

allowed

to remain

unmolested.^

The discussions

said to have been indebted to an earthquake was for this mild treatment Bardas was and Photius was looked upon as impious for frightened, from the pulpit that earthquakeswere declaring causes produced by physi"^ and not from divine wrath to awaken actingupon the waters under the earth, mankind to a sense of their sins. Symeon Mag. 445. Photius, like his predecessor, John the Grammarian, was too learned for the populace, and his Knowledge attributed to personalintercourse with demons, who in that age was He
"

GENBBAL

COUNCIL,

A.D.

861.
to

215

of this oouacil are said ducted in


was
a

by its enemies

hare been
as

con-

a. d.

very tumultuous manner;

but

the majority "^J^'

the papal and the by the Patriarch, legates, it is not likely that any confiiadministration, imperial allowed within the walls of the council, eyen was though the party of Ignatius by the supported
fflon
was

faroured

EmpressesTheodora and Eudocia, and by the great body of the monks. The Emperor Michael,with great refused to throw the whole weight of his impartiality, in eitherscale. The truth is, that, what somemithority being of a freethinkeras well as a debauchee, he laughed that Ignatius of the patriarch at both parties, was saying Photius the patriarch the people, of Bardas,and Gryllos his own Nevertheless, imperial (the buflFoon) patriarch.^ and the acts of the council were was deposed, Ignatius ratified legates.^ by the papal of the Pope certainly to improper The legates yielded the measures of the influence, for,besides approving Byzantine government with reference to the patriarchate, the recognition of the spiritual to demand theyneglected of the papalSee in the terms prescribed by authority disavowed their instructions. They were consequently The partyof Ignatius on their return to Rome. appealed that concessions could be to the Pope,who, seeing no embraced the gainedfrom Michael,Bardas,or Photius, A synod Patriarch with warmth. ^ause of the deposed
was

convoked
case

at

Rome

; Photius was

excommunicated,

in

of the patriarchal possession decision in favour of after receiving the papal chair, the archbishop of Syra863. a.d. cuse, Ignatius, Gregory, he should dare to retain who had ordained
was Photius,

and anathematised,

were

some of Hellenic literature. Symeon gives supposedto act as professors of Photius. oorioos anecdotes to the disadvantage ^ received the emperor had employed to enact the patriarch, whom GryUofl, of the hog, from his low debauchery. the name from the people * been from having and second, This council is called by the Greeks the first that it re-enacted the acts ot series of sossioDS. It seems held in two separate

the oynod held

by

Photius in 857.

216
BOOK
I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

schismatic, as well as all those who held comthe sacerif 1j0continued to perfoiin dotal nmuiQu ^ijjh IjJu^^ CH^mj^a.
declared
a

synod were the indignacommunicated to Michael by papal letters, tion considered of the emperor was awakened by what he in the affairs the insolentinterference of a foreign priest ing in a violent and unbecomof the empire, and he replied
functions. When the acts of this letter. He
him to send

told his Holiness that he the

had invited

to legates

from

because the necessary


to

ople, council at Constantingeneral in the church,not wish to maintain unity of the Bishopof Rome was participation Eastern the validity of the acts of the
was

Church.
because

This

to treat the

Pope of theywere ignorant

all very reasonable ; but he went on and the Latin clergy barbarians, as

Greek.

however,the emperor received a rebuke from Pope Nicholas,who asked him why he the himself Emperor of the Romans, if he thought styled
of language church the
a

this insult, and well-merited sharp


For

the Roman
one.

empire and
It
was
a

of

the Roman

barbarous

in greaterdisgrace,

of tlie Pope, for the Roman opinion emperor to be ignorant of the Roman than for the head language, of the Roman of Greek. church to be ignorant Nicholas had nothingto fear from the power of that he acted without the restraint so Michael, imposed his TI. in with Isaurian.. the Leo contest on Gregory Indeed, the recent success of the Pope,in his dispute with Lothaire, king of Austrasia, gave him hopes of in a quarrel with the Eastern even comingoffvictorious, He did not sufficiently understand the effect emperor.

of

more

advanced civilisation and extended

education

on

called on therefore, Nicholas, Byzantine society. boldly Michael to cancel his insolent letter, that it declaring would otherwise be publicly burned by the Latin clergy ; and he summoned the rival Patriarchs of Constantinople in person before the papal court, that he to appear bear might and decide their differences.

BULGARIAN

WAK.

217
a. d.

This
master

of the Pope to make himself absolute pretension of the Christian church, of awakened the spirit

and caused Photius to respond Constantinople, claims for his See. He insisted new bj advancing that the Patriarchs of Constantinople in rank were equal and authority of The disputes to the Popesof Rome. which the goyemthe clergy the onlysubject on being of the Eastern Empire allowed any expression of ment the whole attention of society soon was public opinion, directed to thisecclesiastical Michael assembled quarrel. a council of the church in 866, at which pretended sentatives repreof the patriarchs and of Antioch,Alexandria, Jemsfdem were ; and in this assembly Pope present of his See, and excomNicholas was declared unworthy municated. this senof rendering There was no means tence

resistance at

of excommunication

of any

unless Louis II., effect,

the emperor of the West, could be induced, by the hatred he bore to Nicholas, to put it in execution. Ambassadors
were

sent

to urge him

to

the Pope, but depose


an

the death
with

of Michael The
not

suddenly put
between

end
the and

to the contest

Rome, for Basil I. embraced


contest

party of Ignatius.

Rome

between merelya quarrel There


were

was Constantinople Pope Nicholas and the

Patriarch Photius.
between

other causes

of difference
as

the

two

was Sees,in which Ignatius

much

to papal as Photius. pretensions opposed

Not to mention

over jurisdiction of the Byzantine which had been those provinces empire conflicthad arisen dissevered from her authority, a new the When for supremacy over the church in Bulgaria. after the Bulgarian king Crumn invaded the empire, defeat of Michael I., he carried away so many prisoners made considerable that the Bulgarians, who had already course advances in civilisation, were by their interprepared, A with these slaves, to receive Christianity. who remained long Greek monk, Theodore Koupharas, in Bulgaria, converted many by his preaching. a prisoner

the old claim of Rome

to

recover

her

218

ICONOCLAST

J^EBIOD.

BOOK

I.

^^'""*^

bj Leo V., a sisterof Daringthe inTasion of Bulgaria carriedto Constantinople as a prisoner, was King Bogoris The Empress Theodore exand educated with care. changed for Theodore Koupharas, thisprincess and on into her her return she introduced the Christian religion brother's palace. broke out between the Bulgarian War subsequently and Michael and Bardas made monarch and the empire, the Bulgarians in the year 861.^ an expedition against
The circumstances of the
war are

not

detailed; but in emperor, who

the end the the ceiying

reBulgarian king embraced Christianity, name

of Michael
To

from

the

this peace, howeyer, purchase allthe the Byzantine emperor ceded to the Bulgarians the range of Mount Hsemus, called by the countryalong of which Greeks Sideras, and by the Bulgarians Zagora, Debeltos is the chief town.^ Michael pretended that the cession was made as a baptismal donation to the of the Bulgarian king. The change in the religion monarch caused some but discontent among his subjects, their opposition with the assistance was soon yanquished of Michael, and the most refractory to were transported where the wealth and ciyilisation of Constantinople, such an impression their on Byzantine produced society minds that theyreadily embraced Christianity.^ The Bulgarian lest the influence of monarch,fearing his Christian subjects the Byzantine on clergy might render him in some the emperor^ on degree dependent openedcommunications with Pope Nicholas for the purpose of balancing the power of the Greek clergy by of the ecclesiastical affairs his kingdomunder the placing
Symeon Mag. 440. In the fourth year of MichaeVs sole gOYemment. The ContiDuator, 102,attributes this treatyto the Empress Theodora, but the date seems more 440, Qeorg. Mon. precisely givenby Symeon Magister, 584. This district had been ceded to the Bulgarians by Justinian IL, but recovered by Constantine V. ' Leo Gramm. 462. For the conversion of the Bulgarians, Contin. 101 ; Cedrenus,ii 540 ; Zonaras,ii 156.
'
^

became his sponsor.

220
BOOK L

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

himself constrained to appear Michael felt ConstaDtinople, The tie between at the head of his armies. cejiMs, frequently the emperor and the soldierswas strengthened perhaps that the but it can hardly be supposed by these visits, personal presence of Michael added much to the efficiency of military operations. of the Byzantine and Saracen The war on the frontiers carried on by Omar, the emir of Melitene, was empires incursions without interruption, in a seriesof plundering at times reyenged scale. These were a gigantic on by In on the partof the Byzantine generals. daring exploits inthe year 856, Leo, the imperial commander-in-chief, AnaTaded the dominions of the caliph. After taking he crossed the Euphrates at Samosata, and advanced zarba, with his army into Mesopotamia, the country as ravaging far as Amida. themselves by The Saracens revenged severalplundering incursions into differentparts of the Michael put himself empire. To stop these attacks, at the head of the army, and laid siege to Samosata without effect. Bardas accompanied the emperor rather influence at court than to assist his sovereign in obtaining military glory.The following
to
over own

watch

his

year Michael In

was

engagedin
an

the

the campaignagainst
tioned. menalready 40,000 European

of Bulgarians,

which the result has been

army of Omar of Melitene, who had carried his troopsagainst incursions up to the walls of Sinope.^ A plundering battle took place in the territory the of Dasymon,near
and spot which had witnessed the defeat of Theophilus,

860, he led

the overthrow of Michael was as complete as that of his father. The same in the groundwhich had difficulties
The Arabian hietorians pretendthat Omar carried off 17,000 slaves, and Karbeas,with his Paulicians, Ali Ibu Tahia,governor 5000 in one expedition. of Tarsus,was equally successful. Abulpharagius (Bar Hebrrous)says that in a previouscampaign the Byzantine Weil, 20,000 prisoners." army had made OescMchte der Okali/en, il 863, note % and 565. These devastations deserve as causes of the depopulation notioe, of the country.
^

SABACBN

WAR.

221

fayoured
of the

the retreat of

enabled Manuel,one Tbeophilos sides.

A.D.

The

of Michael,to save the army.^ generals with vigour still both war was on prosecuted entered the Armeniac

842^.

large and took Amisus. the emperor's force, Petronas, uncle, who had now considerable military acquired experience and reputation o f the Thrakesiau as theme,was general the head the of .^ at He collected placed Byzantine army his forces at Aghionoros, and when bis near Ephesus, reinforced by a strong body of Macedonian army was
a

In 863, Omar

theme with

marched towards the frontier in troops, several divisions, which he concentrated in such a manner as to cut off the retreat of Omar, and enclosed him with an force. The troops under Nasar,the general overwhelming of the Boukellarian theme,strengtliened by the Armeniac
and

and

Thracian

the troopsof the theme enclosed the Saracens on the north. Petronas Koloneia,
and Paphlagonian legions, the

with himself,

Thrakesian, Macedonian, and Thracian

the passes and advanced from the west ; while the troopsof the Anatolic, and CappadoOpsikian, secured legions, cian

themes,with the divisions of the Kleisourarchs of Seleucia and Charsiana, secured the passes to the having
south,cut off the direct line of Omar's
range of rendered escape of Petronas headquarters situated on place Armeniac from
retreat.

An

passable im-

broken into precipices, mountains, rocky The to the eastward impracticable. established at Poson, a and the frontiersof the Paphlagonian
were near

themes,
to

the river Omar

which flows Lalakon, had

the north

south.

encamped in

1 110. Gcneeins, 44. It is evident that the details of the ContiDiiator, battle of Theopbilushave been mixed up with those of this battle. The exploits fusion attributed to the two Manuels arc a mere transcript.There is so much conthat in the narrative and chronology of Michael's war with the Saracens, its details. See Weil, ii 365, it would space to examine occupy too much
"

note
*

I.

Ck. Syr. 209. Abulpharagius, For the date,see Abulfeda,Annal. Muss. ii. 171,249th year of the Hegira,from 23d February863 to 12th February864. Also Weil, il 880, note 6.

222

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK
ch

in its rugged the dangerlurking without suspecting plain 111.53. found himself enHe suddenly to the east. closed boundary sions by the simultaneous advance of the various diviblockaded. He of the Byzantine army, and closely each division of the to escape by attacking attempted of the positions but the strength in succession, enemy officersrendered all his attacks selected by the imperial vain. Omar at last fell in the desperate struggle ; and to attack the fresh troopsinto the plain Petronas, leading the destruction of their army. weary Saracens,completed
L

The

son

of Omar
was

contrived

to escape from

the fieldof

but he battle,

and pursued

taken

by prisoner
had

the

Kleisoumrch

of Charsiana, after he Petronas returned to

crossed the

Halys.^ When
Was

he Constantinople,

with greatpomp and victory The Byzantine writers estimated the public rejoicings. at 40,000, while the Arabian destroyed army that was Public historiansreduced their loss to only2000 men. in the empire of the caliph, however,considered opinion the defeat as a great calamity ; and its real importance seditions that alarming may be ascertained from the fact, i*eached the government when the news broke out against too, the eastern frontier Bagdat.2After this victory, for some time. tranquillity enjoyed

allowed

to

celebrate his

In the year 865, a nation hithertounknown made its firstappearance in the history of the world,where it was

unimportant part. Its entrance into the political system of the Europeannations was marked which it a project by an attempt to take Constantinople,
no

destined to act

has often revived, and which

the progress of Christian

^ It is not easy to detenniDe the spot where this battle was fought Gkmesius calls the placeAbysiaDos,and says it was five hundred miles u'om AminA valleyin the vicinity called Qyris. Coutinuator,113. was 808, page 46. iL 308,placesthe valleyMer^j Aluskuf twenty-fourmiles north-west Edrisi, of Baranda (Laranda), the road from Tarsus to Abydos. This would place on it in the Anatolic theme, among the Lycaonian counter-forts of Taurus, and would lead to the supposition that Omar to gainTarsus, in order was retreating to placehis booty in security." See Weil, il 881. " Weil, ii.381.
"

RUSSIANS

ATTACK

CONSTANTINOPLE,
now

A.D.

865.

223
no
a. d.

cirilisation seems

to indicate must

be realised at

very distant date,unless the revival of the kingdomto the south of the Danube create a

Bulgarian
new

^^^^'

Scla-

vonian power in the east of Europe capable of arresting its progress. In the year 862, Rurik,a Scandinavian or and laid the first arrived at Novgorod, chief, Varangian

foundation of the state which has grown into the Russian under Varangian tion, dominaempire. The Russian people, increasedin power, and reduced many of their rapidly the princes to submission.^ Oskold and Dir, neighbours of Kiof,rendered themselves masters of the whole course and itwould seem of the Dnieper, that eithercommercial
or jealousy

of ambition produced lision colsome rapacity with the Byzantine settlements on the northern shores of the Black Sea ; but from what particular cumstances cirthe Russians were led to make their daring attack on Constantinople The Emperor is not known.^ Michael had taken the command of an army to act against

the

the Saracens, and Oryphas, admiral of the fleet, acted as his absence. Before the during governor of the capital
fleet a military operations, of two hundred Russian vesselsof small size, vantage adtaking of a favourable wind, suddenly through passed the Bosphorus, and anchored at the mouth of the Black River in the Propontis, miles from Constantinople.^ about eighteen This Russian expedition had already plundered

Emperor had

commenced

his

the shores of the Black Sea, and from itsstationwithin it ravaged the Bosphorus the countryabout Constantinople,
and

the plundered

the Prince's Islands, pillaging


as

and slaying the monks monasteries,


"

well

as

the other

Photii EjAUoUb, p. 58. La Ckronique traduite par L. Pari?, de Nettor^ i.22. ' is the bay at the mouth of the Athyras, K6Km}i fjLOios Buyuk TchekiDadj6. The Rttfisian vessels are called fiov6$v\a'y they must have been onlydocked to each will be an ample allowance. They cannot boats,and twenty men when therefore have carried more than 4000 men theypassed the Bosphorus. The expedition not unlike those against which, about this time,Alfred soems had to contend in England, and Charles the Bald in France.
*

224}

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

inhabitants. The attack


a on

^'""'^

emperor, informed by Oryphasof the his capital, hastened to its defence. Though cruelenemy, the Russians
were

by no means of the Byzantine formidable to the strength and discipline forces. It required no great exertions on the part of the imperial officersto equip to attack a force sufficient and put to flight these invaders ; but the horrid cruelty of their Varangian of tliebarbarians, and the wild daring made a profound the people leaders, on impression of Constantinople, rendered spectators of the suddenly miseries of war, in their most hideous form, during a We need not, therefore, of perfect moment be security. to find that the sudden destruction of these surprised dreaded enemies by the drunken emperor, of whom the citizensof the capital more may have entertained even
contempt than he merited
the miraculous
as a

and daring

soldier, was

ascribed to

of the Virgin of the Blachern, interposition rather than to the superior tacticsand overwhelming military forces. How far this numbers of the imperial be connected with the of the Russians must expedition band of warriors and of that vigorous enterprising spirit from Scandinavia, of Danes, who, under the name pirates of Normandy, became the sovereigns Normans, and Varangians, and Russia,is still a England, Naples, Sicily, of learned discussion.^ subject About the same manned time a fleet, by the Saracens of Crete, and ravaged the Cyclades, the coast plundered of Asia Minor, carrying and a number of off greatbooty slaves.^ It would seem that the absence of the Emperor
die Verhaftnitte der Btmem sum Byzant\ni$eken in the Wilken, V'ber Rexche, Transactions of the Academy of Berlin. Hiti. Fhilolog. Klaue, 1829,p. 88.
^

For the date of the expedition, De Runorum Prima Bxpeditione Consee Bayer, Aead. ScietU. Peiropolitance, Forthe torn. vilL) Mtantinopolitana. {Commentarii
"

Leo Gramm. 463 ; Georg. Mon. 535 ; the Life of the Patriarch Ignatius, ikcts, by Nikctas David,annexed to the acts of the eighth ecumenic council, and Nestor's Rustian
3

yaXcW,and

fleet consisted of twenty KOvy.tapt"", seven aarovpas ; but it would perh^"8be difficult to determioe the sixe and class of these different vessels.
some

Continuator,122.

Chronicle, This

STATE

OP

THE

IMPERIAL

COITBT, A.D. 854-866.

225

Michael from
sian attack Saracens.

at the Constantinople

time

of the Rus-

a.d.

was

connected

with

this movement

of the

^^^^*

in which the Byzantine of the manner conceptions will become Michael's reign, empirewas governed during if we enter into some details concerning more the precise and personal conduct of the rulers of the court intrigues The crimes and assassinations, which figure state. as the prominent events of the age in the chroniclesof the

Our

time^were
fate of the

not, it is true, the

events

that decided the

excited less interest people ; and theyprobably who lived beyondthe circle among contemporaries of court favour, than history would lead us to suppose. Each rank of society robberies and murders had its own its attention. The state of society to occupy at the court of Constantinople not amenable to public was of what passed for few knew much within the opinion, walls of the greatpalace ; but yet the immense machinery of the imperial administration gave the emperors' power the to vices a solid basis, of alwaysopposed temporary the courtiers.
secure, and

The

order

which

rendered

property

the through
a

prosper, the administration of Roman law, equitable when of the empire, vitality the drunkenness of
a

enabled the

industrious classes to

nourished the
Nero and

the madness

of

Michael

order with ruin. The political and almost without any secluded from public business, of the proceedings of their government, were knowledge in all probability littlebetter acquainted with the intrigues and crimes of their day than we are at present. real suflfering ginary when or imasome therefore, They acted, home to directly broughtoppression grievance their interests or their feelings. Court murders were to in the amphithem no more than a tragedy a scene or theatre, which at theywere not present.

threaten

to appeared people, carefully

Bardas had assassinatedTheoktistos to obtain power


VOL. I.
p

226
BOOK
L

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

he had great natural talents and jet,with allhis crimes, He had the of beinga reputation
after he

taste. cii^OT^s. ^^^^ literary

good lawyerand

judge; just

and

obtained

cial power, he devoted his attention to watch over the juditheless, Neveras the surest basis of popularity. department
we

find the

government of Michael accused of

for the purpose of filling the wealthy, merely persecuting of their property. the public treasuryby the confiscation

fiscal resource, which had existed and whose exercise since the daysof the republic, ever under the earlier emperors calls forth the bitterness of This
was an

old Roman

After Barvigorous pages. his mature elevated to the dignity of Caesar, das was of ambition interest in projects age gave him a deeper of his nephew. He devoted than in the wild debauchery and less time to public business and grave society, more boonand the imperial feasts. New to the wine-cup assembled round Michael, and, to advance companions

Tacitus in

some

of his most

their own

of the jealousy the Caesar in the breast of the emperor. They solicited of spies oflBce to watch the conduct of one who, they said, voted Bardas deto the crown. was Michael, seeing aspiring to improving the administration of justice, ing reformabuses in the army, regulating the affairs of the self and protecting felt how much he himchurch, learning, his duties, and naturally neglected began to suspect
strove fortunes, to awaken
some

his uncle.

The reformation of the Caesar

was

an

act of

seditionagainst the worthless emperor. The favourite parasite of Michael at this time
man

was

named

who from Basil,

simple groom

had risen to

the rank of lord chamberlain.

Basil had attractedthe attention

of the emperor while still in the sera stable-boy vice of the court. of an officer The young groom had the

wrestler a celebrated Bulgarian good fortune to overcome at a public The impression produced wrestling-match. who had been long over a by this victory foreigner,

228

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK
^'
'"'

I. * ^'

authorised throne. The emperor, without much hesitation, to assassinate his uncle. the two intriguers
An for reconquering Crete expedition
was

from

cens the Sara-

and emperor, the Caesar, of the holysacrament before ]Jasilall partook together in embarking Here that the

about to sail. The

which then proceeded the fleet, along


to

coast of Asia Minor

the army
a

Kepos in the Thrakesian theme.^ under the pretext remained encamped,


had not been of transports at expressed great dissatisfaction

number sufficient

assembled.

Bardas
one

this delay ; and

day,while

he

was

Michael urging

to

orders for the immediate embarkation of the troops, give and Basil, attacked by Symbatios and he was suddenly berlain, feet. Basil,who, as chammurdered at the emperor's had conducted him
him in the back.
to

the

tent,stabbed imperial

The and

Bardas beingrebut unprincipled moved, accomplished the project of invading Crete was abandoned, On entering Michael returned to the capital. stantinopl Con-

however,it
of his uncle had

was

evident that the assassination dissatisfaction.

givenuniversal

the best of MichaeFs was Bardas, with all his faults, Crete and the failureof the expedition ministers, against
was

attributedto his death.

As Michael

passed through

him with this bitter salutathe streets, tion a monk greeted " All hail, : emperor ! all hail from your glorious ! You covered with blood,and it is return campaign
"

your he
was

own

1 '*

arrest the

in vain to imperial guards attempted fanatic; the peopleprotected him, declaring

The

mad.

in spring 866 ; place and on the 26th of May, Michael rewarded Basil by him his colleague, with the title of Emperor.^ proclaiming in his fatherthat his participation expected Symbatios

The assassination of Bardas took

in-law's murder
^

would

have

secured him
'

the titleof
129. Contmuator,

Probablynear

Halicamaseiis or Cnidus.

ORIGIN

OP

THE

TALE

OP

BBLISARHT8.

229

his own he had injured a. d. perceived fortunesby his crime. He now sought to obtain by open ^^^' forcewhat he had failedto gainby private murder. He succeeded in drawing who commanded the troops Peganes, in the Opsikian The two theme, into his conspiracy. rebels took up arms, and proclaimed that theirobject was not to dethrone Michael, but to depose Basil. Though a considerable bodyof troops, dered renthey drew together
sood

Caesar ; but Le

themselves masters and

of

greatextent of country,

their passage to on captured many merchant-ships did not venture to attack the capital. Constantinople, they Their plan ill for beforethe end of the sumwas concerted, mer rounded surtheyhad allowed themselves to be completely taken prisoner was bythe imperial Peganes troops. at Kotaeion,and conducted to Constantinople, where his
eyes in the Milion, placed from the passersin his hand,to ask charity with a platter at Keltizene. was by. Symbatios captured subsequently When he reached Constantinople, he was conducted before Michael out to meet him, was Peganes brought with a censer of earthenware filled with burning sulphur of one insteadof incense. Symbatios then was deprived of his eyes, and his right hand was cut off. In this condition of with before he was the palace Lausus, placed biting his knees, a dish on as a common beggar.After exhiin thisposition hisrebellious for three days, oflBcers in their own Michael allowed them to be imprisoned houses. When Basil mounted the throne, they were as men no longer pardoned dangerous. of the The degrading to which two men punishment made a deep rank in the empire were highest subjected, The figure of Constantinople. the people on impression in of Peganes a soldierof highreputation standing in his with a platter the Milion, for an obolos, asking haunted their imagination, hand like a blind beggar, and, of the age, was borrowed itsway into the romances finding
were

put

out.

He

was

then

"

"

230

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK
Cm.
III.

I.

9 8.

and yicissitades of court fayour, greatest of the ingratitude to the strongest pictures colouriug give the to illustrate
and S jmbatios, woyen of emperors. The fate of Peganes in which the into a tale called the Life of Belisarius, torical sentiment was heightened interest of tragic by much hisand

has localtruth, writers.^

and literature, eminent modem

pean in Eurogainedimmortality of confounded the critical sagacity

One of the few acts which of Michael and Basil


was

are

recorded of the joint reign

the desecration of the tomb of

This base act was (Copronymus). petrated perof in the to flattera church, powerful party members which the leading hostile to Bardas,on were The precarious of Ignatius. account of his persecution and of Photius after the murder of his patron, position of the Greek ecclesiastical the inherent subserviency nitarie digof made him readyto countenance any display the populace. however bigoted, that pleased orthodoxy, The memory cherished by no of Constantino Y. was still Constantino V. inconsiderablenumber
of Iconoclasts. Common

report

still boasted of the wealth and power to which the empire had attained under the just administration of the Iconoclast emperors, and their conduct served
as a stant con-

of reproach The people, to Michael subject that the greatexploits of however,were easily persuaded Constantine V., and the apparentprosperity of his reign, had been the work of the devil. The sarcophagus in
^ 150, 168), Compare Const Porphyr. Basilias Maoedo {Scrip. po$t Tkeopk, with Symeon Mag. 449 ; Georg. Mon. 540 ; and Leo Gramm. 467 ; and for the resemblance with the foble of Belisarius, the anonymous author of AntiquUie$

in Banduri, Imperium Orient"Ue, i 7, and Joannis Tzetse, of ConftaiUinople, Variarum Chiliades, 94, edit Kiesslingii Mahon, Life of ; also Lord who tries to the fable ; and '* Belisarius ^was he blind T in Belisariui, support Blackwood*i Magazine for May 1847, where the connection of the fable with is pointed It may be worth mentioning,moreover, out. that Zacharias, history Bittoria Jurii GrcRco-Romani Delineation 58 ; and Mortreuil, Hittoiredu Droit ii 499, have both Mien into an error in supposing this Symbatios, Byzantiny who had lost an eye and his right hand during the reignof Michael IIL, to be

Hitt,

"

the same person as the revision of the Basilika.

or Symbatios

Sabbatios who

assisted Leo VL

in the

ASSASSINATION

OF

MICHAEL

III.,A.D.

867.

231
a.i"-

which the
green

of this great emperor reposed vas and of the richestworkmanship. marble, By the

body of

order of the drunken Michael and the Sclayonian groom it was broken open, and the body, lain after haying Basils
for

the

into dragged upwardsof ninety years in peace, was where the bodyof John the Grammarian, torn circus, beside placed
it.

also from the tomb, was of these great men were

The remains
amuse
"

beaten with rods to

the the

vilestpopulace, and then burned in the Amastrianon

filthiest often used and the place quarterof the capital, for the execution of malefactors.^ The splendid phagus sarcoof Constantine
to form Michael,
a was

cut

in
a

pieces by
new

order of
was

balustrade in

he chapel

at Pharos. constructing

The drunkenness of Michael and rendered him he had reached

on brought

delirium tremens, He

liable to fitsof madness.

obsenred that Basil'sdesire to maintain the


the produced
same

highposition
The

reformation in his from Basil

in that of Bardas. conduct which had been yisible

EmperorBasil

became

yery differentman

the groom. The change and observed by Michael, was it rendered him dissatisfied In one with his colleague.
of his fitsof madness

he invested another of the

panions com-

of his orgies, named title.


In such
a

with the imperial Basiliskian,

doubt that the court there could be little

three emperors, Michael, Basil,and Basiliskian, could hold joint not long soon a race sway. It was probably
who

should be the firstmurdered,and in such


man

cases

the

ablest

is

the generally
to

most

successful criminaL the planned safety,

Basil, reason haying

fear for his own

tion. deliberaof his benefactor with the greatest assassination The murder was carried into execution after a
^ author of the Ant GeoTg.Mon. "40. Leo Gramm. 467. The anonymous Cotutant. 20)says that the Amastrianon was a fjEiyourite (Banduri, Imp,OrierUale,

resort of demons

: see

the notes to tom.

il 558.

232

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

BOOK

I.

0MWIM8.

by Theodora to her son supper party given ^f Anthimos, where he had resolved to

palace spend a day

in the

Eudocia Basil and his wife, on the Asiaticcoast. hunting invited by the empress-mother to meet her were Ingerina, banished from this most orthodox was son, for all decency carried to his usual habit, court. was Michael, according and Basil intoxication, his colleague to his chamber,of which he accompanied had previously rendered the lock useless. Basiliskian, in a state of the third of this infamous trio, was sleeping, in the imperial the bed placed intoxication, on apartment

from the supper table in

state of

for the chamberlain

on

duty.
not

The chamberlain,on

lowing fol-

bis master, found the lock of the door uselessand the bolts broken,but did
to
secure

think of

the entrance

in the

for assistance calling of the empresspalace

mother. Basil soon attended by John returned,


own

of Chaldia, a

Persian officer named

named Peter, a Bulgarian Apelates,

Constantine Toxaras,his

father Bardas,his brother

mediately Marinos,and his cousin Ayleon. The chamberlain imtheir purpose, and opposed their entry guessed into the chamber. Michael,disturbed by the noise, rose from

his drunken
cut

and sleep,

was

attacked
a

by John

of

who Chaldia, sabre. The

off both his hands with fell on


the

blow of his

ground. Basiliskian Constantine time by Apelates. was the door and of Basil, Toxaras,with the relatives guarded the corridor leading to the apartment, lest the officers of
emperor slain in the mean

the emperor

or

the servants of Theodora should be alarmed The shouts of the chamberlain and the cries

by the noise.

of Michael alarmed Basil and those in the chamber, and rushed into the corridor to secure their retreat. But they had been often as loud,and the debauchery cries of murder sensation producedno extraordinary where Michael was known to be present. All remaining silentwithout, of the conspirators alarm some expressed
the tumult of

ASSASSINATION

OF

MICHAEL

III., A.D. 867.

233

lest Michael should not be work

wounded. mortally

John

of

a. d.

the boldest of the assassins, returned to make his Chaldia,


the floor on sure. Findingthe emperor sitting his sword into bitter lamentations, he plunged ottering his

^^^^*

and then returned heart,

to

assure

Basil that all was

finished. crossed over to Constantinople, and conspirators secured theirentrance into the imperial having palace bj of two Persians, and Artabasd, who were means Eulogies Basil was immediately sole emperor, on guard, proclaimed and the death of Michael III. was publicly announced. In the morning the body of Michael was interred in a of Antbimos. the palace near monastery at Chrysopolis, The Theodora
the and
son was

allowed to directthe funeral ceremonies of


her
own

whom

had neglect

conducted

to an

early

death. bloody
of Constantinople people appear
to have taken

The

interestin this infamous very little


a

assassination, by which

of mercenary adventurers transferred the from the Amorian of the Romans to a empire dynasty Macedonian
for two groom, whose
at reigned family

small band

ople Constantinand

with greaterpower centuries,

glory

than the Eastern emperors had attained since the of Justinian.

days

CHAPTER

IV.

STATE

OP

THE

BYZANTINE

EMPIRE PERIOD,

DUBING

THE

CLAST ICONO-

8BCT.

L"

PUBUC

ADMINI8TRATION-DIPLOMATI0
RELATIONS.

AND

COMMERCIAL

CONOTAirriNOPLB
NOT THK

NKITHBR

GrEEK
IN THE

HOR

ROMAN

CITT"

TlW

GrREK
WHIOH strength

RAOB FIED MODI"

DOMINAMT

PBOPLB
POWER"

EMPIRE"
of the

CiRCUMSTANOES
empire" of

DESPOTIC

Extent

Military John
the

Loss
TO

OP

Italy, Sicily, and


"

Crete"
policy"

Embassy Wealth.

Grammarian

Baqdat

Commercial

ancient times,when had attained its people


In the the

of the Greek the civilisation

of moral culture, degree highest Hellenic race was assailed almost simultaneously by The victories and TyrrheniansPersians, Carthaginians,

obtained
the and
on triumphs

over

these enemies

are

still as regarded

of the

of Europe, civilisation political of liberty beyond the great dwelling-place which the The age of Leo the Isaurian found
a

is based. Atlantic,

the government of the Byzantine in empire very dissimilar from that of the Greek race of Miltiades. The Athenian

not position

in the time

for fought people the

the

empire of law and administration behind the walls of Constantinople ; the of Militiades secured onlyone hundred and fifty victory to the Greeks,that of the Iconoclast gave years of liberty fivecenturies of despotic nearly power to a systemhostile
for the

progress of human Marathon. battled Leo

civilisation on

political plainof

236
BOOK L
1.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

cmmm

and the empeclaimed to be the mistressof a new world, of the East considered themselres masters of all the YOTB territories of pagan Rome, because the dominion oyer all inherent in the emperor of the Christians was a right founded as an anta^ orthodox. But Constantinople was

has always been to old Rome, and this antagonism gonist itschurch of its existence. As a Christian cit}% a portion stood in opposition and its ecclesiastical always language The of Rome. to the church and ecclesiastical language transferredin their pure of the one were nerer thoughts to the mind of the other. For several centuries conception Latin was of the court, of the ciril the language at Conranks of society stantinopl gOYernment,and of the higher and during the In the time of Leo III., of the administration Greek was the language Byzantine Empire, and the people, as well as of the church ; but
we are

not

to suppose, from that

that the circumstance,

considered themselves as Greeks city the term would have by descent. Even by the populace been looked upon as one of reproach, as a applicable national appellation in onlyto the lower orders of society of Constantinople, and the Hellenic themes. The people in their civil capacity, of the Byzantine at large, empire orthodox Christians ; were Romans, and in theirreligious, in no social relation, whether of race or nationality, did theyconsider themselves Greeks. inhabitants of the
At the time of the succession of Leo
race

the Hellenic III.,

The
was

in the empire. a very subordinate position occupied administration iofluencein the political predominant in the hands of Asiatics, and particularly nians, of Armewho filledthe highest commands. The military

of family

Leo the Isaurian


I. was Nicephorus

was

said

to

be

of Armenian
an

descent

descended from Armenian


;

Arabian

family ;

Leo

V.

was

an

Michael

II.,the

founder of the Amorian dynasty, of a was So that, for a century and a half, the

stock. Phrygian EmpressIrene

POSITION

OF

THE

GREEK

EACE.

237

of pure Greek blood a. d. sovereign appears to be the only who occupied the imperial throne, "^^J^' thoughit is probable

that Michael
numerous

Rhangabe was
assumed

an

Asiatic Greek. the title of

Of

the

rebelswho

the Emperor,

greaterpart were
was

Armenians.^

Indeed, Kosmas, who


tinople thej attacked Constanonlyrebel of the Greek

elected bj the Greeks when


in the year

727, was

the

nation who and


a

occupy the throne for a century who rebelledagainst half. Artabasdos, hisbrotherto attempted
an

Constantino V.,was in-law,

Armenian.

Alexis

Mousel,

strangled by order
I. ;

of Constantino VI. in the year 790 ; Bardan, called the Turk, who rebelledagainst Nicephorus

Arsaber,the father-in-lawof Leo V., convicted of


in 808
;

treason

and

Thomas,

who

revolted

against

Michael II., and most of them Armeall Asiatics, nians. were Another Alexis Mousel,who married Maria,the of Theophilus ther-in-law favourite daughter the bro; Theophobos,
of the
a were

member

and Manuel, who became of the council of regency at his death,


same

emperor

likewiseof

ALrmenians in
to

Asiatic descent. Many of the foreign the Byzantine at thistime belonged empire
most

the oldest and

illustrious families of the Christian

world,and their connection with the remains of Roman


of birth was in which the pride at Constantinople, society is a proofthat Asiatic influencehad eclipsed cherished, and Greek in the government of the empire* Roman the Roman Before thishappened, transplanted aristocracy become e must have to Constantinople nearlyxtinct. The of which appear as belonging to the aristocracy names when it became thoroughly Greek, make Constantinople,
liest their first appearance under the Iconoclasts; and the earand Melissenos.^ The those of Doukas,Skleros, are

of these officers, of St Martin on the Armenian See the conjectures origin xii 855,note 3 ; 404, note in his edition of Lebeau, Histoire du Bos-Empire, 8 ; 431, note 2 ; also,The Hi$tory,of Armenia, by Father Michael Chamichj i pp. 895,399. translated by J. Avdall ; Calcutta, 1827 ; yol. s 14. inc Contin. 428. Script, post l%eopk, Theophanee,
^

238
BOOK
L 1.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

order introduced into

CH^nM

^tical reforms of

and ecclesisociety by the political Leo III., gave a permanence to high

birth and great wealth,which constituted henceforth a of certainty attended the office. A degree claim to high which transmission of all social advantages
existed in the Roman
never

before alone
dered ren-

would empire. This change


secure, and

establishthe fact that the reforms of Leo III. had


life and

property more

circumscribed the

by stricter forms and An amusinginstance of the influenceof aristocratic at Constantinople will appear in the Asiatic prejudices by Basil I.,a Sclavonian groom from eagerness displayed Macedonia, to claim descent from the Armenian royal is given family.The defence of this absurd pretension Constantino VII. (Porphyrogenitus).^ by his grandson, of the Byzantine It is difficult to draw an exact picture for facts can easily be collected, government at thisperiod, to which,if viewed in perfect isolation, would,according
our was

consequently arbitrary power of preceding emperors of administrative and legal procedure.

modern
a

warrant ideas,

the

either that it conclusion,

or a mild legal despotism, monarchy. tyrannical exerciseof power by the emperor, in punishThe personal ing his officers and with death and stripes, without trial, his constant interferencewith the administration of justice, with the boldness displayed contrast strongly by in opposing the monks and clergy In order his power. to form a correct estimate of the real position occupied in the Byzantine empire the progressive by improvement

of the human
one

hand,

it is necessary to compare it,on with the degradedRoman empire which it


race,
on

; and replaced

the other, with the arbitrary ment governthe and of the barbarous administration Mohammedans,

which it resisted. The of the northern nations, of its civil, tion, administraand judicial financial, regularity
the defensive power of its military and naval estab'

Const

138. Porpliyr.VUa BatUii,

STATE

OF

THE

GOVERNMENT.

239

are remarkable lishments,

and

age of temporary measures and The state of education, uniyersal aggression. in


an

a. d.

^^^"^'

offer favourable of the clergy, certainly position of with the brilliantempires of comparison, even points On the other hand, Haroun Al Rashid and Charlemagne. the incurable canker of the Byzantine, fiscal was rapacity

the moral

as

it had

been

of the

Roman

government. From

it

which reduced measures precautionary condition. No class of men to a stationary was society invested with a constitutionalor legal to act authority of the fiscality as defenders of the people's rights against and the imperial administration. Insurrection, rebellion, either reform of obtaining revolution were the onlymeans when the interests of the treasurywere cerned. conor justice,
arose

all those

Yet

even

in this branch of itsadministration

no

other absolute government ever displayed equal prudence law for the and honesty. Respect was regarded by the emperors
as

who clergy,

by the self-respect ; and the power possessed ings, feelin popular in some degreeparticipated
temper and restrain the exercise of

contributed to

rule. arbitrary it might Yet the Byzantine however superior empire, of rebe to contemporarygovernments,presentspoints semblance,

which prove that the social condition of its in no inconsiderable degree affected by was population
some causes general on operating

the

condition of
The

human

in the East and the West. civilisation


a

seventh

century was

of disorganisation in the Eastern period and of anarchy in all the kingdoms formed out Empire, of the provinces the of the Western. Even throughout dominions of the Saracens,in spite of the power and the energy of the central administration of the caliphs, nations under its rule were in a declining state. The first step towards the

constitution of modem

which renders all equal in the eye of the law, was society, made at Constantinople about the commencement of the

240
BOOK I.

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

eighth century.
era

The

of Leo reign

III. opens

a new

social

^^1^^

for mankind,as well as for the Eastern


he

when Much

it the

the frame of Roman reorganised features of seeds of the peculiar

Empire; for he gave society,


modem times.
buted attri;

without of this amelioration is,

to be doubt,

of the Iconoclast emperors to the abilities

but

vigour something may be traced to the infusion of new is cult diffifrom popular of which it into society feelings, the deyelopment. The to trace the causes or of the thoughit regained something empire, Byzantine unable old Roman at the centre of itspower, was vigour
to ; and Basil I. prevent the loss of several provinces

empireof smaller extent than Leo III. reconstituted, thoughone that was far richer and more and powerful.The exarchate of Ravenna, Rome, Crete, imder the dominion of hostile states. had passed Sicily Venice had become completely independent.On the governedan
other

hand, it

Saracens

remembered,that in 717 the occupied great part of Asia Minor and


must

be

they had been almost entirely before 867. The only conquestof which the expelled could boast was the complete emperors of Constantinople of Cherson to the central of the allied city subjugation administration. Cherson had previously a certain enjoyed of political which had for centuries degree independence secured its commercial prosperity. Its local freedom who was sent his brotherdestroyed by Theophilus,
from Cyprus, in-law Petronas
govern
to

both which

occupy

it with

an

army,

and

The power of the province. imperial increased by the only momentarily emperor was, however, destructionof the liberties declined of Cherson ; the city from the degree of wealth and energy which had rapidly aid to Constantino the Great, enabled it to affordmilitary
as an

it

and to resist the of its commercial

and lost much tyrannyof Justinian II.,

Historians

importance. speakof generally

the

empire Byzantine

MILITARY

STRENGTH.

241
a. d.

at this period of as if ithad been destitute

Events
as our

as own

far removed from

one

military power, in point of time, another,


at

^^^'^^

misfortunes in India
massacre

the Black Hole

of

and the Calcutta,

of

Cabul,are

Bjzantine government was feeble and unwarlike. The truth is Byzantine army \/ the Byzantine civilised this^ was a highly empire society,
defensive essentially when those of the rest of the world were aggressive. The nations devoted Franks, and Bulgarians Saracens, were to war, and yet the Byzantine resisted empire eflfectually and long outlived these empires of warriors. No contemporary a government possessed permanent military establishment so perfectly the emperor of as organised could any bringinto the field, on nor a Constantinople, sudden exigency, The caliphs a better appointed army. had the power of deluging the frontier provinces with bodies of light from larger troopsthan could be prevented armies were the country,for the imperial plundering to act on the defensive in order to secure the compelled fortified towns, and defensive warfare can rarely protect all the assailable of an extensive frontier. Whole points thereforeoften laid waste and depopulated were ; provinces tories terriyet,under the Iconoclast emperors, the Byzantine The united attacks of the increasedin prosperity. evils and Franks inflicted on Saracens,Bulgarians, trifling the Byzantine tory empire, comparedwith what the predaincursions of small bands
on

that the

cited to prove and the incapable,

and

itstendencies were consequently

of Normans

inflicted
the

the

of empire

the

successors

of

or Charlemagne, on

incessant rebellionsand the

civil wars

the dominions of wealth of their pire em-

caliphs.
and to theirmilitary establishment,
were certainly they Byzantine emperors than

The Saracens devoted allthe immense

more

formidable enemies to the

the Parthians had been to the Romans

yet the emperors


suc-

enemies most thesepowerful resisted of Constantinople


VOL.
I.

242

ICONOCLAST

PBKIOD.

BOOK
Ch.
it.

I.

" 1.

The Saracen troopswere no cessfully. way inferiorto and military in arms, discipline, the Byzantine artillery, mailed from head to foot, each science ; their cavalry was and a bow slung horseman bearing a scimitar, a lance, of the strictest his shoulder. Their discipline was over kind,and their armies moved not onlywith catapultas but also with all for field service, and military engines for besieging cities. the materials and machines requisite Under Kassim
the
a

band of six thousand


never caliphs

men

ventured to
tering encoun-

invade India ;^ yet the

of thought

Byzantine army

unless with immense

numbers

sustained more of theirchosen warriors ; and they signal than from defeats from the emperors of Constantinople The they encountered together. battleswith the armies contests and hard-fought bloody in Asia Minor, entitlethe Byzantine of the caliphs army all the other enemies
to rank for severalcenturiesas
one

of the best the world

has

ever

seen. were Bulgarians

The

likewise them
no

Their continual wars

gave

dangerousenemies. of mean knowledge

science ; and the individual soldiers, from their military and powers the greatest habits of life, activity possessed of endurance. In the wars at the end of the eighth and the beginning of the ninth centuries theyfought pletely comand possessed armed in steel, of military engines have the testimony We of a every kind then known. that the armies of Crumn were supplied writer, Byzantine with every warlike machine discovered by the engineering of the Roman s.^ knowledge In allthe scientific of war, in the applidepartments cation of mechanical and and destruction,

chemical skill to

the

art

of the

in the construction of

for engines

there attack and defence of fortresses,

can

be

no

doubt

in India, L 512. coDBisted of 30,000 SKoaibrfpoi, See also the list of military engines. ThcophaneSi Inoeri, Con, 484.

"lphmston*8 History of ths Mokammedam


The army of Crumn

244

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

to produced 1. CHjirj^jp^Qgea of
BooKL

and that when the imperial treasury, absorbed all itsrevenues, or its a province that of outlay found to entail a degree was reconquest the emperors were often to be repaid, never was likely the indiflferent to the loss.

empire by Charles with the organisation of Martel very nearly corresponds the Byzantine by by Leo III. The invasion of Italy the conceded and to A.D. 764, temporal authority Pepin, the Byzantine the popes, compelled emperors to enter into with Charlemagne of equality. a on footing negotiations The importance relationswith of maintaining friendly is said by Eginhardto have influenced Constantinople in affecting to receive the imperial crown Charlemagne he wished to be able to from the Pope by surprise; pleadthat his election as emperor of the West was his part. Interest silenced pride both on on unsought relationswere established between and diplomatic sides,
The foundation of the emperors of the East and the West ; embassies and presents sent from Constantinople magne to Charlewere
two

the Frank

his successors, treatieswere the Byzantine government became in


and The

and concluded,
some nected condegree

with the international systemof medieval

held by the court of still superiority in public is manifest in the Greek salutations opinion, with which the Pope flattered at the commencement Charlemagne
of his letters;

Europe.^ Constantinople

salutations yet Greek oflicial

had

Latin at Constantinople itself.^ only lately supplanted The political alliancesand diplomatic relationsof the

court were Byzantine very extensive ; but the most who those with the Khan of the Khazars, were important ruled all the northern shores of the Caspian Sea, and
the AreoII. seut a copy of the works attributed to Dionysius in 824. The regency of Louis le D6boimaire,as a valuable present, Theodora attached considerable importance to the embassies sent to Lothaire and Louis IL" Schlosser, 566. * Constant iL 29. Porphyr. De Ceremon. Aula ByzatUinct,

^Michael

pagiteto

EMBASSY

OP

JOHN

THE

GBAMMAEIAN.

245

of Spain. ScandinaTian ama. d. caliphs ^'^'^' bassadors who had passedthroughRussia visited the court of Theophilus splendid ; but their mission related nishing of furrather to mercantile questions, or to the manner recruits to the mercenary legions nople, at Constantithan to political alliance.^ The remarkable embassyof John the Grammarian, who was sent by Theophilus as ambassador to the Caliph the Motassem, deserves particular notice, as illustrating externalcharacterof Byzantine The avowed diplomacy.^ of peace, of the mission was to conclude a treaty object but the ambassador had secret instructions to employ of the to induce Manuel, one every art of persuasion ablest generals of the empire, who had distinguished in the civil wars himself greatly of the Saracens,to of. John The personal return to his allegiance. qualities well suited for this embassy. rendered him peculiarly attainments he joineda degreeof To great literary of which gainedhim the reputation scientific knowledge, with the and he was a magician, perfectly acquainted All these circumstances insured him Arabic language. which had been at the court of Bagdat, a goodreception and so longgoverned Almamun, so lately by the Caliph
one

with the Ommiad

of the
ever

greatest encouragers
his

of science and

literature

who
was
^

a throne. occupied celebrated for equally

The

ambassador Byzantine of medicine, knowledge

483. Gesckichie der BildtrttilrmenderKaiser, Schlosser, the precise date of this embassy. WeU, in fixing is some difficulty 297. Compare Ck)ntinuator, it at the end of 833, ii. with greatprobability, places 29 ; Leo Qramm. 60 ; Symeon Mag. 419 ; Qenesius, 452, edit Par. ; 218, edit The people of Constantinople Bonn.; also note 8 at page 177 of this volume. of Thessalouica, or magician, a necromancer as Leo, the archbi^op regarded works executed under of the great mechanical well as John, on account as
'

There

"

"

recollect that when we his direction. This need not appear surprising, Sir Francis modem hero so as feats of to a tradition ascribes magic English Plymouth with water. It Drake, for executing the aqueduct that supplies and hence the people relate that was completed with wonderful celerity, in virtue of which the water with the devil, contract Sir Francis made a flowed after his horse's feet as he gallopedfrom the spring to the town. and Roger Bacon, on account of his rare knowledgeas a natural philosopher, with both supposedto have unlawful dealings were Faustus as the firstprinter, the other world.

246
BOOK ^'
""'

ICONOCLAST

PBEIOD.

I.

astromechanics,mathematics, architecture, chemistry,

*^

the Caliph even probably ; and astrology in the and a disbeliever a free-thinker, Motassem, though of the Koran, shared so much of the popular divine origin Domj,
and

belief as to credit the tale that the learned Christian in a brazen basin, could read the secrets of futurity priest who with a man and felt great curiosity to converse of brazen magnetism. this rare gift possessed furnished with John was Constantinople, quitting silk damasked the richest furniture, splendid carpets, and platechased and inlaid with the most hangings, to beautifulornaments, taken from the imperial palaces, which was added 400 lb.of gold for the current expenses of the embassy. to the usage of the East, the ambassador According furnished by the was lodgedat Bagdat in a palace in which the diplomatic caliph.The magnificent style installed himself in the apartmentshe reserved for priest On
his
own use

made

sensation at the court of Motassem,


had living This

thoughmany
Haroun

then

witnessed the

of splendour

of wealth was display better adapted of Theophilus than the vanity to gi'atify If we to advance the conclusion of a lasting peace. could place confidence in the storiesrecorded by implicit the Byzantine of various tricks to which the writers, lavish

Al Rashid.

ambassador resorted in order


the Saracen nobles at the
we

to

augment the wonder

of

enormous

tians, wealth of the Chris-

of John

should be inclined to question the judgment himself. His conduct could only have originated attributed to him would
more

in personal pride ; and the course

to to excite the Mohammedans likely active warfare, where theyhad a prospect of plundering them to conclude a so rich an enemy, than of persuading

have been

of peace. treaty One anecdote, dwelt


to be recorded.

on

with

John

serves desatisfaction, peculiar a splendid possessed golden and ornamented with

basin

and

ewer,

chased richly

EMBASSY

OF

JOHN

THE

GEAMMARIAN.

247
a. d.

and jewels, the

of thishe made

Throughout display. great

East, and in many partsof EuropeanTurkeyat the where knives and forks are not yet in use, present day,
to practice
a

^^^"^'

it is the

wash

the hands
on
a

commencing
serrant

meal, and
from

before immediately from the table. A rising


over

pours water

ewer

the hands

of the

guest,while another holds


time for

basin to receive it as it falls.

This, beingdone by each guestin turn,would leaye ample


the magnificent observing goldenutensils of John at the entertainments he was in the habit of giving in Bagdat. At a grand entertainto the leading men ambassador to the principal ment givenby the Byzantine of the caliph's court,the slaves rushed into the nobility hall where in
a

the guests were

state

and informed John, assembled, of great alarm, that his magnificent golden The Saracens

basin was
measures

not to be found.

eagerly ed suggest-

for its recovery ; but John treated the affair with indifference, ordered his steward to give and calmly

the slaves another.


in his hand
a

Soon

two

slavesappeared, one
and
more

ing bear-

goldenewer,
not

the other

basin,
that

and larger which it was

more

if valuable,

than elegant,

had been stolen. These had been supposed hitherto kept concealed, on purpose to attract public trick. attention by this pitifdl the respect of the Saracens by John, however,gained

his disinterested for he declined to receive any conduct, present of value


for
even himself,

from

the

caliph.

him with a hundred Motassem,therefore, presented Christiancaptives; but even then he sent immediately to Theophilus, of to beg him to return a like number of Saracen prisoners No general to the caliph. exchange

prisoners, however,appears
time of this

to have

been effected at the

which, with other circumstances, embassy, of the embassy affordsa proofthat the avowed object John returned to Constantinople, failed. When totally he persuaded the Emperor Theophilus to construct the of Bryasin the varied style palace of Saracenic architec-

248

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

tore, of which those who


at Damascus, the palaces

have work

seen

the interiorof the Jones


on

^"^'^^

of Owen

the

Alhambra,or

the Alhambra

court at the

of palace crystal

alone form with itsgorgeous ornaments, can Sydenham, idea. an adequate The greatwealth of the Byzantine goyemment at this it derived from the commercial pre-eminence was period then enjoyed merce among the nations of the earth. The comin the eighth of Europe centred at Constantinople and ninth centuries more than it has ever since completely done in any one city.^ of the government, The principles which reprobated and the moderation of its monopoly, favourable to which repudiated were duties, privileges, the extension of trade. While Charlemagne ruined the maximum of internaltrade of his dominions by fixing a under the persuaand destroyed commerce prices, foreign sion ject's he could enable his subthat, luxury, by discouraging to accumulate treasures which he might afterwards extort or filchinto his own bited prohiTheophilus treasury, in merthe persons about his court from engaging cantile lest by so doingtheyshould injure speculations, nishing the regular channels of commercial intercourse, by dimithe profits of the individualdealer.^ Theophilus of the that commerce the principal source was proclaimed wealth of his people, and that as many derived their
means

and drew from it alone trade, the funds for payment of the public ference burdens, any interof subsistencefrom with the

of commerce as well a public was liberty of the The political as a private injury. importance the commercial classes induced Irene, when she usurped the their favour by diminishing to purchase empire,

The short reign of Theodosins III. was distingaished by the conclusion of taken as which was treatywith the Bulgarians, Tery importantcommercial the basis of the fiscal stipulations for a long period. ^Theophanes, 421, not 665; or 118, edit. Yen. * of Charlemagne, duct Compare the Capitularies a.d. 805, art 5, with the conof Theophilus." 65. Continuator^
"

BYZANTINE

COMMERCE.

249

duties leyied at the passages of the

and Bosphorus

the

a.d.

HeUespont.! DoriDg this periodthe western nations of Europe drew their supplies tinople, of Indian commodities from Constanand the Byzantine them with all supplied empire the goldcoin in circulation for severalcenturies.
The Greek navy, both mercantile and warlike, the was the merchantthen in existence. Against most numerous

^^^-^^'

of the Greeks,the piratical of the Egypenterprises tian, ships Arabs were principally ed. directand Spanish African, of the we Unfortunately possess no authenticdetails commercial state of the Byzantine of the nor empire, Greek population duringthe Iconoclast period, yet we transfer to this time the records that exist may safely under the Basilian the extent of Greek commerce proving as the ignorance dynasty.Indeed,we must remember that, and povertyof western Europewas much greater in and the eleventh and twelfth centuriesthan in the eighth commerce was we ninth, may conclude that Byzantine also greater the earlierperiod. during

The influenceof the trade of the Arabians with the East Indies
on

the

supplyof

the markets of western of the Greeks


to be degree, most westerly

and that Europe has been overrated, of. This is,in some lost sight generally

attributed

to

the circumstance

that the

the Crusades, in the times preceding were nations,

better

and the literatureof the with the commerce acquainted Arabs of Spainthan with those of the Byzantine Greeks, and also to the preservation of an interesting account of the extensive voyages of the Arabs in the Indian seas of allrecords when we are deprived thisvery period, during markets drew The Byzantine commerce.^ of Byzantine their supplies of Indian
^

and

Chinese

from productions

401. Theophanes, See Relation des Voyages faiUpar let Arahet et Penant dans VInde eihla Chine dans le 9hne SUde, Traduofcionet EclairciaBements par Reinaud ; AbulBist, Dyn, 284. pbaragius,
"

250

IC0KOCLA8T

PKBIOB.

BOOK

I.

Cb.it.il

north of the caliph's minions dopassing of the Ehazars to the Blsck the territory through This route was longfrequented Sea. by the Christians, of the Moham* to avoid the countries in the possession for medans, and was the highwayof Europeancommerce several centuries. Though it appears at present a far difficult and expensive route than that by the Red more Sea and tiieIndian Ocean,it was really safer, more rapid, and more and tenth cenin the eighth, turies. ninth, economical, This requires to those who are acquainted no proof Central Asia,the trade
with
caravan

lifein the East,and who


of ancient and navigation,

reflecton the

the imperfectio

and dangers vessels of any burden are exposed to which sailing delays in the Red Sea. When the Venetians and Genoese began to surpass the Greeks in commercial enterprise, deavoured theyento occupy this route ; and we

have

some

account

of the line it

and the followed,

manner

in which

it was

carried on, after the East had been thrown into confusion in the by the conquestsof the Crusaders and Tartars, travels of Marco citiesof the of the in them
to

Polo.^

For severalcenturiesthe

rous nume-

the majority Byzantine supplied empire

consumers European

with Indian wares, and itwas of propertyexalone that the necessary security isted preserve
as

was

tinople Constanstores of merchandise. large in the civilised to every city much superior
commerce,
as

in wealth and wctt'ld,

London

now

is to the

other

And Europeancapitals. barbarous

it must

also be borne in
were

mind, that the countries of Central Asia


the rude and
now

not

then in

condition into which

theyhave
On the

since nomade sunk,

nations have subdued them.


caravans,

many

parts of the road traversed by the


a numerous

merchants found

population ready wealthy East the to trafficin many articles sought after both in and West ; and the single commodityof furs supplied
and
^

The

Travels of Mareo

Murray, FJLS.B.

amended Poloy greatly 1844. Ediubuigh,

and oilarged, by Hugh

252

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

BOOK Ch.
it.

between the tilerelations likewiseinduced


a on population

1 1.

of Bagdat and Spain caliphs of the Mohammeconsiderableportion dan

the shores of the Mediterranean

to

with maintain dose commercial relations

A remarkable proof of the greatwealth of this

Constantinople.^ at society

of is to be found in the immense amount period hare already noticed that the in circulation. We specie Byzantine empirefurnished all the western nations of and when Europewith gold coin for sereral centuries;

the hoards of the Mohammedan


a

conquerors of India fell


that the

it was found Europeaninvaders, coins of the Byzantine emperors formed no

prey

to

gold

small part of

their treasures. and

The

sums so

accumulated
that great,
no

by Al
been

Mansur

were Theophilus

extortion could

hare collected them


and

unless the

had people

wealthy,

tions had existed in the commercial transacgreatactivity

was

Al Mansur of the age. It is true that the Caliph twelve remarkable for his extreme parsimony during

he is said to have years of his reign.Duringthis period accumulated a treasure amounting to six hundred millions of dirhems in silver (about and "13,750,000), The "1,680,000 a-year.2 left a
sum large

fourteen
rate

millionsof dinars of gold("6,417,000), or at the


in various ways lavish expenditure in the

of

whose Emperor Theophilus, has been

which,when
regency of

increased

imperial treasuryat by the prudent economy


to
one

recorded, his death,


of the and

Theodora, amounted

thousand

centenaries of gold, three thousand ninety-nine


NUe

centenaries
Orbis

from Babylon(oldCairo) Liber deMemura to the Red Sea." Dicuili,

vi. " iii. TerroB, 6. Ji^cherehei et Critiquei, chap. Olograph, par Letronne,23. ^ da la Dominatum et de VEapagnesous Oardonne, Uittaire de l*Afrique Arabea, L 340. ' The name of Abou Dowaneck was given to Al (theFather of a Farthing) Mansur
on

accomit

of his aTarice.

Almamun

is said

to

have

expended

the works of the Greeks,("137,500.)" 300,000 dinars in translating Price,ii 142. Weil, ii.88, note 2, says that,accordmg to Cod. Goth. f. 21, Al Mansur left 900,000,000 dinars and 60,000,000 dirhems ; and also that the treasure loft and twice as many to 900,000,000dinars, by Haroun Al Rashid amounted dirhems. ii.127,note 8. It is needless to say that either there must here be a fault of the copyist or gross exaggeration.
"

WEALTH

OF

THE

BYZANTINE

EMPERORS.

253

of

besides plate and gold embroidery, silyer, that, on melted down, yielded two hundred centenaries of being millions and
as

a.d.

^^^'^^'

gold. The goldmay


a

to about four equal half of sovereigns, and the weight of silver


as

be estimated

equalto "930,000
to
a

in

value,the remainder

of the

treasure to

800,000 sovereigns, making the whole equal of 5,230,000 sovereigns, and of course metalliccoinage

far

the
more

in its exchangeable from that sum value, exceeding and the of the precious metals, comparative scarcity

circumscribed circulation of money.

There

does

not
sums

in this account of the appear to be any exaggeration leftin the Byzantine at the termination of treasury

the regency of Theodora, for the historianswho have transmitted it wrote under the government of the Basilian and dynasty,
to

under

circumstances which The

afforded

access

official sources

of information.

tino EmperorConstan-

who lived in the third their patron, Porphyrogenitus, after Theodora, would not have authorised generation such a subject.^ on any misrepresentation Some further confirmation of the general wealth of the countries
commerce
on was

the shores of the allowed


some

in which Mediterranean,

is found degreeof liberty, in the wealth of Abderrahman who is III.,in Spain, of 5,480,000 said to have possessed annual revenue an historians have calculated the whole dinars, some though

income of his treasury at 12,945,000, which would be The povertyof Europe to "5,500,000sterling.^ equal
at
a

laterperiod, when
of the

the isolation caused


commerce

system had annihilated

and

by the feudal culation the cirprevented

metals,cannot be used as an precious of this wealth having the probability argument against of which we are treating.^ existed at the earlierperiod
^ " "

Contin. 107. Symeon Mag. Scrip, post Tkeoph, 303. Empirein Spain, Murphy's Mohammedan

436.

of the crown of After the conqueetaof Henry V. in France, the revenues Hist, 1431 amounted onlyto "53,000 sterlmg annuaUy."Michelet, de France, iii. 658,edit Brux.

England in

264

ICOKOCLAST

PEBIOD.

BOOK

I.

^"'"*^'

in the the state of commercial society coDtrasting and Saracen empires, must not overlook we Byzantine In the existence of
one

social feature favourable


classes higher of the

to

the

Byzantine imbued with the old Roman looked prejudices, empire, unsuitable trade of every kind as a debasing on pursuit, called by birth or position to serve to those who were the state, while the Saracens still paid an outward respect maxims of Arabian wisdom, which to the antique of independence inculcated industry to even as a source ranL In deference to this injunction, of the highest men in the habit of learning the Abassid caliphs were some and selling the produce of their manual labour, to trade, in purchasing the food theyconsumed.^ be employed that a Perhapswe may also hazard the conjecture, before the reignof considerable addition had, shortly metals of precious been made to the quantity Theophilus, We in existence by the discovery of new mines. know, that the Saracens in Spainworked mines of gold indeed,
and silver to infer that
a

Mohammedans.

The

considerable extent, and


the
same

we

may

fore there-

theydid

of their
was

vast

dominions.

At

in many the same

other

portions
to

time,whatever
was sure

done with

by profit

the Saracens

be

Byzantine ment. governThe abundance of Byzantine goldcoins stillin existence leads to the conclusion that gold obtained was in considerable quantities from mines within the drcuit of the Eastern Empire.
^ citizen who became an artisan was expelled from In ancient times a Roman his tribe. OvbtvX yhp i^rjv oihe KcanjKov oCt" \"ifHn'"'xyrp" fiiop *F"fAal"av c^ciy. Dion. Halicar. iz. 25.

attempted by the

Christians under the

"

STATE

OP

SOCIETY.

256

SECT.

IL"

STATE EMPIRE

OP

SOCIETY IN THE

AMONG EIGHTH

THE AND

PEOPLE NINTH

OF

THE

BYZANTINE

CENTURISa

DiOLINB
"

or

OIYIUBATION"
spirit of

iKnUlHOB
thb

OF
"

TBB

QbRK
of

OBUBCH" bcubmcb and

SlATXBT
abt
"

Theologio

pboplb

Statb

LrrBRATUBB.

in a great degree on a, n. depends ^^^"^^' but the health and strength their commerce, of a people is derived from itsagricultural The population industry. into large which is pressed cities by commercial pursuits, or crowded into little industry space by manufacturing with the and the navigators wanderers the caravan even All these of ships ^rarely theirown numbers. perpetuate recruited hunters after riches requure to be constantly from the agricultural of their respective tries. counpopulation This constant change, which is goingon in the in altering the of cities, population operatespowerfully condition of society in each successive Hence generation. find the nature of society in Constantinople we strongly the of to the opposed government. principles Byzantine The imperial mentioned, as has been already government, inherited the conservative principles of Roman society, would have fetteredthe popuand, had it been possible, lation
"
"

The wealth of nations

to itsactuid castes.

to and reduced the people condition,

opposedthe laws of in classes The ruling dwindled away. Rome, and society the Western Empirehad expired before their place was nations of the north. In the occupied by the conquering Elastern Empire, the changewent on more ; gradually
The laws of Providence the
towns

and

cities were

far

more

numerous,

but many

of them

walls an agriculwithin their own tural recruitedthe population which not only population, engagedin trade,but also sent off continual colonies embraced
to

maintain the great citiesof the

and espeempire, cially recruitedfrom This greatcapital, Constantinople.

256
BOOK L

ICONOCLAST

PERIOD.

^"'^"*^

distant towns, and and language, was

from nations dissimilarin

manners

undergoing great consequently always its peculiar preserving changes, type of a city yet always destitute of any decided nationality, and of homogeneity in its society. It became in turn a Roman, an Asiatic, the the Roman, the Asiatic, and a Greek city, or as the predominant Greek aristocracy influence in acquired
the administration. Under
more an

the Iconoclasts, it was than either a Greek Asiatic city


the

cidedly deor a

Roman.

Whether
be

Tonians formed
cannot

the Greeks, Asiatics, or the Sclathe greaternumber of the inhabitants, The

ascertained.

Asiatic,the Greeks, but


to have

was aristocracy certainly middle classes and artisans were chiefly the the lowest rabble, the day labourers,

and the domestic servants, when porters, and Macedonia,who, like the with entered the city
to seek their fortuue.

not

slaves, appear
the Macedonian,

of the Sclavonians of Thrace consistedprincipally

Emperor Basil
a

wallet on

their shoulder

similar condition of
steamers

society
be
seen

exists to-day, and

thousands of labourers may

in the at Constantiuople arriving weekly

from

the Asiatic coast of the Black Sea, and and the between Smyrna,Thessalonica,

from the coasts

capital. The causes of decline in society the Roman throughout and the nature of the world have been already noticed, which took place in the Eastern Empire improvement the reigns of Leo III. and his successors has been during It is now out. pointed necessary to examine why the assumed so soon a improvementof society stationary
and arrested the revival of civilisation.We aspect,
not must

in its name, still Roman was empire The trammels,binding and prejudices. the traditions, of the various classes, actionsand even the thoughts were very and relaxed, slightly

that forget

the

been made the

the permanent relaxation had in the interestof the government, not of


of every rank
were

people. Men

confined within

STATE

OF

SOCIETY.

257
A.D.

restricted and circle,

in one Within the imperial spheres the as palacethe incessant ceremonial vas regarded branch of human knowledge.It was multiplied highest

to compelled manner. unyarjing

act in their individual

^^^"^^'

into a code,and

treated

as

science.

In

the

church,

not gospel, tradition, was

and the innumerable guide, forms and ceremonies and liturgies hostile to the were and the use of reason. exerciseof thought Among the at large, people thoughthe curial system of castes had the

been broken down, still the trader was fettered to his where and often to his quarter or liisstreet, corporation, he exercised his amidst calling
men

of the

same

sion. profes-

and the tendencies of The education of the child, both prerented the individual from acquiring society,
more

than the confined knowledge for his requisite


in the

tion posivirtue

and no talent, empire. No learning,

no

could conduct either to distinction unless exeror wealth, cised the to the fixed formulas that governed according
state and

the church.

Hence

even

travelledover the immense


no new

all Asia,and who and society,

who merchant, the system supported by

the

duties he furnished to

supplied government,

ideas to

life perhaps passed through

without
This

acquiring many. the constitution of society explains peculiar


some

of origin of later
an

vices in the character of the Greeks


to be supposed erroneously The envy and days of liberty.
are

times,which

inheritance of the

ing jealousy by party contests,in small citiesactproduced as independent certainly governments,was very where add, men natural, we and, quite great, may tutions instiand political violent from their sincerity, were The envy and jealousy rendered law imperfect. and had their times were baser feelings, of modem in meaner interests. Roman crowded men society origin and in some of the same measure together, professions

excluded them from much


VOL.
I.

intercoursewith others. The


K

258

ICOHOCLAST

PSEIOD.

BOOK
^""^

I.

**"

oonsequeiicevas, that and often for the means

most

for "ealtii, yiolentstruggle

of

was existence,

created amongst

in permanent personal tiiose contact Ererj man liying to his himself superior interestedin rendering "as deeply

neighbour ; and as the fixed condition of eyeiyattainable, thingin the empirerendered indiridual progress unthe onlymethod of obtaining any superiority the of moral the or "as professional by depreciation character of a rival, who was alwaysa near neighbour. of the mind which Envy and calumnywere the feelings under the emperors tended to develop Roman society The same with efficacy in every rank. cause produces
nearest

the
town

same

effectin the Greek

bazaar

of the

present day,where

of every Turkish tradesmen of the same


street

into the same are crowded profession the merit of to depreciate impossible itis easy to calumniate workmanship, of the workman. The

When

it is

the material and the

the moral character the

influence of the Greek

church

on

political

fabric of the empure had been longin operation, yet it had failed to infuse a sound moral spirit into either the

people. Still it may be possible of the secondary to trace some the which prepared causes of justice, way for the reforms of Leo III. to the sense moral respect, and real religious infused into the faith, of the population mass of the doctrines by a comparison
or

administration

the

of

with those of Christianity

Mohammedanism.

But

the

blindness of the age has concealed from our view many of the causes which impelled wiUi to co-operate society the Iconoclast emperors in their career of improvement That the moral condition of the reorganisation. peopleof the Byzantine empireunder the Iconoclast to that of any equalnumber of emperors was superior the human in any preceding race be can period, hardly doubted. The bulk of society social a higher occupied in the time of Constantine Copronymusthan of position
and

260
BOOK
^

ICONOCLAST

PEBIOD.

the historj, another.^

real canse
The

of the fallof

one

goyemment after

"''**"

in the moral tone of society superior of its long of the greatcauses one vas empire Bjzantine duration ; it was its true consenratiyeprinciple. The authority exercised by the senate, the powers possessed and coundb of the church, and general by synods often attached by the emperors to the the importance and popular assemblies, of their laws by silentia ratification in strong contrast in the Byzantine mark a change empire The with the earlier military empireof the Romans. highest power in the state had been transferredfrom the army to the laws of the empire no inconsiderable step civilisation.The influenceof in the progress of political which resultedfrom this change, of humanity those feelings
"

are

visible in the mild

treatment

of many

unsuccessful

During the reignof usurpers and dethroned emperors. the sons of Constantine V., Bardanes, and I., Nicephorus
Arsaber,were
all and Michael in all living

monasteries, thoughtheyhad

to attempted

occupy the throne. Constantine VI. I. lived unmolested by their successors. feature of ancient
was society
"

The marked
of mankind

the division

into two

great classes freemen and slaves.


these classeswas liable to
con-

The

between proportion

and every considerablevariation produced tinuid variation, which we in the laws of society, alteration a corresponding
are

of

unable to follow. The progress of the mass generally the population retarded until was, however, constantly of

the extinction

slavery.But
was

towards in the

that boon to

mankind, greatprogress

made

pire emByzantine

the eighth and ninth centuries. The causes during that directly tended to render free labour more profitable when applied than it had been hitherto, to the cultivation of the soil, and which consequently diately immemore operated in extinguishing and repressing the slavery, predial most extensive branch of the slave-trade, by supplying
1

I. 54, 185. Charlemagne, par Capefigue,

SLAVERY.

261
a. d.

the cities with free

It has precision. ^2^tian oughtto attributethe changeto the influenceof the ChrisIf thisbe really religion. true,carillers mightobserye that so powerful in any other case produced a cause never itseflFects so tardily. however,though clesiastical ecUnfortunately, influencehas exercised immense authority over the internalpolicy of European influence society, religious has always been comparatively small ; and though tianity Chrishas laboured to abolish slavery, it was often for

be indicated with cannot emigrants, been rery generally asserted that we

the interestof the church to perpetuate the institution.


ceased had, in fact, Slavery while many countries, and maintained

European Christians still upheldits legality,


to not at variance with

exist in most

that its existencewas

the doctrines of their religion.^


condition of slaves in the Byzantine precise empire of the at this period must be learned from a careful study with later docuof Rome, compared ments. imperial legislation As a proofof the improvedphilanthropy of the testament men enlightened duringthe Iconoclast period, of Theodore Studita deserves to be quoted. That bold and independent abbot says, A monk oughtnot to
'*

The

for the serneither for his own vice service, nor possess a slave, of his monastery, nor for the cultureof itslands ; for a

slave is

man

made

after the

image of

in some from his ^wn derogates degree of his time, of the feelings a correct picture by adding, gives ''and this, like marriage, is onlyallowable in those living
a ^ secularlife."

God ;^^ but he merits, thoughhe

The foundation of
^

numerous

and hospitals,

other chari-

carried on the slave-trade was hy the Latin IL 52. del Oommereio de' Veneziani, e politica " SancH Theodori Studita JEmstoUB dUaque Scripta Dogmatical in the fifth Tolome of Simumdi Opera Vdria, p. 66. On the subject of Roman and An Inquiryinto the State ofSlavery see Blair, amongst the Byzantineslavery, For the extent
to which

Marin. Storia cimle see ChrittianB,

Romans;
The

en Occident;Babmgton, oncten Biot, De V Abolition de VBsdavage the Abolition ofSlavery in Europe; in Promoting ChristianUy Infiuenuaf

and Wallon, Mtoire work is a valuable emperors.

de tmdavage addition to our

This last in 3 volumes. dansrAntiquitS, under the Roman knowledge of society

262

I0ONO0LA6T

PSBIOD.

BOOK ^'

I.

"""**"

indiTiduals, by emperors and private of philanthropy that feelings is also a proof as well as into men's minds. had penetrated deeply religion which pervaded The theologic society Byzantine spirit
table institutions, both is to be attributed as much
to

material

causes

as

to

the

condition of the Greek intellectual

nation.

Indeed,the
in the ecclesiastical

Greeks had
circumstance
on

at times

share onlya secondary

controversies in the Eastern

church, thoughthe
carried

of those controversieshavingbeen has language

in the Greek

made the nations of western

and speculative, Europeattribute them to a philosophic, A very inherent in the Hellenic mind. polemic spirit is sufficient examination of history to prove, that slight

several of the heresies which church had their


in origin

disturbed the Eastern


more

the

profound religious
of the sions expres-

and that many ideas of the Oriental nations, called hereticalwere, in a great measure, opinions of the mental of the nationality and Persians, and Egyptians, with the Greek Even mind. with the Iconoclasts was and matter between much

Armenians, Syrians,
connection whatever

had

no

the

contest

in which

the ancient Oriental

dispute the opinions concerning


a as

of mind operations
as

were

concerned,

of artificial necessity the one hand, and the dutyof deveof faitl^ loping on symbols the intellectual faculties by cultivating truth the reason, not the imagination, the other. through on The ablest writer on the Greek side of the question, John and not a Greek. The poliDamascenus, was a Syrian, tical establish to the centralisationof ecclesiastical struggle and political likewise quite as an important power was element in the contest as the religious question ; and as it appeared firmly the emperors soon as established, became much more inclined to yield to popular dices. prejuThe victory of the image-worshippers tended to
contest

the Greek

the

exalt

party in the Eastern church devoted

to ecclesias-

ECCLSSIASTICAL

SPIRIT.

268
a.d.

tical tradition, but littleinclined to cultivate Hellenic literature which it considered or cherish Hellenic ideas, hostile to the
saints. find
a

^^^'^^^

lore contained in the livesof the legendary After the victory of this party,accordingly, we circumscribed circle of intellectual culture
the

more

in began to prevail

Byzantine empire.

John

the

Grammarian, Leo the Mathematician,and

who Photius,

his vast literary attainments as a layman, were acquired and enlightened the last profound scholars: Byzantine theyleft no successors, nor has any Greek of the same calibre since appeared intellectual in the world. A greatersimilarity of thought and action may be traced throughout the Christian world in the eighth tury centhan in subsequent predominance ages. The same and ecclesiastical ceremonials ; the of religious feeling cussions disfor founding monasteries and raising same passion to make lifesubservient ; the same disposition and to to make all amusements to religion, ecclesiastical, of music,painting, and poetryin embody the enjoyment the ceremonied of the church ; the same abuse of the right of asylumto criminals by the ecclesiastical authorities, and the same b etween church and the the antagonism
"

in the East and the West^ state,is visible Greek The orthodox church was originally

the

seven

councilswhose general Greek


The
; and

canons

had fixed its doctrineswere

the popes, when theyrose into importance, framed. could onlyadopta scheme of theology already of Popery, or as a section portion religious theological of the Christian church, is really Greek ; and it is only of and theocratic peculiarities the ecclesiastical, political, the fabric which Latin
can

be considered

as

the work

of the
was,

church.

The*

general unityof

Christians

1 The influence of the monks during the Iconoclast contest became so great into that the monasteries on Olympus, Athos, and Ida formed themselves

of his beloved

daughter Maria." Leo Oramm.

451

264

ICOKOCLABT

PERIOD.

BOOK

I.

in good as well however, prominent

as

for if the evil,

^^^'^^

labours of missionary

the Germans, at the the reflectglory of the eighth on commencement century, in the Latin church,the conversion of the Bulgarians Boniface among
middle of the of Methodios ninth, by the ministry These Byzantine. where they lived Thessalonica,
to

and
two
rounded sur-

is honourable Kyrillos,

the

monks, natives of

"

selves devoted themby a fiercetribe of Sclavonians, to study the language of these troublesome neighbours. Under the regency of the Empress Theodora, of the Sclavonian dialect theyrendered theirknowledge the of propagating the means and advancing Christianity in the character of civilisation, cause Bulgaria by visiting allowed to have of missionaries. They are universally and to have conducted theirmission in a Christian spirit, merited the greatsuccess that attended their labours.^ nistration in the admiThe greatimprovement which took place
reforms eflFected by legal noticed. Leo III. and Constantine V., have been already Leo V. and Theophilus the greatest also gained praise, from their control blished estafor even adversaries, the strict they and the decisionsof the forms of proceeding over the courts of law. The legal of this period, monuments with the extent of the however, by no means correspond administrativeimprovement which took place. The era of legislative under in the Byzantine was greatness empire of and justice,

the

the Basilian

but it was under the Iconoclast dynasty, and infused into the system, was emperors that new vigour the improvements made which laid the foundation of were the stability, and power of the Byzantine wealth, empire.

The scientific attainments of the educated class in the were Byzantine empire unquestionably very considerable.

Many
and
^

were

invited to the court of the


more

contributed far

than his
"

Almamun, Caliph to the own subjects


Hiatoryqf Neftoder,

the ChriaHan

ii. 280 Soames. Mosheim, HcdesiasticcU JSUtory, MeligUmand Church,iiL 807 Torrey.
"

SCIENCE

AND

AET.

265

has deservedlj that soyereigo reputation gainedin


of history and

the

a.d.

science. The

accurate
seems

measurement

of the

7^^^-

earth's orbit in his time mathematical


a

to show at

that astronomical
no

had knowledge

; and if the greaterheight of their learned men, Leo to be credited, are one the Mathematician, who was afterwards archbishop of

attained

period previous authorities Byzantine

Thessalonica, was
he
was

invited to the court

of the be

to universally recognised at

cause becaliph, to all superior and


chanical me-

the scientificmen

Bagdat in mathematical

A knowledge.^

cultivatedin the distant


and that schoolsof

still was proof that learning of the Byzantine pire, emprovinces


eminence existed in
a

some

Greece, studies,

is to be found in the fact that


to
a

Leo, when

retired layman,

in college

the island of Andros

to pursue his

and there laid the foundation

of the scientific knowledge

his reputation. After he was by which he acquired of his opposition to image-worship, account on compelled, the archbishopric of Thessalonica, the general to resign feltfor his learning obtained for him from Bardas respect Caesar the appointment of president of the new university, founded at Constantinople of Michael III., in the reign in which

chairs of geometry and astronomy had been well as the usual instruction in Greek established, as

literature.2
astronomers calculated the lengthof the year at 865 days is 865 days 5 hours 48 The true length minutes and 80 seconds. minutes and 48 seconds. Niebuhr has pointed out the exactitude attained by the Etruscans in fixing the length of the solar year. Biat. ofRome, i 274. The Mexican calendar in use before the discoyeryof America was the most perfect before the Gregorian. Humboldt, Vues de" CordilUrea et MonumeM de$ Pevplet de VAmeriqut, of the Arabs to the Byzan125. For the obligations tines Indigines and from the time of Mansur, see Weil, ii.81, 84, 93. Greek physicians Mansur was Greek oooks are mentioned in the Arabian Nights. The Caliph attended by Greek and Indian physicions. ' 115. He was The history of Leo is given at length by the Continuator, called the great philosopher, wrote to Theophilus and it is said that Almamun and him to send Leo to the court of Bagdat. Leo studied grammar requesting and the pure sciences at philosophy, poetry at Constantinople; rhetoric, called Andros. Li the year 869 he was presentin the Church of the Virgin, and aU the Sigma C, when it fellin consequence of the shock of an earthquake, with the exceptionof Leo and a few others, perished."Symeon congregation, 5 hours 46
"

Almamon's

Mag. 454.

266
BOOK
^
'^'

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

I.

^ ''

under the direction of Leo that severalof those remarkable works of jewellery, combined with wonderful
It
was

mechanical contriyances, executed for the Emperor were which hare been already mentioned.^ The Theophilns,
of the telegraph from the frontiers perfection by fire-signals, of the empire and to the shores of the Bosphorus, the machinery communicated to were by which the signals also in the imperial a dial placed council-chamber, were

the work of Leo.^

The

guished attended distinfame which still

shows Constantinople and art was not entirely us that the love of knowledge extinct; and the relics often found of Byzantine jewellery, buried in the most distant regions of Europe, prove that
artistsand mechanicians at
a

considerabletrade
Even

was

carried on

in these works.
not

the

art

of

statuarywas

neglected, entirely
VI.

for it has been erected


a

noticed

that Constantino already

statue

of bronze in honour of his mother Irene.^

admired, and more however, was Painting, universally There mosaics were easily to private dwellings. adapted in the Byzantine were empire painters many distinguished
at

this time, and

there is reason

to

think that

some

of

their productions were

wonderful

of artistic skill, displays

credit to the miraculous powers of the giving Methodios is recorded works of Lazaros. The missionary the ten'or of the King of the Bulgato have awakened rians vivid of the tortures of the representation by a the natural portraiture damned, in a painting combining of frightful mixed with horrors supplied from a realities fertile The sombre character of Byzantine imagination. dios well adapted to the subject, and the fame Methoart was from as well as acquired among his contemporaries, those in aftertimes who saw his paintings, may be accepted that theypossessed touches of nature and some as a proof without
' s "

See page 179. 122. Sjmeon Mag. 450. Continuator, 62. CodinuB,De Grig. Con$tpl. Const

Manasses,107.

268
BOOK L
a.

ICONOCLAST

PBBIOD.

chjm

writers of this period Byzantine the Patriarch Nice^^j.^ GeorgeSyncellus, Theophanes, and perhaps John Malalas,in history phorus, ; John Damascenus (who perhaps may be considered as a Syrian) and Theodore Studita,in theology; and Photius, in literature. general writers Daring the middle ages the Greek scientific of became generally known in western Europeby means
most

The

eminent

translationsfrom Arabic has induced works


Arabs
were

and this circumstance yersions, di*aw the conclusion that and


more

many

to

these the the

better known

popular among

at at

Cordova,Cairo,and Bagdat,than among

Greeks

affords an

of Ptolemy The Constantinople. Almagest neous exampleof this double translation and erro-

inference.
the son of Charlebetween Alcuin and Pepin, a duputatio wiUi which the he which considers of the as an curiosity example magne, eager human combination views every unexpected mind, while young and ignorant, of ideas. Unfortunately the work he thus characterises is a verbal translation of from Secundus, an Athenian sophist of the time of Hadrian,or a transcript part of an cUUreatio attributed to Hadrian and Epictetua. See Opu$eulaOrai 218. VeUrtm Sententiota et Moralia. eorm^ Orellius, of givesspecimens
"

Google^

BOOK

SECOND.

BOOK
BASILIAN DYNASTY" THE PERIOD BYZANTINE

SECOND.
OF EMPIRE. THE POWER AJ). AND

GLORY

OF

867-1057.

CHAPTER
CONSOLIDATION
OF

I.
LEGISLATION 867-968.
AND

BYZANTINE A.D.

DESPOTISM.

SECT.

I." BBIGN

OP

BAStt

I.

(THE

MACEDONIAN),

A.D.

867-"8".

PjtRflONAL
OIAL

HISTORY
"

OF

BASIL MILITARY
"

"

EOCLESIASTIOAL
ADMINISTRATION
"

ADMINISTEATION

"

FlHAlf"

LEGISIATION IN

PaUUOIAN
and

WAR

PAIGNS CAMCoitbt

Asia

Minor
OF

Saraobns I.

Rayaqe

Sioily

Italy

"

AND

CHABACTBR

BaSIL

of Basil I. has been transmitted to us by history writers who compiled their works under the eye of his VII., and by that grandson,the Emperor Constantine Under such auspices, grandson with his own pen. history conceal than the is more whole to to truth, divulge likely One instance of falsification and nothing but the truth. be mentioned. The would imperialcompilations may fain persuadeus that the Sclavonian of was a man groom noble

The

descent,^and
line of
to

that he could

trace

that descent
ancestors to

either stantine, Con-

through a

or paternal

maternal
to

the

ArsacidsB,and

Alexander

the

Great,

historians claim Basil as a countryman, but it seems they at Constantinople to flatter the emperor. genealogy iuTented Chamich, Hitiory of Armenia, ii 8. Lebeau, xiiL 180, 4, and 479. Gibbon, iz. 48. Hamsa of Sclavonian of Ispahan says he was race. Reiske, Commen-

The

Armenian
the

only

echo

"

"

iarii ad There is

CoTutant
a

Porphyr,

de Ceremoniis

Aula

Byz.
Kara

tom.

ii. p. 461, edit. Bonn.


"

confirmation

of this in the

expression

TrSSptCav,Genesius, 52,
Poiphyr.
Ba$iliu8, 138
;

according to Kopitar, Olagolita,lxxL"See


and

Ck"nstant

EphrsomiuSy

111.

272
BOOK n.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

allow that his fatherlaboured jet thej


in the

as

poor

peasant

^'"*^

until Basil himself, of Adrianople, neighbourhood of the paternal the cultivation to farm,sought despising his fortune by wandering to the capital We are improve that Basil was a Sclavonian, told by other authorities and

we

know that the whole of Thrace and Macedonia

was

at

His father's this period cultivatedby Sclavonian colonists.

had family Basil


was

into Bulgaria been carried away captive when at the time Crumn almost an infant, took

of Theophilus, a.d. 813. Adrianople, During the reign of the Byzantine succeeded in taking some captives up and marching who was off into the empire. Basil, arms the governor of Macedonia among the number, after serving
Constanresolved to seek his fortune in tinople.^ for a time, all his worldly He departed, wealth carrying in
a

and reached the wallet on his shoulders, without knowing where to evening with his journey, he sat down Fatigued
near a

summer's
rest.

on a capital seek a night's

in the portico

of the church of St Diomed, there allnight. In and slept gate,

the

Adrianople

short time he found

in the service of a courtier named as a groom employment where his talent of taming horses, Theophilitzes, unruly and great strength, his large rendered head,tall figure, and intelligence, him remarkable ; while his activity, zeal, notice from his master, and rapid secured him particular in his household.^ promotion sent into the Peloponnesus was on Theophilitzes lic pubbusiness by the Empress Theodora, while she was who accompanied his master, fell sick regent; and Basil, with in the Morea. the fever, still at Patras so prevalent the protection fortunate enough to acquire Here he was of an old ladyof immense wealth, whose extraordinary to the unknown youthinduces us to suppose liberality

that she
' * "

was

herself of Sclavonian race.^

She made

Symeon Mag. 434. Porphyr. BaiUius,144. celebrated for his pride, Nikotaa, a Sclavonian of Peloponnesufi^ was
Constant

con-

PERSONAL

HISTOKY

OP

BASIL

273
a. d.

Basil
own

a son

member

of her

John, in
church
on

the Greek bestowed


to return

him with her family, by uniting ties of fraternity those spiritual which sanctions by peculiar rites; and she he
was

^^^""^'

him

considerable wealth when

able

It would appear that Basil had of some rank,for the widow a position already acquired
to his master.

slaves. The thirty riches Basil acquired of his benefactress by the generosity and in purchasing estate in Macedonia, an were employed in making liberaldonations to his own relations. He but his stillcontinued in the service of Theophilitzes, in wrestling skill and taming horses at lastintroduced him became his who immediately to the Emperor Michael, league, colfriend, patron. His progress as boon-companion, has been already and murderer of this benefactor,
a

Danielis furnished him with

train of

recounted.
The

elevationof

man

like Basil to the throne of

accident ; but the fact that was a strange Constantinople he reigned still for nineteen years seems more singular, he that of could neitherboast when we recollect military servicenor administrative knowledge. can prove Nothing of the governmental the perfection chine mamore completely
at the time

that into

a
a

man

than the circumstance of his accession, be moulded without education could so easily he could have Personally, sessed pos-

tolerableemperor.
no

either in the army or the administration partisans that he had many is it likely the ; nor among that he was people.We are tempted to conjecture allowed
was

to

establishhimself

known

because less the throne, about him than about most of the other men
on

less evilwas laid of influence at court, and consequently created and less personal to his charge, was opposition his position by his election. He succeeded in maintaining talents foradministration. Able unexpected by displaying he seems line of and unprincipled, to have pursued a
nected See
"

by maniage infra.
L

with Constautiue

of the gi-andson Poiphyrogeuitus, S

Basil.

VOL.

274
BOOK
n.

BABILIAN

DYNASTY.

ctLuu.

the factioDs of the court, the prevented of the army, and the the feelings in tij^church, pj^i^g in opposition to from ever uniting of the people, prejudices His knowledge of the sentiments his personal authority. that financial rendered him aware of the people sion oppresboth to the emperor the most dangerous was grievance avoided increasing and the empire ; he thereforecarefully the public burdens,and devoted his chief attention to the establishment of order in every branch of the public condact which
service. The

and impiety of depravity the

Michael

III. had

gusted dis-

that his in order to proclaim people.Basil, seized conduct was to be guided sentiments, by different of his coronation in the Church of St the opportunity of his piety. After the to make a public display Sophia he knelt down at the highaltar ceremony was concluded,
and cried with
crown

loud voice, the me "Lord,thou hast given and dedicate myself I deposit it at thyfeet, to thy
a

service.'^The

crimes and in

keptso longsecret
aware

of courts are often intrigues that itisposdespotic governments, sible since the hypoonlyhad elapsed critical of his

few of those present who heard this declaration were


that
a

few hours

devotee had buried his sword in the bosom


and sovereign For two

benefactor.

in the government years Basilmade no changes of the church. Photius, the actual Patriarch, was unpopular from hisconnection with the family of the late emperor, and

the toleration he had shown for the vicesof the court,while his deposed a powerful Ignatius, predecessor, possessed

body

of

partisans among

the

peopleand
the

the monks.

Basil attached this numerous

and active

rest partyto hisinte-

patriarchate ; but at the same time he contrived to avoid exciting any violent the part of Photius, on opposition by keeping up constant communications with that accomplished and able personal
ecclesiastic.Photius
was

in by reinstating Ignatius

at the head of

partypossessed

276
BOOK iL

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

priest was generaUy cm^i. ^^ annulled. The accusation of forgery since it rested only on some as false, slight regarded
to be
as
a

and the forgeries,

consecration of Photius

which changes

had been made

in the translation of the

had been letter to the emperor, and these changes Pope's who were sanctioned by the papd legates presentin the council. who expectthe Greeks to tolerate Latins, the Creed,have made a violent outcry them in lengthening for modifying the Greeks,on this occasion, a against The

of letterin a Greek translation. The compliancy papal and the subservient the reintegration of Ignatius, Basil, of the council of 869, induced the Pope to supdisposition pose that the time had arrived when it would be possible to the patriof the estates belonging to regain mony possession pire, of St Peter in the provinces of the Eastern Emwhich had been confiscated by Leo III.,and that the kingdom of the supremacy of the See of Rome over established. He even might now be firmly Bulgaria the ecclesiastical hopedto gainthe power of controlling affairs of the Eastern church. Such pretensions, however, insure unanimous be to revealed to onlyrequired plainly the part of the emperor, the clergy, and the on opposition and the Byzantine people throughout empire. Ignatius Basil showed themselves as firm in resisting pation papalusuras

Photius and Michael.


mean

In the of written
more

time,Photius

was

banished

to the monastery

Skep" ; and we possess several of his\ letters, the period which givea of his disgrace, during

favourable view of his character than would be formed from his public life alone. They afford convincing
of some proofof the falsity him by his opponents. against
was,

of the The

brought charges
was Christian,

real fault of Photius

that

dominant
been
at
a

statesman, and not the in his conduct as Patriarch ;

the

but

this has

and at Rome, at Constantinople, general that he would have incurred little censure Canterbury,

fault so

GENERAL

COUNCIL,

A.D.

879.
a

277

in the west had he not shown

partisan a. d. and a successful enemy of papal ^^'^^' of his national church, of the Eastern bishops, in spite ambition. The majority
attached
to

himself

deyoted

of his exile, remained


800D means

his

cause,

and it the

was

evident
of

to

Basil that his restoration


in the year

was

only
was

to the Greek unity restoring

church.

ingly, Accord-

when

died Ignatius

878, Photius

and another general reinstatedas Patriarch, council was assembled at Constautinople. This council, which is

council of the church by the eighth general Eastern Christians, attended by three hundred and was eighty-three bishops.The Emperor Basil,the Pope, and Photius, allresolved to temporise, and each played his own in the and tergiversation, game of diplomacy The Pope provedthe hope of ultimately succeediug. for his legates bribed or at least were greatestloser, the Latins say so" to yieldup everything that Basil and Photius desired. They are even accused of having allowed a covert attack on the orthodoxy in of Rome the Creed, by the addition of the words, lengthening "and The the Son,^* to pass unchallenged.^ passion o f and Latin the the Greek churches, displayed clergy by the been Ignatius and Photius,makes during quarrels
"

called the

it difficult to ascertain the truth. that

It appears, however,

Pope John VIII. would have restored the Nicene Creed to itsoriginal the clause which form,by expunging

had been added, if he could have secured the concessions he required from the Eastern church and the Byzantine
this is to Certainly pretensions. emperor to his political be implied from the letter addressed to Photius ; but

papal writers have of the infallibility forgery.If


^

since defended

popes, of the letter annexed to the

and consistency that the copy by asserting


the
acts

of the council is
a

either of the churches committed

titheof

880.

This council commenced Its acta are to be found

in November 879,and terminated 13th March in the coUections of Hardouin and Coletti

278
BOOK II.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

with which theycharge one another,we iniquities exercisedyery little influence jjj^g^ allow that Christianity CB^M^i. character during the ninth century. the priestly on the Emperor Leo VI. succeeded his father When in order to make way Photius was again banished, Basil, brother Stephento occupy the patrifor the emperor's archal

the

throne.

Photius

was

exiled to

monastery in

Armenia, a.d. 886, and he died in thisretirement in the


of having behind him the reputation year 891, leaving and learned man been the most accomplished of his time,

and Even
to

one

of the last

scholars enlightened
with

in the East.

respect ; and in his letter his exile, the Pope announcing he spokeof it as a

Leo treated him

which may, perhaps, be accounted resignation, voluntary the resultof a political that it was a proof negotiation. As this distinguished the of most dangerous man one was ambition prior to the time of Luther, opponents of papal his conduct has been made the object of innumerable misrepresentations ; and the writers of the Romish church discuss his conduct in moderate even now can rarely and with equitable language, feelings.^ of dispute The most interesting to the heads of point the Eastern and Western churches in their quaiTels, for
some

time,was

the supremacy

over

the church of the

This was momentous a Bulgarians. political question to the Byzantine its of tical ecclesiasemperors, independent for of Constantinople, to the patriarchs importance papalinfluence was sure to be employedin a manner hostile to the Eastern Empire. Besides this,as the claim of Rome to supremacy over Bulgaria rested on the ancient subjection bishopric of the Danubian provinces to the archof
was

in the times when Thessalonica,

bishopric that arch-

the

the PapalSee, on immediately dependent in Bulgaria would establbhment of papalauthority


It

^ The work of Abb6 Jagermay be cited as a proof"Hiftotrv de PhoHui. is yiolent in its opinions, and inaccurate in its foots.

PINANCUL

ADMINISTBATION.

279

good ground for commencinga strugglea.d. for withdrawing Thessalonica itself from the jurisdiction "^^of the Patriarch of Constantinople, and placing it under the control of the Pope of Rome. The conduct of the in these ecclesiastical emperors of Constantinople tiations negotherefore of and the result sound was policy, it
was

have afforded

marked The

with moderation

and crowned

with
was,

success. on

financial administration of Basil


to his out

the

honourable whole, he gave

government. At his accession,

and a gold, sm^dl quantity of silver coin, in the imperial treasury.^ This served as a pretext for a partial of some resumption

that he found

only300

lb. of

of the lavish

grants of Michael

to

worthless favourites,
With
was

and in this way in hand


measures

Basil collected 30,000 lb. of wants, he

burdens. the public increasing for immediate for

out goldwiththis supply


to

enabled

take

the economy effecting necessary to make of the public the demands the ordinary meet revenues service. His personal of the real sufferings experience of the lower orders, and the prudence imposedby his the whole course doubtful position, him,during prevented of his reign, the taxes ; and the adopfrom augmenting tion of this policy insured to his government the power and popularity which constituted him the founder of the stantinople. the throne of Conthat ever longest occupied dynasty Though his successors were, on the whole, far inferior to his predecessors of the Iconoclast period their moderation,in conforming in ability, still to the financialsystem traced out by Basil, tine gave the Byzanof power it had not previously a degree empire sessed. posThe

government of the Eastern


cautious. Reforms

and systematic

Empire was always effected; were slowly

1 Symeon Mag., 486, says thirteen centenaries of gold and nine sacks of in the Life of have been omitted by a copyist so that the ten may miliaresia, 1 59. Baml by Constantine Porphyrogenitus,

280

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

were vras admitted,greatchanges necessity CHM^i. Generations, however, completed. passed gj^jually away how far the had without men they noticing quitted and entered on new of their fathers, ing leadcustoms paths and institutions. to Tery differenthabits, thoughts, of no one The reign emperor, if we except that of Leo
II.

bnt when

the

the

embraces Isaurian,

revolution in the institutionsof


a

in the state,completed that from

single generation ; hence

it is

loses the interest to be derived history Byzantine individual biography. It steps ing markover centuries,
of of generations mankind than

rather the movement

the acts of individual emperors and statesmen, and it becomes a didactic essay on political progress instead of of man's actions. In the days of the picture living of Athens, the life of each leader embraces the liberty and the mind of a single of many revolutions, history often to guideor modify their course individual seems ; but in the years of Constantinopolitan emperors servitude, borne slowly and people onward by a current are certain that we can trace the of which we are not always or followthe direction. These observations receive origin their best development acts by a review of the legislative reserved to Basil I. of the Basilian dynasty. It was the reorganisation of to complete and his son Leo VL the empirecommenced by Leo III. ; for the promulgation in the of a revised code of the laws of the empire, the accomplishment of an Greek language, idea was the Byzantine administration by the great on impressed and of which his own Iconoclast reformer, Ecloga or manual was the first expression. imperfect reforms of the early The legal Iconoclast emperors the exigencies of the moment, to supply suflficient were and disorder to which in the state of anarchy, ignorance, of the empirewere then reduced by the the provinces and Saracens. ravages of the Sdavonians, Bulgarians,
a

But

when

the

administration of vigorous

the Isaurian

had dynasty

driven back these

and re-established invaders,

BYZANTINE

LEGISLATION.

281

of property, the rapidprogress of ^^^-^ security 867-886. calledfor additional improyements, and for a syssociety tematic reform in the legislation of the empire.Enlarged views concerning which it was the changes necessary to make in the compilations of Justinian were gradually I. and Leo V. (the seem adopted. Nicephorus Armenian) to haye confined theirattentionto practical reforms in the of justice, the forms of prodispensation by improving cedure
in the

order

and

tribunals; but when existing

Bardas

was

chargedwith
Michael laws of the

the judicial the department, during


be

of reign

the necessity of a thorough revisionof the III.,

felt. Bardas [was deeply ambitious of the glory of eflFecting this reform probably throne. The legal the surest step to the imperial as school at Constantinople, which he encouraged, certainly work that the materials for the greatlegislative prepared forms the marked feature in consolidating the power of the Basilian dynasty.^ The legislative views of Basil I. were modelled in conformity the Byzantine to the policy on impressed empire Leo III. all directed to vest by They were legislative

began to empire

power

in the hands of the emperor, and to constitute the the centre of law as much as of person of the sovereign financial and military power.^ The senate had authority

council from time to time legislative and the emperors had often the Iconoclast period, during in order to give invited it to discuss important ordinary extralaws, Such a practice to their sanction. solemnity gested sugand whether 'did the the senate the question people of the emto share in the legislation pire, not still possessa right into a permanent which opportunity mightconstitute in this branch of governcontrolover the imperial authority ment. authoof the The absolutecentralisation legislative continued
to act as a
Continuator. Scrip, post Theoph. 119. Zonaraa,ii.161. Ka\ rovi v6\juovs koI airrhs(Is rh ^arripia ii Toifs TToKiTiKOv? ovrfirjoxu Ifdij ir"7mirfK", "f"oiTStv 'H cHiv iicKeXoarvLas rhs iravrairatriv. eirir^ficis (rx^^v T^ Tovrap yvS(T"(os fuv
*

Koi
'

Bapba tov d(i"ir(Uvos. OTrovd^ fiaBrjfumi


Constant 16M63. J^cut/ttft, Porphyr.

282

BASILIAK

DTNASTT.

BOOK
^'
*"

iL

' '"

lit which point J in the person of the emperor was the only the goTemment of the Byzantine preyented empirefrom when absolute despotism, an beingtheoretically and he ascended the throne, Basil I.

that centralisation. completed Though the senate consisted of persons selected by the and though it acted generally as a subserrient soTereign,
as agent of the executive power, still, men powerful some

of the most

found among its were usually empire council invested it as a legislative members, its position with a degree of political influence that might have
prived Basil dechecked the absolute power of the emperor. in l^islative and it of all participation functions, its duties restricted
to solely

in the

those of

an

administrative

council^

At the

same

time,the privileges formerly possessed

the remains of the by the provincial proprietors, formed municipalities Roman curiae, or of the more recently that had grown up to replace them, were swept away as oflFensive to despotic Cherson had been robbed power. of its free institutions as early of Theothe reign as But the total abolitionof municipal institutions philus.^ edict was rather theoreticalthan by imperial certainly The alterations practical. long series of progressive in society, which had destroyed of the older the efficacy societies and had replaced them by new municipalities, too far corporations havingconfined and local objects, of action of the central administration beneath the sphere to excite any jealousy the part of those deputed on to exercise the imperial lost The bishops now power. their position of defenders of the people, for as they chosen by the sovereign, of the the dignitaries were church were remarkable for their servility to Byzantine

the civil power.


The
as

of the Basilika may be considered promulgation the complete union of all legislative, executive, marking
1

"

LeonU LeonU

Novella Ixxviii. "forpu$ Juris CitUig,


,

xlvi. xlyii. Continuator, 76. NoveUof,

284

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BooKiL

carji.

anarchythat prevailed ruled by the jjjg was ^^jpjjjg centuryin which the empire of the larger Heraclian dynasty, caused the translations and the writings works to be neglected, of commentators, be generally who had published sulted. conpopularabridgments,to The eyilof this state of things feltso strongly was of order throughwhen Leo III. had restoredsome degree out he have already the empire, mentioned, we that, as handbook of the law,called the official an promulgated reform of legislative Ecloga. From that time the subject the attention of the imperial as well occupied government, in the administration as of those professionally engaged of justice ; and it appears certainthat Bardas had made considerableprogress towards the execution of those legislative Basil reforms which were L, and promulgated by that Indeed,it appears probable completed by Leo VL the project conceived as early was as the time of Theowhose personal of the law was philus, knowledge greater than was have who his a successors gained possessed by in history as law reformers. highplace The precise share which the predecessors of Basil a^e entitledto claim in the legislative labours of the Basilian but that be determined with exactitude, cannot dynasty
decline of and knowledge,
the it is not dence is evident from the internal eviinconsiderable, divine Certainly
never

affordedby the works themselves.


to right

rule the state

as

emperor

could

have

dered ren-

the Sclavonian groom, who had qualified for the throne as the boon-companion of Michael the Drunkard,
a

fitperson to directthe progress of

All that legislation.

from him was, that he should learn to expected the importance of the subject, and adoptthe appreciate labours of the jurisconsults who had assistedBardas. It that he envied the popularity seems, therefore, probable the Csesar had gained business, by his attention to legal and understood fully that there was mode of no surer the goodwill of all classesthan by becoming acquiring

could be

THE

PBOCHEIRON,

A.D.

870.

285

Basil, howeyer,though eager to obtain the gloryof publishing a new code, remained
a

himself

law reformer.

a. d.

"^^^-

of legislation, and personally utterly ignorant incapable of guiding the work. A consequence of his eagerness to obtain the desired end, and of his ignorance of what was of the task, is appanecessary to the proper performance rent in the firstlegal work published his by authority, of The called the Procheiron, manual law. or primary this of the Ecloga of to supplant was publication object

efface the memory of the reforms of the Iconoclasts.^ The Procheiron appears to have been promulgated as the year 870, and it bears as early Leo
in order III.,
to

marks The

of

havingbeen
from

hurried into prematurepublicity .^ is executed in


a

first half of the work

completely
the earlier

different manner

the latter part. In

the texts borrowed from the Institutions, Pandects, titles, in of are Justinian, Code, and Novels arranged regular order,and are followed by the modern laws ; but this planis abandoned in the latter titles, well-arranged parently apbeen
in consequence of a sudden determination having The adoptedto hurryforward the publication.

much-abused

of Leo III. was then adopted as the Ecloga with the most availableguide-book, and, in conjunction Institutesand Novels,became the principal sulted. consource The Pandects and the Code were neglected, for their time and study because theyrequired too much

arrangement. the conclusion that This fact suggests

commission of

had been named as revisersof the law,who jurisconsults from the time of Bardas ; and these had been sitting to compile had systematically a manual proceeded lawyers and a new civil code or revision of the law in forty titles,
of Michael IIL, when the the colleague must recollect that Basil was stroyed, deof the Iconoclasts, was of Constantine V., the saint,so to speak, in which the and we this with the violent manner must connect is criticisedin the Procheiron. liCloga ' For this UUtoire du DroU Byzantin/il 29, 30. date,see Mortrcuil,
*

We

tomb

'

286
BOOK n.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

theyhad made harried forward considerable progress, when Basil suddenly chj^i. of the manual in the the prematare publication form it now that the same bears. It is impossible spirit of the work which hare directed the latter portion can dictated the compilation of the earlier. The science of Bardas is visible of Basil in the in the one, the ignorance
books, in sixty
other.
For many
a

of the old law in

which

bis performance as
the
was

years Basil remained satisfiedwith for he was unable to aplegislator, preciate of the his
; but the subject empire attention by the confusion that

wants legal
on

againforced
the
were

in prevailed At

sources

of the

bunals law, to which the tri-

still to refer. compelled

whole

in the year 884, a new code,embracing the length, of the empirein one work, was publegislation lished of the Revision of the Old Law. under the title

The

respectpaid to the laws of Rome


in the minds of the

was

so
new

planted deeplyimever laws,howhave insured


was

that people,

could not they mighthave been, superior the


same

solid basis for their support, which

claimed

the to be regarded as merely by a legislation aspiring of the Roman jurisprudence, legitimate representative clothed in a Greek dress. The code of Basil was nothing formed from the Greek translations of but a compilation

Justinian'slaws, and
schools. legal forward

the commentaries

on

them

which

had received the sanction of the

tribunalsand Byzantine
was

But this revision of the old law


to

ried hur-

of some account on publicity special either accidental or reason, suggested by imperial vanity Basil had announced that the policy.In the Procheirou, revised code about to be promulgated consisted of sixty books, it,the work was divided yet,when he published into forty.This prematureedition was, however, again and more revised by Leo VI. ; and it is the new plete comcode published books, as by that emperor in sixty announced,which we now originally possess under the

THE

BASILIKi,

A.D.

884.

287

title of Basilika, or

laws ; bat no perfect manaimpericU a. d. has been preserved.^ script sej^. The object i n the Basilian too was legislation proposed bare been in before the prenot to long agitation simple cise executed was adopted. on which it was ultimately plan The Basilika is merely in one work, of all the a reunion, of Roman law in vigour at the time,without any sources attempt to condense them into clearer and more precise law or maxim of jurisprudence rules. Everypreceding is arranged under its own in force, head in a actually
series of books and their Some
as we use

distributed so titles,

as

to

facilitate

in the courts of law and commentaries

chambers

of counsel.^

modem possess

have been added to the work


not to

which appear it,

have

formed

part

text. original of the firstedition of the Basilika, After the promulgation Basil published manual, to serve as a second legal introduction to its study. It is called the Epanaan but it appears never to have attainedthe popularity gog^, and the Procheiron.^ of the Ecloga The Basilika remained the law of the Byzantine empire until its conquestby the Franks,and it continued in use
as

of the

the national law of the Greeks and

at

nople, Nicaea, Constanti-

and in the Morea, until theywere Trebizond, The want of a system of conquered by the Ottomans. law

growing up

out

of the socialexigencies of the

people,

and interwoven in its creation with the national institutions, is a serious defect in Greek civilisation.Since the time of the Achaian
a

national

the Greeks league, government, and theyhave


;

have
never

not

possessed a possessed
tutions insti-

national

system of laws
and

hence

their communal received

have municipal rights

only such
even

as the protection
'

church could afford them ; and

the

new

edition of the Bam'lita, in the

us, has been


'
3

state in which ithas imperfect by Heimbach, in five quarto volumes. published lately

reached

Leo's edict at the commencement edition of the Rafiilita. of Heimbach's ColThe Epani^og^ with the Ecloga by Zacharia. has been published lectiolibrorwn Jurii Orceco-Romanum. 1852. Lipsise,

288

BASILIAN

DYNAflrr.

BOOK

II.

^^^^

the sabeerrieDt instnniient of the generallj and Turkish governments. The evU Roman, Bjzantine, of Bavarian law and French censtill exists ^thespirit tralisation pal admirable basis for municihave prevented an
chnrch
was
"

which existed in the communal liberties, from

institutions,

of the in the spirit development legislative receiving who dingto Byzanof Phanariots, nation. The pedantry tine induced the rulers of liberatedGreece to prejudices, to declare the Basilika, of which no perfect copy exists, be the law of the new Greek kingdom.^ Basil found the army in a much better state than the financialadministration ; for,even amidst the disorders had been taken to maintain of Michael's reign, measures

of the troops. Basil had, consequently, discipline which he on onlyto maintain the army on the footing found it, without augmenting the power of the generals armies. of large he intrusted with the command Being without either military or scientific experience personally for Basil can onlybe considered responsible knowledge, direction of the military affairsof his reign the general ; much this he does have in not to and displayed appear while talent. He allowed the Saracens to take Syracuse, he keptthe marines of the imperial navy employedin and the ships the foundations of a new church, digging materials for its marbles and building in transporting construction.^ Basil, indeed,like all his predecessors, than once at the head of his armies in more appeared the East ; for this was a dutywhich no emperor of Constantinople since Leo III. had ventured to neglect. It is probable, however, that his presence was calculated of his generather to restrain than to excite the activity rals, for any who were to be rendered responsible sure of success, and to be deprived of every merit in want

the

^ and law, see the able sketch of On the Bubject of Byzantiue legislation HUtoriaiJurit GrcBco-Romani DelineaLio, and the valuable and learned Zacharia, work of Mortreuil, Hittoirc du Droit Byzantin, 8 toIb.

"

Leo Gramm.

472,

PAULICIAN

WAK.

289

case

which A. D. yictorj ; while any brilliant exploit personal 867-886. the glory of the emperor, might have the eflfect eclipsed of makingthem objects of jealousy. The principal of Basil'sreign was military operation
of the
war

he carried

on

with

the Paulicians. This sect

first made

its appearance in Armenia about the middle of the seventh century, in the reign of Constans II., and

it

that emperor. Constantino IV. and Leo III., all endeayoured Justinian II., (Pogonatus), the heresyas one which threatened the to extirpate
was

persecuted by

of the church ; for unity in religious was unity opinions then regarded the of basis the prosperity of the emas pire, and a portion of its political stantino constitution.^ Connumbers v., after taking Melitene,transported into of Asiatic colonists

Thrace,many

of whom

were

verts con-

to the Paulician doctrines.^ Under

this emperor

they enjoyedtoleration, and made many converts in Pontus,Cappadocia, Phrygia, allowed them all the rights and Pisidia.^ Nicephorus of and they continued to be loyal until citizens, subjects, Michael I. commenced them in the most persecuting barbarous manner. This circumstance, it affords though the orthodox historian Theophanes mately ultigreat delight, the way for the depopulation of Asia prepared
and his immediate
successors

Minor.*
some

These

crueltiescontinued

under Leo

V., until

in rebellion, slew the bishop Paulicians, rising commissioners engaged and the imperial of Neocs8sarea, in torturing of them, and withdrew into the province From this under the protection of the caliph. Melitene, of the

period theyare
Saracen

often found

invasions into the

empire. Under Byzantine

the vanguard of the forming south-eastern provinces of the Michael II. and Theophilus

1 The MontanistB, in the edict of Leo III. (Theophanes,336),are supposed for Paulicians. by Baronius to be Manicheans, which was then often an epithet See page 41 of this Tolume. NottB t" Theophcmem, p. 72, edit. Yen. ' Theophanes, S54 and 860. See pages 59 and 71 of this Yolome.
"

" "

413. Theophanes, Ibid. 419.

VOL.

I.

290
BOOK n.

BAfilLIAK

DYNASTY.

some

^'"'^

and the toleration was restored, d^ree of religious aUowed were Paulicians within the bounds of the empire But their in tranquillity. to hold their religious opinions

the regency of Theodora; recommenced during persecution with which theyw^e treated drove such and the cruelty cabled to found that theywere numbers into rebellion, mentioned.^ as has been already an independent republic, If we believethe friendsof the Paulicians, theywere strict of St Paul,and who reverenced the teaching Christians, and legislator him as their sole guide ; but if proposed credit their enemies, they were Manidieans, who we in their heretical opinions. mergedChristianity founded little The by the Paulicians at republic which the armies of the Emperor against Tephrike, Michael
III. had

contended

thoughit
soon

owed

without any decided success, its foundation to religious opinion,

from the for all frigitives of refuge place the ; and its existence as a state,on Byzantine empire became a frontierof a bigoted and oppressive government, serious to the rulersof Constantinople. Chrysochir, danger became
a

the son-in-law of Karbeas, succeeded his father in the of the armed bands of Tephrike, command and supported the the Byzantine his army by plundering as provinces, selves about the same time maintained themDanes or Normans
in France and England. The by their expeditions number of prisoners taken by the Paulicians was so great that Basil found himself compelled to send an embassy to for the purpose of ransoming his subjects. Tephrike, Petrus Siculus, the ambassador,remained at Tephrike about nine months,but was unable to effect any peaceable arrangementwith Chrysochir.He has,however,left us a valuable account of the Paulician community.^ During
See page 199 of thisTolamfr Petri SicuU Historia Manickasorum Or. and Lat. teu Pamliciaa^arum, Oieeeler. Gotting. 1846. Photii libri vo. contra Mcmiehaoi, published by Ch. Wolf. Aneedota Qrmca mora et prqfana, tains torn. iL Svo, Hambuigi, 1722,conweU as of a refutation of the doctrines attributed to the Paulicians, as those professed by them.
"

292

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

n.

bnt it was

of Tephrike to attempt tbe siege as dangerous


enemy

^'"*^

longas the
rear

conld assemble

an

army

to attack the

of the caliph's in the frontier towns besiegers and Bagdat of Constantinople The empires dominions. time been at war, thoughhostilitieshad for some were Basil now resoWed to capture or carried on. languidly which had afforded aid to the towns the fortified destroy of Melitene, the territory Paulicians. After ravaging he with a division of the sent his general, Christophoros, and Samosata; while he himself army to captureSozepetra and laid waste the countryas far as crossed the Euphrates,

of the

his return, the emperor fought a battle who had succeeded in collectwith the emir of Melitene, ing the Asanias.
an

On

army

to

his dispute
so

progress.
as

The

success

of this

battle was

not

decided
or

to

induce Basil

to

beside

and he returned to Constantinople Tephrike, his general the war. to prosecute In leaving the mean unable to maintain his troops time, Chrysochir, without plunder, but was invaded Cappadocia, overtaken where his movements at Agranes, were by Christophoros circumscribed by the superior of the Byzanskill military tine himself found to general. Chrysochir compelled active enemy retreat, with an watching his march. the Paulician camp, and soon surprised Christophoros sent slain in the battle. His head was was Chrysochir that the Emperor Basil might fulfil to Constantinople, he had made that he would pierce it with three a vow and destroyed. taken not long arrows. was after, Tephrike either Melitene

The

town

of

to which the Paulicians retired Catabatala,


was Tephrike,

after the loss of

in the succeeding captured

and the Paulician troops, unable to continue campaign, their plundering either reti'eated nia into Armeexpeditions, of entering the or dispersed. Many found means and were in southern Italy service, Byzantine employed the African Saracens.^ against
*

Const

** Basa," 192. Porphyr.,

SABACEN

WAR.

293

with the Saracens continued, thoughit was with rigour not prosecuted by either party. In the year The
war

a.d.

^^"^^'

of the fortress 876, the Byzantine possession troops gained of which alarmed the Caliph Lulu, the bulwark of Tarsus, for the of safety his in Cilicia to possessions Almutamid

that he intrusted their defence to his degree, of Egypt.^ In the vassal, Touloun,the viceroy powerful following hopingto extend his year the Emperor Basil, of at the head of the army againappeared conquests, His at Csesarea. Asia,and established his headquarters to drive the Saracens out of Cilicia, but he was object the passes the country beyond onlysucceeded in ravaging
a

such

of Mount and

Taurus up to the suburbs of


to

Adana, Germanicia,

without being able Tarsus,

of these cities.^ After the

of any gainpossession tinople, return to Constanemperor's

the commander-in-chief of the army, Andrew the continued to ravage the Saracen territory, Sclavonian,
and
an destroyed

army

sent

to oppose

him

on

the banks

of the river Podandos.

This defeat was,


routed

soon however,

avenged by the
successor

Mohammedans, who

of

Andrew, with great loss, as he

the Stypiotes, was preparing

Tarsus. In the thirteenth year of his reign besiege Basil again invaded the caliphate, but failedin an (780), attempt to take Germanicia. The war was subsequently allowed to languish, thoughthe Saracens made several both by the Christians, plundering expeditions against
to

Lulu,and some other the passes of Mount Taurus, castlescommanding remained in the possession of the Byzantine troops. The Saracens of Africa had for some time past devastated the shores of every Christian countrybordering on
sea

land and

; but

the fortress of

the Mediterranean, and Ionian Sea licians had


1

the islands of the plundered and the Archipelago as regularly as the PauravagedAsia Minor. Basil was hardly

"

Const Count.

ii.472. 172. WeD, GetchiehU der Chalifen, "Basil,'' Porpbyr., 178. Symeon Mag. 476. Cedrenus, 574. Porphyr.,** Basil,"

294
BOOK
^'
'"

BASILIIK

DYNASTY.

n.

* '"

from the Sdaroembassy his nians of Dalmatia arriyed at Constantinople, to solicit aid against these corsairs. A Saracen fleetof thirtynsix shipshad attacked Dalmatia, in which a few Roman citiesstillexisted, a independence partial maintaining all the who had occupied among the Sclavonian tribes, and country. Sereral towns were taken by Che Saracens^ Ragnsa,a placeof considerable commercial importance, Basil lost no time in sending was closely besieged.^ seated
on

the throne before an

assistanceto the inhabitants. A fleet of


for with all possible : and expedition

hundred

yes*

under the admiral Niketas Oryphas, sels, was


sea

prepared

the Saracens,

of his approach, of abandoned the siege hearing hastily Ragusa,after they had inyested it for fifteenmonths. The expedition of Oryphas re-establishedthe imperial

influence in the maritime districtsof Dalmatia, and obtained from the Sclayoniaos a direct recognition of the

emperor's sovereignty. They retained then: own


to

ment, governand elected their magistrates theirsubmission and ;

Byzantine empirewas purchased by their being to receivea regular tribute from severalRoman permitted
cities, which,in considerationof this payment,
to
were

the

lowed al-

the mainland without the on occupy districts Sclavonians exercising over neighbouring any jurisdiction such property. The Roman the Dalmatian coast had on inhabitants in the islands
to their allegiance preserved

the Eastern emperors, and maintained themselves independent of the Sclavonians, who had conquered onised and col-

They received their governors Wid from the central authority judges at Constantinople.^ As eariy as the year 842, two rival princes^ of Lombard
" 1 79. The towns taken by the Saracens were Basil," BouPorphyr., Rosa, and the lower Dekateras.-- Const Porphyr. DeAdm, 80. Imp.efaap^ Const Porphyr. De Adm, Imp, chap. xxx. The tribute p. U6, edit Bona. cities to the Sclavonians was by the Roman follows r"Aspalathus as paid 200 nomismata (Spalatro), or gold byzants ; Tetrangurium(Trau), Opsara, Arbe, Bekla, each 100; Jadera (nearZara), HO: and Raffosa, for its mnd

the mainland.

Ck"n8t

tuma
"

72. district,

SABJlCENS

IN

ITALT.

295

race, who

of the dach j the possession diiqmted

of Beneyen-

a. d.

from the Saracens ; and the Infi- ^^^sas. assistance tam" solicited indifferent to the claims of either, bat eager for plundels, der, in the of Saracei"i took A body readily part quarrel.

from
one

bad arriyed for the purpose of of the Christian claimants, resolyed to secure
on Italj

who Sicilj,

assisting
a

firm

establishment in

their own

account.

To effect this

"ey
own

stormed

it belonged the cit to their j of Bari,though At Bari they formed a camp for the purpose of ally.

and made it their station for plundering rayaging Italy, the possessions of the Frank and Byzantine on empires

the

coast of the

Adriatia

In 846, other bands of Sicilian of the Tiber, and

Saracens landed

at the mouth

plundered

the churches of St Peter and St

Paul,both then without

the walls of Rome.


was

Indeed,the "mistress of the world"

into the hands of the Mohammedans onlysayed from falling by the troops of the Emperor Louis II. the suburb after, Pope Leo IV. fortified (850.) Shortly the church of St Peter of the Vatican, and thus placed in security in the new quarter of the town called the the rayages of the SaFrom this period Leonine city.^ racens and the proprietors who in Italy were incessant, to build fortified dwelt in the countrywere compelled and towers, strongenoughto resist any sudden attacks, 80 high as to be beyondthe reach of firekindled at their curity base. The manners formed by this state of social inseof Italy with dark stains coloured the history for seyeral centuries. In the year 867, the Emperor Louis II. exerted himself to restrain the rayages of the Saracens. He laid siege to Bari,and sent ambassadors
to

the co-operation of a Byzanto solicit tine Constantinople fleet. The fleet of Oryphas, strengthened by the

nayal forces of the Dalmatian cities, was the


^

ordered
; but
Euai

to assist

of operations
S52.

the Western

emperor
847.

the
lea

pride
Mamrs,

A.1I.

a.d. Annalei de VEmpire, Voltaire,

tier

zzTiii. chap.

296
BOOK XL

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

sensitive than usnal)^ Constantinople (more who tijQconclusion of a treaty with a sovereign ch^m^l p^gyguijgj of the court of
ruary In Febclaimed to be treated as emperor of the WesL^ and of Bari by assault, 8 71 Louis carried the city The Franks and Greeks to the sword. put the garrison
9

the disputed
to turn

honour of the

and each attempted conquest,

it to their own in
a

so profit, desultory manner,

that the without

war

was

tinued con-

obtaining any
in

decided results. And


turn

the cultivatorsof the soilwere Lombard

the Saracen corsairs, princes, and the German and Byzantine emperors. The Saracens again attacked Rome, and compelled PopeJohn VIIL to pay an their retreat by engaging to purchase

plundered by the

annual tribute of 25,000 marks of silver. The south of of political confusion. The Dukes of a scene was Italy

the Saracens in plunAmalfi,and Salerno joined dering Naples, the Roman but John VIII.,placing territory; Pope both himself at the head of the Roman troops, fought
with Christians and off the heads of his
to the
as

Mohammedans,
of the church.

won

and battles,

cut

without prisoners, The

the

canons

ence referslightest of Naples, bishop his own

bold

warrior

as

the

dethroned Pope,

brother,

and

put out his eyes, on the pretext that he had allied

himself with the Infidels had pos; yet,when the bishop sessed himself of his brother'sdukedom, he also keptup
communications with the

Saracens,and
to turn

aided

them

in

the territory of Rome. plundering


induced the Italians affairs

This lawless state of for


to security

the

selves Byzantine empire. The troopsof Basil rendered themand the extent masters of Bari without difficulty, of the Byzantine in southern Italy was greatly province
The and The naval force of the SoIayonianB in the Adriatic was not inconsiderable. Chrovatians alone had eighty (sagenas), carryingeach fortymen, galleys hundred konduras or boats, one carrying twenty,besides merchant-ships. which we know, Though a commercial people, they then abstained from piracy, from Venetian history, addicted to all the Sclavonians in the Adriatic were at a later period. Constant Porphyr. De Adm. Imp, chap. 30, p. 160, edit.
"

Bonn.

WAR

IN

ITALY

AND

SICILY.

297

extended

in which Nicephorus by a seriesof campaigns, of the emperor of the same Phokas,grandfather name, and able himself by his prudentconduct distinguished from all tactics.^ The Saracens were at last expelled their possessions in Calabria. The Byzantine goyemformed its possessions called the ment into a proriuce Theme of Longobardia, but this province was constantly liable to rary in its extent ; and thoughGaeta, Naples, and Amalfi acknowledged to the Sorrento, allegiance often very his authority was Emperor of Constantinople, little in these cities. respected While Basil was successful in extending his power in the Saracens revengedthemselves in Sicily Italy, by the which fellinto their hands in 878, conquestof Syracuse, and placed them in possession of the whole island. The the land side by the Saracens on city, thoughbesieged established in Sicily, and blockaded by a fleet from made a gallant and mighthave been reAfrica, lieved defence, had the emperor shown more or intrusted activity, the force prepared The for itsreliefto a competentofficer. he sent,thoughit was until nothing expedition delayed could be effectedwithout rapidmovements, wasted two months
news

in the

where it received the port of M onemvasia,

of the fallof

in Sicily was city and on account of itscommercial importance; empire, to it was reported that the news of so great a calamity the Christian world of Greece
was

Syracuse.The loss of the last Greek of the Byzanfeltby the people tine deeply

firstmade

known

tants to the inhabimet

of demons,who by an assembly

in the

at forestof Helos,on the banks of the Eurotas,to rejoice witnessed by a Lacothe event, where their revels were

nian
I

Basil, however, seems shepherd.^

to

have treated

cites the campaign tactics, Emperor Leo VI^ in his work on military of able genetook he as an in which example Tarsus, Phokas, Nicephorus U PhUo$ophe, traduites 7nf"iV"HoiM MilUaires de VEmperewr Leon ralship." iL 75. tom. M. de Muaeroy, p. Joly par. The of
*

Constant

191. Porphyr.," Basil/'

ii 685. CJedrenns,

298

BA8ILIAN

DTNASTT.

BOOK

iL

^"'"*^'

than the ruin of a Greek dt j as a matter of lessimportaiioe did Satan. The daring with which the Saraeens carried
on

theirnaval
a

orer expeditions

the Mediterranean

at

this

is period

remarkable feature in the state of


on

society.
more

The attacks of the Danes and Normans

the coasts of
nor

Englandand
terriUe.

France

were

not

more

constant

in order Some of these expeditions deserve to be noticed, and the dis* to point out the greatdestmction of capital, of society caused. organisation they with For
some

years they

threatened the maritime districts of the Eastern


as

Empire
the year

of insecurity that from which as great a degree

had society

been delivered
the

by
a

Leo

III.

In

with 881, the emir of Tarsus,

fleetof

large ships, thirty

laid siege to Chalcis, on


of general
to storm

the theme

of

the ; but Oiniates, Euripus Hellas,havingassembled the


was

the emir troopsin his province,


the and the place,

killedin

an

attempt
pletely com-

Saracen

was expedition

the Saracens of after this, Shortly Crete ravaged the islands of the Archipelago with a fleet of twenty-seven and a number of smaller ves* large ships sels.^ Entering the Hellespont, the island plundered they of Proconnesus ; but theywere feated at lastovertaken and deunder Oryphas. Undismayed fleet by the imperial and recommenced by their losses, theysoon fittedout a new fleet, their ravages, hopingto avoid the Byzantine admiral by doubling the and plundering Cape Tsenarus, western shores of Greece. Niketas Oryphas, on visiting the port of Kenchrees, found that the corsairs were already ofi^ the entrance of the Adriatic. He promptly cruising ordered all his galleys to be transported the isthmus over of Corinth by the ancient tram-road,which had been
often used for the
same

defeated.^

purpose
a

in earliertimes,and

which

was

still keptin such


"

state of

that allhis repair

Constant Porphyr., BasU," 184. I * Constant


"

ii.680. CcdrenuB,

185. Porphyr., Basil,"

300

BASILIAK

DYNASTY.

BOOK ^^^^

n.

by the disorders introdaced into the goyemment by His endeavours to lighten of Michael III. the neglect without decreasing the burden of taxation, the public then a rare merit But the eulogies which was revenues, his grandson and other flatterers have heaped on his virtues deserve but littlecredit. The court private than in the maintained more outward decency certainly but there are many proofs that time of his predecessor, external. Thekla,the sister the reformation was merely of the Emperor Michael III., who had received the from her father Theophilus, had been crown imperial
for
with the the concubine of Basil, After Basil assassinated the
consent

of her brother.

he neglected and brother,

but she consoled herself with feared the sister, probably other lovers. It happened that on occasion a some in the household of Thekla waited on person employed the emperor, who, with the rude facetiousness he inherited " from the stable-yard, asked the domestic, Who

lives with your

mistress at

1 present

"

The

individual

was named, for shame was (Neatokomites) immediately in such society. out of the question of But the jealousy Basil was roused by this open installation of a successor in the favours of one who had once a place on occupied and he ordered Neatokomites the throne he had usurped, and immured for lifein a monasto be seized, tery. scourged, It is said that he was base enough to order

Thekla

to be

and ill-treated,

to

confiscate greatpart of

fortune.^ The Empress Eudocia private Ingerina herselfon the throne in a Thekla,by conducting avenged in the mistress of Michael the manner more pardonable
for he had a riralof Basil, his guard againstthe conspiracy by which he lost his life." Leo Gramm. Thekla has been 244, edit Bonn. called the sister of Basil and the concubine of Michael III. Gibbon usaally has adopted this view, for he says, ** Basil was raised and supportedby a diaand the dishonour of his graoeful marriage with a royalconcubine,(Eudocia,) who succeeded to her place."" (Thekla,) sister, Vol. ix. p. 6 1 Lebeau, ziii 284, is more detailed. Geoi^. Men. 545, in recounting the decided, and more
same
"

her

This

Joannes

Neatokomites

had of old been


on

attempted

to

put the CsBsar Bardas

THB

WIDOW

DANIBLIS.

301

Drankard
were

than in the wife of Basil.

When

her

amours

a. d.

the emperor prudently avoided scandal, discovered,


into lover to retire privately
a monas-

^^'^

her by compelling

tery^
The Basil Patra" in the private of episode interesting history is the friendship of Danielis, the Greek lady of
most

As
was

she had laid the foundation

of his wealth

while he
that he she

onlya
was

servant

of

we Theophilitzes, may

believe that she


was

seated of

on

eager to see him when she heard the imperial throne. But though the firstto the perceive ever, howBasil,

might boast

been having
must

merits of be

she Basil,

have doubted whether she would


court.

as a welcome visitor at regarded not ungrateful to those who was

had assisted him in and of his benefactor,

his

and he poverty,

sent

for the

son

raised him

to the rank of
an

also received
see

The widow protospatharios. and invitation to visit Constantinople,


"

seated on the throne which,it was son adopted she had longbelieved he was destined by heaven to said, fill been reported that,when Basil first ; for it had entered
was

her

the cathedral of St Andrew


a

at

Patras,a monk

seized with
was

he

destined

that and proclaimed vision, prophetic This prophecy to become emperor. The invitation must

Danielis had

heard and believed.

have afforded her the

of as a proof gratification, highest who her own discernment in selecting one possessed and affection and gratitude, well talents as as great divine favour. the possessor of a The old lady was and her wealth indicates that the state fortune, princely of society in the Peloponnesus not very dissimilar was

ctlls Thekla the sister of the emperor, and from this it is anecdote,oertainly Basil ; but a inferred she must haye been the sister of the reigningemperor tion comparison of Leo Gramm. p. 242, edit Bonn., and p. 256 (the Latin translacalls her the sister of Michael,without this being said in the Greek text, where a word has fidlen out),and especially Symeon Mag. 446, and Geoig; Mon. 5S6,prove that she was the sisterof Michael III. ; and though she had her of the titleof to deprive been compelled to adopt the monastic drees, was Empress,by her brother, by him bestowed on Basil.

302
BOOK II.

BASILIAN

BTNABTT.

in the ninth

^'"*''

centuryfrom what it had been in the first oenturiesof our era, under the Roman govemment, when
Caius Antonius

of whole were Eurjkles proprietors richesthat an and Herodes Atticus possessed provinces, emperor mighthave envied.^ The ladyDanielis set off from Patras in a litteror and covered couch,carried on the shoulders of ten slaves; and the train which followed her, destined to rdieve
these When

amounted litter-bearera,
she reached

to

three hundred

she was Constantinople, for of Magnaura appropriated apartmentsof the palace she of princely the reception guests. The rich presents had prepared for the emperor astonished the inhabitants of the capital, monarch had ever offered for no foreign The slaves of equal value to a Byzantine gifts sovereign. that bore the gifts themselves a part of the present, were and were all distinguished for their youth, and beauty, dred Four hundred young men, one hunaccomplishments.

persons. in the lodged

eunuchs,and

one

hundred

maidens, formed

the

of this magnificent A hundred living portion offering. of the richestcoloured drapery, hundred pieces one pieces of soft woollen cloth, two hundred pieces of linen, and hundred of cambric, could be one so fine that each piece enclosed in the joint of a reed. To all this a service of added.^ and plates of goldand silverwas cups, dishes, When Danielis reached Constantinople, she found that the emperor had constracted a magnificent church as an for the murder of his benefactor, Michael III. expiation She sent orders to the Peloponnesus to manufacture of unusual size, in order to cover the whole floor, carpets that theymight protectthe rich mosaic pavement, in

which
1
'

with outspread tail astonished every peacock

one

Cheeoe wtder the Jioman$,68.


The

who knew Bomethingabout Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the matter, says that the old ladyluiew that eunuohs are collected a^ut the court like blue-bottle fliesround a sheep-fokL P. 1 95. A curious disMrtation might be written as a commentary on the presents.
"

WBALTH

OF

DiJOSLIS.

803
tk
ftfU!

who

beheld it by the

extreme

of its colouring,a. brilliaDcy


DAT

she settled a Constantinople, quitted of her estates in Greece on her considerable portion and on her adoptedchild the son, the protospatharios, property. emperor, in joint she againvisitedConstantinople; After Basil'sdeath, her
the capital quitting for the last time, she desired that the protospathar ZenobioB might be despatched for the to the Peloponnesus, of her extensive estates a register purpose of preparing and immense property. She died shortly after her return the imperial officers amazed at the were ; and even of her wealth. The quantity of gold coin, amount gold and silverplate, rich works of art in bronze, furniture,

Before the widow

also dead, Emperer Leo VI. her sole heir.


own son was

so

she

constituted the

On

stuffs in linen, cattle and slaves, cotton,wool, and silk, palacesand farms,formed an inheritance that enriched
even

of which The slaves, emperor of Constantinople. the Emperor Leo became the proprietor, were so rous numean

that he ordered three thousand and


sent to

to be

enfranchised

the theme of

then called, where which they cultivated many

as Longobardia, Apuliawas of land, theywere put in possession


as

serfs.

After the

payment of

and the division of a part of the landed legacies, of the testament, to the dispositions according property, farms or villages. the emperor remained possessorof eighty The notice of this inheritancefurnishesa curious glimpse in Greece during into the condition of society the latter which is the period when the part of the ninth century, Greek race beganto recover and a numerical superiority, ascendancy prepare for the consolidationof its political in the Peloponnesus. the Sclavonian colonists Unfortunately, over facts us with no contemporary history supplies that point of the diminution of the out the precise causes crease relativenumbers of the Sclavonians, and the rapidinin the absolute numbers of the Greek agricultural

304
BOOK II.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

of explanations the prolaws which regulate factsin the general chj^. ^Yxqqg gress and the decline of society. of population The stepsby which Basil mounted the throne were and military adventurers, never by the political forgotten who considered the empirea fit reward for a successful of greatwealth, John Kurkuas,a patrician conspirator. to seizethe crown who commanded the Ikanates, expected of the leading and engaged men as a lawful prize, sixty-six in his design. in the public administrationto participate revealed to Basil by some of the conspirators, The plot was could gainmore by a second treachery who perceived they than by persisting Kurkuas was in their first treason. and his eyes were put out : the other conspimtors seized, in the hippodrome; theirheads were shaved, were scourged their beards burned off, and after being paradedthrough the capital and theirestates confiscated. theywere exiled, The clemency these paternal of Basil in inflicting ments, punishthe penalties instead of exacting imposedby the law of treason, islauded by bis interested historians. The fate of Kurkuas,however,onlyclaims our notice, because he was the father of John Kurkuas, a general whom the writers consider as a hero worthy to be compared Byzantine with Trajanand Belisarius. Kurkuas was also the great-grandfather of the Emperor John Zimiskes, of the ablest soldierswho ever occupied the throne one of Constantinople.^ that ruled Though Basil founded the longest dynasty the Byzantine the race proceeded from a corrupt empire, We population.
are

left to seek for

source. was

the Constantino,

son

of Basil'sfirst wife, Maria,

with much regarded received the imperial crown

afiection by his father, and in the year 868, but died

about the year 879. The loss was felt by the severely an eager desire to be assured that emperor, who expressed
*
" Const. Popphyr., BasU," 172.

Symoon Mag. 460.

ACCUSATION

OP

LEO.

305

eternal felicity. The abbot A.D. eDJojed 868-886. Theodoros Santabaren took advantage of this paternal solicitude to imposeon the emperor's and superstition A phantom, which bore the likenessof Concredulity.
met Btantine,

his farourite child

and hunting, towards him, until it approached that so near galloped Basil could perceive of his son'sface. the happy expression It then faded from his sight; but the radiant aspectof
was son was

the emperor

while he

the vision satisfied the father that his deceased received


to grace.

believed generally to be the son of Michael the Drunkard ; and though Basil had conferred on him the imperial in his crown him he seems to have regarded never infancy (a.d. 870), with feelings of aflfection.It would seem he entertained the common the parentage of Leo. concerning opinion The latter years of Basil were clouded with suspicion of his heir,who he feared might avenge the murder of Michael, even at the risk of becoming a parricide. Whether truly Leo was accused of plotting or not, young Basil's lifebefore he was sixteen years of age.^ against of a dagger The accusation was founded on the discovery concealed in the boot of the young
in attendance
on

Leo, the eldestchild of Eudocia, was

while prince,

he

was

his father at

when hunting-party,

demanded Byzantine etiquette The


historians who
wrote

that he should be unarmed.

Constantine
Theodoros

the eye of Leo*s son, Porphyrogenitus, pretendthat the abbot


under

Santabaren armed
a

persuadedLeo

to

conceal the

weapon
bis
son

for his own


was

and then informed Basil that defence,


to

underwent charge young emperor


*

attempt his assassination. The full examination, duringwhich the


the of the imperial insignia

was

of deprived

468 ; Zonaras,il 166, indicate that Leo 541 ; Leo Gramm. Mon., at considered the son of Michael XXL Symeon Mag. 455. Geoi:g. speakof Alexander as the Par.), page 544, and I^eo Gramm., at page 471 (edit. child of Basil in opposition to Leo. Lioo was crowned 6th January legitimate 870." Krug. 89.

Georg.Mon.

was

"

VOL.

I.

306

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

rank
his

but the resultof the

for,in inuocence, Basil's mind, he was restored to hisrank


The

must have prored inrestigation of the suspicions rooted in spite


as

displayed by cruelty

Basil in his latter

heir-apparent.^ days

and indicates loosens the tonguesof his servile historians, laid aside the vices of his earlier that he never entirely years. While
in hunting, to engaged

which he

was

sionately pas-

been brought to bay devoted, a stag that had its antlers into his girdle, rushed at him, and, striking
him from his horse. One of the attendants drew dragged his hunting-knife, the girdle, saved the emperor's and, cutting but the suspicious life; an attempt despot, fearing
at

ordered his faithfulservant assassination,

to

be immediately

The shock he received from the decapitated. which terminated his eventful a on fever, stag brought and he ended his reign, he had commenced it, life, as cious by the murder of a benefactor. Though he was a judiable he has and been undulypraised, sovereign,
because he

orthodox emperors of in the opinion of the Latin as well as of Constantinople the Greek church.^
was one

of the most

SECT.

IL"LEO

VL

(THE Leo
war"

PHILOSOPHER),
VI.
"

A.D.

686-811.

Charaotxr
Lboislatiok
war.

and
"

court

of

Ecclesiastical
ov

admiicistratioh
"

"

Saracen

Takino

Thsssalonioa

Buloabian

Leo the that he


was

Philosopher gave
the
son

countenance

to the

rumour

of Michael III.

acts of his reign.He

ordered the

by one of the first body of the murdered


it had

emperor

to be

where from Chrysopolis, transported

* of Thessalonica still The people show a tower, in which they say Leo was confined duringthe time he was of the imperial title. I oould not depriyed succeed in obtaining to visitit permission Perhapssome Byzantine tion inscripin the walls has caused the tradition. A priyate who has tnveller, English neither wealth nor title, does not meet with the same fiunliUes in literary searches re-

as *

foreigner.

Basil's determinatioa to keep on good terms with the Pope,his seal in and his eagerness to baptise friends churches, building Jews, made him powerftil in his own have been reflected in modem age, whose opinions history ; but

S08
BOOK
iL

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

^'"*''

influcharacter, however,exercised even greater personal than that the public administration of the empire on ence of his predecessors, for the government was so comnow that the court, rather than the cabinet, pletelj despotic directed the business of the
state.

Hence

it was

that the

empiremet
its force was

with

when disasters at a period disgraceful all its subjects. sufficient to have protected constitution
an

The last traces of the Roman and the trammels of


and
were lawyers,

were

now

pressed, sup-

inviolablecourt

nial, ceremo-

the invariable routine of administrators and

of of the institutions preserved earlier and granderperiod.The extinctionof the an Roman and complete consolidationof Byzantine empire, is recorded in the edictsof Leo, suppressing the despotism, old municipal and abolishing The senatus-consulta.^ system, of legislation the acts of became as despotic as language the emperor were arbitrary. Two Patriarchs, Photius and allthat
was

Nikolaos,were
church
on

by
a

the government of the the emperor's tery order. Leo lived in open adulremoved from

throne from

which Constantino VI. had


a

been his

driven for

on venturing was

second

marriagewhile

divorced wife

Yet Zoe, the living.


to

fourth wife of

Leo VI., gave birth

the future emperor, Constantino in the purple chamber of the imperial Porphyrogenitus, had been

before the marriage palace, ceremony


A

performed.2

Samonas, was for years the prime favouriteof the infatuated Leo, who raised him to
the rank of
to

Saracen

named renegade,

his

son

and allowed him to stand god-father patrician, Constantine, tained thoughgreat doubts were enter-

of the Christianity, of or perhaps orthodoxy, this disreputable favourite.^The expenditure perial of the imhousehold was greatly increased ; the revenue viously predestined to the serviceof the empire diverted was
^ " t

of the

LeonU NoteUcB, Const, xlvi Ixxviu. " Contiii.Const Poiphyr., Leo," 228. 281. 468. Continiuitor, Symeon libg.

COTJKT

AND

ADMINISTRATION.

809

introwas a. d. corruption duced into every branch of the administration by the ex"^]^who raised money by selling ampleof the emperor, places. The Emperor Basil, had been con* like his predecessors, with a single bank of oars, tented to make use of a galley, in his visits to the country round Constantinople ; but
to

the

of the gratification

court,and

Leo
two

never

condescended
oars, rowed

to

move

unless in

dromon
"

of

and two by two hundred men of these vessels were maintained as imperial constantly recounts an anecdote yachts.^Constantine Porphyrogenitus the corruption at his father's court, which concerning deserves particular rity, the best authonotice, as on proving, that the emperor encouraged the system by sharing in its profits. in holyorders,and Ktenas,a rich man anxious the best public of the time,was extremely singer He rank at the imperial to possess acknowledged court. secured the support of Samonas, the Saracen grand-chamberlain, and hoped to obtain the rank of protospatharios, to make the emperor a presentof forty pounds' by offering the pay of the office amountingonlyto weightof gold, a pound of goldannually.The Emperor Leo refused, transaction his son tellsus, that it was a as declaring, and that it was a thing of the imperial dignity, unworthy The old nuheard of to appoint a clerk protospatharios. of Samonas, increased his however, by the means man, a offers, addingto his first proposal pair of earrings, worth ten poundsof gold, and a richly-chased table of tion silver gilt, also worth ten pounds of gold. This addieffect on Leo's mind, that,according so greatan produced the imperial he disgraced to his own declaration, of the clergy for he made a member a protospatharios. dignity, Constantine then chuckles at his father'sgood of gold, fortune ; for after receiving weight pounds' sixty lived to draw two years' the new protospatharios pay.^ only
1

banks of

De Adm, Imp, chap. 51. Const. Porphyr. Ibid. chap. 50, page 232, edit. Bonn.

310

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

iL

The Leo

contrast between the administration of strongest


was

^"'""'

and Basil

of the Tisible in the financialaffairs

empire. Though the

directtaxes

were

not

the increased,

carelessconduct of Leo, and his

to maintain the neglect exercisedby his father, control over the tax-gatherers strict of abuse to creep into this branch allowed every species to the severest of government, and the people were subject also created in favour of were Monopolies oppression.^

the creatures

of the court, which and one of these complaints^ in empire


a

of great involved the ultimately


were

the

cause

Bulgarians. The state of the church in the Byzantine was empire affordedthe only affairs as ecclesiastical always important, for the expression of public siderable opinion.A conopportunity connected was more closely body of the clergy than with the and interests, with the people, by feelings At this time, however, all classes enjoyeda court. of sensual abundance that rendered society torpid, degree
most
war

disastrous

with the

and The

few

were

inclined

to

take part in violent contests.

of the Byzantine of the subjects majority empire, aversion to the conduct of the feltgreater never perhaps,
matters government,both in civiland ecclesiastical
we

and

may

attribute the

paradeLeo

made

of his divine

right

to the fact that to govern both the state and the church, of the popular class he was fully aware feeling ; but no

their condition, of bettering probability either by revolutionor change, that a bad government so beganto be looked upon as one of the unavoidable evils of
men saw

any

^ Constantine mentioDs the case of an illiterate man being Porphjrogenitus to prepare the a lawyer being joinedwith him asdeputy judge"achniral, appointed in a deciBions. The administration of the kingdom of Greece was organised of Great similar manner protection by Count Armansperg, under the especial a calumniated for following Britain ; and King Otho has since been liberally of bad system,which he has been weak enough to persistin. A good picture

in a civilisedage, even in a country where the freedom the abuses of authority is given by Sir Walter Scott." TAc Chronidet ofthe Catumof the press existed, " The Surgeon's ante Daughter," chap.21. Emigrants are said to fiireoften in the present day. Tet too much littlebetter at Liverpool power ought not its own to be conferred on any central government, for if society cannot cure evils, they will continue to exist.
"

ECCLESIASTICAL

ADMINI8TBATI0N.

311
ad.

of

and as one of the inadyanced state of ciyilisation, evitablecalamitieswhich Heayen itself had interwoyen in
an

^^"^^^'

man's existence.

the Patriarch Photius Emperor Leo VI. deposed wiUiout pretending motiye for the change. any religious The object his brother to confer the dignity on was Stephen,who was then only eighteen years of age. The Photius retired into
a

monastery, where, as

has been

he was treated with respectby Leo, mentioned, already who pretended act. that his resignation was a yoluntary Photius survived his deposition about five years, more and probably than when universally happier, respected, he sat on the patriarchal throne,thoughhe had been Leo displayed excommunicated by nine popes of Rome. the abbot in his eagerness to punish a mean spirit Theodores Santabaren, he regarded whom as the author his father's of his degradation and imprisonment during to procure evidence to convict the abbot reign.Failing and exiled of any crime, he ordered him to be scourged His eyes were to Athens. subsequently put out by the placable, not imorder. But Leo, though was a tyrant, emperor's
and
some

years later Theodores

was

recalled to

and received a pension. Constantinople, in religion of ceremonial feelings The predominance acts is shown in a remarkable manner by the legislative of the Byzantine to the observance relating government, of Constantino As early the reign of the Sabbath. as pension the Great,a.d. 321, there is a law commandingthe susment business on Sunday ; and this enactof allcivil is enforced by a law of Theodosius I. in 386.^ society image-worship, During the contests concerning and great attention strictin allreligious observances, was sopher, was paidto Sunday. In the year 960, Leo the Philoof piety, the practice who was far from affecting of ecclesiastical observances, while he made a parade even
^

viii.18, Dd JFWiit. tit. Cod. Theod. ii.

312
BOOK
II.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

revoked all the

CH.LiS.

which the law had hitherto exemptions made in fayour of the performance of useful labour on and forbade even necessary agricultural work,as Sunday, with Lord's the the bigotry dishonouring day. Arguing that the arbitrary of the predestinarian, will of God, and not the fixed laws which he has reyealed to man, gives abundant harvests to the earth, the emperor regards the of the agriculturist avail. Fate became as of no diligence the refuge of the human mind when the government of Rome had rendered the improvement of pagan society the assumed its place among hopeless; superstition and the stagnation in the Byzantine Christians, empire that in the conduct of their men no persuaded prudence affairs could better man's condition. Ecclesiastical ing affairsgave Leo very little trouble durhis reign, but towards its end he was involved in a with dispute
emperor,
not

the Patriarch Nikolaos the

mystic.After

the death of Leo's third


to wishing

the wife,without male issue,

violate openly the laws of the

Eastern church,enforced by his own which legislation, forbade fourth marriages, installed the beautiful Zoe
of the historianTheophanes, a grand-niece Carbonopsina, Zoe gave birth to a son as his concubine in the palace.^ in the purple chamber,who was the celebrated emperor and

The Constantine VI L (Porphyrogenitus). author,

in the Church of St Sophia was baptised by young prince the Patriarch Nikolaos, but that severe ecclesiastic only consented to officiate the at the ceremony on receiving

with that he would not live any longer emperor's promise his concubine. Three days after the baptism stantine, of Conwith the Emperor Leo celebrated his marriage thus keepZoe, and conferred on her the imperial title, ing But his promise to the Patriarch in one sense. with in a at havingbeen paltered Nikolaos,indignant
'

self fourth marriages.Mortrewl, li 280 ; and Leo himBasil had prohibited had subjected Const, xc. third marriagee to eccleeiasticAl censure.
" "

LEO*S double
to Leo.
80

POUETH

MARRIAGE,

A.D.

906.

313
a.d.

sense,

the who performed degradedthe priest


and interdictedthe

nuptial ceremony,
The

entryof the church


necessary to pay attend the church

^^|^

emperor

onlythoughtit
to

much respect to the interdictas

ceremonies

by

door; private

and

the

little about the

when quarrel, laughed wit. Leo, howeyer, so much philosopher showing took measures and when to gain the Pope'sgoodwill, assured of papalsupport, he deposedNikolaos and appointed the syncellus his successor. The new Euthymios Mount Patriarch, on though he had been a monk the validity of the emperor's fourth recognised Olympus, the pretextthat the public on marriage, good required of the the ecclesiastical laws to yield to the exigencies their Patriarch, The populace, believed state. to excuse
a

people, caring perial theysaw the im-

report that the emperor

in had threatened,

case

the

Patriarch refused to with Zoe, to four wives at the

the validity of his marriage recognise to marry a law allowing publish every man
same

time.

This

rumour,

standing notwith-

its absurdity, affordsstrong of the absolute proof with which power of the emperor, and of the credulity the Greeks received every rumour unfavourable to their

rulers.^ The he labours of legislative Leo's


are reign more

ing deserv-

of attentionthan his ecclesiastical skirmishes, though followed in the traces of his father, and made use only of materials already have We to his hand. prepared noticed that he published a revised edition of already the Basilika, to which he added a considerable amount of supplementary law, however, legislation. Byzantine
even

after it had received all the

and

Leo, was

illsuited to

serve

of the empire. The population of imperial not a work pride,

of Basil improvements to the as a practical guide Basilika is an inspiration whose detailsfollow the

Hon. 559. Geoif^.

314

BASILIAN

DYNAfiTT.

BOOK

iL

^'"**'

with Whole titles of public are filled utility. suggestions useless in the altered translations of imperial edicts, of the consequences circumstances of the empire ; and one old code was, of the ill-deyised of adopting an measure that no perfect copy of the Basilika has been preserred. lost. and haye been entirely Many books fellinto neglect, of the Byzantine The soYcreigns exceptwhile it empire, felt that their power rested ruled by the Iconoclasts, was
on own

the fabric of the Roman

not administration,

on

their

strength.
The collectionof the edicts or "novels" of

Leo, inserted in the editions of the Corpus has rendered Juris Civilis,
known than his generally These edicts revised edition of the Byzantine code. of for the purpose of modifying were portions published in the Basilika. The greater the law, as promulgated number addressed to Stylianos, who is supposed to are

the

of Leo legislation

more

have been the father of Zoe, Leo's second wife,and it is between the years 887 thoughtthey were published
and

893, while Stylianos was

master

of the officesand

logothetes.^ The military of Leo's reign events marked by were but the strength several disgraceful of the empire defeats; affectedby the lossessustained, not seriously was though the peopleoften suffered the severest misery. The Asiatic frontier was defended with success. generally himself in Phokas, who had distinguished Nicephorus the reign of Basil, additionalglory during Italy acquired of the Thrakesian theme. The as general by his activity
continued Saracens, nevertheless, into the
to make

destructive inroads

found impossible to watch as itwas empire, where thoycould assemble an army. In the every point taken, year 887, the town of Hysela in Charsiana was
^ 50. As a proof of the mental movement Zftcharia, Delineatio, throngfaout of Alfred is contemporaiy with Europe, it may be observed that the legislation that of Leo VI. Christian society moved by some was impulseswhich operated both in England and Constantinople.

816
BOOK n.

BASILIAN

DTNISTY.

pursued by the
on

CH.I.IS.

thousands

and the miseries inflicted Saracen fleets, of Christian families in the Bjzantine

Fotdeserre a record in the page of history. empire, what really in describing do not require, we tunately what the imagination to indulge happened, by painting for time has spared the narratiye of occurred, probably
one

of the

and fate,

his own in which the author describes sufierers, with the minute the calamities he witnessed,

exactitude of truth and

pedantry.Many seyere blows inflicted on the Byzantine were empireby the daring of of the Mohammedans, who took advantage enterprises the the neglected state of the imperial navy to plunder
richest cities of Greece. But the most
strophe terrible cata-

the Christians sufiered was wealth. has leftus


Of this event Joannes

the sack of Thessaastic ecclesi-

of the empirein population and the second city lonica,

Cameniates, an
a

place, of a dangera the assault, and after the capture of his native city he carried prisoner in order to be exchanged to Tarsus, was at one of the exchanges of prisoners which took place
of the order of

Readers,and
He

native of the

fullaccount.

shared all the

between in that

the Christiansand

Saracens from

time to time

city.^
an

Thessalonica issituated at the head of

inner basin

the longgulfstretching ward, terminating up to the northmountains between the snowy peaksand rugged of Olympus and Ossa to the west, and the rich shores of the Chalcidice and the peninsula of Cassandra to the east. The bay, which the citylooks down, afibrds a safe on ancient mole anchorage ; and in the tenth century an enclosed an inner portwithin its arms, where the largest

vesselscould land dock.


'

or

receive their cargoes the


on city

as

in

modem
was

This port bounded


Cameniates

the

and south,

of Thessalonica. Archbishop

held the officeof Kubuklesioa or crozier-bearer to the His narrative is contained in the Tolume of the Byzantine historians entitled Scriptorei pott Tkeopkanem,

Joannes

TAKING

OP

THBSSALONICA,

A.D.

904.

317

from it by a wall about a mile in length a. d. run* separated ^^^^ ningalongthe shore. Within,the houses rose gradually, until the upper part of the city crowned with an was from the hills behind by a rugged acropolis, separated This citadelis now called the Seven Towers. precipice. Two from the rocky base of to the sea ravines, running and eastern the acropolis, serve as ditches to the western walls of the city, which to this day follow the same line, the same and presentnearly of aspect as in the reign Their angles Leo the Philosopher. at the sea, where by theyjointhe wall alongthe port,are strengthened of extraordinary size. The Egnatian towers Way, which for many centuries served as the high-road for the communications formed between Rome and Constantinople, the in a straight line through a great street passing from its western to its eastern wall. centre of the city This relicof Roman with its triumphal arches, greatness, forms a marked feature in the Turkish city still ; but the

moles of the ancient port have


space between the sea-wall and huts. filthy

fallen to

and the ruin, is

the

water

disfigured

by

of collection of

Yet

the admirable situation

and the fertility of the surrounding Thessalonica, still watered by several noble rivers, enables it to country, nourish Nature of upwards of sixty thousand souls. population has made it the capital and seaport of a rich and
a

extensive
not

and under district,


one

good government
and largest
most

it could

failto become

of the

flourishing

citieson of the

the shores of the Mediterranean.^


was Tripolis

Leo of

the most He

and skilful active, daring,


was

Saracen

admirals.

born

of Christian

varied fh"in 50,000 to 70,000 dtuiDg the mentions that upwards of 22,000 young men, and children, selected either because they had wealthyrelations to women, redeem them, or strengthand beautyto conmiand a good pricein the slavemarket^ were carried away captiye by the Saracens. Supposing that this was of the whole population" and when the state of society is considered, a tenth it may be doubted whether it formed a greater portion the population of Thesmlonica was then 220,000."De Excidio ThesBol,Ixxiii.
I

The

population is said

to have

present century. Cameniates

"

318
BOOK
n.

BASILIAir

DTJTASTT.

but at Attalia in Pamphjlia, parents,

became

renegade,
the

and ^^UlI*"

settled at

after in Syria Tripolis

be embraced

Mohammedan
Tarsus with hundred The
men,
a

faith. In the year 904, Leo sailed from each carrying fleet of fifty-four two ships,
besides theiroffica? and
were
a

few diosen

troops.
was

ablest corsairs in the East


a nimour

assembled for this


care

and expedition, shown in

of the unusual

that

out fitting

the fleetreached the court of the idle foresaw that


some

He at Constantinople. philosopher attack daring fisiin haye


on

his dominions would be

made, and would

the imperial placed nary in a condition to defend the islands and shores of the Egean ; but thoughtiie sailors the to man of Greece could have supplied commerce the negligence and incapacity of the admiralty force, largest had
were

been

so

that sereral years of misfortune great,


to restore

to awaken the spirit required necessary which from the condition f leet to Byzantine

the

it had fallen. the

The

naval force that

was

now

sent

to

defend

empire

did not venture

to encounter

the Saracen

but retired fleet,

ing and leavHellespont, In the mean the whole Archipelago unprotected. who reported that reached Constantinople, time fugitives the enemy proposed to attack Thessalonica. of great The walls qf Thessalonica had been originally in a n^lected but the fortifications were state, strength, of regular and the city almost without a garrison was and parts troops. The sea-wall was in want of repair,

shelterwithin the before it, seeking

were

so

low that it was


of yards

not

difficult to mount

ments the battle-

from the

the

shipsin
such
a

the

port. On

the

land side the floorsof the towers had in


some

that flanked the walls


state of
on

falleninto places

that decay,

the communications of the defenders

the curtains were

The interrupted.

fenceless informed of the deemperor, when increased the confusion by his state of the place,

injudicious meddling. He sent a succession of officers from the capital with difierent freshcounsels^ instructions,

TAKING

OF

THBSSALOmCA,

A.D.

904.

819
a. d.

in similar cases, happens powers ; and,as usually arailed himself of his authority each of his deputies to

and

new

^^^^

alter the

plan of defence adoptedby his predecessor. under such circumstances, As might be expected the Saracens arriyed before the fortifications were repaired, for defence were and before the arrangements completed. the The most alarming in defect fortifications the was condition of the wall that ran alongthe border of the
port. It
afford
a

was

low,without the necessary towers to the defence,and in several places flanking


too
water

depthof

the

admitted

to approach close to ships

the quay that ran under its battlements. Petronas, the firstofficer that there was sent by the emperor, thinking
not

sufficient time

to

raise the

wall

or

construct

new

the approach for preventing towers, adoptedmeasures he transported of the enemy^s to ships.To effectthis,

the port the


of marble

and sculptured sarcophagi, then

immense

blocks
on

that

adorned

the Hellenic tombs

both sides of the

Egnatian Way, without the western and and commenced them in eastern gatesof the city, laying the sea at some distance from the quay. His object was to form a mole reaching within a few feet of the surface of the water, against which the enemy mightrun their ships, and leave them exposed, for some to the missilesand time, But the inhabitants Greek fire of the defenders of the city. of Thessalonica showed themselves insensible of danger before it approached, and incapable selves themof defending
when
in placed
not

it arrived. Their who had Demetrius,

whole
never

confidence fleetswere

was
"

St

deceived them

in their emperor, whose armies and

every

day defeated.

They

knew

that Thessalonica had

often

the attacks of the Sclavonians in the seventh and repulsed been centuries; they boasted that it had never eighth taken by pagans or unbelievers; and theybelieved that, whenever it had been besieged, St Demetrius had shown himself active in its defence
:

it

was

thereforethe uni-

320
BOOK n.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

yersal
a

CB.i.is.

that opinion, in which he place


no

as

patron saint he would now defend had a strong personal interest ; for
earth
so merous, worshipped by so nuThe deroted a community.^
was

in

other
so

spot on

he

and wealthy,

of Leo III. in fate of Thessalonica proTes the wisdom of imagesand to exterminate the worship endeayouring saints.

Petronas had not made


when he
was

much

superseded by an of the theme of Thessalonica. Leo, was general appointed that the wall towards the port was not higher finding then in use, than the immense stern-galleries of the ships of Petronas to be suspended, and ordered the undertaking to be strained to raise the wall. Reports every nerve became every day more alarming. At one time it was that the Saracen fleet had pursued announced the Byzantine the Eustathios Argyros, admiral, Hellespont up
as

progress with his work officer named Leo, who

far

as

Parium.

Afterwards

it became

certain that it

the Hellespont and reached Thasos. The quitted would not, however,shake ofi^ their peopleof the city and their confidence in St Demetrius. apathy, They for building pline discishowed littleaptitude or for military and the militia did not ; the wall advanced slowly, should it be to defend it with alacrity, seem even likely arrived from At thisconjuncture a third officer completed. named Niketas. His arrival of itself was Constantinople, sufficientto produce disorder ; but,unfortunately, some accident that happenedshortly after threw everything an into confusion. the inspect threw his such
a

had

Leo

and

Niketas

met

on

horseback

to

defences of the
that

and rider,

manner was

city ; the horse of Leo reared, and side in his rightthigh injured his lifewas in danger, and for several
to
move.

days he
^

unable

This

accident invested

Niketas with the chief command.


J. CameDiatee,De Exddio Iviii. dr. Agro,prolog.

ThtudL

viii. Tafel, De Theualmica chap.

e^iif-

que

TAKING

OF

THE8SAL0NICA,

A.D.

904.

321

Niketas than his

seems

to

bare had

more

a.d. military experience

and he felt that the citizensof "^^^predecessor, militia, Thessalonica, thoughthey formed a numerous the place.He for defending not to be depended on were therefore endeavoured to assemble a body of troopsaccustomed the general of the theme of to war, by calling on Strymonto send some of the federate Sclayonians from his government ; but the envy or negligence of the general, and the avarice and ill-willof the Sclavonian leaders, from that quarter. the arrival of any assistance prevented

Though Niketas threatened to reportthe misconduct of of Strymonto the emperor, he could obtain no the general nian Sclavoaddition to the garrison, except a few ill-equipped in the plains the city. archers from the villages near The generals seemed all to place confidence too much in human St on preferred relying prudence ; the people
Demetrius
and

heaven.

To

secure

the divine aid, a

lemn so-

and citizens, of allthe clergy procession accompanied in.Thessalonica, headed by the residing by every stranger visited and the civil and military authorities, archbishop

the church of St Demetrius.


up

Public prayers were

offered

day

and

nightwith great fervour; but long after,


Cameniates
tion recorded that the interven-

when

Joannes

he acknowledged provedunavailing, the destructionof Thessalonica that God permitted to show mankind that nothing renders the divine ear of the saintsbut a pious accessible to the intercession life and good deeds. The Saracens stopped a short time at Thasos to pare pref or and other machines used stones, engines hurling in sieges. At last, as the inhabitants of Thessalonica their houses at daybreak, to attend morning were leaving arose prayer, on Sunday the 29th of July 904, a rumour in the gulf, that the enemy was and onlyconcealed already from view by Cape Ekvolos. The unwarlike city
was

of St Demetrius had

filled with lamentations, and tumult,


VOL.
I.

alarm; but the


X

322
BOOK
II.

BASILIAN

DTNASTT.

ch^s.

amidst enrolled in the militiaarmed themselyes, citizens and hastened to the ^iyea and children, ji^gj^^j^ ^f jj^^jj. to wait battlements. The anxious crowd had not long before
were ships fifty-four seen

the rounding

with all sail set. The succession, forward,and before noon theywere at anchor rapidly close to the city. The entrance of the port between the moles was shut by a chain ; and to prevent this chain
from

cape in sea-breeze bore them

broken by hostileships by the strong impelled being


summer

sea-breezes of the

months, several vessels had


Leo of

been sunk

across

the mouth.

immediately Tripolis

ished and examined the unfinreconnoitred the fortifications, work of Petronas,in order to ascertain if it were

the wall still to approach practicable

beyondits junction with the mole. After this examination was completed, to occupy the attack was made on the place a desultory to show and induce the besieged attentionof the garrison,
alltheir force and
Next
means

of defence.

day the
was sea.

Roma, which
far from the

Saracens landed and attacked the gate and not situated in the eastern wall,
Seven of the

constructed at engines

Thasos
to

and an attemptwas made in battery, placed under the fortifications, scaling-ladders against plant
were

and arrows shower of stones,darts, ; but a the assault of the Byzantine repulsed sally troops vigorous and captured the ladders. In the afternoon the planof
cover

of

changed. It was resolvedto force an entrance down two of the four gates in the eastern by burning
attack was
wall.

The gate Roma

Egnatian Way, were and sulphur, covered over by fishingwood, pitch, were boats turned upside down, to preventthose on the wall tered from setting fireto the combustibles at a distance. Shelby these boats,the Saracen sailorspushed the and when they had lighted waggons close to the gates, their fires, with their to their companions theyescaped

the the gate Cassandra, on with dry selected. Waggons filled and

324
BOOK ^ n.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

''^^

beyondthe bows of the double ship. These yards were strongenough to supporta framework of containing of wood capable who a small body of men, while were protected by boards on the sidesfrom missiles, shrouds keptup a constant communication with the deck below. These cages, when swung aloftfrom the yards,
as

to

extend far

could be elevated above


was

the battlements where looked besieged

the

wall sea-

and lowest,

to the

like the tops

In the morning raised out of the sea. suddenly rowed into their positions, the double ships and the were commenced between the besiegers in their hanging fight

of towers

towers and the defenders

the ramparts. Stones, arrows, filled with and fire launched combustibles, flaming pots the composition from long brazen tubes, of which had
on

been at

an

earlierperiod a
came soon

secret

known

onlyin

the

zantine Byon

arsenal, now the Greeks,who were


The

down pouring

from above

driven from

the battlements.

of the Alexandrian ships the first were Ethiopians the wall, and as soon as to make good their footing on they had cleared the whole line of the fortifications towards the sea from its defenders, theybroke open the and the crews of the other ships rushed into the gates, to collectthe booty entered city. The sailorsemployed with their drawn swords, wearing onlytheir trousers,in The order that no plunder mightbe abstractedsecretly. militia fled without a thought of further resistance : the from a gatein the citadel, Sclavonians escaped which they

had secured

as

means

of retreat.

The Saracens divided themselves into bands,and commenced slaughtering every person they found in the and streets, thoughtheyencountered crowds of women who had rushed out of their houses to learn the children,
cause

of the unusual commotion.

number

of the inhabitants

endeavoured to escape by the Golden Gate,which formed the entrance of the EgnatianWay into tibe city
from

the west, but the crowd

rendered it

to impossible

TAKING

OF

THBSSALONICA, A

A.D.

904.

325

throw open the doors.


the
were as thej people were

came partyof Ethiopians

upon the

a* d.

to effecttheir purpose. struggling


or

^^"^^^'

Hundreds

crushed to death

and suffocated,
or
sex.

without blacks stabbed the rest, towards the wall that

sparing age
two town
a

John

his father, his uncle, and Cameniates, the separates


to intending of the fiirj

fled brothers, from the citadel, until the first

conceal themselves in assailantswas


a a

tower

assuaged. Thej had hardly


reached Ethiopians crowd of people, whom they of the terrified family. The
band of the

ascended the wall when the


in pursuit of place murdered

before the eyes then mounted Ethiopians

wall, but

tower

was

between

them and Cameniates, of which the floor was


ruinous condition that it seemed
to dangerous

in

such
As

John Cameniates the enemy paused, favourable to implore moment quickly mercy, and running
a

pass. deemed the

over

beam

that remained

unbroken,he threw himself


would

at
veal re-

the feet of the black where


a

that he captain, promising


was

treasure

hidden,in

case

his own

and life

the livesof his relations were


the favour of the

His spared.

confidence won
understood

barbarians, one

of whom

taken under their protection was Greek, and the family ; the streets,Cameniates through yet as theywere marching
to Ethiopian belonging On their way to the port the prisoners another band. of Akroullios, where they carried into the convent were seated in the vestibule. found the chiefof the Ethiopians he rose and the promises of old Cameniates, After hearing

received two

wounds

from

an

tians Chrisin which about three hundred entered the church, himself crosshad been collected. There, seating he made a signal to his followers, leggedon the altar, the family who immediately only put all to death,leaving this hideous spectacle From of Cameniates. theywere

conducted to the Saracen admiral had heard what Cameniates had After Leo of Tripolis
to

say, he sent

guard to convey the

treasure

to the

326

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK Ch.
1.

II.

the hoard, which contained all the port. Fortunately wealth found unof many members of the family, touched, was for had it not satisfiedthe avarice of the chiefs,

9 s.

the whole
in many

would family
cases. ransom

other
a

have been murdered,as happened This treasure was received by Leo


who prisoners,
were

onlyas
embarked in

for the livesof his


at exchanged

in order to be the

Tarsus for Saracens

captivity among of Leo, the general

Christians. Cameniates

found

the theme of

Niketas, Thessalonica,

third envoy of the emperor, and Rodophyles, a who had stopped eunuch of the imperial household, as he the
was
a hundred weightof gold to the pounds' conveying all among the prisoners. dophyles RoByzantine army in Italy, before the Saracen admiral, who was brought that he was had learned from the captives intrustedwith The eunuch boldly that he had pertreasure. replied formed his duty to the emperor, by sending away the of the theme of Strymon as soon as goldto the general the enemy approached found ; and when Leo of Tripolis that this was and ordered true, he flew into a passion, to be beaten to death on the spot.^ Rodophyles Several dayswere spent in collecting the booty in the such of the captives in releasing had friends in as city, the neighbourhood able to purchase their liberty by the the exchange payment of a second ransom, and in negotiating

of two the emperor of Saracen When

hundred

named

persons, for whom Simeon engaged that an

an

oflBcerof

number equal

should captives
was

all other business


to burn

be delivered up at Tarsus. the Saracens threatened settled,

and succeeded in forcing the city, of Strymonto deliverup the gold for which Rodophyles general in order to save the place had lost his life, from
^

the

Cameniates
means

calls the

sum

intrusted to

two talents, by which Rodophyles

he
"

of

course

centners; other authors call it only one

hundred

pounds.

226. Continuator, ''Leo/'

277, edit. Bonn. Hussey, Euay on

Symeon Mag. 466. Qeorg. Mon. 558. Leo Gramm. see Concerning the variety of weight in ancient talents, Ancient Weights and Moruy, 28-42.

TAKING

OP

THE8SAL0NICA,

A.D.

904.

327 of
a.d.

destaruction. The Thessalonica


ten

hostile fleet quitted the harbour

daysafter the capture of the city. Ca- ^^^^ meniates was in the ship of the Egyptian embarked who served under Leo of Tripolis. The crew admiral, consistedof two hundred men and eight hundred captives; and children were crowded together the on men, women, lower deck. These unfortunate people, all of whom were of the higher and ranks,sufiered indescribable misery, and suffocationbefore they thirst, many died of hunger, reached the island of Crete, where, after a fortnight's confinement, theywere allowed to land for the firsttime.
The fleethad deviated from its course
in order to avoid in with the Byzantine for it was falling sible impossquadron, when every ship crowded with prisoners. to fight was It had therefore remained six daysat Patmos, and two at Naxos, which was then tributary to the Saracens of

Crete.
The fleetanchored
at

the a Zontarion, port opposite

bour island of Dia, which afforded better shelterthan the harof Chandax, and where it could obtain the seclusion the slaves and spoil dividing among different parties t he in composing expedition, order each might hasten home before the autumnal storms

necessary for

the that
menced. com-

The

whole of the

were captives

landed, and

three

dayswere

to find spent by them in endeavom-ing

and unite families that had been theirrelations,

dispersed,

again separated by the new division. many of which were the fifty-four but also As not only of Leo's fleet, ships
several in the men-of-war Byzantine and

merchantmen, taken

had been filled with prisoners, port of Thessalonica, it is not surprising after the loss that the number, even to twenty-two sustained on the passage, stillamounted of the small with the exception thousand souls. Of these, at Tarsus,all consisted of number reserved for exchange young
men

and

women

in the flower of their

childrenremarkable for the bloom

or youth, had of their beauty : they

328

BASILUN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

II.

been saved from the selectedfrom


were sure

of the slaughter

older inhabitants, or

^'"*^

those seized in the

houses,because they

in the slaYe-marcommandinga highprice all the booty had been landed, When kets of the East. divided by lot, and then the fleet dispersed, the spoil was the ships from Crete directly to Alexandria, or to sailing of Syria the difierentports to which they belonged. Many sale the of the unfortunate prisoners, in slaveto exposed the capital of Egypt and Damascus, markets of Fostat, and Arabia, and even to to Ethiopia were transported of the southern

parts of Africa

; the

more

fortunate

were

from those to whose share re-purchased and by them by the Cretans, The island of Crete had become

theyhad

fallen,

re-sold to their friends.


a

in greatslave-mart,

of its Saracen population consequence of the extensive piracies the most ; and at this time the slave-tradewas

branch profitable
of large portion

of

commerce

in the Mediterranean!^

the Greek inhabitants of Crete

having

tions embraced Mohammedanism, and establishedcommunicawith the Christian slave-merchants in the Byzantine
trade in purchasing carried on a regular empire, tine Byzanof and families, arranging exchanges captives wealthy of prisoners with their relations. As these exchanges and not, likethose at Tarsus, were speculations, private under the regulation the Christians of an official cartel, to pay a considerable sum as were generally compelled deliver in in order to their relatives, redemption-money, addition to releasing After the buya Saracen captive. ing and selling from Thessalonica had been of the captives carried on for several days, their the Saracens embarked for their ultimate destination. The wife of one prisoners of the brothers of Cameniates was purchased by a Cretan
' The preTalence of piracyon the coast of Attica,about the end of the twelfth century, after the Saracens had been long expelled from the Grecian of the Athenians to the Emperor Alexios II L, seas, is proTed by the Memorial Michael Akominatos. A.D. Tafel, 1195-1203,drawn up by their archbishop, daXcrrr/cov where is spoken of. r"f ITieaiolonicaf 468, ri^v X fi/Xacrtav "Kfjc"p, p.
"

TAKING

OF

THESSALONICA,

A.D.

904.

329

but he had the misery of seeing his mother, slaye-merchant, his wife, and two of his children (for the third had died the voyage), embarked during in
a

A.D.

886-912.

to Sidon. belonging ship

and the greaterpart of the Cameniates,with his father, set apart for the exchange at Tarsus,were captives put board a Byzantine on man-of-war,the upper deck of which was occupied while the Christians by the Saracens, crowded on the lower, in filthand darkness. were the passage from Crete to Syria, an event happened which shows that Leo, the Saracen admiral, a man was of energy and courage, well fitted for his daring pation, occuand by no means deaf to the callsof humanity, so in the hour of the most conduct after the
us

On

terrificdanger, as Thessalonica threatened


storm

his ferocious

of taking

mightlead
one

to

believe.

violent

of the in

smaller
middle
extreme
"

with destruction, for galleys


an

it broke

the
their

accident to which
want
were

ancient

from ships,
were

lengthand
on

of

beam,
near was

very liable.

The

Saracens

board

and that in which Leo requested

Cameniates

to order

the

crew

of

ship, embarked, and they the Byzantine manreceive


to

the admiral's

of-war
them. the

to

throw

all the
was

The

order

overboard and captives the crew allowing given, the violence of the Cameniates of signals
was

quit
had

ship,but sinking
the
a

wind

driven
to such

ship in

which

embarked
were own

distance that the


or

the admiral

unnoticed

unheeded.

Leo, however,ordered his

and as possible, broughtas near the galley not succeeded in saving, only the Saracen crew, but and captives every Christian on board, though the crews to upwards of one of the two vessels amounted Leo and thousand persons. The generals, Byzantine recounted the Niketas,who were on board Leo's ship,

ship,to

be

circumstances

to

Cameniates, and

declared that

their

to contain so greata crowd,and shipwas ill-calculated After refitting at with great difiiculty. was navigated

880
BooKH.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

Ob,

I.

it.

the 14th of the squadronreached Tripolis on Cyprus, before September. The father of Cameniates died there, the prisoners While waiting removed to Tarsus. were
at

in fear of death from the unhealthiness of the Tarsus,

the account Cameniates wrote of his sufferings, place, fix"m which the preceding narrative has been extracted ; but and we must pardon what he calls the feebleness, what others are more the inflation of his to term likely matter embalmed in account of the interesting on style, its verbosity. The worthyAnagnostes appears to have returned to his native city, and obtained the office of koubouklesios to the archbishop. efficienc of the inThe taking of Thessalonica affordssad proof which deny the use of of central governments, and unfortified to defend the wealthy to the people, arms of a court citiesof an extensive empire. The tendency of the state on the pageantryof to expendthe revenues churches,and feiesin the capital, power, on palaces, lage without bestowiug the destruction of a vila thought on reveals to us one of the paths or the loss of a parish, tends to degrade the by which despotic power invariably
mass

of human

and civilisation,

cause

decline in the Thessalonica

of its territory. population

The wealth the Saracens had obtained invited them


to make

at

until empire, at last the public the Emperor Leo, sufferings compelled in the last year of his reigu, to make a vigorous attempt end to the piracies to put an of the Cretans, a.d. 912. who had gained cens the Saraa naval victory Himerios, over fresh attacks
on

the

in the year 909, was intrustedwith the command of his operations ing and commenced fleet, by clearpowerful the

His fleet of the Cretan pirates. Archipelago of the largest dromons consisted of forty or war-galleys manned besides other vessels; and it was size, by twelve thousand who
are

native

besides sailors,

seven

hundred

Russians,
A

considered

enumeration. worthyof especial

powerful army,

under the orders of Romanus

the future

332
BOOK n.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

^''^^

actire part by the loss of Bari,which was seized bj the Duke of Beneyentum. A Bjzantine army regained session posand revenged the injury the Greeks city, had sufferedby taking Beneventum, which,however,only remained in possession of the imperial troops for four fleet in Italy was subsequently years. The Byzantine defeated by the Sicilian Saracens in the Straits of of that

Messina.

In in

the administration of Leo the Philosopher short,

marked by his usual negligence was Italy and incapacity, and the weakness of his enemies alone the Byzantine preserved possessions. The kingdomof Bulgaria had for a considerableperiod and useful ally. It formed a proveda quiet neighbour barrier against the Turkish tribes, whom the ruin of the Khazar empire drove into Europe. Leo, however, allowed himself to be involved in hostilities with the Bulgarians the father of by the avarice of his ministers. Stylianos, his second wife Zoe,established of the Bulgaa monopoly rian
trade in favour of two

Greek merchants.

To

ceal con-

the extortions to which this monopoly gave

the rise,

removed from was commerce dep6t of the Bulgarian whose to Thessalonica.^ The Bulgarians, Constantinople interest suffered by this fraud, applied to their King the Emperor Leo, Simeon for protection ; and when after repeated took no steps to redress the solicitations, the Bulgarian An monarch declared war. injustice, almost uninterrupted peace of seventy-four years had existed between the sovereigns and of Constantinople had for onlytemporary and trifling hostilities Bulgaria, occurred since the treaty between Leo V. and Mortagan Michael after his baptism, in 814. Bogoris called, and not his kingdom with great prudence, had governed
"
"

and Zoe was At this time Theophano, the firstwife of Leo, was still liTing, the same to w ho be the is to concubine. Stylianos, emperor's supposed only whom the Novellasof Leo are addressed, is called Zaoutzes by the Ck"ntiDuator, in DuSee TCaaa-UH 220. The name is connected with the Turkish Tshaous, OrcBeitcUis. cange, Olottarium med. et inf.
1
"

BULGAKIAN

WAR,

333

to Christianity, but also onlyconverted all his subjects their means of education and wellbeing. His augmented views induced him to join the Eastern own religious

a. d.

^^^^^'

and he church, and

sent

his second

son

Simeon

tinople to Constana

for his education. left the throne The

retired into Bogoris


to

tery, monas-

his eldest

son

Vladimir,
of Vladimir

about the year 885. drew his father from dethrone before and

conduct disorderly

put

his retreat, who was to compelled out the eyes of this unworthy prince, in
a

immuringhim
son

monastery. He
the throne

his second

Simeon

on

placed (a.d. 888),and

then

died a monk, a.d. 907. to his cell, retiring again Simeon His proved an able and active monarch. education at Constantinople had enlarged his mind, but him with some and inspired contempt for the meanness and of the Byzantine court, and for the pedantry luxury of the Greek people. He was himself both presumption warrior and a scholar, but he followed the military a in his native and wrote system of the Bulgarians, attained nation had now language.^The Bulgarian centuries before by the the position some occupied Avars. They were the most civilisedand commercial of all the northern and formed barbarians, the medium for the greater part of Germany and supplying with Scandinavia with

the necessary commodities from

Asia, and

manufactures and gold.^This extensive and Byzantine trade had gone on increasing since a ever flourishing the amount of duties to be levied on the fixing treaty, had been concluded in the year 716, frontier, Byzantine The stipulations of of Theodosius III. the reign during which the that treatyhad alwaysformed the basis on

commercial relations between the two states at the conclusion of every war re-established,
1

had
; but

been
now

to DuSlamtehee AUerthUmer, ii 185, in preference I foUow Schafarick, FamUice ByzarUinoB, cange, ' Simocatta says Xryrrai SicvSucois "P roZr fyvtat tois yiip Theophylactus 175. Theopbanes, 421. t6 T"if *Afidp"iP imtipot "VTpt)("T"erov"f"vKoPf
"

334
two

BASILIAN

DYNASTT.

BooEn.

Greek

merchants,Stavrakios and

Kosmas, bribed

^'^^^

to proMousikos,a eunuch in the household of Stylianos, cure

the whole of ordinance for transferring imperial trade to Thessalonica. These Greeks having the Bulgarian tions farmed the customs, feltthat theycould carry on extorat a distance which could not be attempted as long their goodsto Constantinople, as the traders could bring of themselves under the immediate protection and place the central administration.^ The monopoly, thoughit inflicted greatlosses both on the Greek and Bulgarian was traders, supported by the favourite minister of the
an

emperor, who

tions refused to pay any attention to the reclamajects. of the Bulgarian government in favour of its sub-

to submit to disposition that he had no hope of contemptuous treatment, finding invaded the empire. redress bypeaceable means, obtaining and the The Byzantine defeated, completely army was who commanded slainin the firstbattle. two generals were But Simeon tarnished his gloryby his cruelty ; he and to be cut ofl^, ordered the noses of all the prisoners thus mutilated, to Constantinople sent the Byzantine soldiers, sent Leo, eager to revenge this barbarity, Niketas Skleros, to urge the Hungarians, a a patrician, the banks of Turkish tribe which had recently quitted cendants, the Don to occupy the countrystill possessed by its desto attack the Bulgarians. They did so, and defeated them. peror to the EmThey sold their prisoners to deliver Leo, who was compelled, after, shortly them to Simeon, King of Bulgaria, without ransom, in order to purchase feated peace ; for the Magyarswere de-

Simeon, who

was

not of a

in

second

and retired from the battle,

contest.

had conceived too sovereigns, to pay any high an idea of his power and prerogatives to his engagements, when he thought it for his respect

Leo, like many

absolute

" Continuator, Leo," 220.

ALEXANDER,

A.D.

912-913.

336

his promises. to forget He took the earliest a. d. advantage of seeking for revenge, and having assembled ^^^^* opportunity what he supposed invincible army, he sent Leo an was This to invade Bulgaria. Katakalon, his best general, called Bulgaroat a place destroyed army was completely and after this lesson Leo was glad to conclude phygos, peace, a.d. 893.^ About the same time the conduct oppressive perial of the im-

of the governor at Cherson caused an insurrection in which he was murdered. inhabitants, of his titleof Leo, in spite
a man
"

the

not was Philosopher,"

mankind can feel much personal history interest. Though his reign undisturbed by rebellion was his life was or civil war, dangers. exposedto frequent His concubine and another became the
was

in whose

Zoe

discovered

him, against conspiracy


and

revealed

Samonas, by the renegade

The of his great favour at court. origin and exiled to Athens. was prime conspirator scourged In

902,
a

an

attempt
The

was

made

to

murder
who
was

Leo

in the

church of St Mokios

by a madman,
blow
was

armed

only
a

with

stick.

broken
a

by the
severe

branch of

chandelier, yet the emperor received


died in the year 912, after months. years and eight Leo
a

wound.^

of twenty-five reign

SECT,

in."

ALEXANDER"

MINORITY

OP

C0N8TANTINE A.D.

VII. "12-4"44.

(PORPHYRO-

GENITU8)"
Reiow 920
"

ROMANUS

I," LBCAPBNU8.

OP

Alexander,
of of

a.d.

912-918

"

Minority
"

of

Constantine
army

VII.,913defeated
"

Sbdition

Constantine Bulgaria
emperor,
"

Dukas Intrigues
a.d.

Byzantine
at
"

by

Symeon, King
L
makes himself

Constantinople Conspiracies

Romanus
his

920-944
son

against

QOYiBNMZNT"

Dethroned

by

his

Stephen.

Alexander,who
the
^
"

succeeded

to

the

rather or throne,

to

on the death of his brother government of the empire, There is some tlie chronology of in arranging difficulty the
war. Bulgarian

Symeon Mag. 462. " " Continuator, Leo," 222,224, 225.

336

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

n.

Leo
more

^"'"*^

he had long borne the (for in his tastes, and degraded than Michael the Drunkard.

title of
more

was Emperor),

unfit for his station,

for Fortunately

his

he reigned subjects, only a year ; yet he found time the the empire to inflict a serious wound, by rejecting on the treaty offerof Simeon, King of Bulgaria, to renew concluded with Leo. Alexander,like his predecessor, his other follies had a taste for astrology ; and among that an ancient bronze statue of a boar he was persuaded in the Agora was his own genius.This work of art was treated with the greatest reyerence ; it was consequently adorned with other ornaments, and its reintegration in the hippodrome celebrated as a public was
new

tusks and

gious not onlywith profane festival, games, but even with relito the scandal of the orthodox.^ ceremonies, the Byzantine Leo VI. had undermined system of which Leo III. had modelled on the traditions administration, of
Rome. imperial He

had

used

bis absolute

trust on court power to confer oflScesof the highest favourites notoriously of performing the duties incapable

intrusted to them.
usages which

The

rules of promotion systematic

in the service of the


were

government ; the administrative

consecrated into laws ; the professional the science of education which had preserved

with the literatureand government from degenerating


of the empire, for the first time habitually were language and violated. The administration and the neglected
court
were

confounded in the same

mass,

and

an

emperor,

called the

is characterised in Philosopher,

Empireto the of an Oriental and arbitrary Alexander carried despotism. this abuse to a great extent, by conferring high and the his commands of on debaucheries, companions
*

reduced having

the Eastern

for history nile degraded

CoDtin. 234.

Sroix^^ avrov

oldoia kqI tti).


"

obairras r^ X^ W

irpootwfve-

flxrci',

REGENCY,

A.D.

913-919.

337
a.d.

of Sclayonian and Saracen origin to men by elevating the highest dignities. The onlyact of Alexander's reign that it is necessary to particularise, is the nomination of a regency to act the minority of his nephew Constantino. The during Patriarch
was

912-944.

who Nikolaos,
one

had

been

reinstated in

office,

made

of its members

; but Zoe

the Carbopsina,
it. old when

young

mother,was excluded from emperor's Constantino VII. was onlyseven years


The regency named exclusive of the

he

became sole emperor.


consisted of six members of

by Alexander
two Patriarch,

Sclawhom, named Basilitzes and Gabrilopulos, were who had attained the highest and vonians, employments accumulated greatwealth
The

by the

favour

of Alexander.^

obtained the highwith which all foreigners est facility of officesat Constantinople, and the rare occurrence of pure Hellenic
race

any man of the

government Byzantine
borne in mind, as it is a
to clung empire

in power, is a feature that requires to be constantly of proof the

with tenacity

which the

Roman

and reputraditions, diated

any identificationwith Greek nationality. before us, to selectfacts in the period It is difficult, now both of the condition, that convey a correct impression of the government and the people. The calamities and crimes
we

are

to compelled

mention
worse,

tend to create

an

that opinion

the

governmentwas

and the condition than miserable,


was

of the inhabitants of the

more empire

and the incursions Tlie ravages of war the case. really of the Byzantine of pirates wasted onlya small portion tervals aflForded by the long inand ample time was territory, and the depopulation to repair of tranquillity central The desolation caused by foreignenemies.

government stillretained institutions that enabled it


encounter

to

many

storms political
1

that ruined

neighbouring
Y

Contin. 288.

VOL.

I.

338
BOOK
iL

BABILIAN

DYNASTY.

nations ;

the vices yet the weakness of the administration,

the of the people, ^^LlL^ of the court,and the corruption during and his father-inof Constantino Porphyrogenitus reigns seemed to indicate a rapid law Romanus I., decayin the and theyform a heterogeneous of the empire, strength which still combination with the institutions guaranteed for life and propertyto an extent unknown in security whether under Christian of the world, eyery other portion
or

Mohammedan

sway.

The merits and

defects of the

government are not found Byzantine until we of history, any other portion
times.

in combination in

modem approach

established in successionwas never firmly Hereditary the Byzantine empire. The system of centralisation who carried on the administration rendered the prime-minister, for a minor or a weak sovereign, master virtually of the empire. Against this danger Alexander had endeavoured to protecthis nephew, a regency by creating of six members, no one of whom could aspire at becoming of young Constantino. But the arbitrary the colleague nature of the imperial of insecurity power created a feeling in the minds of all officials, not as that power was as long vested in a single individual. This feeling inspired every of of influencewith the hope man beingable to render and with the desire of assuming himself sole regent, the title of Emperor,as the onlymethod of permanently the post of guardianof the young prince. maintaining The of the time was most Constantino man popular

Dukas, who had fled to the Saracens with his father Andronikos,in order to escape the anger of Leo VI. His father had embraced Mohammedanism, but Dukas
had thrown himself on

sake the mercy of Leo rather than forhis religion, and had been rewarded by a command

on

the south-easternfrontier. For three years he served with distinction, and his valour and liberality rendered
him

popular among

the soldiers. The death of Alexander

340

BASILIAK

DTNASTT.

BooKn.

banished to
^

her

where she propertyin Paphlagonia,

f^mj^^ cbu^s.
was

her onlysurriying son, monastery. Stephen, made a eunuch, and every other male of the noble
on perished

house of Dukas
of

that afterwards bore the

name,

this occasion. The family and ascended the throne modem

of more was Constantinople,

origin.^

and of the young emperor for his mother, The aflfection members of the regency, who of the diflFerent the intrigues
to expected

increase their influence by her favour,reinstated

in the palace, from which she Carbopsina had been expelled by Alexander. As she had received the imperial she shared the sovereign authority crown, the with the regentsas a matter of right, and through Zoe

influence of John
mistress of the

Eladas, she

soon

became Zoe

the absolute

administration. public
amusement.
a

of thought

little but
was

and luxury

Her

administration

defeat of the Byzantine complete that the created a general feeling army by the Bulgarians directionof public aS'airs to be intrusted no ought longer of her thoughtless to a woman disposition. The evils inflicted on the inhabitants of Thrace by with Alexafter his rupture ander, Simeon, king of Bulgaria, the sufferings of the empireduring the equalled earlierincursions of the Huns
to the walls of

and unfortunate,

and

Avars.

In the year

after Alexander's death, Simeon marched up 913, shortly

almost without opposition Constantinople ; but he found the city too well garrisoned to admit of his in itsvicinity afteran ineflec: he retired, remaining long tual attempt to settle the terms of a treaty in a conference with the Patriarch. In 914 he again invaded the empire, and in this campaign into his was Adrianople betrayed hands

by its governor,
soon

an as

Armenian
the

named

Pankratakas,

who, however,as
it to the
A
^

restored retired, Bulgarians

Byzantine government.
tribe,called by the Byzantine writers
Leo Gramm. 492.

Turkish

il 272. Zonaras,

Fam, Byz. 160. Duoftnge,

THE

PATZINAKS.

341

who had contributed to destroy the flourishing Patzinaks, a. d. ^'^^^' monarchy of the Khazars, had driven the Magyars or before Hungarians them into
and Europe,
at this period

had extended their settlements from the shores of the Sea


of Azof and the falls of the
to Dnieper

the banks of the

of the Russians They were thus neighbours and the Bulgarians, as well as of the Byzantine proyince of Cherson.i They were nomades, and inferior in civilisation to the nations in their vicinity, were by whom they dreaded as active and insatiable plunderers, always for and The for war ready rapine. regency of eager the EmpressZoe, in order to give of Thrace the people from the ravages of the Bulgarians, some cluded conrespite who engaged, alliancewith the Patzinaks, an on with of money, to act in co-operation a sum receiving the imperial forces. They were to attack the Bulgarians in the rear, the means the Danube of crossing being fiumished by the Byzantine government. Zoe, in the she was carrying to negotiations mean time,trusting on in Asia Minor, transat Bagdatfor securing ferred tranquillity the greaterpart of the Asiatic army to Europe, and prepared into the heart of Bulgaria, to carry the war and compel in order to prevent Simeon to fight a battle, his countrybeing laid waste by the Patzinaks. A splendid and placed reviewed at Constantinople, army was under the command of Leo Phokas, a man possessing and great influencewith the aristocracy, a highmilitary Before the troops marched northward they reputation. and equipments received new arms ; liberaladvances of and numerous promotions pay were made to the soldiers,
were was

Danube.

made

among

the ofl"cers. The


one Libyan,

second in command
in conspirators the

Constantino the

of the

the
^

plotof Dukas, who

had

escapedthe search of

The Patzinaks are called also Petcbenegs. The Magyars are called Turks in bis curiouB work, De Admimttrando Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Uzes,and Kumans, who allmade 6. The Patzinaks, Magyars, chap.4, Imperio, Turkish tribea their firstappearence in Europe about this time,were

by

342

BASILIAN

DYKASTY.

BOOK ^'"

n.

^^

Zoe's governregency until he obtained the pardon of The fleetappointed to enter the mouth of the ment.
the Patzinaks oyer Danube, in order to transport of Romanos under the command was river, placed

the the but

grandadmiral.
Leo Phokas Romanus
one

confidentof success forward, pressed inclinationto assist the


is accused of

felt no
a

of operation

whom

would render the master successful campaign

of the

empire. He

impediments throwing

to transport and delaying in the way of the Patzinaks, them over the Danube most likely at the time and place to

the operations of derange

the

The Bulgarians.

duct con-

of Leo

was

rash, that of Romanus


a was

treacherous. which the loss both

Siineon was

enabled to concentrate
with defeated,

all his forces and

a battle at fight

placecalled Achelous,in
an

Byzantine army
to

immense

and men^ in ofl"cers

Mesembria, where

(20thAugust 917). Leo escaped the fugitives he attempted to rally ;


as

but

Romanus,

to directly

sailed he heard of the disaster, to make without attempting Constantinople


as soon

ouring any diversionfor the reliefof his countrymen,or endeavthe defeated troops as he passed to succour Mesembria.
He
was

accused of

treason

and condemned the

to lose his

sight ;

his return, but he retained possession


on

of the fleet by the

; and support of the sailors

her unpopularity, empress, who began to perceive countenanced his disobedience, to make as she expected
use

of his

support.
Leo

The
^

of partisans

urgedhis openly

claims to be

AoHelous seems garia. of both a river and fortress in Bulto have been the name River:" Contin. 240. Symeon Mag. 476. Qeorg. Moii. 569. LeoGramm. 491. Fortress :"Cedrenu8, 613. See Krug, ChnmologU der Byz,180, note \* The defeat took place Anchialus. Leo Diaconus, 124, edit. Bonn. The near Achelous seems to have misled Gibbon into a singularcomplication of name His words are, '* On classic ground, errors. the banks of the Achelous,the on Greeks were defeated : their bom broken by tho streng^ of the barbaric was Hercules." He transports the battle into Greece, calls the Asiatic troops of Leo Phokas Greeks ; and grows more than Ovid, whom he quotes. poetical Decline and Pall,vol. x. 201.
" "

INTBiaUSS

OF

BOMAKUS.

843

at the head of the administration, placed as the only man a. d. capable by his talentsof preventing a revolution ; and the ^^^f^ chamberiain Constantino urged Zoe to appoint him a

of the regency, and invest him with the conduct of public affairs. The empress beganto distrustRomanus, from the preponderating as long power he possessed
as

member

the fleet remained in the vicinity The of the capital. fleet was therefore ordered into the Black Sea; but Romanus had already received secret encouragement to

of Leo from Theodore, the governor of oppose the designs the young emperor, and he delayed under the sailing, would not put to sea untiltheir pretextthat the sailors
arrears were

paid.

The

crisiswas

so important;

the

chamberlain Constantino visitedthe fleetwith the money determined to hasten necessary for payingthe sailors, its departure, and

perhapsto

arrest the

grandadmiral.

This stepbrought seized matters to an issue. Romanus the money and paid the sailors himself, keepingthe chamberlain under arrest. This

daringconduct
in the

on

the

part of a
as

man

hitherto considered as deficient in ambition

for it palace, revealed to the empress that there was another pretender the to supreme Zoe immediately despatched power. of officers Patriarch Nikolaos, of the principal and some
as

well

capacity, spreadalarm

in order to induce the sailorsto state,to visitthe fleet return to their allegiance ; but the populace, eager for

the government in a state of embarrassment,attacked the envoys with stones,and and delighted to change,
see

drove them back into the loss what


measures

to

palace. The empress, at a tion for informasought vainly adopt,


of this sudden revolution.

the concerning

causes

At last Theodore,the young emperor's governor, declared that the conduct of Leo Phokas and the chamberlain

Constantino had

caused the

Leo had ruined the army

the administration. He

for dissatisfaction, popular and Constantino had corrupted that the easiestmode suggested

344
BOOK
n.

BASILIAN
an putting

DYNASTY.

of

end to the

y^ chj^s.

ij^^ ^YiQ young

embarrassmenfts would existing the Emperor Constantine to assume

This was done, and supreme power into his own hands. rather his tutor Theodore in his the young prince, or
name,

invited the Patriarch and

one

of the regents

named

to be adoptto consult on the measures ed, Stephen both were known to be hostileto his mother's though administration. This produced an immediate revolution of state attached to the The principal officers at court.
were

party of Phokas
which
were

dismissed from theiremployments,


men

to supportthe new pledged that advisersof the young emperor. Leo, not perceiving Romanus stration, adminiconnected with the new was directly but received from that a coalition, proposed and support, of friendship onlyassurances wary intriguer the orders of the new ministers. while he openly obeyed informed by his friend soon Romanus, however, was Theodore that the Patriarch and Stephenhad resolved him from his command, that they to remove mightrender

conferred on

him

as

harmless

as

Leo

bold

measures

were

therefore

rendered necessary, and without hesitationthe admiral rangedhis fleet in hostile array under the walls of the Bukoleon. His friends under the direction within, palace of the patrician invited him to enter and proNiketas, tect the young emperor, and at the same time forced the stantine Patriarch and Stephento retire.^ The Emperor Conhad Romanus been in alreadypredisposed favour of

by his tutor,so that he received the insurgent admiral in a friendly The young prince, manner. panied accomin Pharo, to the chapel by the court, repaired
where Romanus took
an

oath of

the on fidelity

wood

of

^ This Niketas landed proprietor a Sclavosian in the Peloponnesus, was married to Christophoros the eldest son whose daughter was of Romanus. His ass-like Sclavonian visage,to use the an expression which amused and has troubled modem courtiers of Constantinople, excited the scholars, relative." Ck)mpare Contin. 243, Constant. Porphyr. of his imperial De spleen Themat, 25, edit Banduri,and note at page 362 of this volume.

INTEIGUBS

OP

ROMAKUS.

345

the true cross, and


master

was

invested with the offices of the


919.^

and

of or grand heteriarch, general


the 25th of March

grand A.D. 912-944. foreign

on guards,

the fortunes of Romanus were elapsed, further advanced by the charms of his daughter Helena. Constantino VII. became deeply smitten with her beauty, and the ambition of the father precipitated the marriage in order to secure the titleof Basileopater, which gave
a

Before

month

him

over precedence

every other officerof state, 27th

He was now than prime-minister, 919. even more April and his position Leo Phokas took excited deeper envy. in Bithynia and marched to arms Chrysopolis up that his object to deliver the was (Scutari), declaring young
so

emperor

from

restraint ; but his movement ambition disappointed


was soon

was

the evidently

result of

that taken

he found few to support him, and he and deprived of sight.Another prisoner


for its

the assassinationof object also failed. The EmpressZoe was accused of attempting to poison him, and immured in a monastery. The that he no longer enjoyed governor Theodore,perceiving

ing havconspiracy, the Basileopater,

the confidence of the friend he had contributedto elevate, of Romanus, and beganto thwart the ambitious projects

Opsikion.Romanus, his indulgthat there was now to prevent ing nothing finding his son-in-law his ambition, to confer on persuaded him the titleof Caesar, and shortly after to elevate him
was

banished to his property in

to the rank

of emperor.

He

was

crowned

as

the colleague
cember 1 7th De-

of Constantine

Nikolaos in the 919.2 Few


^

Porphyrogenitus by the the Church of St Sophia, on


the possessed

Patriarch

men

ever

absolute directionof

pub-

But the date is giyenby the Continaator, 243 ; Symeon Mag. 478. with learningand accuracy by Krug, this periodis renewed der Byzantini"chen mtt hetonderer KrUiseher Venuch Zur aufkldrung ChronologUy GesehuSue BUeksicht auf diefiUkere Rui$laHd$; St Petersburg, 1810, p. 133. The of chronology

"Krug,140.

S46
BOOK
iL

BASILIAN

DYKASTT.

lieaffairs in the

^''*^

the without assuming Byzantine empire ting title, eren imperial though theyhad no intention of setIt aside the sovereign whose throne theyshared
was

well understood that there was

no

other

means

of

their position, for as long as theyremained only securing with the rank of prime-minister posed Caesar, or theywere exto lose their sight, or be put to death by a secret of order of the soyereign, the intrigues obtained through eunuch or a slaye. But as soon as theyassumed the an
rank of emperor of the

Romans, their person

was

sacred,
the
as

both by the law of hightreason and being protected force of public which regardedthe emperor opinion,

the Lord's anointed.


ever

Two

who of the greatest soyereigns

sate

on

the throne of John I.

and (Phokas),

II. Nicephorus Constantinople, shared the throne with (Zimiskes),

Basil II. and Constantino

VIII., as Romanus

I.did with
too weak to

Constantino VII.
Romanus
was a man

whose character was

hurt by the views. His vanity was enlarged fact that he occupied in the empire, the second place only and to gratify his passion for pageantry, and secure the ceremonies of the Byzantine placeof honour in the numerous and the place of his son-in-law, court,he usurped wife Theodora, conferred the imperial on his own crown both preceand on his eldest son Christophoros, giving dence served had the hereditary Romanus over emperor. in his youthas a marine, and he had risen to the highest rank without rendering himself remarkable either for his ^ of his family, valour or ability the successfulcareer ; of the excited the dissatisfaction therefore, naturally ofl"cer. and the ambition of every enterprising aristocracy all His reign disturbed by a seriesof conspiracies, was the restoration of Confor their avowed object having stantine Porphyrogenitus to his legitimate though, rights, admit of
I

HiB son-in-law calls him


"

an

illiterate person of

IwTos

Ck"nBt Porphyr. De, St^pconos.

Adm.

koi no rank" Idt^n;^ Aypofi^ Imp, p. %^t edit Band.

348
BOOK
n.

BA8ILUN

DTNASTT.

raise a seoond rebellion after his release. He


an

procored
his

^**^

artificial hand

of brass,with which

he widded

sword ; the common sisted peopleflocked round him, and rethe gOTemment with so much determination that

he
he

was

with difficulty, and, to captured made burned

revenge
at

the display power,

he had
was

of the weakness of Romanus's

aliye in the Amastrianon

nople.^ Constanti-

lifeRomanus had been a votaryof pleasure, early but when the possession of every wish for three-andhe became a votary twenty years had tamed his passions, of superstition. of religion Feelings beganto affect his

In

mind, and
felt some who

at last he
remorse

allowed it

to

be discovered that he

for

in order birthright,

robbed his son-in-law of his having his own to bestow the gift children, on

treated him with less

law.

than their brother-inrespect dead, and Stephanos, was impelled Christophoros


restore

either by fear that his father would

Constantine

in the government, to the first place or Porphjrrogenitus excited by the usual unprincipled ambition that pervaded of the Byzantine the possession court,resolved to secure his father. Romanus was by deposing supreme authority seized by the agents of his son and carried off to the the where he was compelled island of Prote, to embrace his younger son, though he monastic life. Constantinos, had not been privy in profitto the plot, joined ing readily father's his Such ill-treatment. h owever, crimes, by breasts excite in the of the people always indignation ; and in this case the inhabitants of Constantinople, ing hearvague and
rumours

of

scenes

of dethronement, banishment,
for

became alarmed murder,in the imperial palace,

Constantine Porphyrosovereign, They feltan attachment to the injured prince, genitus. whom at all the church ceremonies, theysaw constantly
1

the life of their lawful

Ck"ntiii. 261.

CHARACTER

OP

CONSTANTINB

VII.

349

a.d. degradedfrom his hereditary place;his habits were ^^^^' known, many spokein his praise, nobodycould tell any evil of him. A mob rushed to the palace, and, filling the courts,insisted on seeing the lawful emperor. His the populace, but tranquillised appearance immediately hopeswere awakened in the breasts of many intriguers of his influence. A new vista of by this sudden display laid open, and the most sagacious statesmen was intrigue

saw was

that his establishment


the

on

the throne

as

sole emperor

of maintaining in order. Everyman means only of his long-neglected and rights, power became a partisan efi^ected without opposition. perors The Ema restoration was and Constantinos were seized by the Stephanos order of Constantino VII., while they were at sitting and compelled a to adopt the monastic supper-party, 27th January945.^ habit,

SECT.

IV."

CONSTANTINB

VIL

(P0RPHYR0GENITU8"-R0MANITS

H.

946-963.

ChARACTEB
"

op

CONSTANTINB
at the court EMPIRE war op
" "

VII.,A.D. 945-959
Pride
"

"

LiTBRAKT
government IN
"

WORKS
"

"

DEATH

Conspiracies
OP
"

op

Byzantine

Internal
"

CONDITION

SCLAYONIANS Bulgarian Crete


"

THE

PELOPONNESUS
op

Mainates

Saracen
"

war

Character
op

Romanus

IL, 959-963

Conquest

Condition

Greece.

of the indebted to the writings principally piled or to works comEmperor Constantino Porphyrogenitus, of Byzantine by his order,for our knowledge duringthe latter half of the ninth and earlier history half of the tenth centuries. His own us a give writings communicates his of his mind, for he generally picture
We
are

information
^

as

it

occurs

to

without huntingfor himself,


des Suitesmonitaira (Xainfication
new

I may

here correct

Essai Sauloy,

de

By-

in the zantwety 284, and Victor Langlois,

edition of LeUres du Baron Marthe in attributing Marchant chant sur la Numismatiquey was After all, 89. right I. The twfrappeengraved coins usually II. to Romanus ascribed to Romanus as he supposes. is too imperfect to fix any point as incontestably by Langlois In my own VIL, with collection I possess three good examplesof ConstanUne I possess, moreover, his longvisagestruck over Romanus. a coin of Constandecisive. I tine and Romanus IL struck over Romanus L, which is certainly

350
BOOK
Cb.
1.

BA8ILIAN

DYKA8TT.

n.

and and ecclesiastical classic phrases, allusionsand bis readers, as


words antiquated
was

for learned seeking astonish of the

1 4.

to

confose and

the fashion with most

tine Byzan-

nobles who
person
we

affected the
a

character. Of his literary

have

correct

in the writings of description

He was tall and well made, with broad dependants. face. This last feature neck and a long a long shoulders, of the coins of his in caricature on some is represented his complexion fair, reign. His skin was extremely his nose aquiline, ruddy,his eyes soft and expressiye, He and his carriage a a lover was as straight cypress. and a cellar of of good cheer, and keptthe best of cooks, excellentwine of all the choicestkinds ; but he indulged

his

in

no

excesses,

and his morals

and

mild

He was served repure. in his intercourse with his familiars,


were

that we must so dependants, his defects. In not wonder that his panegyrists forgot such a charactercould not failto be a despotic sovereign, popular.^ Constantino's longseclusion from public business had and eloquent
been devoted to the cultivation of his taste in art,as well in mathematics, was a proficient as to seriousstudy. He and music. sculpture, painting, astronomy, architecture,

liberal to his

The works of his


to the

were pencil ; pictures by Apelles

of

course was

lauded

as

equal

his voice

often heard in

the solemn festivals of the church.


"

of encyclopedia historical knowledge of which a part onlyhas reached our time,but even this part has preserved many valuable of ancient historians and treatiseson agrifragments
An
"

I had entertained no doubt of tbe correctness of Marchant's attribution before these examples,from the great number of the coins I had met have been brou^tto with in the Peloponnesus,and which I supposed must 1 posI. employed there againstthe Sclayonians. pay the troops Romanus sess also struck over of the incertains of John Zimiskee, a Romanus I., as one but which appear to date from the reignof Basil I. The coins they are called, attributed by Saulcy,201, to Basil L and Constantino his son, also belong, in at least, to Baisil 11. and Constantino YIII. I possess a pieoe in some oases copper,in which the youth of both princeslesTss no doubt on the subjeot
own

meetiDgwith

2d2. Continuator,

LITERARY

WORKS

OF

OONSTANTINB

VII.

361

culture and the

art,were veterinary
written

under compiled

his

a. d.

inspection.1 by his order were a chronicle in continuation of the Chronography of Theothe period of Leo V. from the reign embracing phanes, to the death of Michael III. The (theArmenian),
The
name

^^

historicalworks

of the writer is said to be Leontios.


on

second

work

but including the ^me the reign of period, Basil I., also written by Genesius ; and a third work, was
an

by

down

carried continuator, anonymous to the commencement of the

Byzantine history reignof his son


are

Romanus

11.^ ascribed to writings Constantino himself


culiarly pe-

The

treated by for several relate to subjects valuable, other author. The life of his grandfather, Basil L, no from vanity, that an experienced tellssome terer flattruths,

would

have concealed for fear of short notice geographical

woundingfamily
of the themes
or

pride.^A

us empire gives Byzantine medieval with ancient geography. the means of connecting But the emperor's most valuablework is a treatise on the written for the use of his son government of the empire,

administrativedivisions of the

Romanus,

which

abounds

with

tion contemporary informa-

limits and political the geographical lations reconcerning the northern frontier of the of the people on tine empirenear the Black Sea, with notices of the Byzanand of the condition of the Greeks power in Italy, of which we should and Sclavonians in the Peloponnesus,
the later portion of Roman are coUected history of the edition of the Byzantinehistorians published at Bonn kittoriarum quce Menandri Prisci,McUchi, EunapUf Petn PaUridi, Dexippi, The
to relatiDg fragments
^

in the firstvolume
"

iupertunt,1829, 8vo.
directed to conattention of the Emperor Constantine was tinuing naturaUy his mother's the work of Theophanes, as that celebrated annalist was The continuation of uncle. De Adm. Imp, chap,zzii page 76, edit. Bonn. contained in the of Basil I., and the history of the successors are Theophanes, of the Byzantine historians entitled Scriptorea volume pott Theophanem, but a more in the Venetian edition, Geneeiiis was firstprinted correct text is givenin the Bonn edition. ' The Life of Basil is contained in 8eriptore$ po$t Theopkanem. The
"

'

352

BASILIAN

DYKASTY.

BooKiL

otherwise know
"

^""'"^*-

Two nothing.^ essays on milito naval and military operations tarytactics one relating and the other to with the regular troopsof the empire, contain also much information.^ the usages of foreigners The longest work,however,that Constantino wrote, and himself most, was an account of that on which he prided It is court the ceremonies and usages of the Byzantine the least read of his writings, now yet it has probably without an it is published been edited with care, though than a translation.^ more index,which it required

almost

"

The

government of Constantino

was

on

the whole

mild and rich and of the

and the empiredimng his reign was equitable, master When he became despotic flourishing.
to

East,he continued

think and
and

act very much

as

he had done in his forced seclusion. He of manner simplicity him weakness prevented but his humanity and
same

the displayed

of heart. His goodness from beinga good sovereign, him love of justice preserved His subjects. his son, kind

from

beinga bad
the him induced

one,
mass

and he continued all his life to be of his allow

with popular

tion disposiII.,to

to

Romanus

and of the of singular a Theophano, girl beauty, but the daughter most graceful and fascinating manners, of a man in mean rians, histocircumstances. The Byzantine cratic who are more the chroniclers of aristofrequently scandal than of political and whose appetite history, for popular calumnyswallows the greatest ties, improbabilihave recorded that Theophanorepaid the goodness of the emperor by inducing his Romanus to poison marry
^ The contained in works De TTiematibw and De Adminutrando are Imperio Banduri's Imperiwn OrientalCf and in the Bonn collection. The work De Adnk Imp. was terminated in the year 952. Knig, 266. * The best edition of these treatises is contained in the sixth yolume of the works of MeursiuB. ' Part of the work De (kremoniit Avia Byzanttna has been interpolated at a later period, and hence some that the whole is the compilahave conjectured tion of the Emperor Constantine VIII. The onlycomplete edition of the Notes is that of Bonn.
"

DEATH

OF

CONSTANTINB

VII.,A.D. 959.

353

that the chief butler was gained, a.d. They pretend and that Constantine partook of a beverage, in which ^^^^ with medicine prescribed was mingled poison by his physician. him from swallowing Accident prevented enough but the draught to terminate his life, tion a constituinjured weak. To recover from the languor into already which he fell, he made a tour in Bithynia in order to air of Mount and visit the the bracing enjoy Olympus, monasteries and cellsof anchorites, with which principal the mountain was covered. But his malady increased, and he returned to Constantinople 9th Nov. 959. to die, which we The picture stantine possess of the conduct of Conin his own is so amiable, that we are family the accusations brought against to reject compelled Romanus and Theophano believethat we no more can ; than we can credit all the Constantine, theypoisoned Justinian recounted by Procopius. calumnies against
"

father.^

To
one

such perpetrate
a

crime,Romanus
of whose character
a so

would
acts

have been
served prefour

of the worst monsters

has history

record ; and

diabolicalwould

have

revealed its inherent wickedness

duringthe

with absolute power. the empire Yet years he governed ho appears onlyas a gay, pleasure-loving, ing pleasure-hunt-

prince.His

father and

his sisters alwaysregarded

him with the tenderest affection.

the youngest, Agatha, in his study, her father'sconstant companion and was acted as his favourite secretary.Seated by his side,

she read to him


; and

ters all the official reports of the minishis health

through public created no business. That such a proceeding alarming nor abuses, and producedneither serious complaints honourable to the heart of the is more family quarrels,
her intermediation that he consented
to

when

it was beganto fail,

transact

ii. 195,both CedrenoB,641, and Zonaras,

accuse

TheopbaDO and
Z

Romanus

of pairicide.

VOL,

I.

364
n.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

^'"^*'

than princess her good sense


not

of her task to her successfulperformance and that and affection, and Historians

It proves ability. ambition,promptedher conduct


recount

novelists may
a

Romanus, who lived in i^eobecame tionate intercourse with such a father and sister,
that but parricide, of

the sibility the tenor of actual life rejects posfor and of any man a as once, acting suddenly,

iniquity.^ tion, dissatisfacfor political of a safety-valve The necessity such as is afforded by a free press or a representative when we to prevent sedition, is evident, assembly, like Constantino exposed find a popular to numerous prince will not respect laws which Men conspiracies. and appear to their minds to be individual privileges, then form an not national institutions. Conspiracies tune, method of gambling for improving a man's forordinary and though few could aspire to the imperial in a change. could hopefor promotion throne, every man concocted to place the old Romanus Hence, we find a plot I. again the throne. Partisans were found who on even laboured for the worthless Stephanos, who was sively succesremoved to Proconessus, Rhodes, and Mitylene. Constantinos also, who was to Tenedos and transported
monster

then to Samothrace, made several attempts to escape. In the lasthe killedthe captain of his guards, and was slain by the soldiers. The conspirators in allthese plots
were

treated with of death


was

for the punishmildness, comparative ment inflicted either by Romanus I. rarely

or

Constantino VII.
In

of the wealth of the empire, and though the govspite ernment maintained a powerful standing army and regular there were of an inherent weakness in navy, many signs the state. The emperors attempted to make pride serve
as a

veil for all defects. The court assumed

an

inordi-

Contin. 286.

866

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

iL

^"'"^*'

and of course the head of the Eastern hardly questioDed, to the Pope of church occupied a very inferior position with courtly filled The church of Constantinople, Rome. and and both religion lost its political influence, priests, of ciyilisationsuffered by this additional centralisation cabinet. From this period we may power in the imperial date the decline of the Greek church.

The

Patriarch

Nikolaos,the mysticwho

had

been

his fourth marriage deposedby Leo VI. for opposing (a.d. 908),was reinstated by Alexander, who acted in of his brother's measures to most (a.d. 912). opposition After Romanus
so yielded

I.

was

established on the of pre-eminence that the


act

Nikolaos throne,

far to the
to
a

to

consent

union with
to
own

the civilpower as the party of his successor,

and Euthymios, been This sanctified


was

of Leo marriage Patriarch de


the

had

by

the

of the

facto.

done to avoid what Nikolaos calledscandal in

the church ; but the

of political experience that he must

bigoted

ecclesiastic shown him having

look for support

and power to the emperor, and not to the people, he became at last as subservient to the court as the mild

Euthymioshad ever been. On the death of Nikolaos of Amathe eunuch,who was archbishop Stephen (925), his successor, who, after a patriarchate was sia, appointed of three years, was succeeded by Tryphon (a.d. 928). held the office until Tryphon provisionally Theophylaktos,
the
son

of the

Emperor Romanus

should have attained I.,

the full age for ordination ; but in order to avoid too a year great scandal in the church, Tryphon was deposed
was Theophylaktos appointed. The imperial youth was then onlysixteen years of age, but his father obtained a papal confirmation of his election by means of consul and patrician of Rome, who kepthis own Alberic, at the time. Legates brother. Pope John XI., a prisoner sent to Constantinople, who installed were Theophylaktos in the patriarchal the chair on the 2d February 933.

before

THBOPHYLAKTOS

PATRIARCH,

A.D.

933-956.

357

then calledthe a.d. corporation ^^^^ Church, both in the East and West, insulted Christianity. The crimes and debauchery of the papal court were, offensivethan the servility and avarice of however,more John XI. was appointed the Greek hierarchy. Pope at the age of twenty-five, the influence of his mother through of in priests

order highest

the

(a.d. 931). Marosia and her second husband, had dethroned, and it is supposed dered, murGuy of Tuscany, of Cenci. John X., of the family John XI.,as we have mentioned,was imprisoned by his brother Alberic. and died in confinement,a victim to the political intrigues
Marosia of his brother and his mother. about

Alberic ruled Rome

for

that time the popes were thirty years, and during of the Latin church. On Alberic's onlythe patriarchs and death,his son Octavian succeeded him as patrician, under the name of became Pope at the age of eighteen, John XII. (a.d. considered the 956). He is generally throne.^ the papal criminal that ever occupied greatest not The conduct of the Patriarch Theophylaktos was much worse from a young than mighthave been expected whose father had provided him with a bishopric, man that he mightenjoy revenue. a suitable rank and merely As longas his father could keeppersons about the young outward decency his conduct, of controlling man capable rendered him independent was ; but age soon preserved of advice, and he openly tastes extremely unsuitable indulged to his ecclesiastical dignity. He lived like a and sold ecclesiastical debauched young prince, ments preferHe converted for his pleasures. to raise money into a the celebration of divine service at St Sophia's adorned with rich pageantry. His pasmusical festival, sion for horses and for hunting exceeded that of the
to Daunon, calls him almost Bellarmine, aoooFcUng Rom, Ponl. ii. chap. 29. Mooter, Hi$to%re des il fiit ii.94, says, " Quant k rautorit^ religieuse, Pontiff^onMxnt^ il usait d*un droit reconnu.'' Historians doubt ""vire, mais, pape legitime,
'

Baronius,Ann.

EeeU$,
"

the worst Somtrains whether

of the popes.

De

he

was

murdered

on

account

of his cruelties or his adulteries.

358
BOOK
iL

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

CB.i.f 4.

aod it caused his death, as ithad done Emperor Basil I., stables are The patriarchal that of the imperial groom. said to have contained two thousand horses. The magnificence in which his of the building, and the manner
favourite steeds
one were

fed,bathed, and
of

was perfumed,

Once, as TheoConstantinople. at the highaltar of St Sophia's, was phylaktos officiating ite that his favourto him and whispered a slave crept up alarmed had foaled. The congregation was mare with which the most holy"pontiflF by the precipitation
of the wonders
"

finishedthe service. The his ecclesiastical vestments


to the stable. After
was

young
as

Patriarch threw aside

and ran as possible, quickly himself that everything satisfying


mare

done for the comfort of the

and

he returned foal, the


to

to his cathedral to occupy his

The

peopleof

placein submitted Constantiuople

procession.
gious receive reli-

instructionfrom this festivaland

loving hunting

Patriarch for twenty years ; but strange have been must the reports that circulatedthrough of the the provinces
the impious concerning empire proceedings, profane songs,

indecent dances, and diabolical with which be ceremonies, defiledthe Church of the Divine Wisdom, could we look
into the secret

death of

of some history was Theophylaktos

The provincial Procopius. in keeping with his life.

One of his horses, and as as self-willed as the Patriarch, unfit for its duty, dashed him against dent The accia wall.
and he died in 956, after having a dropsy, on brought too longdisgraced the Greek church,and made St He was succeeded by Polyan Sophia's opera-house.^

whose parentshad marked him euktos, an ecclesiastic for an ecclesiastical life.^ It has been said that the condition general

out

of the

^ These not stroziger than those of Cedrenus, are 638, who was expressionB scandalised by the remains of the mummeries introduced into the cathedral service by Theophylaktos, and which were to his time. perpetuated ' The practice of making children eunuchs to insure their promotion in the church was common at thu time in the Byzantine empire.

CONDITION

OP

THE

BMPIBB.

369

Byzantine empire was prosperous ; but in a despotic the on government, any negligence followed part of the central administration is infallibly and extortion on of its the part of some by cruelty
distant agents, who exercise a power too great left uncontrolled without the certainty of abuse. weakness both of Romanus
I. and
to

inhabitants of the

a. d.

^^^^

be The

Constantino

VII.

allowed considerable disorder to


and the grossest acts of in the

at prevail

nople, Constanti-

tyranny to be committed

of Saracen extraction, Chases, a man provinces. raised to highofficeby the companions of the was of Alexander, and was of the debauchery governor theme of Hellas duringthe minority of Constantino. His insatiable avarice and infamous profligacy at last drove the inhabitants of Athens to despair, and as he divine servicein the great templeof the was attending of the dedicated to the Divine Wisdom once Acropolis" theyrose in tumult,and stoned their oppressor pagans
"

to

death the

at

the altar.^ A

governor

of Cherson
of the

had of

been murdered for Leo

at the end oppression John Muzalon, Philosopher.

reignof
attention

the governor
no

Calabria, now
was

shared the

same

fate. As

the commercial protecting of linesof trade either by sea or land, the navigation the Archipelago and the Adriatic was infestedby pirates, and the greatroads of Asia and Europe were dangerous from the bands of brigands, who remained unmolested in officers to
by the Byzantinewriters deserves be an example of individual wickedness, not general demoralisation. An Athenian named Rendakios (who may have been of Sclavonian descent, ruined by as he was a relative of the Patrician Niketas), his fitther. The old man and debt, laid a plotto murder quitted debauchery but was taken by piratesand Athens to live in tranquillity at Constantinople, carried to Crete. Rendakios pretendedthat his fiitherwas dead, took possession His to Constantinople. of the family property, sold it, and removed to seek an became known, and he was compelled attempt to commit parricide order was of St Sophia's given to arrest asylum in the precincts ; but an from the him. letters of recommendation He contrived to escape, and foraged and conbut was to Simeon, king of Bulgaria, demned captured, Emperor Romanus
notice,though it may
to lose his
1

paid by such

Gontin.

240.

An

anecdote reoorded

sight" Contin. 247.

360

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BooKiL

their

^'"**'

the serenth doge of Ursa Participation vicinitj. to announce sent his son Petro to Constantinople Venice,
concert
measures

and his election,

to

the protect and

commerce

of the Adriatic
Petro pirates. But emperor. trade ; and as

the against
was

Saracen

Sclaronian

honoured

and received many tharios,


no measures son

protospafrom the valuable presents


were

with the title of

the

of the

for protecting adopted doge of Venice returned

home, he

was

deliveredto

duke of Sdavonia, and seized bj Michael, The Sclavonian Simeon, kingof Bulgaria.
had
to

kept the presentshe his father compelled


release.^

and received, pay


a

the

Bulgarian
for his

largeransom

Hugh
Romanus

sent an to of Provence, kingof Italy, embassy of I. The Sclavonians in the neighbourhood

Thessalonica attacked the ambassadors;but the Italians and captured of their suite defeated the brigands, sdVeral, whom

they carried

to

and Constantinople

delivered to

the emperor for punishment.^


to

Weak, however,as the Byzantine empiremay appear porary a very different aspect to all contemus, it presented ministrati governments; for in every other countrythe admuch was were worse, and propertyand life
insecure. Its alliance
every
was

more

consequently eagerly

state, and the court of independent visited by ambassadors from distant was Constantinople and Asia. The Greeks were parts of Europe,Africa, then the greatest merchants and capitalists in the world, and theirinfluencewas felt not onlyby all the nations of Bagdat but by the rival caliphs professing Christianity,
Maratori,AnnaU tFItalia, v. 270. Lebeao, xilL 40S. The Btep"ther of Luitprand the historian, who was afterwards ambassador from Otho to Nicephorus IL, was one of the envoys. Among the presents two immense boar-hounds. were These dogs were so enraged at the appearance the Emperor Romanus made in his imperialrobes, for they took him for a wild animal,that theycould hardly be held by their keepers ing from attackhim on his throne,they were De Reim$ so eager to worry him. Luitprand, 9U0 iii chap. 5. Muratori, Temportin Europa getUi, t. 422. Lebeau,xiil 445.
I '
"

soughtby

SCLAVONIANS

IN

PELOPONNESUS.

361

and

CordoYa, and the hostileMohammedan


even

of princes
to

a.d.

Egypt and
The

Mauritania ; it extended monarchs of England.^

the Saxon

^^^^'

who had gained Peloponnesus, a temporary independence duringthe latter part of the of Theophilus, remained tranquil from the time of reign their subjection by Theodora's regency, until the careless administration of Romanus Two the Melings and tribes, Mount
I. againinvitedthem to rebel.

Sclavonians of the

who dwelt round Ezerites,

in a state of partial ceived conTaygetus independence, the hopeof delivering themselves from the Byzantine and r efused usual tribute.^ to the yoke, boldly pay Krinites Arotras, the general of the Peloponnesian theme,
was

ordered

to

reduce them

to obedience ; but

he

was

unable to make them laydown their arms laid waste their country from March without them allowing either to reap
was
or

until he had
to
sow.

November,
On

their

their tribute submission,


was

and each tribe increased,

to pay six hundred byzants obliged annually. But disturbances occurring not long afterwards among the and a new tribe called the Sclavesians officers, Byzantine and Ezerites sent the Melings the peninsula, entering to solicit to the Emperor Romanus a reduction deputies their inhabitants saw of their tribute. The peaceable and devastation if the propertythreatened with plunder and Ezerites should unite with the Sclavesians; Melings

threatened with the loss of the central government was the revenues of the province ; so the emperor consented charter with a golden to issuea golden bull, or imperial
the tribute of the Melings at sixty seal,fixing gold and that of the Ezerites at three hundred,as it byzants,

had been before theirrebellion. The


^ '

Sclavonian

of the Peloponnesus was population

Kemble, u. introd z. of Taygetus was The clasBic name


at

and already forgotten,

the mountain

was

as called,

Ck"nst Porph.De Adm. Pentadaktylos." present,

50. Imp,ohtt/p,

862 not confined to the

BASILIAN

DYKASTT.

BOOK Cb. Lf

n. 4.

districts ; tributary
who

nor,

indeed, were
own

these the bank

onljSdavonians
The

retained dieir

local

administration.

from the northern whole country, of the Alpheusto the sources of the Ladon and

in their possession, and theygOYemed was Erymanthus, it according to their national usages until the Crusaders Greece. A considerablebody of the Sclavo* conquered and nians had also begun to adoptByzantine civilisation, in of the wealthiest contended for the highest some places Niketas the administrationof the empire. The patrician took an actiye share in the intrigues which placedthe His pride the head of Romanus. crown on imperial and presumption, are as well as his Sclayonian descent^ ridiculedby the Emperor Constantino Porphyrogenitus, had formed an alliance with the though the patrician family.^ imperial From thistime we hear nothing of the Sdavonians more settled in the Peloponnesus, until the peninsula was invaded by the Crusaders, tinople, after they had taken Constanand established the Frank empireof Romania

(a.d. 1204).
The condition of the town
about

of Maina
with
a

and the district

cissitude of the vipicture the Greeks had snfieredduring the declineof the Roman empire. The population of this rugged tory promonconsisted of the poorer class of agricultural Laconians, and it keptpossession of this arid district vonians when the Sdaseized the rich plain and drove of the Eurotas, the Greeks out of Sparta. The strangers all occupied the rich pastures Mount Taygetus, but want of water on

us Cape Taanarus presents

theiradvance along the promontoryof Taenarus, prevented


^ The of Niketas was the wife of the Emperor Christophoros, the daughter eldest son of RomaDus T. The verse of a Byzantine poet,which Oonstantine mentions was applied to NiketajB, has caused much learned discussion. The words seem to say that the patrician bad an ass-like Sclavonian visage
"

-De

ii.6. Kopitar, ThmtUibui, Muedlanea

GroBOodavioa, p. 68.

364
BOOK
II.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

amidst all their civil wars, the MohammedaDs tinual incursions into Asia

made

con-

^'"**'

Minor, and the Byzantine

troops avengedthe losses of the Christians by ravaging


carried and Mesopotamia. Slaves and cattlewere Syria whether victors or vanquished, off by both parties, so that the country became gradually depopulated ; and in tween befind the richest provinces we succeeding generations and the Mediterranean the Halys, the Euphrates,
in
a

state of desolation. The


to

suburbs of the towns

were

with inhabitants, once valleys, swarming and cultivatedwith the spade, could support so that they the regency reduced to sheep-walks. millions, were During with a powerful fleetunder of Zoe,Damian, emir of Tyre,

reduced

ashes ;

his

command, attacked Strobelos in Caria,but he


^

was

repulsed ; and in the following army year the Byzantine made an irruption into the territories of Germanicia and thousand prisoners, cording acSamosata, and carried off fifty
to the accounts

of the Arabian

historians. The

concluded peace with would have willingly empress-regent the Saracens at this time, for she was compelled port to transthe greater part of the Asiatic army into Europe to resist and it appears that a Simeon, king of Bulgaria,
truce and
arms

of prisoners took place.The Byzanexchange tine

had been

so

much

more

successful than
when

the all

Saracen
the

the preceding that during campaigns, Christians had been exchanged, the number still unredeemed
was so

hammedans of Mo-

greatthat the caliph

had to pay a hundred and twentythousand pieces of gold for their release, to the stipulated fixed by according price

the convention.^ Romanus who had obtained the throne by means I.,
of

the supportof the navy, appears to have

paidmore

atten-

^ Strobelos the ancient Myndoe. It is called an island by the Bysantine was writers from itspeninsular situation." Const. Porphyr. De Them, page 15, edit Bonn. ' ii.635. The Byzantine Weil, Oetchichu der Cfhal\fen, ambassador at was Bagdatin July 917.

SABACBN

WAR.

366

tion to

In a. d. good order than his predecessors. ^^^^^' who visited the year 926, Leo of Tripolis, the Archipelago, to repeat his exploits at Thessalonica, countered enwas seeking in the waters of Lemnos by the imperial defeated under John Radenos,and so completely squadron that it was with difficulty he saved his own ship. The wars of the Karmathians brought the caliphate

keepit

in

into such

disturbed

state

menia that the Christians of Ar-

raised their banner, and, uniting theirforces again with the Byzantine obtained greatsuccesses over generals, the Saracens. been

John, the

son

of that Kurkuas who had

for conspiring of sight Basil I., was deprived against commander-in-chief by Romanus, and commenced appointed of conquest a career ablyfollowed up a few years later by the Emperors Nicephorus II. and John I. The military the skill of John Kurkuas,. (Zimiskes). which of his army, and the tideof conquest highdiscipline of military flowed with his presence,revived aspirations The learned renown long dormant at Constantinople. and Belisarius, to compare him with Trajan were pleased the heroes of the Western and Eastern Empires. As early of Leo VI.,the Armenians under as the reign Melias had made considerable progress. The territory was theydelivered from the yoke of the Mohammedans and Melias formed into a small theme, called Lykandos, named itsgeneral, with the rank of patrician.^ From was

the year 920

to

942, John

Kurkuas

was

almost uninterruptedly

In 927 he the Saracens. engagedagainst of Melitene, the province and took the capital, of ravaged he onlyretained possession for a month.^ which,however, the Saracen emir of Melitene, Two years after, finding himself unable to resistthe Byzantine to armies, engaged In the mean pay tributeto the emperor. with the assistance of a divisionof
^ "

the Armenians, time,

Byzantine troops,
228.

Constant Porphyr. De Adm, Contin. 257. Weil,iL 637.

50,page Imp.ohap.

366

BASILIAN

DTNASTT.

BOOK ^

n.

had

'"***

the lake of Van, and forced the Saracens of Aklat and Betlis not only to pay tribute,
cross

theirconquests to pushed

but to allow the

to be elevated in theircities higher

nual longseriesof anand Arabian incursionsrecorded by the Byzantine writers may be described in the words plunder, slavery, In the campaignof 941, the Byzantine depopulation.

than the domes of their mosques.

The

troopsare said to have reduced fifteenthousand Saracens


to

But slavery.

the
to

of John Kurkuas
of the acquisition

which raised the reputation exploit the the highest of glory, was pitch
a

with miraculous handkerchief,

likeness

its texture ; a relic on visibly impressed which the superstition of the age believedhad been sent by In the Christ himself to Abgarus, of Edessa. prince plundered year 942, John Kurkuas crossedthe Euphrates, took Nisibis, as far as the banks of the Tigris, Mesopotamia and laid siege The inhabitants of the city to Edessa. the miraculous their safety purchased by surrendering handkerchief. The victoriousgeneral removed from was his command and the relicwas transported after, shortly to Constantinople by others.^ The parallel drawn by the people of Constantinople between Belisariusand John Kurkuas seems imperfectly of the latergeneral borne out by the conquests ; but the than of a relic weighed, in those days, more acquisition that of a kingdom. Yet, perhaps, the miraculous even with of Edessa would not have been compared portrait

of

our

Saviour

had the conquestof the Vandal and Gothic monarchies, the two-and-twenty years of John Kurkuas's honourable service not been
In the ingratitude. repaid by courtly the veteran was accused of aspiring of his fame, plenitude and removed from all his employments. at the empire,

Romanus
^

likeJustinian, when he examined the I.,

accu-

Qeorg.Hon.

"ehement
iL82.

590. Contin. 268. Erng, 225. In ihis age there was a desire to gainpossession of relics. Chamich,Hiitoryof Armenia,
"

SABACSK

WAB,

A.D.

962.
was

367 and jealous


a. d.

satioD, was

conyinced of itsfalsity, but he

mean-spirited.^ W5^ the of Coustantine the war VII., During goyernment continued with vigour was on both sides. Seif Addawalah, the Hamdanite, called bj the Greeks Ohabdan, who was emir of Aleppo, with powerful armies.' invaded the empire Bardas Phokas, the Bjzantine more general, displayed avarice than energy ; and even when replaced by his son the future emperor, victory diately not immewas Nicephorus, restored to the imperial standards. But towards the end of Constantino'sreign, removed Nicephorus, having various abuses both in the military and civil service, which had grown out of the gains from the traffic arising in plunder, and slavescaptured in the annual forays of the
at last led troops,

secute army into the fieldcalculated to prothe war with glory. The result of these preparations II. in the reign of Romanus became visible
an

After the conquest of Crete, the whole force of the empirein Asia was placed under
of

disposable
the
mand com-

to the Arabians, who, according Nicephorus, of 962 at the head of one hundred openedthe campaign

thousand

oppose and Anathis army in the field;Doliche,Hierapolis, zarba were and captured, Nicephorusadvanced to where Aleppo,
to
was

men.^

The

Saracens

were

unable

to

Seif Addawalah The capital.


the

protecthis
turned

army of Hamdauite the position

had

collectedan
the

by

tactics of superior

his general,

communications

his army at last defeated, and of Aleppooccupied. A sedition of the Arab


^

Byzantine with his capital cut ofi; his palace and the suburbs
and troops,

the wrote a work in eight books on Manuel, a judgeand protoepatharios, of John Kurkoaa As the holy handkerchief of Edesaa was brought exploits after his disgrace, is not men15th August 948, his name to Ck"nstantinople tioned

by the servile historians of the empire in connection with its capture. This fact shows to what extent these writers conceal the truth. Compare Contin. 265, and Krug, 224. * Leo ben Hamadan Diaconus, note, page 415, edit Bonn. D'Herbelot, Hcmdoun, Weil, iii 14. ' Leo Diaconus,878, edit.Bonn.
"

368
a

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BooKn.
Ch.
I.

f 4.

between the inhabitants and the garrison, quarrel enabled Nicephoras to enter the city ; but tlie citadel of a Saracen army defied his attacks. On the approach his conquest, abandoned from Damascus, Nicephorus of Aleppo, bootyfrom the city carrying away immense of sixty forts along and retaining the range of possession Mount Taurus as the resultof his campaign. The disastrous defeat of the Byzantine army by the of the the primary at Achelous was cause Bulgarians elevationof Romanus he conducted the
of operations
now
war

I. to the throne ; and as emperor, he had directed the as illas quite

the fleetwhen

admiral,thoughhe could
the disastersof

deriye

no

from personal advantage

his country. In 921, the warlike monarch of the Bulgarians after advanced to the walls of Constantinople, The a defeating Byzantine army under John Rector. of the fountains, and many villasabout imperial palace the city, were burned, and Simeon retired unmolested with immense booty. The city taken of Adrianople was in one in lost and reconquered campaignby treachery, another by famine.^ In the month of September 923, Simeon againencamped before the walls of Constantinople, the greaterpart of Thrace after havingravaged and Macedonia with extreme the destroying barbarity, fruit-treesand burningthe houses of the peasantry. He oflered, a however,to treat of peace, and proposed i nterview Romanus who was compelled with I., personal his proud enemy without the walls, in such a to meet had the appearance of a Roman way that the meeting emperor suingfor peace from a victorious barbarian. the ground marked out Romanus, when he approached for the interview, the Bulgarian saw army saluteSimeon
as an

emperor

with loud shouts and the

music,while the
silver

of body-guard

with Bulgarian resplendent king,

^ The second writers in is placed by aU the Byzantine captureof Adrianople 922 ; but Krug givesreasons for placing it in the year the 10th indiction, a.d. 923." CAron. dtr B^ 155.

AFFAIRS

OF

BULaARIA.

369

of Constantinople people by its A.T" and the veteran soldiers of the empireby its ^^^ splendour, It seems that the rebellion of the steady discipline.^ Sclavonians in the Peloponnesus filledRomanus with anxiety ; but he affectedto solicit peace from motives of and humanity, that he mightalleviate ings the sufferreligion of his subjects. The basis of peace was settledat tliis and Simeon retired to his own conference, kingdom laden with the plunder of the provinces and the gold of The Byzantine the emperor. writers omit to mention of this treaty, so that there can any of the stipulations
armour,

astonished the

be

no

doubt that it was


It must

far from honourable to the

pire. em-

be remarked, that they however, are

always

in their notice of treaties, and have extremely negligent of any of those connot transmitted to us the stipulations cluded with the Khazars,or other nations through whose of the a great territory partof the commercial intercourse with India and China was carried on, Byzantine empire

and from which the wealth of

in was Constantinople
can

greatmeasure
that one

derived.

There

be

no

doubt,however,

the public of this treaty was stipulations of the Bulgarian of the independence acknowledgment of the archbishop and the official of church, recognition both by the emperor as Patriarch of Bulgaria, Dorostylon

of the

Constantinople.^ the Servians and arms against in these hostilities is said to Croatians. His cruelty have surpassed tants witnessed. The inhabiever anything murdered, and all were deliberately everywhere that its richest plains Servia was reso depopulated
and the Patriarch of Simeon then turned bis
' alliance with the Pope,who sent to have formed Simeon is suppoeed an him a royal to reward his hostilitiesagainstthe Byzantine crown empire and il 187. Slavitche AlUrthilmer, church." Schafarik, ' The fact is proved by the listof the primates of Bulgaria givenby Duabolished in Bulgaria was dignity cange, Fam. Aug, Byz.176. The patriarchal The Greek in the 972. he I. when John conquered country (Zimiskes), by church when they assert that the head of the Bulgarian writers err, therefore, as a patriarch never was recognised by the church of Constantinople. officially 1 1227,and ii. "Le Ckritiianus, 287, and Neale's History Quien, OruM of ike voL L p. 44, afford no information on this curious question. Holy Eatiern Church,

VOL.

T.

2 A

370
BOOK
n.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

mained uncultivated for many years. Everyinhabitant carriedinto Bulgaria to be sold as a slave ; ^^^ gi^jj^ chm^4. ^^ and the
was capital so seven that, completely destroyed, men only fifty years after the retreat of the invaders, found in itsvicinity, were as hunters.^ At lastthe living

defeated by the Croacompletely to despair. of Simeon had driyen whom the cruelty tians, itself under and Servia placed Simeon died shortly after, the protection of the Byzantine government. had been formidable at this time by the Bulgaria

Bulgarian army

was

talents of Simeon
now

rather than its own

power.

It

was

who were by the Magyars, incursions into Germany,Italy, on carrying plundering threatened with invasion
into France. and
even

who Peter,
to secure

had

succeeded his

father Simeon, was

anxious

tier his southern fron-

: he married a closerunion with the empire by forming of the Emperor Christophoros, and a Maria,the daughter ance long peace followed this alliance. But the tiesof alleginot very powerful were people, among the Bulgarian and a rebellionwas headed by Michael the brother of

Peter.

The rebels maintained themselves in

state of

afterMichael's death; and when they were independence entered the territory at last compelled to emigrate, they of the empire, the themes of Stryand, passing through
mon,

seized on and Hellas, Thessalonica, of possession


some

retained

that
It

and city
seems

and Nicopolis, the surrounding connected with the

countryfor

time.

of that the incursion

Sclavesians into the Peloponnesus was thisinroad of the Bulgarians.' Thrace had
ravages of the
not

from enjoyedsufficient respite

before it its losses, to recover Bulgarians who advanced to the was by the Hungarians, plundered walls of Constantinople in 934.' The retreat of these
Sendt wag ravaged in 927." Const Porphyr. De Adm, Imp.chap. 82. Wo Servia with may compare the way in which Simeon laid waste and depopiuated that in which William the Conqueror treated Northumberland from policy, and the New Forest for amusement." ir. Hume, BUt, of Engiand, chap. * 628. Cedrenus, " Contin. 262. Symeon Mag. 488. Oeorg.Mon. 588. Leo Qramm. 606.
*

372
BooKH.
^'
'"

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

of the Saracens of hostilities


'^

This tribute was Sicily. but the treaty reduced to 11,000 byzants, subsequently of the Emperor Niceremained in force until the reign in the south of 11/ Even this distant province phorus incursions of not safe from the plundering was Italy who in the year 948 embarked on the the Hungarians, under the walls of Otranto. and ravaged Adriatic, Apulia interestsof Christianity, The general as well as the extent induced the Byzantine commerce, ment governByzantine to aid Hugh of Provence and the Genoese in established at the nest of Saracen pirates destroying in the Alps, to the eastward of Nice.' Fraxinet, II. was Romanus only twenty-one years of age when
of

he ascended the throne.


to

He

bore

strong resemblance

much of his goodhis father in person, and possessed nature and mildness of disposition, but he was of a more

dulged he inUnfortunately, with an eagerness that in every species of pleasure ruined his health and reputation, thoughhis judicious selection of ministers prevented the empire. its injuring He was blamed for inhumanity, in compelling his sisters to enter a monastery ; but as his object was a political he was satisfied one, in order to prevent their marriage, with their taking the veil, thoughtheyrefused to wear

activeand determined character.

the monastic dress ; and he allowed them to liveas they and dispose of their own fortunes at fit, thought private will. His own obtained if he prevented was object any alliancewith an forming which would have endangered the hereditary tliem, right of his own children. His good-nature is avouched by the fact, that when Basilios calledthe Bml, a favourite ministerof his father engaged in a number of patricians
" "

of the ambitious nobles from

he allowed none of the to seize the throne, conspiracy to be put to death. conspirators Though he spenttoo
a
^

"

652. Cedrenns, AnnaH Muratori,

v. 319. d'ltaliay

BOMANUS

II. A.D.

959-963.

373
A.D.

much

and dancers, both the administration of civiland military affairswas well

of his time surrounded

by actors

945^3.

conducted
surrounded

his reign. His greatest was during delight

in

and hunting,

he spentmuch of his time in the country his horses, and his by his gay companions,
in

dogs.

His

excesses

and fatigue soon pleasure


at

ruined

his constitution ; but when he died the people, who remembered four,

the age of twentyhis tall well-made

and smiling figure countenance, attributed his death to manner poison.His wife,whose beautyand graceful the public never which apwon to pardona low alliance, peared to their prejudices of the the majesty to disgrace accused of this crime, of having was purple, as well as the death of her father-in-law.^ Romanus on instigated his death-bed did not neglect his duty to the empire. He had observed that his able prime-minister, Joseph had begun to manifest too great jealousy of Bringas, Phokas ; be therefore left it as his dying Nicephorus

that Nicephorus should not be removed injunction the command of the army employed the against who conducted the Joseph Bringas, the reign of Romanus II.,was a during and integrity. His worst act, in the eyes
was, that he withdrew
an

from
cens. Sara-

administration
man

of talent John

of his contemporaries,

eunuch,named

monastery into which he had been exiled by Constantino VII.,and conferred on him the dignity
a

from Cherinas,

of

with the command of the foreign patrician, guards. The Patriarch protested in vain against this act of sacrilege wanted a man the guard, to command over ; Bringas whom he knew the leading ence nobles could exerciseno influhis frock, ; so the monk quitted put on armour, and became
a

ablest and

of the at court. one Sisinios, man leading in the public most upright was men service,

'

Leo

31,odiL DiaoonuB,

Boon.

874
BOOK II.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

^'"'^

and rendered the admiof Constantinople, prefect A general nistrationof justice prompt and equitable. and he tried the talentsand firmness of Bringas, scarcity it occurred met the difficulty though by hisgreatexertions, made
at

the rery time it was

necessary to make

extraordinary

Crete. the expedition to prorision against preparations taken distress the public to alleriate was Everymeasure
in
a

for the disinterested spiritEverything required

paidfor ; to prevent speculation army was immediately in com, the exportation from the capital of provisions law whidi may often be rendered was a prohibited
"

of police, thoughit is necessary as a temporary measure of sound a direct violationof the permanent principles commercial
The

policy.

II. was the of Komanus greatevent of the reign inflictedon Byzantine conquest of Crete. The injury fittedout in the numerous commerce by the Saracen corsairs, compelled ports on the north side of that island, many

of the Greek islands of the Archipelago to purchase

from the rulersof Crete by the payment of a protection tribute. The trade of Constantinople and its regular of provisions were supplies yet constantly interrupted, several expeditions fittedout on the largest Crete, against had been defeated. The overthrow scale,
in the

taken of that under-

reignof Leo VI. has been noticed.^ RoI. was im willing to revivethe memory of his share manus in that disaster, and left the Cretans undisturbed during his reign ; but Constantino VII., towards the end of his the an on reign, a very grand scale, prepared expedition
command of which he intrusted
to
an

eunuch

named

defeated ; the was Gongyles.This expedition completely taken,and the greaterpart of the Byzantine camp was force destroyed. with diffiGongyleshimself escaped culty.2
1 '

Seepage 881.
Leo Diaoonus,6. 640. Cedrenue,

Zonaras, ii.195.

Constant.

]"e CeremAulcB Byn,lib.iL obap.45 ; vol. i 664, edit Bonn.

Porpbyr. Krag, 298.

EXPEDITION

AGAINST

CBBTB,

A.D.

960.

875

seated on the throne before he a. d. hardly ^^^^ resolyed to wipeoS the disgrace the empire had suflFered. The only mode of protecting the commerce of the capital
was

Romanus

and

the coasts

of Greece

was

to conquer the island of

and expel allthe Saracen population. Romanus Crete,

determined to fitout

an

on expedition

scalesuitablefor

this undertaking, Phokas and he knew that in Nicephorus he possessed to the enterprise. a general Bringas equal aided the emperor with zeal and energy, and gave no to the endeayours that some countenance courtiers made
to awaken

the jealousy of Romanus, that too much glory from the successfultermination mightaccrue to Nicephorus

greatan undertakiug. The expedition was strongin numbers and complete


so

of

in its equipments. The

fleet consistedof dromons


was

and

chelands. taken the

The

dromon

the

which war-galley,

had

of the triremes of the ancient Greeks and place the quinqueremes of the Romans two tiers ; it had only of rowers, and the largest carried three hundred men, of
whom

seventywere

marine soldiers. The

chelands

were

smaller and and


crews

for rapid vessels, movements, adapted lighter fittedwith tubes for launching Greek fire, and their
seem

to have varied from 120

to 160

men.

More

than three hundred


war,
are

with freighted
not to suppose
war

of attended the ships large transports machines and stores.^ We military that the dromons few
were only as

and chelands

were

allfittedfor the

; a

for that purrequired pose,


winter

and the rest served

for the army, and transports


a

provisions necessary

for

land forcesconsisted of chosen Asia and

campaign.The of troopsfrom the legions

sian with Armenian, Sdavonian,and RusEurope, auxiliaries. The port of Phygela, near Ephesus,

^ of the veeaelB compoeing the us the enumeration Symeon Mag. 498,givee He says there were dromons, two thousand chelandia, a thousand expedition. and he is an author deserving tion. attenand three hundred and sixty transports, caUed donkeyfWgates Our admiralty built at one time a daas of fHgates ; goYemment was no better advised. perhiqwthe Byzantine

376
BOOK u.

BA8ILIAN

DYNASTY.

seryed

as

the

of rend^vous place

f^^^ ^YiQcoasts of Greece and CHjj^i. was Everything readjin the disembarked his troopsin Crete withcmt sustaining Nicephorus the Saracens attempted to oppose though any loss, the operation. The city to of Chandax was prepared defend itself and the Mohammedans to the lastextremity, in the rest of the island took active measures for resisting the progress of the Byzantine their and preventing troops, from the interior. Chandax was deriving any supplies fortified too strongly to be taken without a regular siege, it that the of first invest to so was operation Nicephorus To insure the fallof the place in form. at the risk even ing he began of prolonging his operations the siege, by formcircumvallationround his camp and naval a complete which he connected with the station,
the and city,
sea on

collected ships the islands of the Egean.^ month of July 960, and for the

both sides of

thus cut the enemy oflf tion from all communicaof with the Saracens in the country. The pirates

had often been at war with all the world,and their stronghold in such a way that it theyhad fortified
could be defended with

Chandax

while the bulk garrison, of their forceswere in search of plunder.The cruising attacks of the Byzantine repeated emperors had also warned them of the dangers to which they were exposed. Towards the land, wall the a high ; it was protected city but the mortar of which composedof sun-dried bricks, theywere formed had been kneaded with the hair of
a

small

and swine goats it was


so

into

mass

broad that
A

two

stone,and chariots could drive abreast on


almost
as

hard

as

its summit.

double ditch of greatdepth and breadth the work, and rendered approach diflBcult. strengthened
One of the
sent parties out

the conquest of the island to take the fieldin person compelled


^

to complete by Nicephorus he was havingbeen cut off,


as soon as

he had

Strabo

calla it Pygcla, ziv. 639.

Contin. Romaniis, 297.

Symeon Mag.

498.

CONQUEST

OP

CRETE,

A.D.

961.

377
A.n.

the fortress completedhis arrangements for blockading the during winter. The
an

Saracens, encouraged by their

success, had assembled

attempting army, and proposed attacked in when they to relievethe besieged were city,
their position, and routed with great loss. The Byzantine i n of defenders the general, order to intimidate

Chandax,ordered the heads of those slain in the country


of his the camp, stimulating the activity of soldiers in this barbarous service by payinga piece
to be to brought

silverfor every head. They were then ranged on spears the whole line of the circumvallation towards the along fortifications of the that many great,
of
more

city ;
were

and the number


cast

of slainwas

so

in order catapults, A

to

by means place full extent let the besieged see the


maintained

into the

of the lossof their countrymen.

strictblockade

was

winter. When

the weather

duringthe whole cruised light galleys permitted,

before the port, and at all times several of the swiftest dromons and chelands were kept ready to pursue any vesselthat might either attempt to enter or quit the port.

thoughthe Saracens were reduced to suffer great showed no disposition and to surrender, privations, they the siege advanced with on as spring pressed Nicephorus mines and battering-rams. At last a practicable breach and the place taken by storm on the was effected, was 7th of May 961.^ The accumulated wealth of many abandoned to the troops, was years of successfulpiracy but a rich booty and numerous carried to slaves were and shown in triumph to the people. Constantinople, To complete the conquest of the island, it was necessary to exterminate the whole of the Saracen population. To
effect of Chandax the fortifications this, the ground, and
on a a new were

But

levelledwith

fortresscalled Temenos, situated twelve miles inland, was


Chandax
was

about hill, highand rugged


Boon. whole The
name

Leo Diaconns, 11, edit and extended to the Candia,

into corrupted

iahmd, by the Venetians.

378
BOOK
^'
'"

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

iL

* **

and garrisoned by a body of Bjsantine Armenian troops. Many Saracens, boweyer,remained in the island, but they redaced to a state approachwere ing senritude. The greater part of the Greek population

constructed and

in

some

partsof the island had embraced


135
was a

Mohammedan*

ism

the daring

the island

years of Saracen domination. When Armenian monk named an reconqnered,

Nikon became the honour of

and to these infidels, missionary numbers of the Cretans conyerting

he had back
to

As soon as the conquestof the island was Christianity.^ the greater completed, part of the army was ordered to Asia Minor ; but Nicephorus inyited by the emperor was to yisit where he was allowed the honour Constantinople, of a triumph. He brought Kurup,the Saracen emir of in his train.^ Crete, a prisoner

here pause to take a cursory yiew of the state of Greece during the ninth and tenth centuries. The We
may

preceding pages
in the

haye

noticed the few facts land glorious


that
are

conc^*ning

the fortunes of this once

preseryed

but these facts are of themsdiyes annals, Byzantine

how a people, and whose language explain litei*ature in society, a occupied predominant position neither political enjoyed power nor moral pre-eminence instruction of eyery child in nation. The literary a as the empire roughly culture was thowho receiyed any intellectual

insufficient to

Greek
; its

its firstprayers

were

uttered in that language

were feelings

refined

by

the

choicestpassages of the Greek poetsand its opening mind was enlarged by the
^

of the perusal and tragedians, of the writings


; iL

Annal Baronius,

Eocies,ajx

961.

F.

Oreta 8aora,L206 Comeliiis,

240. Leo Diaoonus,28,420, edit Bonn. Krug, 314. There is a oontemporaiy in five cantos (acroases) the conquest of Crete,by TheodosioSy a on deacon, which givesa tolerably pictureof correct^though not a very poetical, the war. and is givenin the It was publishedin the Oreta Sacra of Cornelius, volume at of the Byzantine historians that contains Leo Diaoonus,printed Bonn. poem
*

380
was

BA8ILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

iL

^'^^^

of great actiritj, increase, a period unqaestionablj and improTement as among every other among the Greeks, of the Eastern Empire. But of the population portion after the subjection of the Sclavonian colonists in the first
years of the ninth and the re-establishment of century, nean, the whole Mediterra-

extensive commercial relationsover Greek

into a stationary dition. conrelapsed again society There is no doubt that the general aspectof the a total change ; and its condition countryhad undergone

centurywas as differentfrom its condition in the seventh,as the state of the southern provinces is from their state in of Russia, in the presentcentury, the thirteenth, after the devastations of the Tartars.
in the tenth

Numerous
The
us

new

citieshad been built.^

of legendary history

the Greek

monasteries tells

that the that the country was deserted, once utterly ruggedlimestone mountains were overgrown with forests and thick brushwood, and that into these deserted spots holy hermits retired to avoid the presence of pagan and pastoral the rich plains who occupied Sclavonians, of the slopes

lower hills. In these retreats the that

chorites holyan-

in celb once dwelling occupied by saintsof an earlierday men who were supposed Roman fled of from have to persecutions imaginary whole provinces by their emperors, who had depopulated hatred to Christianity, instead of by administrativeoppression where the and visions hermits saw ; revealing these predecessors had concealed portraits paintedby

dreamed

theywere

"

the work of no miraculous pictures, himself, or human hand. Such is perhaps a not unapt representation the of a large part of the rural districtsof Greece during seventh century. The immense extent of the private
^ Of like Lacssdemon, others constraoted on ancient sites, these, were some replacedneighbouringancient cities^ like Monemvasia, Piada,UMi, Veligoeti, Andrayida, and Arkadia.

St Luke

CONDITION

OP

GREECE.

381
A.D. 945-963.

estates of

from the time of Augustus few richindividuals,

to that of Leo the

populated, deleftwhole provinces Philosopher, and fit to be used as pasture.'Landlords, only and slavery had all conspired to reduce robbers, pirates, and depopulation before Gi-eece to a state of degradation

the Sclavonians colonisedher soil. administration of the Iconoclastsrestored vigorous subdued the reduced the aristocracy to obedience, order, and commerce. and revived industry The Sclavonians, the Greek population state of Greece was again changed, increased as if theyhad been new colonistssettled on a and from the end of the ninth centuryto the soil, virgin invasionof the Crusaders, Greece was a richand flourishing The material causes of thiswealth are as evident province. of its political The as the moral causes insignificance.
The

greatpart of the
the hands

commerce

of the Mediterranean

was

in

of the Greeks ; the wealth and laws of the at theircommand empire ; Byzantine amplecapital placed
was

the silkmanufacture
cotton manufacture

to Thebes and Athens what the

now

is to Manchester

and

Glasgow ;
at
a

Monemvasia

was

then what

Venice became

later

period ; the slave-trade, thoughit filledthe world with and Christian society with demoralisation, brought misery, wealth to the shores of Greece. The mass of the agricultural as as much too, enjoyed population, prosperity the commercial. The produce of the countrywas dant, abunand labour bore a far higher than has ever price been the case in western Europe. This was a natural resultof the state of things in the vicinity of every town and village in Greece. able The nature of all the most valuof the land rendered the demand for labour produce at particular seasons very great; and thislabour yielded for it fructified immense profits, vineyards, olive-groves, and orchards of the choicestkinds, formed by the accumulated
of ages. capital

The labour of

few

created days

382
BOOK II.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

an

amount

of

which produce
at

bore

^^llJ.*" cost, and

Greece

this time

with its compariscm of a monopoly possessed


no

the finer kinds of

wine, and fruit. Moreover, the oil,

habits of the Sclavonians, who still pastoral large occupied at a distancefrom the principal towns, prevented provinces
of the cultivation
; and greatextent of country which in ancient times the ruin of the excellent roads, had admitted of the transport of huge blocks of marble,
corn over a

and the march of armies the


to

over bj elephants accompanied

of grain rendered the transport mountains, roughest cumstances All these cirany considerable distance impossible. of rendered labour valuable. The cultivation

often a matter of necessity, was husbandry by spade grain labourer could easily maintain a so that the agricultural and abundance. of comparative ease position chance of improvement the only In thisstate of society, which was layin the moral advancement of the citizen, with onlyattainableby the union of freelocalinstitutions central administrationof the state,and a well-organised a judicial political system over which the highest power central could exert no influence. Unfortunately no which has posgovernment on the continent of Europe, sessed and sufficient to repress local selfishness, strength has ever yet avoided the undue power of privileged dasses, the case in the Byzantine fiscal ; and thiswas oppression empire.The social condition of the Greeks nourished intense local selfishness of the ; the central operation exactions. The Byzantine government led to severe fiscal result of the political and financial, well as of the as moral state of the country,was to produce a stationary Taxation absorbed allthe annual condition of society. of industry offeredno invitation to form ; society profits and or extend existing manufactures, new plantations, the age afforded no openings for new enterprises ; each in the limitsof that which had moved exactly generation

CONDITION

OP

GREECE.

383

in a state of material so that Greece, it, though preceded the brink of decline. That was on prosperity, standing

a.d.

^^^^

decline commenced
to

the moment

the Italians were


resources

enabled
of their

avail themselves of the natural

country. Amalfi,Pisa,Genoa, and Venice,freed from the fiscal of a central government, became first oppression
the rivals and then the
merce,

of the superiors

Greeks

in

com-

and wealth. industry,

CHAPTER

II.

PERIOD

OP

CONQUEST
A.D.

AND
96S-1025.

MILITARY

GLORY.

8RCT.

I."REIONS

OP

NICBPH0RU8
A.D.

IL, PHOKAB,
963-076.

AND

JOHN

(ZTlflSKESf).

AOMnflSTRATION 96S-969
"

OF

JOSEPH
ADMnnsTRATioN

BrINO
"

AS

"

CHARACTER
war
"

OF

NiOBFHORUS
nr
"

XL,
Sicilt,

^Public

Saracen
of
"

Affairs

Italy,
OF

and

Bulgaria"

Assassination
"

Nicbphorus
of

II.
the of

Character
fakilt of

John

I., 969-976
IL
war"

Coronation
"

Rebellions
war"

Nicbphorus Saracen

(Phokas)
Death
of

Russlah L

Rbpubuo

Chersok"

John

The

Empress

Tbeophano
sons,

was was

leffc by

Romanus
to

II. of
a

regent for her

but

as

she

brought

bed

days before her husband's death, the whole direction of publicbusiness remained in the hands of Joseph Bringas,whose acknowledged, was universally ability but whose suspicious character severity and him rendered generallyunpopular. His jealousy soon him involved in a contest with for power Nicephorus daughter only two
Phokas, who, however, did
until his
not venture to

visit Constantinople the

personal safetywas
and the

guaranteed by

Polyeuktes. to celebrate his victories in Syria he displayed to a superstitious crowd the relics he had obtained by his victories over the Mohammedans the pietyof the age attached as much ; and importance to these as his troops did to the booty and slaves with which they were enriched.^ Bringas saw that
'

Empress Theophano Nicephorus was allowed by a triumph, in which

Patriarch

Cedrenus,

6i6,

Zonaras, ii 198.

ADMINISTRATION

OF

JOSEPH

BRINGAS.

385

the

influof Nicephorus and the powerful a.d. popularity ^^^^' of his family connections must soon ence gain him the title of Emperor, and his jealousy pitated appears to have precithe event he feared. He formed a plotto have in order that his eyes might the victorious seized, general be put out. being informed of his danger, Nicephorus and having secured the support of the Patriarch by his to take prompt devout conduct,persuaded Polyeuktes of Bringas. to protect him from the designs measures The senate was convoked, and the Patriarch proposed should be intrusted with the command of that Nicephorus the army in Asia,according to the lastwill of Romanus II.i Bringas did not venture to oppose this proposal of the Patriarch, which was eagerly adopted ; and Nicephorus, the children of after taking oath never to injure an him at the head of Romanus, his lawful sovereigns, placed allthe Byzantine forces in Asia. his schemes ; he wrote to John still Bringas pursued the ablest and most popular of the generals Zimiskes, him the supreme under the orders of Nicephorus, oflfering if he would seize the general-in-chief, command and send him to Constantinople the Zimiskes was as a prisoner. conduct shows nephew of Nicephorus ; but his subsequent

that conscience would of any


of
was Bringas

not have arrested him

in the

cution exe-

for project
not

his

own

he may the present occasion,


to likely

have
be

On aggrandisement. that the power thought

permanent,and he may

have known

show little for any gratitude of Nicephorus with the service;while the popularity the soundest policy. to his general troops made fidelity Zimiskes carried the letterof the
the phorus, to Niceprime-minister and invited him to assume the imperial title, as his own lifeand protecting of securing onlymeans

that he would

his friends. It is said that John

Zimiskes and Romanus

Leo

S4. DiaooDua,

VOL.

I.

886

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BooKu.

Ofl.u.fl.

their swords, and before he would allow himself threaten to killtheir uncle, The same had been to be proclaimed thing emperor. Kurkuas
were

to compelled

draw

who it was beUeved had (the Armenian), the throne by his murderer and been compelled to mount and marched yielded, successor, Michael 11.^ Nicephorus where he enfrom Csesarea to Chrysopolis, camped. immediately found littlesupport in the capital. Briugas the natural son of the Emperor Romanus I., Basilios, said of Leo
V.

armed

his

in which he had three thousand household,

and exciting of the populace, sallied into a sedition slaves, and attacked the houses of Constantinople, to seek an asythe ministers, most of whom were compelled lum in the churches.^ Nicephorus the invited to enter was where he was crowned by the Patriarch Polyeukcapital, the streets of the 16th of August 963.^ on Sophia's, The family and of Phokas was of Cappadocian origin, had now for three generations the empirewith supplied an able emperor, generals.^ distinguished proved Nicephorus and a faithfulguardian of the young emperors ; but his personal with military was bearing tinged severity, and his cold phlegmatic his the temper prevented using either with the courtiers arts necessjiryto gainpopularity

tes,in St

or

the citizens. His conduct

was

moral,and he

was

cerely sin-

religious ; but
the

he

was

too

to confound enlightened

of the church pretensions

with the truth of Christianity,

of his real piety, in spite he was and, consequently, calumniated by the clergy as a Indeed, hjrpocrite.^

there was

little that probability

strictmilitary narian, discipli-

who ascended the throne at the age of fifty-one, should prove a popular when he succeeded a young prince,
and gay monarch
^

like Romanus

II.

Leo Diaoonus,38. Zonaras,ii 198. Basilios was the son of a Sc^vonianwoman eminent men of ; like many his time,he was an eunuch. Leo Diaconus,94. " Leo Diaconus,48. * 727. Luitprand,847. Cedrenus, ' of goldfrom the spoils of Crete sent a hundred Nicephorus pounds' weight
*
"

388
BooKiL
CB.n.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

while it
f 1.

among

him assisted in rendering certainly his bigoted subjects.

anpopular

had devoted great attentionto improving Nicephoras of the Byzantine the discipline army, and, as it consisted this could onlybe done by in greatpart of mercenaries, His chief object to obtain was a liberalexpenditure. of his and all the measures troopsof the best quality, An administrationwere directed to fill the treasury. civil efficient ; and army was the chief supportof the empire
to it seemed,therefore,
an

that Nicephorus the


means

the fiiret dutyof

a maintaining and well-appointed force. Perhaps numerous military of Constantinople would have applauded his the people

emperor

was

to

secure

of

his conduct,had he been more liberalin the wealth he extorted from the provinces on lavishing maxims
and and shows festivals in the

the commencement
This

of his

A severe famine,at capital. increased his unpopulareign, rity. in the of Romanus reign

commenced scarcity
was

II.,and, among
it Bringas, the of price

the reports circulatedagainst Joseph related that he had threatened to raise


so

for a piece of gold, that, a high, should much man as as he could carry onlypurchase It is very probable that the measures away in his pockets. tended to increase the evil, adopted by Nicephorus in saying that he allowed each merchant Zonaras, though

wheat

law,would lead us to infer that he abolished monopolies and maximums, and left
to
use

his

own

interest as

the trade in

free.^ grain

The fiscal measures

of his reign,

increasedthe burden of taxation. He retrenched however, the annual


and
'

of the court,and curtailedthe penlargesses sions courtiers. of The worst his t o act granted reign, the which for h istorianshave one Byzantine justly
Cedrenus, 660.

The priceof a modios of wheat bushel for eleven shillings), the emperor sold itfrom the public at half that price granaries grumbled, ; yet the people because it was said Basil I. had, on some oidered wheat to be sold at occasion, the rate of twelve modioi for a goldnomisma.

Zonaras,ii.203-206.
to
a

havingrisen

nomisma

a (that is,

eccl':e:siastical measures,

a.d.

963-969.

889

branded bim with merited odium,was bis yiolationof tbe and tbe bonour of tbe Eastern Empire, faitb, public by
and issuing called tbe coin, debased coin, a adulterating tbe tetarteron. Tbis debased money be employed to pay

a. a

"^^-

tbe debts of tbe state,wbile tbe taxes continued to be exacted in tbe old and pure coin of tbe empire. Tbe
standard of tbe of coinage

tbe Eastern

be borne in mind, remained always tbe taking of Constantinople by tbe Crusaders.

it Empire, tbe same always

must

until

coins of Leo III. and of Isaac II.


and

are

of

tbe few emperors wbo purity ; and witb tbe currency bave been branded reigns by tampering witb infamy.Perbapstbere is no better proof of tbe in Byzantine civilisation bigb state of political society.* But tbe stronggroundsof dissatisfaction Niceagainst into personal dental were pborus animosity ripened by an acciin wbicb many persons tumult in tbe bippodrome, lost tbeirlives. It happened wbile tbe troopswere tbat, tbe evolutions of a sbam-figbt, a report goingtbrougb intended to punisb tbe people, tbat tbe emperor arose

gold tbe same weigbt tbeir disgraced

Tbe

wbo bad thrown tbe

stones

at

bim, and insulted bim


This

as

be
of and

passedthroughthe

streets.

caused
men,

rush out
women,

and many enclosures, persons, of The citizens, children, perished. the


massacre was

course,

insistedtbat

premeditated.^ disturbed by tbe of Nicephorus The whole reign was and one of his wisest measures ill-will of the clergy, met with tbe most determined opposition. In order to render jects, tbe military service more popular among his native subtbe army and prevent the veterans from quitting under the influence of religious distorted by feelings to declare that all he wished the clergy superstition, in war Christians wbo perished tbe Saracens against
Cedrenus, 658. Diaconus witnessed the insults Nicephornsbore, and admired his burnt for throwinga stone at him. P. 65. was equanimity ; but a^woman ii. 203. Zonaras,
' 1

ii. 203. Zonaras, Leo

"

390
BOOK
11.

BASILUN

DYNASTY.

w^e

in the cause martyrs


was more

^""*^'

who

of

it greater gainto of

But the Pairiardi, religion. than a patriot, considered a churchman the clergy to retain the power of granting of
to bestow

than absolutions,

the

most

donation liberal
the
canons

martyrson the church

; and he

to appealed

of St Basil to prove that all war was tian to Chriscontrary and that a Christian who killedan enemy, discipline,
eren

in

war

with the

Infidels, oughtto

be excluded from

for three years. in the holy sacrament participating the With a priesthood such religious opinions, supporting Byzantine empirehad need of an admirable system of and administration, perors, to year of his
a

series of brave

and

warlike

^n-

perpetuateits longexistence.^ In the first

endeavoured to restrain Nicephorus reign, for founding monasteries that then reigned the passion dences resialmost universally. Many converted their family into monastic buildings, in order to terminate their lives as monks, without changing their habits of life. The emperor prohibited the foundation of any monasteries and hospitals, that onlythose new enacting in existence should be maintained ; and he already declared all testamentary donations of landed property in favour of the church void.^ He alsoexcited the anger of the
to

clergy, by forbidding any


was

election ecclesiastical received the

be made

until the candidate had

He approbation.

in the habit of

imperial the leaving


revenues

wealthiest sees
or

vacant, and either retained the

the new of to pay a large compelled bishop porti(Mi into the imperial his receipts annually treasury.^ well that his of was so aware Nicephorus unpopularity, which he he converted the great palace into a citadel, As the made capable of defence with a small garrison. the walls army was devoted to him, he knew that beyond
^

Zonarasiii 208.
The NorelicB of

s
"

658. Cedrenus, NioephoruB. Leo DiaconuB,809.

Luitprand. Leo Diaoonus,871.

CHABACTBE

OP

IflCEPHORUS

II.

891

danger. In estimatinga. d. ^^^^' the character and conduct of Nicephorus must II., we not forget that his enemies have drawn his portrait, and modem for his reputation, that^ historians unfortunately have generally attadied more credit to the splenetic account of the Byzantine the bishop court by Luitprand, of Cremona^than diplomatic of that age are despatches entitledto receive. Luitprand visited Constantinople as
no

of

he was ConstantiDople

in

ambassador from
to

the German

emperor, Otho young

between a marriage negotiate


of stepdaughter

the Great, Otho and Theo-

Otho expected Nicephorus. that the Byzantine emperor would cede his possessions in southern Italy the dowry of the princess; Nicephorus as the German emperor would yield expected up the and Capua for the honour Beneventum over suzerainty of the alliance. As mightbe expected, from the pride and rapacity the ambassador failed in of both parties, his mission ; but he revenged himself by libelling phorus; Niceand his picture of the pride and suspicious in its intercourse with of the Byzantine court policy his libel some value,and serves an as foreigners gives for his virulence.^ apology of Nicephorus to break the The darling was object power of the Saracens,and

the phano,

extend the frontiersof the

of Mesopotamia. In the spring Tarsus,which was 964, he assembled an army against frontier. The river the fortress that covered the Syrian it into two dividing Cydnus flowed throughthe city, The place which were united by three bridges. portions, with and amply supplied well fortified, was populous,

empirein Syria and

airr"imjs as an may be estimated from to be a hundred father of Nicephorus,appeared sador in visited had Constantmople 948, as ambasold. and fifty Luitprand years then exported. of Berenger,with a present of eunuchs, which Verdun that and the eagle He then saw the singing tree,the lions of metal that roared, flappedits mngs."Luitprandi Hist, lib.vL chap. 1. Daru, Hittoire de Venise^ isin Muratori, Scrip. embassy to Nicephorus i 92. The account of Luitprand's Collectionpublished 479 ; and in the volume of the Bysantine Ber. lud. tom. ii. at Bonn, which contains Leo Diaconus.
^

The

value of the

evidence bishop's

Bardas,the hi8jBaying;that

892
BOOK ^"
n.

BABILIAN

DYNASTY.

eTeiy

means

of

that the emperor defence^ bo


and siege,

was

com-

**'

to polled

raise the

Adana, which he took. He siegeof neous subterrahis men to run a and, employing Mopsuestia, the besi^ed he prevented under the walls, gallery
from taken the operation observing by throwingthe from the excavation into the his mine
was

lead his army then formed the

against

earth

night. When the supported


storm.

Pyramusduringthe the beams whidi completed,


as soon
as

walls

were

burned, and

die

the Byzantine rampart fell, army year of Tarsus with siege The Next of

carried the

placeby
the

(965), Nicephorus againformed


an

placewas the inhabitants wei*e a warlike race, who had and though territory, long carried on incursions into the Byzantine and their native city, to abandon theywere compelled with them onlytheir personal retireinto Syria, carrying A rich cross, which the Saracens had taken clothing. when theydestroyed the Byzantine army under Stypiotes in the year 877, was recovered, and placed in the church of St Sophiaat Constantinople. The bronze gates of Tarsus and Mopsuestia, which were of rich workmanship, also removed,and placed in the new were by Nicephorus citadel he had constructed to defend the palace.^ In the same reconquered by an expedition year Cyprus was under the command of the patrician Niketas. For two years the emperor was tinople at Constanoccupied by the civil administration of the empire, by a threatened invasion of the Hungarians, and by disputes with the kingof Bulgaria resumed ; but in 968 he again the command of the army in the East. Earlyin spring he marched past Antioch at the head of eighty thousand that city, he to besiege and, without stopping men, in its of the fortified places rendered himself master in order to cut it off from aJl relieffrom neighbourhood,
^

thousand men. forty with provisions; inadequately supplied army

Leo

DiaoonuB,61.

ZoDarae,iL 201.

SARACEN

WAR,

A.D.

969.
a.d.
*

caliph of Bagdat. He then pushed forward his Aleppo,Area, and ; Laodicea, Hierapolis, conquests and Damascus Emesa taken, and Tripolis were paid
the tribute to
save

their territory from relics were consequence led his army


In

this

campaign many

Mohammedans.^ and deferred


the Black

winter,the emperor

laid waste. In being surrendered by the of the approachof into winter-quarters,

formingthe siegeof Antioch Burtzes ensuing spring.He leftthe patrician


on

until the
in
a

fort

Mountain, with orders

to watch

the

city,

and prevent the inhabitants from collecting proyisions and military of the army, under The remainder stores. the command
was

of

Peter,was

stationed in CUicia.^ As he
of restoring glory

anxious to
to

reserve

to himself the

he ordered his lieutenants not empire, of the his absence. But one to attack the city during of him the measure employedby Burtzes brought spies and of a tower which it was easy to approach, the height the temptation not to to take the place was by surprise while be resisted. Accordingly, on a dark winter night, himself there was a heavyfall of snow, Burtzes placed and gained at the head of three hundred chosen men, diately of two of the towers of Antioch.^ He immepossession

Antioch

the

sent

oflf a courier

to

him Peter, requesting

to

tress of

remarkable of these relics were old garment and a bloody an and the tilewith the said to have belonged to John the Baptist, hair, miraculous portraitof our Saviour,which last was taken at Hierapolis. an ancient terrarcotta, Cedrenus, 656. Zonaras,iL 201. This tilewas probably The with a head of Jupiterresembling the received type of the Savioor. The most
"

of Mahomet also taken in this campaign, for the Mohammedans was much votaries of relics in this age as the Christians. combat with a Peter was an eunuch ; he distinguished himself in single Russian champion, whom he killed with his lance. Leo Diaconus, 109. ' The towers of Antioch presentvery much the appearance they did when " attacked by Burtzes. they were They are about thirtyfeet square, and each way so as to defend the interior side, as well as the exterior face project of the wall : the latter is from fifty to sixtyfeet high,and eightor ten feet broad at top,which is covered with cut stones terminated in a cornice. The and three loop-holed towers have interior staii*cases, stagesrestingon brick and is a small cistern there the uppermost having a small platform arches, ; tures beneath. Low doors afford a passage along the parapet,so that these strucconnected small castles a chain curtain, be of a asby regarded may for the rather than as simple towers." Colonel Chesney. The Expedition and Tigris.Vol. i.p. 426. Survey of the rivers Euphrates sword
were ' as
" " "

S94

BASILIAN

DT9ASTT.

BOOK

fixmi of the city ; bat Peter, possession f^^ ^f ^^ emperor's c"^^i. moving to the jealousy, delayed thisintaral, assistanceof Burtzes for three days.Daring the repeated Bartzes defended himself against howerer, culty. with great diffiattacks of the whole population, though and AnThe Byzantine arrived, army at length remained tioch was annexed to the empireafter having The Emperor 828 years in the power of the Saracras. Bartzes for his energy, instead of rewarding Nicephorus,
n.

adranoe and take

dismissed both him and Peter from theircommands.


Moez reigned at Cairowan, and caliph phorus of Egypt Nicethe conquest was already contemplating refused to pay him the tribute of eleven not only thousand goldbyzants, stipiUated by Romanus I., but from the Saracens. sent an expedition to wrest Sicily even

The Fatimite

The chief command

was

who intrusted to Niketas,

had

of diiefly conquered ; and the army, consisting Cyprus under the orders of more was cavalry, particularly placed Manuel Phokas, officer.^ the emperor's cousin, a daring The troops were landed
on

the eastern
was

until he advanced, rashly


to defend his

and Manuel coast, surrounded by the enemy


so

and slain. Niketas also had made


that position,

little preparation
was

his camp he himself taken prisoner and sent who

stormed,and
Africa.

to

phorus, Nicethe
in

had

great esteem

for Niketas in
to sending

of spite

this defeat, obtained his releaseby sword of

Moez

Mahomet, which had fallen into his hands

his captivity Syria. Niketas consoled himself during by works his the of MS. of St Basil, and a transcribing manship penstill existsin the National Library at Paris.^ embroiled The affairs of Italy by local were, as usual,
L riyal of Romanus Cedrenus of to consider the conqueror seems different persons ; but we can Cyprusand the prisonerof Sicily hardlysuppose and there were of Niketas who were two eunuchs of the name patricians, held the officeof drungarios or admiral" Pp. 654, 655. The MS. ismentioned 443. Pal. Grceea,45 ; and by HaBe,inhis notes to Leo Diaconus, by Montfiiucon,
was ^ *

He Leo

the

son

of Leo

the Phokas,

67, 76. Diaooniu^

396
BOOK
Ch.
a.

BA8ILIAN

DYNASTY.

iL

IL

his in the capital, II. was as Unpopular Nicephorus free from rebellions of the troops or was reign unnsuallj terminated His life insurrectionsin the provinces. was in his own His beautiful palace by domestic treachery. wife Theophano, and his valiant nephew John Zimiskes, said to have been his murderers. Theophano were was from love for induced to take part in the conspiracy to marry after he mounted whom she expected Zimiskes, the throne. Zimiskes murdered
his friend and

relation

ed selectfrom motives of ambition.^ A band of conspirators,


was

from the personal enemies of the emperor, among whom to John Zimiskes at midnight Burtzes, accompanied wall overlooking the port palace

of Bukoleon, and the female attendants of the empress hoisted them up from their boat in baskets. Other assassins had been the concealed in the
and all marched the day, palace during to the apartment of the emperor. was ing sleepNicephorus the floor for he retained the habits of on tranquilly his military life amidst the luxury of the imperial palace.
"

Zimiskes awoke

him with
a

kick,and
on

one

of the

spirators con-

gave him

wound desperate
most

the

head,while
:

Zimiskes insulted his uncle with words and blows others stabbed him in the barbarous
manner.
"

the

The
God !

his sufierings, onlyexclaimed, O veteran, during

grant

John I. was immediately thy mercy.*' claimed proof The phorus Nicemurderers. body emperor by the thrown into the court,and left all day on was the snow view,that everybody might exposedto public be convinced he was it was dead. In the evening interred. privately ber Phokas on the 10th DecemThus perished Nicephorus 969 able general, and, with all a brave soldier, an
me
"

^ A eunuchs of Basil that Nicephorus intended to make reportwas spread and Constantine, and declare his brother Leo his successor." Zonaras, iL 207. This was probably invention of Theophano, but it met with little credit, an and her crime was ascribed to her warmth of temperament and the coldness monasteries with eunuchs of her husband. There was a greatfashion of filling at this time.

JOHN

I.

A.D. (ZIMISKES),

969-976.

897

his defects, one

of the

most

virtuousmen
of

aud conscientious

A.D.

that ever sovereigns Though born stantinople.

the throne of Conoccupied


one

^3-"76.

of the noblest and

wealthiest families of the Eastern

of and sure Empire, the highest o"Sces at a proud and luxurious obtaining in pursuit of military court,he chose a lifeof hardship who wrote after ; and a contemporaryhistorian, glory had been ruined by proscription, his family and his name

had become him

that odious, observes,

no

one

had

ever

seen

in revelry in his youth.^ or debauchery even indulge warrior and an able general.^ John I. was a daring He was thoughtless, sures generous, and addicted to the pleaof the table, he was by no means so that, a though he was far more better emperor than Nicephorus, popular find that his base assassiat Constantinople nation : hence we of his sovereign and relative was easily pardoned of his predecessor and forgotten, while the fiscalseverity The court of Constantinople never was was forgiven.
so

that it was relieved from all sense of corrupt, utterly knew no law but fear and ; the aristocracy responsibility and successfulambition rendered every interest, private

crime venial. The throne held it lawful to

was

stake for which allcourtiers

who had courage enough to gamble, risk their eyes and their livesto gain an empire. Yet we and John were must observe that both Nicephorus men

of nobler minds

than the nobles around

them, for both

and persons of their wards and legithe rights respected timate and Basil and contented Constantine, princes, and the rank themselves with the post of prime-minister

of emperor.
Leo Diaconos,78. Armenian The name an Tzimiskes, word,was given to John on account of Leo Diaconus,92, 454 ; Lebeau, Bittavre du Bcu-Empire, his short stature. and with variations not is written in a fearful manner, 100. The name 1X7. by Aydall in his translation of Chamich." adaptedto render it euphonious, History ofArmenia, ii 77, 91. He calls him Johannes Chimishkik in one passage, Chumuskik and in another, the on Keuijan. He was bom at Hierapolis, called by Aydall of Amida in the present pashalik or Diyar-bekr, Euphrates, Chumushkazak, and by Saint Martin, Tchemesohgedzeg. Mimoiret $ur PArminU, i.95.
'
" "

898
BOOK Ch.
XI.

BASILIAN

DYNAfiTY.

n.

The

chamberlain Basilioshad been rewarded


to monnt

bj

Nice-

IL

him in aiding for his serrices phorus,

the throne,

with the rank of President

of the

a Council^ dignity

created on purpose. He was now intrusted by John with directionof the civiladministration. The the complete
of removed from all offices of Nicephorus were partisans filled and their places trusty by men devoted to Zimiskes, All political exiles of Phokas. to the family or hostile the young emand a paradeof placing were recalled, with their on an equality perorsy Basil and Constantino, senior colleague was made, as an insinuation that thej had hithertobeen retained in an unworthy state of infe* At the same time, measures were riority. adoptedto from plundering the prevent the rabble of the capital nobles who had been dismissed houses of the wealthy from their appointments, which was a usual proceeding at every greatpolitical revolutionin Constantinople.^ The coronation of John I. was triarch delayed by the Pafor a few days, lostno opportunity for Polyeuktes his authority. He therefore refused to perof showiug form

the ceremony until Zimiskes declared that he had not imbued his hands in the blood of his sovereign. The
Leo V alantes out his fellow-conspirators, emperor pointed and Atzypotheodoros, and excused himself as the murderers, press the whole blame of the murder on the Embythrowing thus sacrificed exiled, were Theophano. The officers the empress was removed from the imperial palace.^

and

John
on

the favour of the Patriarch, the law of Nicephorus, to abrogate consenting ing providwas

then admitted

to

that the candidates for ecclesiastical should dignities


with the ofiBgies of Nicephorus 11. and Basil coins, Leo Diaconus,94. * and sought but escaped, Theophanowas sent to the island of Prote, asylum and she was in St Sophia's. The chamberlain Basilios took her thence by force, exiled to a monastery band. in the Armeniac theme, founded by her murdered husHer indignation the sentence was so great,that she reviled on hearing whom she caUed a barbarian Zamiskes,and boxed the ears of the chamberlain, and a Scythian. Leo Diaconus, 99. Cedrenus, 664. CHbbon is wrong in
^

CedrenuB,663.

Gold

all the honours of his rank. ILt attest that Basil preserved

"

"

BASILIOS

APPOINTED

PATEIAECH,

A.D.

969.

399

and beforetheirelection, a. d. approbation emperor's ^^^^ to bestow all his private fortune in charity. on promising After his coronation, he accordingly distributedone-half

receivethe

of his fortune among the poor peasants round Ck)nstantiand employed the other in founding an nople, hospital in consequence of that disease having for lepers, greatly increased about this time. He also increased his popularity the by remitting tribute of the Armeniac and province,

theme,
the
to

which

was

his native it
was

to by adding

which largesses distribute.^ The monk

customary for the emperor

Patriarch of Mount

died Polyeuktes

about three months

after the

and coronation,

Zimiskes selected Basilios, a as his successor Olympus, ; and without

which forbid the interto the canons ference paying any respect in the electionof bishops, he ordered of the laity him to be installedin his dignity. The monk proved less than the emperor expected. After occupycompliant ing chair about fiveyears, he was deposed the patriarchal for refusing to appear before the emperor to answer an

accusation of treason. could

The

Patriarch declared the

peror em-

that he to sit as his judge, asserting incompetent onlybe judgedor deposed by a synodor general
He
was

council of the church.


a

nevertheless banished to
the

monastery he had built


was Studion,

on

which he is called Scamandrinos.


of

Scamander, and from the abbot Antonios,

Patriarch in his place. appointed the highThe family of Phokas had so longoccupied est of the patronageof commands, and disposed military to be that it possessed the empire, a party too powerful
saylDg
" Bhe assaulted with words and blows her son Basil ; but Lebeau has the celebrated it Cedrenus says distinctly was committed the same error. There is not eunuch she assaulted, woman. and he was the son of a Scythian indeed of the young Basil, about her proclaiming nor the illegitimacy a word of Leo the accounts he from to Diaconus, reason was present, any suppose when Basil became the ruler of the Cedrenus,and Zonaras. On the contrary, Cedrenus,684. empire,he recalled his mother from banishment. 1 Leo Diaconus, 100.

**

"

400

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK
^'
""

iL

*"

reduced to immediatelj disturbed by more was


members.

submissioD. The
than
one

of reign

John

rebellionexcited by its

guished had distinLeo, the brother of Nicephorus, the Saracens himself by gaining over a greatvictory in the defilesof Kylindros, while Andrassos, near
was

with the conquest of Crete. occupied he held the office of During the reignof Nicephorus but had rendered himself hated on account curopalates, of his rapacity. His second son, Bardas Phokas, held the officeof governor of Koloneia and Chaldia when was murdered,and was banished to Amasia. Nicephorus Bardas
was one

his brother

of the best soldiers and

pions boldest chamcaped es-

in the from

Byzantine army.

and confinement,

In the year 970 he rendered himself master

of

where he assumed the titleof Emperor. In the Caesarea, time his father, from Lesbos, and his elder mean escaping brother Nicephorus from Imbros, attempted to raise a in rebellion

and captured, he when John, satisfiedthat he had ruined the family murdered the Emperor Nicephorus, their lives, spared

Europe.

These

two

were

soon

and allowed the sentence

which

condemned
a

them

to

lose

retained way that they their eyesight. Bardas,however,gave the emperor some
and it trouble,
was war

their eyes

to be executed in such

from the Russian

necessary to recall Bardas Skleros him.^ to take the command against

to a castle by his army, escaped of refuge, where he defended a place himself until Skleros pursuaded him to surrender, on a that he should receive no personal Zipromise injury. who admired his daring him miskes, courage, condemned to reside in the island of Chios, and adopt the monastic robe. His father Leo, who escaped a second time from and visited Constantinople in the hope of confinement, himself master of the palace the absence rendering during

Phokas,when

deserted

he had fortified as

The family of Skleros TheopK 429.

is mentioned

in the reignof Nioephoms L"IneerL

TRANSPORTATION

OF

MANICHEANS.

401

of the emperor, was in which he Sophia's,

and discovered,
an sought

from St dragged asylum. His eyes were confiscated.

a.d.

^^^^'

then put out,and his immense John, in order to connect married Theodora,one dynasty,

estates

himself with the Basilian of the

of Constantino daughters VII. (Porphyrogenitus). Another more tant imporis unnoticed the marriage passed by Byzantine that ill writers. Zimiskes, could finding he spare troops in Italy the to defend the Byzantine possessions against

attacks of the Western

emperor, released Pandulf of Beneventum, after he had remained three years a prisoner his and by cable at Constantinople, means opened amicommunications with Otho the Great.
A

treatyof

concluded between young Otho and Theowas marriage the sisterof the EmperorsBasil and Constantino. phano, the 14th of The nuptials celebrated at Rome on were of the Byzantine 972 ; and the talentsand beauty April and noble part enabled her to act a prominent princess in the history of her time.^ A curious event in the history of the Eastern Empire, isthe transportation of which ought not to pass unnoticed, called by historians Manicheans, of heretics, a number of Asia Minor, to increase the from the eastern provinces established coloniesof Pauliciansand other heretics already This is said to have been done by the round Philippopolis. Emperor John, by advice of a hermit named Theodores, of Patriarch of Antioch. whom he elevated to the dignity The continual mention
of
numerous

communities

of

heretics in

history Byzantine proves that there is no tian of the Chrisof the unity delusion than to speak greater as prechurch. Dissent appears to have been quite valent,
both in the Eastern and Western
before churches,

the time of Luther,as it has been since. Because the feelin religious Greeks and Italianshave been deficient
1

AhhoU Muratori,

v, (TltaUa,

485.

VOL.

I.

2 C

402

BA8ILIAK

DYKASTY.

BOOK "^"

n.

*'-

enabled them to affect knowledge iDg, and their superior of dissent has been contempt for other races, the history decried and religions inrestigation neglected, of heresy.^ appellation
The John

nnder the of reign

Russian Zimiskes.

war

was

the greatevent
fame military

of the of the

The

emperor, who was whose power of the Russian nation, the greatness his time, tined of the contest,desthe scene orershadows Europe, now of Russian in our day to be againthe battle-field

Byzantine of the ablest general unquestionably

interestwhich attachesto the first and the political armies, stantinople to march by land to Conattempt of a Russian prince

allcombine

to

well as a practical give

as

romantic interest to this war.^

nople Constantiexpedition against have been followed by a in 865 would probably likethosecarriedon by the seriesof plundering excursions, and France, Danes and Normans on the coasts of England
The firstRussian naval had
not

the Turkish tribecalledthe Patzinaks rendered


of the lower
course

themselves masters

of the

Dnieper,

and become instruments in the hands of the emperors to The northern of the bold Varangians. arrest the activity rulersof Kief
were

the

same

rude warriors that infested


was people

and France,but England


a more

the Russian Gaul.

then in of the

advanced

state of

than society The

the

mass

in population
'

Britain and

of the majority

when that dissent was prevalent CedreDus,665. It cannot be eorprising read how the clergybehaved. called BonifMO The Pope or anti-pope, stantinople, the Vatican, fled to ConVII.,assassinated Benedict VI.,and, after despoiling In 984 he returned to Roma, dethroned A.D. 974. the reigningthe papal throne himin prison, self. and occupied Pope,John XIV., who perished He died in the following year. * Gibbon observes the singularundeclinable Greek word used to designate the Russians, but does not mention that it occurs twice in the Septua'Pear, Eoek. zzzviii. 2, 8 ; zxzix 1. Our translation makes no mention of the gint, Ros or Russians, would read thus : " Therefore,thou son of or the last verse man, prophesy Gog, and say, thus saith the Lord God, Behold I am against The of the Russians, Meshech and Tubal" against thee,O Gog, chief prince Russians appear idso to be mentioned twice in the Koran. Al Fourkan, v. 39 ; Sale's Koran^ 25 (theRass on which Sale has a note is supposed to mean chap. ** the Russians) See Hammer, v. 11." Sale, chap. 50. Kaf,** ; and Ths LeUer 8ur let Originet Rutus,
wo
"

404

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

11.

Crete.^ of Gongyles against expedition


of Russians

In

966,

corps

^"""^^'

the unfortunate accompanied

of expedition

.^ There can be no doubt that these Sicily likethe Danes and Normans allVarangians, familiar, were of the sea, and not native in the West, with the dangers Niketas to whose senriceson board Russians,
been of little value to the masters

the fleetcould have of Greece. the

wars Byzantine In the year 907, Oleg, who was with the Russians. of Igor the son of the minority regent of Kief during Sclavonians, Rurik, assembled an army of Varangians, and Croatians, two thousand vessels or and, collecting

But

to return

to

the

of history

boats of the kind then used

on

the northern shore of the

The exploits Constantinople. of this army, which pretended to aspire at the conquest confined to of Tzaragrad, were or the Cityof the Caesars, the countryround Constantinople ; and it is plundering undertaken to that the expedition not improbable was obtain indemnity commercial lossessustained by for some The subjects or oppression. imperial negligence, monopoly,

Euxine,advanced

to attack

of the emperor were murdered, and the Russians their captives in the amused themselves with torturing
most

barbarous

manner.

At

retreat

by the payment

of

Leo purchased their length of money. Such sum large


us

is the account for no Nestor,

transmitted to

by the

Russian

monk

writer notices the expedition, Byzantine than a plundering which was doubtless nothing more in which the city of Constantinople not incursion, was
to exposed by a
are
^

These hostilities nated termiwere any danger.^ in 912, and its conditions commercial treaty

recorded in detailby Nestor.*

De Ceremoniit Aula Byz. i 652,660,^^i, edit. Bonn. Constant Porphyr. The Arabian historian Novairi, quotedby Earamsin. ' their fleet The Russians are said on this occasion to have transported in imitation of the exploit of Niketas Oryphas at the neck of land, over some C^nmLa isthmus of Corinth, but it cannot have been near Constantinople. traduite en Frangai$e i 36. iquede Nestor, par LomM Paris, * Nestor, I 39. Krug, 108.
'
"

RUSSIAN

WARS.

405

In the year

941, Igormade
the

an

attack

on

Constantin-

a.d.

either by ople, impelled


was

of adventure, which spii-it

^^^^'

the charm of existence among allthe tribes of Northmen, else roused to rerenge by some or violationof the

treatyof 912.
small

The Russian made vessels, the

of innumerable flotilla, consisting

phorus while

its appearance in the Bosfleet was absent in the Byzantine

the Archipelago.^ on Igor landed at diflerent places coast of Thrace and Bithynia, and plundering ravaging the

country;the inhabitants were treated with incredible others were burned alive, were crucified, cruelty ; some
were priests

the Greek

heads,and

the

shipsremained

nails into their driving churches were destroyed. Only fifteen but these were at Constantinople, soon

killedby

fitted up with additional tubes for shooting Greek fire. This force, in number, gave the Byzanas it was trifling tines
an

immediate

at sea, superiority

and the

patrician

sailed out Theophanes the small Igor, seeing

of the

port to attack the Russians.


of the
rounded surships, enemy's

number

by
more

and endeavoured to carry them them on allsides, boarding ; but the Greek fire became onlyso much
boats and available against the attack
was men

crowded

together,
In the

and
mean were

with repulsed

fearfulloss. landed in

time, some
defeated

of the Russians who

Bithynia

by Bardas Phokas and John Kurkuas, and from the naval defeat were those who escaped pursued and slaughtered the without coast of Thrace on mercy. ordered all the prisoners The Emperor Romanus brought overtook to Constantinople to be beheaded. Theophanes and the the fugitive in the month of September, ships his relicsof the expedition were Igoreffecting destroyed, escape with onlya few boats.^ The Russian Chronicle of
prand,whose
*

but LuitByzantme writers and Ne8t("r speak of ten thousand boats, from step"tber was then at Constantinople as ambassador than a thousand. more LuUprandi Hugh, king of Italy, says there were
^

The

"

Contin.

"

Romanus

490.

Nestor,i 64.

263. Leoapenus,"* Krug, 186.

Leo

Gramm.

606.

Symeon Mag.

406

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

n.

Nestor says

^""**-

assisted by other in the year 944, Igor, that, and by the Patzinaks, a second prepared Varangians,

but that the inhabitants of Cherson so alarmed expedition, of its magnitude, the Emperor Romanus by their reports that he sent ambassadors,who met Igorat the mouth of the Danube, and sued for peace on terms to which Igor consented. This is probably and his boyards merelya
to the salve applied

of the people of vanity


a

Kief

by

their
was

chronicler; but it is certain that


concluded the between Kief

of peace treaty

the emperors

in the year attached to the comof this treaty merce prove the importance Concarried on by the Russians with Cherson and stantinople of princes treatiespreserved Russo-Byzantine in tracing by Nestor are documents of great importance the history of civilisation in the east of Europe. The attention paidto the commercial interestsof the Russian Cherson and Constantinople, and the traders visiting instead of practical givento questions utility prominence of to points of dynastic ambition, may serve as a contrast modem to many treaties in the west of Europe.^ The classeswould not have been powerful trading enough to The two command this attention to their interests
on

and Constantinople 945.^ The stipulations of

the

part of

the warlike

had a numerous body of free Varangians, citizens not been closely connected with the commercial of Russia. the for the people, prosperity Unfortunately which had enabled of their cities, municipal independence
trauBlation of Nestor gives945 as the date of the treaty, bat in the text. Constantlne,and Stephen are the emperors named Romanus I. was deposed in December 944 ; Constantine and Stephen, his sons, the 27th January 945 ; and Romanus on of Constantine V II. (Porphyson 11., 945. crowned as his father^s colleague the 6th April was rogenitus), on Krug, 210, considers the treaty as concluded II., by Constantine VII. and Romanus and it must have been ratified in the interval before Igor's death,which happened
^

The

French

Romanus,

before the end of 945. of increasing was as a means beginning power and population, to excite the attention of the barbarians in western 925Europe. Athelstan, of a thane on any English 941, enacted a law to confer the privileges merchant who had made three voyages to a fordgn country on his own account" Wil. kins,Leg,Sat, 71.
*

Commerce,

RUSSIAN

WABS.

407
a. d. 963-976

each separate commuDity

to

wealth and ciyilisaacquire


" . "

tion, was

not

joinedto
a

that any central institutions

'

m-

quently consejustice, fellseparately each city a prey to the superior force of the comparatively barbarian Varangians military of Russia had of Scandinaria. The Varangian conquest

sured order and

strictadministrationof

yery much
more

the

same

effectas the Danish

and Norman

in the West. conquests

the nation appeared Politically,

but powerful, much was socially

the conditionof allranks of the deteriorated. It


was,

people

however,the

the modem and the separates medieval history of Russia, the country and which plunged

Tartar invasion which

into the state of barbarism and the Great first raisedit. The of cruelty the

from slavery

which Peter

after his Igor, Varangian prince return to Russia,caused him to be murdered by his his widow, became regentfor rebellious Olga, subjects.^ their son
gion, SwiatoslaflF.She embraced the Christian reliin 957, where she was and visited Constantinople

Porphyrogenitus reception preserved the commercial treaties of the empire emperor ; a Byzantine records the pageantrythat amused a Russian princess. The highposition by the court of Kief occupied in the tenth century is also attested by the style with which it was addressed by the court of Constantinople. The golden bullsof the Roman dressed ademperor of the East, to the prince of Russia, ornamented with a were in size to a double solidus, like those seal equal pendent addressed to the kings of France.^ II. sent We have seen that the Emperor Nicephorus Emperor
of the ceremony of her at the Byzantine court.^ A Russian monk has
an

The baptised. has left us

Constantine

account

Leo

Diaoonufl,106, caUa his murderers


Const

Qermans, meaning doabtleas

Northmen.
*

CedrenuB, 636.
CoBBt

Porphyr.De

Cer. AuL
690.

Byz,
280.

I 594, edit

Bonn.

Kmg, 267.
*

De Cer.Avl. Byz.I Porphyr.

Kmg,

408

BA8ILIAN

DYKASTT.

to excite Swiatoelaff to inrade patrician Kalokjres |^Q(}(;im( ii^Q Byzantine ambassador proreda OH^njiL Quigi^fii^ traitorand assumed the purple.SwiatoslaflP inraded soon at the head of a powerful Bulgaria annj, whidi the gold assisted him to equip, and defeated brought by Kalokyres the Bulgarian A.D. 968. Peter, army in a great battle, died shortly and the countrywas after, kingof Bulgaria, Swiaof which, involved in civilbroils; taking advantage and rendered himself toslafftook Presthlava the capital, of the whole kingdom. Nicephorus formed master now to alliancewith the Bulgarians, and was an preparing
BOOK
iL

the

defend them
to compelled the against

the Russians, when Swiatoslaff was against


return

home, in order
of

to

defend his

capital

Patzinaks.
sons

Romauus, the
concluded who
an

assisted Boris and Nicephorus and Peter,to recover Bulgaria,

oflfensive and defensive alliance with Boris, the throne. After the assassinationof occupied

with Swiatoslaff returned to invade Bulgaria Nicephorus, assumed the an army of 60,000 men, and his enterprise

character of

of those great invasions which had torn whole provinces from the Western Empire. His army increased by a treatywith the Patzinaks and an was
one

to dream so that he began Hungarians, of the conquest of Constantinople, and hopedto transfer the empireof the East from the Romans of Byzantium It was to the Russians. fortunate for the Byzantine empirethat it was ruled by a soldier who knew how to The in tacticsand discipline. by its superiority profit Russian was not ignorant secured and having of strategy, his flank by his alliancewith the Hungarians, he entered Thrace by the western passes of Mount Hsemus, then the road between Germany and Constantinople, most frequented in the habit and that by which the Hungarians were of makingtheir plundering incursions into the empire. toslaff in the East when SwiaJohn Zimiskes was occupied and the second conquest of Bulgaria completed

with the alliance

Google^

RUSSIAN

WAR,

A.D.

970.

409

Thrace to subdue Hsemus, expecting a:d. passed Mount ^^^^^' the emperor's absence with equalease, a.d. 970. during The empirewas still from famine.^ Swiatoslaff suflFering took Philippopolis, and murdered twenty thousand of the inhabitants. An missed embassy sent by Zimiskes was dis^

with

demand

of

and the Russian army tribute,


one

adranced

to

where Arcadiopolis,

division was

defeated

by

Bardas
Mount In the

Skleros,and
Hsemus.^

the remainder the

retired

again
took

behind

971, following spring,


at

Emperor John
a a

the field

the head

of

an

army

of fifteen thousand

and infantry,

thirteen thousand

besides cavalry,*

guard body-

of chosen

and calledthe Immortals, troops A engines.^ siege


cut
own

of field and battery

ful powerfleet of three

hundred

attended by many galleys, and to enter the Danube despatched


of the Russians with their

smaller vessels, was off the


nications commu-

country.*
marked

for the defence Military operations are dependenton some features of the

and attack of Constantinople

physical

countrybetween the Danube and Mount Hsemus. The Danube, with its broad and rapid stream, and line of fortresseson its southern bank, would be an

barrier to a military an impregnable power possessing active ally in Hungary and Servia ; for it is easy to descend the river and concentrate the force on largest any of attack, desired point to cut off the communications or disturb the flanks of the invaders. Even after the b'ne of the Danube
^
*

is

that of Mount lost,

Hsemus

covers

LeoDiaconu8,103.

Leo DiacoDus,106 ; Bee a note at page 472, by Hase, on the chronology of Nestor. received on the authority of this period. I follow that generally * five thousand 180. Cedrenus The numbers Leo gives Diacouus, are givenby infantryand four thousand cavalry,672; Zonarus, ii. 211, the same affords some The number. insightinto the constitution of proportion armies at this period of military glory. The cavalryserved as the Byzantine could still gain but the sword of the legionary model for European chivalry,
a
* battle. " Leo vessels triremes, thoughthey certainly Diaconus,129, calls the lai^er Of the smaller he says, uwaita Xtft^s than two tiers of oars. had not more

A "caiaKarioK,

wp

kkhv"s SvofidCovat. icai ftovipui yaktas

410

BASILIAN

DTHASTY.

BOOK

n.

Thraoe
manj It was

^'^*''

in Constantinople of danger nnder the Byzantine periods emperors. roads passthen trarersed by three great military able
;
a

and it formed

rampart

to

for chariots.

The

which has first,

doable goirge,

led from

to Sardica by the pass called the Philippopolis Gates of Trajan out three (nowKapou Dervend), throwing grade.^ trunk to Naissos and Belbranches from the principal The great pass forms the pointof communica* from of the Strymon, tion likewise with the upper ralley and the northern parts of Macedonia. Skupito Ulpiana, with this road to Uie Two secondary passes communicate that of for an north^east^ affording passage army
"

Kezanlik,and that of Isladi ; and these form the shortest


lines of communication
Danube

about

and the Philippopolis The 8ec"md NicopoliSy Bulgaria. through between


centre

greatpass is towards the


and has

preserved among
between

of the range of Hsemns, the Turks its Byzantine name


on

of the Iron Gate.^

It is situated

the direct line of

communication

Through this

pass a The third great pass is that to the east,forming the line of communication between Adrianople and Lower Danube Turks
near

and RoustchouL Adrianople be constructed. good road might easily

the

Silistria(Dorystolon). It Derrend. The

is called

range of Hsemus has several other passes independent of these, and its parallel defiles. The ridges presentnumerous

by the

Nadir

celebrated Turkish
cover

at position

Shoumla

is

adaptedto
the

severalof these passes,

on converging

great

eastern road to

The

Adrianople. Emperor John marched


not

when it was before Easter,


emperor
on

Adrianople just that a Byzantine expected

from

knew that the passes the greateastern road had been leftunguarded by "e
xxi. 10. Biaroelliniu,
"

would

take the field. He

Ammianus

Sozomenee, Hitt. SoeU$, ii. 22.

Nioe-

Sardica is Triaditza, i.281. now pbonisGregoras, Sophia, s The Turks call itDemir Cedrenus,784,dib. t^sXcyoftcwTt 2idrfpas,

kapou.

412

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK ^'
""

n.

* **

Swiatoslaff hopedto be able to open his communications with the sorrounding by bringing country,
and besiegers,
on

to

fences before all the degeneral engagement in the plain of the enem/s camp were completed He expected defeat the attacks of the Byzantine cavalry by forming
a

his men
ed

by

in squares, and,as the Russian soldiers corerwere he expected longshields that reached to their feet,

to be

his squares likemoving able, towers, to byadrancing

of the enemy. But while the Byzantine plain the heavy-armed met the Russians in front, legions cavalry and tiie assailed them with their long spears in flank, archers and slingers to transunder cover watched coolly fix where an opening allowed their missiles to every man but in penetrate. The battleneverthelesslasted all day, of their the evening the Russians were compelled, in spite without having to retire into Dorystolon valour, desperate effectedanything.The infantry of the north now began of Asia to feel its inferiority to the veteran cavalry sheathed in plate paigns by longcamarmour, and disciplined the Saracens. Swiatoslaff", however, continued against to defend himself by a seriesof battlesrather than in which he made desperate efforts sorties, to break through itbecame the ranks of the besiegers in vain, until at length

clearthe

evident that he
Before

must

either conclude

field of battle, or

be starved

peace, die on the to death in Dorystolon.

himself to his fate, he make a last effort resigning to cut his way through the Byzantine army ; and on this that occasion the Russians fought with such desperation, ascribed the victory of the Byzantine contemporaries tacticsof the emperor, nor to not to the superior troops, of a veteran the discipline army, but to the personal

assistanceof St the
of charge

who Theodore,

the Roman

found it necessary to lead and shiver a spear with lancers,

the Russians himself, before theirphalanx could be broken. The victory and Swiatoslaff sent ambassadors was complete,
to the emperor
to

offerterms of peace.

RUSSIAN

WAR,

A.D.

971.

413

of Dorystolon had now lastedmore than two a. d. siege ^^^^* reduced by repeated months, and the Russian army, though

The

stillamounted losses, valour and in displayed would


cause

to

twenty-twothousand

men.

The

had contempt of death which the Varangians the contest,convinced the emperor that it the loss of many brave veterans to insist on their
arms

down their laying


to
come

; he
was

was

therefore willing
on

to terms, and

peace

concluded

condition

with all the yield up Dorystolon, and prisoners in possession of the Russians, slaves, plunder, and engage to swear perpetual amitywith the empire, and never to invade either the territory of Cherson or the while, on the other hand, the kingdom of Bulgaria; Emperor John engagedto allow the Russians to descend the Danube in their boats, them with two meto supply dimni of wheat for each
to return to soldier, surviving

should that SwiatoslaflF

enable them their

home

without
to
renew

for to plunder dispersing

and subsistence, between

the old commercial

treaties

Kief and

Constantinople,^ July 971.


SwiatoslaflF desired concluded,
to

After the have down and


a

treatywas

his conqueror. John rode clad in splendid to the bank of the Danube armour, suite of brilliant the emperor
on guards was no

interview with personal

accompanied by a
The short he
was

back. horse-

of figure

tage disadvan-

where and charger

countenance, attention of
which

distinguished by the beautyof his the splendour of his arms, while his fair and piercing blue eyes fixed the hair, light all on his bold and good-humoured face,
and sombre

contrasted well with the dark


he steered himself with

visages
in a

of his attendants. which

SwiatoslaflF arrived
an

by water
His

boat,
was

oar.

dress

in no way from that of those under him, white, diflFering cleaner. in the stem of his boat, Sitting exceptin being
here the common means Diaconos, 155. I presume the medimnus about a bushel,without any reference to Attic measures. A part of the treaty is given i.100. by Nestor,with the date. Trad. Fran9.
Leo
measure ^

4.14

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

iL

^""^^

he conversed for a short time with the emperor^ who remained on horseback closeto the beach. The appearance of the bold described those who
was

and excited much cariosity, Varangian

is thus

by a
were

historianwho

intimate with many of presentat the interview : The Russian


was

of the middle stature,well formed,with strong neck his eyebrows and broad chest. His eyes were blue, thick, his
was nose

and his beard shaved, but his upper lip flat,


was

shaded with

of his head which


thus
ears

The hair longand thick mustaches. croppedclose, except two long locks
on

hung
as wore

down
a

worn

mark

and were each side of his face, of his Scandinavian race. In his

he

between fierce.^

two

ornamented with a ruby goldenearrings and and his expression stem was pearls,

Swiatoslaff immediately but he Dorystolon, quitted the shores of the Euxine, and he attempted famine thinned hb ranks. In spring to force
was

to obliged

winter

on

his way

of the the territory through army. of the


He
was

Patzinaks with his diminished

and perished the defeated, near cataracts of the Patzinaks, Dnieper. Kour, prince became the possessor of his skull, which he shaped into a and adorned with the moral maxim, doubtless drinking-cup, had it falleninto not less suitableto his own skull, the hands of others, He who covets the property of had occaWe have already oft loses his own." sion others,
"

to record

that the skull of the Russian

had ornamented the festivals of I., Nicephorus

king ;
tents of
a

that of

Byzantine emperor, a Bulgarian in the now figured sovereign

Turkish tribe.

to were as campaign advantageous the Byzantine to the Emperor were as they glorious empire John. lished estaba stronggarrison was Bulgaria conquered,

Tiie resultsof the

in

and Dorystolon,

the Danube

once

more

became

the frontier of the Roman


^

empire. The
156. Diaconus,

peace with the

Leo

CHERSON.

415

until about the year 988, anintemipted A. D. 963-976. Vladimir the when, from some unknown cause of quarrel, of Swiatoslaff attacked and gainedpossession son of Cherson bj cutting oflf the water. The Greek citj of Cherson, situated on the extreme for ages from the verge of ancient civilisation, escaped and demoralisation into which the Hellenic impoverishment race was centrating precipitated bj the Roman system of conall power in the capital of the empire.^ son Cherelective was goyemed for centuries by its own and it was not until towards the middle of magistrates, that the EmperorTheophilus the ninth century destroyed its independence. The people, however,stillretained in
was

Russians

their own

hands

some

control oyer

their localadministration,

thoughthe Byzantine government lost no time in the moral foundation of the free institutions undermining which had defended a single against city many barbarous
nations that had made the favour of the
emperors tremble.^ The inhabitantsof Chei-son long looked with indifference

the Roman

on

Byzantine emperor,

cherished the

institutions of Hellas,and boasted of their self-goyemment.^ A tiiousand years after the rest of the Greek nation was
in feeling Cherson remained sunk in irremediableslavery,
a

free. Such
one

contented in

phenomenon as the existence of manly eke slept when mankind everywhere city, deserved of political a state degradation,
be better able

attentiveconsideration. Indeed,we may the political to appreciate causes correctly the Greeks in the Eastern
if Empire,
we

that
can

corrupted
ascertain

^ stands near Cherson replaced and Sevastopol now the ancieDt CherroneeoB, HuL its ruins. Cherronesos was reoogmsed as a free city by Augustus. Pliny, and Nat. iv. 26, mentions and its attachment to Greek manners its importance, 2 9. Hudson. eostoms. 808. viL Strabo, Scylax, " Constantino the measures in explaining is very particular Porphyrogenitus He shows it was in possesto be adoptedin case of insurrections in Cherson. sion of a numerous commercial navy, thoughit imported wheat,wine,and other necessaries. De Adm. Imp. 53. B There published by is a very late testimony to these facte in a Hase, in his notes to Leo Diaconus,p. 503, edit Bonn avrovofUiv dc /MiXtora
"

fir^ent

"

ljpy""y dtaiirfNov/LtcPM.

416

BASILIAN

DYKASTT.

Cberson, though surrounded enemies and barbai*ous nations, to preserve po^^ifij CHji^i.
BOOK
11.

those which

enabled

bj

"

A Homer^B language marmuring in her sta^eetSy And in her haven many a mast from Tyre."

of mankind in every age shows us that the history of the people, the first material improvement greatpublic extension of and trade, works of utility, and the commerce of local institutions. Such are effectedby the impulsion of the popular that excites feeling progress is the expression The
and causes to better his own condition, every man to better the condition of the society in him, in so doing, which he lives.
too often expresses Order,unfortunately,

of the classpossessing wealth. Its necesthe feelings sity only but the problem of connecting it may be felt by all, and making it dependent is not with equity, on justice, and hence the pretextof its maintenance solved, easily for the creation of irresponsible The govserves ernment power. in which the family and the parish occupy the most important for itwill secure partwill ever be the best, to honesty and truth that deference which a more extended

circleattemptsto transfer to the conventional virtuesof honour and politeness. It isin the family and the parish
that the foundation of all virtue is

laid, longbefore the

citizen enters twelve


nomes

the camp, the senate, or the court The of Egypt doubled the extent and wealth of

the country by digging the canal of Joseph, and forming the lake Moeris,before the Pharaohs became conquerors and energy of municipal institutionsfilled the Mediterranean and the Euxine with
rose

builders of

pyramids. The
to

Greek colonies. Rome

greatnessas

ity municipal-

arrested her progress and depopulated ; centralisation with her colonies and Indian the world. Great Britain,

affordsan instance of the superiority of the empire, and self-respect patriotism by generated institutions over
conferred the strictobedience and

vidual indi-

local

scientific power

by the merits respective

centralisationof
of

But the authority. and of central self-government

CHERSON.

417

of scientificpower, are in the A. D. authority, by the weight 963-976. their fullest development of receiving under the course of the United States of America and two mighty empires Both these governments have displayed of Russia. summate conin the conduct of their respective ability political decision of the problem, and the practical whether systems, local or central government is the basis of the political of man, institutions best adaptedto the improvement seems as a moral and social being, by Providence to have intrusted to the cabinet of the emperor of Russia, of the United States of America. and to the people been In the of of Diocletian, while reign Themistos

Cherson,^Sauromatos

the

president passing Bosporian,^


was

along the eastern shores of the Euxine, invaded the Roman Lazia and Pontus without empire. He overran but on the banks of the Halys he found the diflEiculty,
of Constantius army assembled under the command Diocletian sent of this invasion, Chlorus. On hearing Roman

peopleof Cherson to attack Sauromatos to return home. in order to compel Bosporos, the rank of an allied city, could not Cherson, holding
ambassadors avoid that degreeof conceding which
a

to invite the

emperor command.

supremacy to the Roman small state is compelled to yield to the invitation was received
as

a a

and powerful protector,

Chrestos had succeeded Themistos in the sidency preand took the ; he sent an army against Bosporos, brave warriors, though city. But the Chersonites, sought

peac^, not
^ '

and theytreated all the inhabitants conquest,

Ka\ irpwrtvoav, 'ST""povfi"l"opos

the Bosporian Constantine Porphyrogenitus calls tbis chief Sauromatos the son of Kriskon-OroSy which, it baa been conjectured, ought to be read is a name Sauromates Kriskon the son of Bosporos of Oros, a Sarmatian to several kings of Bosporos ; but Sauromatos, which Constantine common givesto the three chiefs he mentions, is not found elsewhere, Porphyrogenitus calls them kings. The coins of Bosporos give the names of other and he never both from his kingsabout this period. The text of Constantine is so inexact, and from the inaccuracy in history, of transcribers, that I prefer errors own I have changed Conas they stand in the original authority. givingthe names See Koehne, Bettrdge zur Geschichte und Arehdstans to Constantius Chlorus. 100. in Ckerr(me80$ Taurien, von ologie
.

VOL.

I.

2d

418

BA8ILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

n.

^""

*^'

in a way that had falleninto their hands, places of their enemies. Their successes the goodwill conciliate

of the

to

conclude peace and evacuate the of his in order to regain Roman possession territory, cletian Dioand family.As a reward for their services, capital forced Sauromatos
to

grantedthe
the Roman

Chersonites additional

and extensive commercial their trade,

for security out throughprivileges

Duringthe
called on
over

empire.^ of Constantino reign

and Sarmatians invaded the Roman

the Great, the Gk)th8 empire.The emperor


were

the inhabitants of Cherson,who to take up arms. by Diogenes,

then presided
a

They sent
to

force well furnished with

field-machines

attack the

crossed the Danube, and defeated Goths,who had already to the barbarians with great slaughter. Ck)nstantine,

reward

in the service of the empire, promptitude sent them a golden robes,to statue of himself in imperial with a in the hall of the senate, accompanied be placed charter ratifying nity and commercial immuevery privilege to their cityby preceding He granted emperors. bestowed on them also an annual supply of the materiab the warlike machines of which necessary for constructing sand theyhad made such good use, and allowances for a thouto work these engines.^ This subsidy continued men in the middle of the tenth century, in the time to be paid of Constantine Porphjrogenitus. Years passedon, and Sauromatos, the grandson of him who invaded the empire in the time of Diocletian, to efface the memory of his grandfather's determining declared war with Cherson. defeated He was disgrace, the president of Cherson, at Kapha, and by Vyskos, to conclude a treaty of peace, by which Kapha compelled
of Acv^pw and ankela Porphyrogenitus says the privileges then conceded to Cherson ; but it enjoyed the firstin the time of Augustus, and the second from the time of Hadrian, when it ceased to form part of the Roman empire.
were
1

their

Constantine

Imp. chap.63, tom. iil p. 251, edit Bonn. ringswith his portrait engraved,to be used in certain The statue was not of solid gold,perhaps onlygilt iv. 637,places Stritter, this expeditionA.D. 327 ; Koehne, 100, a.d. 318.
The emperor also sent official commimications.

"

Constant

2)"!Adm, Porphyr.

420

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK ^
"-

iL

her husband
son, and

of Cherhimself tyrant of rendering plan


and warlike stores of the

* ^-

for two years he collected men affairs. These

from Bosporos, secretly by means in his commercial immense

employed ships
walls of his

he concealed in the
the

warehouses enclosed within

wife'spalace.Three of his own


were

followersfrom collectedtwo

alone intrustedwith the secret of


two

Bosporos his plot. After a


hundred

of lapse

years, Asander

had

of Gycia, with their armour, in the palace Bosporians, of the for the approaching and was anniversary waiting of Cherson. death of Lamachos to destroy the liberty It happenedat this time that a faYOurite maid of banished from her her mistress, was Gycia,offending presence, and confined in a room in which the Bosporians were
over

the warehouse
As

concealed.

the

her spindle and spinning, alone, was girl sitting singing and rolled along the floortillit fellinto a hole dropped, it by the wall,from which she could onlyrecover near raising up one of the tilesof the pavement. Leaning of men in the the ceiling down, she saw through a crowd warehouse below,whom she knew by their dress to be and soldiers. She immediately called a servant, Bosporians, and sent him to her mistress, her to come conjuring curious to see the effect to see her in her prison.Gycia, of the punishment visited her immeher favourite, diately, on and was of a crowd shown the strangespectacle of foreign soldiers and a magazine of arms concealed in her own palace. The truth flashed on her mind ; she her husband was plotting of her to become the tyrant saw native city, and every feeling of her heart was wounded. She assembled her relations, and by their means municated comwith the senate, revealing the plotto secretly that a chosen committee, on a solemn promise obtaining

when she died she should be buried within the walls of


the

city, thoughsuch

thingwas

at variance

with the

Hellenic usages of Cherson. from the danger Whether of attacking two hundred heavy-armed to avoid or men,

CHEESON.

421

the president and senate of Cherson Bosporos, determined to destroy the conspiracy by burningthe in their placeof concealment,and Gycia willingly enemy her to the flames to save gaye her ancestral palace
war

with

a. v.

^^^^^'

country.
of her father's funeral dayof the anniversary for the annual arrived, Gycia ordered the preparations feast to be made with more than ordinary and liberality,

When

the

Asander

was

lavish in his distribution of wine


been

; but

due

taken that the gatesof the city should be closed at the usual hour,and allthe citizens in their dwellings. At the banquetin her own palace
had precautions

Gyciadrank
wines.
To

water
on

out

of

while goblet, purple


her

the

vant ser-

who waited the

Asander

served him with the richest

husband,Gyciaproposed that all should retire to rest at an early hour,and she took a last melancholy leave of her husband,who hastened and then to give his three confidants their instructions,
of delight

should enable him to lay down to rest until midnight his treachery. The gates, and windows doors, complete of the palace shut up, and the keys, laid were as usual, beside Gycia. Her maids had packedup all her jewels, and when Asander was in a sound sleep from the plunged wine he had drank, Gyciarose, locked every door of the and hastened out, accompanied as she passed, palace by slaves. her Order was to set fire to immediately given the building of Cherson and thus the liberty on every side, saved by the patriotism of Gycia. was The spotwhere the palace had stood remained a vacant square in the time of the Emperor Constantine Porphyand Gycia duringher lifetime would never rogenitus, allow
Her countrybe cleared away. men her bronze honour of erected two statues to ism patrioteven

the ruins

to

"

one

her in the flower of in the public agora, showing in her native costume,
a as

dressed youth,
her

when

she saved
to defend

country; the other clad as

heroine armed

the

city.On

both

commemowere placed, inscriptions

422

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

iL

her rating

services ; and
to

no

better deed could be done at

CHjM1.

keep the bases of these statues bright of in order that the memory and the inscriptions legible, due to of the king's the treachery son, and the gratitude of G} cia, the patriotism mightbe ever fresh in the hearts
Cherson than
of the citizens.
was Stratophilos dent, presiof her that the gratitude men countrysuspecting Gycia, be inclined that theywould no longer so weakened was her within the of burying to fulfiltheir promise The event she to be dead. was as walls,pretended feared ; but when the procession she had passed tlie gates,

Some

years after

when this,

" up from the bier and exclaimed, Is this the way the people of Cherson keeptheir promise to the preserver

rose

V Shame of theirliberty
The the
was

more proved
now

Chersonites

swore

than grapowerful titude. her in againto bury


A
a

if she would pardon their falsehood. city, and built during her lifetime, accordingly
was

tomb

gilded
that
In

statue of bronze

erected over
should not

as it,

an

assurance

the faith of Cherson that tomb the tenth

be

again violated.

Gycia was

in and it stood uninjured buried,


an

when century,

with impressed he had anything


own

admiration
seen

emperor of Constantinople, of her patriotism, unlike so the Greek inhabitantsof his

among

transmitted a record of her empire, deeds to posterity.^ Cherson retained its position state as an independent until the reign of Theophilus, who compelled it to receive wide-extended
a

governor from

Constantinople ; but, even

under the

it continued to defend its municipal Byzantine government, the institutions, and, instead of slavishly soliciting it favour,and adoptingByzantine imperial manners, But it boasted of its constitution and self-government.^ lost its former wealth and extensive trade ; and gradually when Vladimir, the sovereign of Russia,attacked it in
* *

Constant. Porphyr. De Adm, Imp, chap.53. Fragment,Loo Dioconus,503.

SARACEN

WAR,

972-976.

423

988, it was
formed him
of ambition

who ininto his hands by a priest, a. d. betrayed ^^^^' how to cut oflf the water. The greatobject of all the princes of the East, from the time of

of Heraclius to that of the last Comnenos


was

Trebizond,

to

form

matrimonial

alliances with

the

imperial

family.Vladimir obtained the hand of Anne, the sister of the Emperors Basil II. and Constantine VIII., and and married in the Church of the Panaghia was baptised at Cherson. of the empire, he preTo soothe the vanity tended of his conquestas the dowry to retain possession of his wife. Many of the priests who converted the Russians to Christianity, and many of the artists who adorned the earliestRussian churches with paintings and
mosaics,were
Vladimir
on

natives of Cherson.
a

The

church

raised

saint ; the Russians him the title of the Great.i

to the rank of

conferred

John

Zimiskes, having terminated


to

the of

Russian

war,

Boris compelled

acceptthe
court.
more

and Bulgaria, titleof M agister, of the Byzanas a pensioner tine The frontierof the Eastern Empirewas once
crown

the resign

extended Saracen

to the
war

Danube.^
had been carried
on
on vigorously was

The

the frontiersof with

while the Syria,

EmperorJohn

pied occu-

cesses campaign. The continued sucof the Byzantine had so alarmed the Mohammedan arms that an extensive confederacy formed was princes,

the Russian

to recover
was caliph

Antioch,and the command of the army of the intrustedto Zoher,the lieutenant of the Fati-

led by was imperial army who of great military skill, a man Nikolaos, patrician

mites in

Egypt.

The

the had

been

an

eunuch in the household of John in


a

he defeated the Saracens Antioch for


a

Zimiskes ; and and saved battle, pitched

time.^

But in the

conquestof Nisibis filledthe of all Mussulmans that a levy consternation,


to march
"

the following year (973) of Bagdat with such city


was

ordered

the against

Christians.
'

The

Byzantine troops
"

Nestor,tr. fr.i, 137.

Cedrenus,694.

666. Cedrenua,

424

BASILIAN

DYNASTV.

were Mesopotamia who Xemeiek Melchi, ch^mi^i.


BOOK iL

in

He

was

bj an Armenian named routed near Amida. was completely and died after a year's himself taken prisoner,
commanded allhis talents as
a

confinement.^
With
to have

John general,

the same control over possessed quered conas Nicephorus ; and many of the cities of which in the majority the by his predecessor,

does not appear administrati the general

inhabitants were
oflF the

Mohammedans, succeeded in throwing

yoke.^ Even Antioch declared itself Byzantine A greatefibrtbecame necessary to regain independent. Joha that had been lost ; and,to make this, the ground of the Byzantine Zimiskes took the command army in He marched in one campaign person in the year 974. banks of the Tigris, and from from Mount Taurus to the the banks of the Tigris back into Syria, Mount as far as his victorious arms, according to the Libanon, carrying of the Byzantine clature, nomengeographical vaunting inaccuracy into Palestine. His last campaign, in the following In Mesopotamia of his exploits. year, was the most brilliant of Amida and Martyrohe regained possession bitants ; but these citiescontained so few Christian inhapolis to leave the administration that he was obliged in the hands of Saracen emirs, who were charged with
the collection of the tribute and taxes.

Nisibishe found
to

and from it he marched by Edessa deserted,


or

Hierapolis

Membig, where he
which

captured many
our

valuable relics,

among

the shoes of

and the hair of Saviour,

enumerated. From especially John marched to Apamea,Emesa, and BaalHierapolis bec,without meeting The emir any seriousopposition. of Damascus sent valuable presents, and agreed to pay annual tribute to escape a visit. The emperor then the fortressof Borzo, crossed Mount Libanon,storming
an

John the Baptist, are

which commanded
'

the pass, and, descending to the


Leo
488 Diaconus,

sea-

Lebeau, xiv. 181 ii.518, edit. Reisk. t Zonaras, ii. 215.

and 889.

Ann. Mutitn, AhulfedcB

309. Gljcas,

SARACEN

WAR,

975.

425

to coast,laid siege in which he found

which soon and surrendered, A.D* Berytus, ^^^^^' an image of the crucifixionthat he deemed worthyof beingsent to Constantinople. From he marched northward to Tripolis, which he besieged Berytus in vain for forty days. The valour of the garrison and the strength of the fortifications him compelled to raise the siege ascribed to fear of ; but his retreat was liancy.^ a comet, which illuminated the sky with a strangebrilAs it was he wished to place now September, his worn-out in Antioch ; but troops in winter-quarters the inhabitants shut the gates against him. To punish them for their revolt, he had the folly to ravage their and cut down their fruit-trees in territory, ; forgetting, his barbarous and impolitic revenge, that he was ruining his own empire. Burtzes was left to reconquer Antioch for the second time ; which, however, he did not eflfect until after the death of the Emperor John. The
was

army of frontiers
to

then

in winter-quarters the on placed

and the emperor Cilicia,

hastened
he

to

return

On the journey, as Constantinople. and Dryze, in fertileplains of Longias Anazarba and and

the passed of the vicinity

Podandus, he

saw

them

covered with flocks


no

but herds,with well-fortifiedfarmyards, with wonder inquired


to whom

smiling
country
so

He villages.

the
on

in which pasturage was belonged,


a

conducted

grand

scale ; and he learned that the had been

part of the progreater vince

acquired by

the

donations from himself and his Amazed


at
one

Basilios in president Nicephorus. predecessor,

the enormous

hands of
of the

accumulation of propertyin the "Alas! the wealth he exclaimed, individual,


the armies
ries, mercena-

of empire is wasted, the strength emperors


an

is

and the Roman exhausted,


to add to

toil like

the riches of
raised both
now

eunuch !" This insatiable

speechwas
that he had

to reported

the

He considered president. and John to the Nicephorus it should return

throne ; his interest


^

that required

Leo DiacoDUB,169.

426

BASILIAN

DYKASTY.

BOOK

iL

to its rightful master, and

^"""*^

his heritage.The enjoy of Romauos, a grandat the palace son way to Constantinople of Romanus I. ; and it is said he there drank of
a

that the young Basil should his on emperor John stopped

to him by a servant gainedby poisoned cup presented Certain it is that John Zimiskes reached the president. the 10th of the capital in a dying on state,and expired January796, at the age of fifty-one.

SROT.

n."

REIGN

OP

BASIL

XL

(BULGAROKTONOB),"
or

AJ". 97e-ieS"
autd war kingdom his or
"

Charaoteb Phokas
OF BiDA
"

or

Basil

II.
"

Rebillioks
private kino of

Baboas
"

Sklerob Bulgarian
the eyes of

Bardas
Dkteat
of

Wealth II.
"

of

individuals

Basil
"

Samcel,
of the
"

Bulgarla,
puts out
"

founds the

Ach"

Defeats
or

Samuel"
kingdom

Basil
of of

prisoners
"

Conquest
IN

Achrida

Basil

visits

Athens

quests Con-

Armenla

Death

Basil II.

only twenty years of age when he and for some assumed the direction of public time affairs, ing allowhe continued to indulge of pleasure, in the pursuit Basilios to exercise the imperial the president power
Basil II.
was

to its fullestextent.

Indeed, there

can

be

no

doubt that

would have attempted to occupy the prime-minister had his condition not and Zimiskes, of Nicephorus place For some excluded him from the throne. effectually the

time, however, he ventured


active share in tliedetails of

to

exclude

Basil from

and administration, of the his

any endeavoured

to divert his attention to the pomp

imperial

court,and

to which it passions, inclined. This the young man was was thought naturally conduct probably in the mind of awakened suspicions and who possessed character, Basil, a firm and energetic he watched the proceedings minister with of his powerful to the

of indulgence

' Gibbon says he enjoyed ihe titleof Augustus sixty-six years, and the reign of the two brothers (Basil and Coustantine) is the longestand most obscure of the Bysantine history. ~i"^t"t" and FeUl,chap.48, vol. ix. 69. We possess few no a contemporary historian, except Leo Diaconus,who only supplies 169. Cedrenus, howeyer, gives some details concerning notices, interesting the Bulgarianwar, 684. The other Byzantine sources are Zonaras, ii 215 ; Manasses,120 ; Glycas,809 ; Joel,181 ; Ephrsemius,126.

428

BASILIAN

DTKASTY.

duke or governor of Mesopoappointed his rebellion. The two j^j^^jj^ rpjjjgg^p precipitated ca^H^i in the empire Bardas Skleros and ablest generals were
BOOK
iL

tliearmy, and

Bardas

Phokas

both

were

men

of illustrioas families, As
as early

in the state. and both had filled highoffices the

Skleros had been governor of of Michael I., a reign the family the Peloponnesus ;^ and for four generations the empire with a succession of of Phokas had supplied been leaders. Skleros and Phokas had already military of John I. These two men opponentsin the reign may be taken as typesof the military nobles of the Byzantine in the tenth century; and no tale of daring deeds empire
or

romantic vicissitudesamong the chivalrousadventurers but their swords, of the West, who had no patrimony
was more

these two
was

in the lives of than many an episode strange nursed in silken raiment, whose youth nobles,

the soft shores of the in marble palaces on passed who were educated by pedantic Bosphorus, grammarians, and trained by Greek theologians, who deemed the shedding
even

of Saracen
as

blood
on

sin.

Yet

these nobles
arms

valued themselves
and

much

their personal skillin

as headlong daring

any Danish reached

adventurer

or

man Nor-

knight.*
Bardas Skleros he assumed Minor.
he He trusted
no sooner

Mesopotamiathan

Emperor, and invaded Asia had made no preparations for his rebellion ; to his military for a reputation collecting
the best
m as

the title of

small army, and to his own skill to make the troopsthat joined his standard : nor
to his fame.

use

of

he

wanting
a

Some

assistance from pecuniary

the emirs

of Amida

and

recruited his finances, and Martyropolis

body
^
"

of three hundred
can

well-armed Saracen horse

was

428. be no doubt that for several agee the Byzantine nobles were as instructed in military regularly discipline duringtheir youth as our boys are in their Latin grammar. Byzantine education seems to have been excellent before entering and very bad afterwards ; ours is better after on life, public than before. There

Inc. Theopbanes, Scrip.

DEFEAT

OF

SKLEROS,

A.D.

979.

429

considered

valuable addition to hislittle army.

mayed Undis-

A.D.

defeats and immense difficulties, he at ^^1025. by partial last gained the Byzantine a over complete victory army the of at Lapara, frontiers on Armenia/ and a second at Rageas, of the empire, who had a over generalissimo been sent to repair disaster. Skleros then the preceding and sent his son marched to Abydos,took Nicaea, Rointo Thrace to make preparations for the siege of manos Constantinople.
The rebellion of Bardas

exileto Chios, Phokas,and liis


He
was
now

have been

mentioned. already

called from

his retreat, and laid aside the monastic dress, which he had worn for six years, to resume his armour. The old rivals
to

againmet in arms, favour Skleros, who was

and at firstfortune continued


a

better tacticianthan Phokas.

defeated at Amorium, but the imperial army was valour of Phokas covered the retreat of his soldiers, personal and preserved their confidence ; for when Constantine Gabras pressed the rear, Phokas, who too closely on his movements, suddenly turned his horse, was watching struck him lifeless and, galloping chief, up to the gallant with his mace-at-arms, and rejoined his own rear-guard second battle was unhurt. A foughtnear Basilika and Skleros was Therma, in the theme Charsiana, again where victorious. Phokas retired into Georgia(Iberia), he received assistance from David, the kingof that country,

The

which enabled him banks of the


the

Halys.

third army on the in the He found Skleros encamped


to

assemble

of Pankalia. plain

An

in which engagement took place,

of the generalship superior


to

rebel emperor

was

again

and Phokas, reduced evident, the contest

by a

They

soon

met, and

nate to termisought despair, encounter with his rival. personal the their companions suspended

^ The who commanded the imperial Pefcros, patrician army, had been an guished Phokas, and had distineunuch of the household of the Emperor Nioephorus valour in the Russian war. himself by his personal Cedrenus, 685. Leo Diaconus,81.
"

430

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

BOOK

n. ".

conflictin their immediate


[jgt^^u
t^Q

ciijM

to view the combat yicinity celebrated for tbeir both equally champions,

personal prowess.
Phokas the and

Skleros

was

armed

with

the

sword,

with the mace-at-arms the


on

; the sword
mace

from glanced

armour, well-tempered

Skleros

fellsenseless

crushed the helmet, The his horse's necL

to guards rushing

an eminence, gained of his army in from which he could already see a portion full retreat. But the fortune of the day was changedby accident. As the oflBcersof Skleros were an carrying their wounded leader to a neighbouring fountain,bis horse escaped and galloped throughthe ranks of the stained trappings army, showingthe troopsthe imperial

the rescue, Phokas

with blood.

cry arose that Skleros was tie that united the rebels was broken,and fled in every laid down or direction, their

The

slain.

The

the soldiers On
re-

arms.

leftfor him but Skleros found that nothing was coTering, to escape with bis personal attendants into the Saracen where he was thrown into prison territory, by order of the Several of his partisans their resistance caliph. prolonged the winter.^ through Bardas Phokas continued to command the imperial with the on war army in Asia for eight years, carrying and compelling the emir of Aleppoto pay triSaracens, buteik) Constantinople. But as the Emperor Basil II. advanced in years, his firm character began to excite

dissatisfaction general among


saw

the

who Byzantinenobles,

that their personal and power of enriching influence, themselves at the public to be greatly expense, were likely attention the emperor paid to his strict control over the conduct command the army

curtailed. The

public

and of all business, Basilios ; while his officials, beganto alarm the president

determination

to

in person, and

to

1 Skleros was defeated in the sammer of 979,as the rebeUion was sappreesed in the 8th indiction, in the fourth year of its duration. Leo Biaconus, 169. Cedrenus, 694. The 8th indiction commenced the Ist September979, and on the rebellion continued for some time after the flight of Skleros.
"

REBELLION

OF

PHOKAS,

A.D.

987-989.

431

of Phokas, a. d. excited the dissatisfaction promotions, regulate of ^^^'^^^' who allowed his government to become the reftige in which campaign ererj discontented courtier. The only the emperor had yet commanded Samuel, one was against which had provedsignally disastrous, king of Bulgaria, matters did not appear 80 that his interference in military in tacticsand strategy. to be authorised by his experience that the president excited Phokas to It seems probable of rendering take up arms, as a means the emperor more his influence and the supportof the aristocracy on dependent ing prompt; but Phokas doubtless required very little to make an attempt to seize the throne. Assembling in his government,and the principal the leading men of of the army under his command, at the palace officers
Eustathios

he in the theme Charsiana, Maleinos,

was

claimed pro-

emperor on the 15th of August 987. about the same time,Bardas Skleros succeeded Nearly in He from escaping

the Saracens

had been released from which he had

intrusted with the command


with refugees, civilwars service were

the empire. entering and his prison at Bagdat, of a legion of Christian himself in the distinguished His adventures in this in the

and

of the Mohammedans.
not

unlike those recorded of Manuel

in the His sudden appearance reignof Theophilus.^ and his resumption of his claim to the imperial empire, the two ancient rivals into the field, throne, again brought both as rebel emperors, and it seemed that they must decide by a new which was to march as victor against war Phokas the advantage Basil at Constantinople. gained He concluded a treatywith his rival, by treachery. by which a division of Asia Minor was agreed on ; and when Skleros visited his camp to hold detained him a prisoner.^ Phokas
"

Phokas conference, then devoted all his

697. CedroDus,

Skleros was confined at Tyropaion, had fortifiedas a refuge a place Phokas John I. Skleros had secured his personal he rebelled against on safety him to surrender it." Leo Diaconus, 126. forcing when

'

482
BOOK
iL **

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

^"'^

the summer ; and daring energy to dethrone his sovereign of 988, he subdued the greater part of Asia Minor; but
at the commencement

of the

his army which he sent to the Emperor Basil, who had

following year, the Bosphorus was


justobtained

division of

defeated
an

by auxiliary

corps of Varangiansfrom his brother-in-law Vladimir, the sovereign of Kief.^ Phokas was at this time besieging until Abydos,which defended itself with obstinacy the Emperors Basil and Constantino arrived with the imperial troopsarrived army to relieve it. The imperial formed their camp near by sea, and, debarking Abydos, in the plain.Phokas, leaving tinue part of his force to condrew out his army to givebattle to the the siege, the two armies were When taking emperors. up their the field, Phokas rode along for an opporseeking ground, tunity to decide the fate of the war by one of those feats of in which his personal arms so distinguished. prowess was of the Emperor Basil engagedin His eye caught a sight the movements of his army, and, dashing forward ordering with his mace-at-arms, he prepared to close in single when At the very moment combat with his sovereign. flashed on the minds the object of his sudden movement of all, Phokas wheeled round his horse,galloped to a of both little eminence,where he dismounted in sight armies and laydown on the ground. A long interval of

Then a rumour suspense occurred. of the rebels that their leader was
without striking blow. a dispersed of cold water as he mounted a glass to his usual custom, and whether

ran

alongthe ranks
had drank

dead,and the troops


Phokas his

horse, according

perished by poison not a or by a stroke of apoplexy was naturally question and vicious Constantinosettled by the suspicious easily Thus ended the career of Bardas Phokas, by politans.
1

he

The

emperor

ordered

the

of general

the rebels to be

impaled. CedrenoB,
"

699.

WBALTH

OF

PRIVATE

INDIVIDUALS.

483

death

as

as the strange

events of his romantic life. He

a.d.

989. April Bardas Skleros regained his liberty the death of on his rival, but resigned his pretensions to the imperial the pardonof Basil. The meeting on dignity receiving

died in the month of

^^^^'

of the emperor and the veteran warrior The eyesight of Skleros had begun to grown

was

remarkable.

and he had fail,

He corpulent. extremely

had laid aside the imperial

were

which costume, but continued to wear purple boots, of an emperor. As he advanced part of the insignia
of

to the tent

Basil, on leaning
man we

two

of his

equerries,
"

exclaimed Basil, at his infirmity, surprised


"

ants, to his attend? yesterday

Is this the
soon as

alltrembled

at

the purple he refused boots, perceived to receive the infirm old general until theywere changed. Skleros had then a gracious and was requested audience, survive.^ He did not long to sit down. The same business on the part of attention to public
as

But

he

the emperor which caused the rebellionof Phokas, duced prothe fall of the president w hom Basil Basilios,
of deprived
estates
were

all his officesabout

the

same

time.

His

his confiscated,

acts

the populace annulled,

his palace, the allowed to plunder were Constantinople sacred ofierings and dedications he had made were destroyed,

of

and

even

The

the monasteryhe had founded was dissolved. celebrated minister died in exile, after

attained a degreeof wealth and power which having in the marks an unhealthy condition of the bodypolitic Byzantine empire. No such accumulation of fortune as Basilios is reported could ever have to have possessed, been obtained by a public servant without the exertion of the grossest eitheron the partof the individual oppression, the government. The richesof Basilios must almost have rivalledthe wealth of Crassus ; at least, he came
or
^

CedrenuB,701. 2
E

VOL.

I.

434
BooKn.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

^"'**'

under the definitionof Roman, for he wealthy


At
an

a was

rich

man, to

to according

that

able

maintain

an

army.

a career, he armed early part of his political the household of three thousand slayesto aid in placing

the head of Nicephorus II. The on crown imperial of Constantinople at thb period bore some aristocracy in its socialposition, to that of Rome at the resemblance, fallof the Republic, both in wealth and political cormp*

Maleinos, in whose house Phokas raised the standard of revolt, not less were
tion. The
estates

of

Eustathios

extensivethan those of the ambitious


was

fortunate

to enough
some

escape years

Maleinos president. for his share punishment


was

but in the rebellion,

after, as Basil

ing return-

in Syria(a.d. he stopped at 995), campaign and was the palace of Maleinos in Cappadocia, amazed of the building, at the strength and the wealth, power, and splendour of the household. The emperor saw that of courage, in possession of so much influence, and a man commandingsuch a number of armed servants,could at
a

from

any moment

commence

rebellion as

as that of dangerous

SUeros

or

Phokas.

Maleinos received an

invitation to

and was never again accompany the court to the capital, his estates in Cappadocia. allowed to visit At his death, his immense fortune
was

and confiscated, of

most

writers

ascribedthe legislative the measures to protect Basil, landed property of small proprietors from the encroachments mind
;

to the impression on his wealthy, produced the power of Maleinos in Cappadoby witnessing cia

of the

but

we

must

bear in mind

that,from the time of

Romanus

the Byzantine I., emperors had been vainly

to stem the torrent of aristocratic endeavouring nance predomiin the provinces ; and both Constantino VII. and Nicephorus in general II., (Porphyrogenitus) though dissimilarin character and policy, in extremely agreed laws to protect the poor against the rich.^ Basil passing
^

702. Cedrenus,

See the laws of Romanua

I., NoveU,1,2, 8

Constantine

436
BOOK u.

BASILIAN

DYNASTY.

and patriotism for to fight strength possessing of invaders poured into the homes when a new jjj^j^ race cm^ujr empire. of Bjof Basil II. is the culminating The reign point of Constantinople flew zantine greatness. The eagles of victory, his life, from the banks in a long career during and from the of the Danube to those of the Euphrates, of Italy.Basil's mountains of Armenia to the sliores indifference to art indomitable courage, terrific cruelty, and religious all combine to and literature, superstition, and age. The great render him a true type of his empire of his policy of the to consolidate the unity was object of administrationin Europeby the complete subjection and Sclavonians, whom of language the Bulgarians similarity remained
had

almost blended into


in

one

nation, and

had

united completely

to the imperial hostility government. rank had noble of the highest Four sons of a Bulgarian in Bulgaria commenced a revolutionary movement against the royal after of death Peter and the first the family,

of the Russians. victories

In order to

put

an

end to

II. had, on the retreat of these troubles, Nicephorus Swiatoslafl^, Boris,the son of Peter, on the replaced throne of Bulgaria Boris ; and when the Russians returned,

submitted

after the death Shortly the Bulgarian roused of John I. (Zimiskes), leaders again for independence. the people who to a struggle Boris, from Constantinople his to attemptrecovering escaped and the four throne,was accidentally slain, paternal
to their

domination.^

brothers

againbecame the chiefs of

the nation.

In

and Samuel, who alone remained, perished, of King. The forcesof the emassumed the title pire with the rebellion of Skleros, that were so occupied the vigour and military talents of Samuel succeeded both in expelling the Byzantine from Bulgaria, and authorities
^

short time three

CedrenuB,646,666, 691

Leo Diaoonus, 81, 136.

BULGARIAN

WAR,

A.D.

976-1018.
to

437
A.D.

in

the rousing

Sclavonians of Macedonia

throw off the

and Byzantine yoke. Samuel then invaded Thessaly, extended his plundering excursions over those parts of still inhabited by the Greece and the Peloponnesus Hellenic
race.

976-1026.

He

carried away

the

inhabitants of

the town of Prespa, Larissa in order to people which he then proposed with intelligent sans artito make his capital, and
to their

manufacturers
new

and, in order

to attach them

he by ties of old superstition, the body of their protecting removed to Prespa martyr, St Achilles, who some had been a Roman pretended and others a Greek archbishop. Samuel showed soldier, both in ability and courage, a rival worthyof himself, time Basil ; and the empire of the East seemed for some in danger of being transferred from the Byzantine Romans to the Sclavonian Bulgarians. In the year 981, the Emperor Basil made his first in person. the new Bulgarian campaign against monarchy His plan of operations to secure the great western was Mount Haemus, on the road from Philippasses through and by the conquestof the latter city to Sardica, popolis garians he hoped to cut off the communication between the Bulresidence

north of Mount Macedonia.


But his of the discipline

Haemus

and

the Sclavonians in the


laxed re-

and military inexperience,

plan to of the days. The negligence

army, caused this well-conceived in vain for twenty fail. Sardica was besieged and the disobedience officers

to be cut foraging parties in a of the besiegers burned the engines off; the besieged victorious sortie, of and the emperor felt the necessity the commencinghis retreat. As his army was passing defiles of Haemus, it was assailed by the troops Samuel had collected to watch his operations, and completely the emperor's routed. The baggageand military chest, and tents,all fellinto the hands of the Bulgarian plate and Basil himself escaped to with some king, difficulty

of the soldierscaused several

438

BABILIA