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VIMALAKIRTI NIRDESA SUTRA Translated by Robert A. F. Thurman Co yr!"ht #$%&' The (ennsyl)an!a State Un!)ers!

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#. (ur!*!+at!on o* the ,uddha-F!eld Re)eren+e to all ,uddhas' ,odh!satt)as' Aryasra)a.as' (ratye.abuddhas' !n the ast' the resent' and the *uture. and

Thus ha)e I heard at one t!me. The Lord ,uddha /as !n res!den+e !n the "arden o* Amra al!' !n the +!ty o* Va!sal!' attended by a "reat "ather!n". 0* bh!.shus there /ere e!"ht thousand' all sa!nts. They /ere *ree *rom !m ur!t!es and a**l!+t!ons' and all had atta!ned sel*mastery. The!r m!nds /ere ent!rely l!berated by er*e+t .no/led"e. They /ere +alm and d!"n!*!ed' l!.e royal ele hants. They had a++om l!shed the!r /or.' done /hat they had to do' +ast o** the!r burdens' atta!ned the!r "oals' and totally destroyed the bonds o* e1!sten+e. They all had atta!ned the utmost er*e+t!on o* e)ery *orm o* m!nd +ontrol. 0* bodh!satt)as there /ere th!rty-t/o thousand' "reat s !r!tual heroes /ho /ere un!)ersally a++la!med. They /ere ded!+ated throu"h the enetrat!n" a+t!)!ty o* the!r "reat su er.no/led"es and /ere susta!ned by the "ra+e o* the ,uddha. 2uard!ans o* the +!ty o* Dharma' they u held the true do+tr!ne' and the!r "reat tea+h!n"s resounded l!.e the l!on3s roar throu"hout the ten d!re+t!ons. 4!thout ha)!n" to be as.ed' they /ere the natural s !r!tual bene*a+tors o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. They ma!nta!ned unbro.en the su++ess!on o* the Three 5e/els' +on6uer!n" de)!ls and *oes and o)er/helm!n" all +r!t!+s. The!r m!nd*ulness' !ntell!"en+e' real!7at!on' med!tat!on' !n+antat!on'

and elo6uen+e all /ere er*e+ted. They had atta!ned the !ntu!t!)e toleran+e o* the ult!mate !n+om rehens!b!l!ty o* all th!n"s. They turned the !rre)ers!ble /heel o* the Dharma. They /ere stam ed /!th the !ns!"n!a o* s!"nlessness. They /ere e1 ert !n .no/!n" the s !r!tual *a+ult!es o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. They /ere bra)e /!th the +on*!den+e that o)era/es all assembl!es. They had "athered the "reat stores o* mer!t and o* /!sdom' and the!r bod!es' beaut!*ul /!thout ornaments' /ere adorned /!th all the aus !+!ous s!"ns and mar.s. They /ere e1alted !n *ame and "lory' l!.e the lo*ty summ!t o* Mount Sumeru. The!r h!"h resol)e as hard as d!amond' unbrea.able !n the!r *a!th !n ,uddha' Dharma and San"ha' they sho/ered *orth the ra!n o* ambros!a that !s released by the l!"ht rays o* the 8e/el o* the Dharma' /h!+h sh!nes e)ery/here. The!r )o!+es /ere er*e+t !n d!+t!on and resonan+e' and )ersat!le !n s ea.!n" all lan"ua"es. They had enetrated the ro*ound r!n+! le o* relat!)!ty and had destroyed the ers!sten+e o* the !nst!n+tual mental hab!ts underly!n" all +on)!+t!ons +on+ern!n" *!n!tude and !n*!n!tude. They s o.e *earlessly' l!.e l!ons' sound!n" the thunder o* the ma"n!*!+ent tea+h!n". Une6ualed' they sur assed all measure. They /ere the best +a ta!ns *or the )oya"e o* d!s+o)ery o* the treasures o* the Dharma' the stores o* mer!t and /!sdom. They /ere e1 ert !n the /ay o* the Dharma' /h!+h !s stra!"ht' ea+e*ul' subtle' "entle' hard to see' and d!**!+ult to real!7e. They /ere endo/ed /!th the /!sdom that !s able to understand the thou"hts o* l!)!n" be!n"s' as /ell as the!r +om!n"s and "o!n"s. They had been +onse+rated /!th the ano!ntment o* the eerless "nos!s o* the ,uddha. 4!th the!r h!"h resol)e' they a roa+hed the ten o/ers' the *our *earlessnesses' and the e!"hteen s e+!al 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha. They had +rossed the terr!*y!n" abyss o* the bad m!"rat!ons' and yet they assumed re!n+arnat!on )oluntar!ly !n all m!"rat!ons *or the sa.e o* d!s+! l!n!n" l!)!n" be!n"s. 2reat K!n"s o* med!+!ne' understand!n" all the s!+.nesses o* ass!ons' they +ould a ly the med!+!ne o* the Dharma a ro r!ately.

They /ere !ne1haust!ble m!nes o* l!m!tless )!rtues' and they "lor!*!ed !nnumerable buddha-*!elds /!th the s lendor o* these )!rtues. They +on*erred "reat bene*!t /hen seen' heard' or e)en a roa+hed. 4ere one to e1tol them *or !nnumerable hundreds o* thousands o* myr!ads o* aeons' one st!ll +ould not e1haust the!r m!"hty *lood o* )!rtues. These bodh!satt)as /ere named9 Samadarsana' Asamadarsana' Samadh!)!.ur)!tara8a' Dharmes)ara' Dharma.etu' (rabha.etu' (rabha)yuha' Ratna)yuha' Maha)yuha' (rat!bhana.uta' Ratna.uta' Ratna an!' Ratnamudrahasta' N!tya ralambahasta' N!tyot.s! thasta' N!tyata ta' N!tyamud!tendr!ya' (ramodyara8a' De)ara8a' (ran!dhana ra)esa ra ta' (ras!ddha rat!sam)!t ra ta' 2a"ana"an8a' Ratnol.a ar!"rh!ta' Ratnasura' Ratna r!ya' Ratnasr!' Indra8ala' 5al!n! rabha' N!ralambanadhyana' (ra8na.uta' Ratnadatta' Mara ramarda.a' V!dyudde)a' V!.ur)anara8a' Kutan!m!ttasamat!.ranta' S!mhanadanad!n' 2!rya"ra ramard!ra8a' 2andhahast!n' 2andha.un8arana"a' N!tyodyu.ta' An!.s! tadhura' (ramat!' Su8ata' (admasr!"arbha' (adma)yuha' A)alo.!tes)ara' Mahasthama ra ta' ,rahma8ala' Ratnadand!n' Mara.arma)!8eta' Ksetrasamalam.ara' Man!ratna++hattra' Su)arna+uda' Man!+uda' Ma!treya' Man8usr!.umarabhuta' and so *orth' /!th the rema!nder o* the th!rty-t/o thousand. There /ere also "athered there ten thousand ,rahmas' at the!r head ,rahma S!.h!n' /ho had +ome *rom the Aso.a un!)erse /!th !ts *our se+tors to see' )enerate' and ser)e the ,uddha and to hear the Dharma *rom h!s o/n mouth. There /ere t/el)e thousand Sa.ras' *rom )ar!ous *our-se+tor un!)erses. And there /ere other o/er*ul "ods9 ,rahmas' Sa.ras' Lo.a alas' de)as' na"as' ya.sas' "andhar)as' asuras' "arudas' .!mnaras' and mahora"as. F!nally' there /as the *our*old +ommun!ty' +ons!st!n" o* bh!.shus' bh!.shun!s' laymen' and lay/omen. The Lord ,uddha' thus surrounded and )enerated by these mult!tudes o* many hundreds o* thousands o* l!)!n" be!n"s' sat u on a ma8est!+ l!on-throne and be"an to tea+h the Dharma. Dom!nat!n" all the mult!tudes' 8ust as Sumeru' the .!n" o* mounta!ns' looms h!"h o)er the o+eans' the Lord ,uddha shone' rad!ated' and "l!ttered as he sat u on h!s ma"n!*!+ent l!on-throne.

Thereu on' the L!++ha)! bodh!satt)a Ratna.ara' /!th *!)e hundred L!++ha)! youths' ea+h hold!n" a re+!ous arasol made o* se)en d!**erent .!nds o* 8e/els' +ame *orth *rom the +!ty o* Va!sal! and resented h!msel* at the "ro)e o* Amra al!. Ea+h a roa+hed the ,uddha' bo/ed at h!s *eet' +!r+umambulated h!m +lo+./!se se)en t!mes' la!d do/n h!s re+!ous arasol !n o**er!n"' and /!thdre/ to one s!de. As soon as all these re+!ous arasols had been la!d do/n' suddenly' by the m!ra+ulous o/er o* the Lord' they /ere trans*ormed !nto a s!n"le re+!ous +ano y so "reat that !t *ormed a +o)er!n" *or th!s ent!re b!ll!on-/orld "ala1y. The sur*a+e o* the ent!re b!ll!on-/orld "ala1y /as re*le+ted !n the !nter!or o* the "reat re+!ous +ano y' /here the total +ontent o* th!s "ala1y +ould be seen9 l!m!tless mans!ons o* suns' moons' and stellar bod!es: the realms o* the de)as' na"as' ya.sas' "andhar)as' asuras' "arudas' .!mnaras' and mahora"as' as /ell as the realms o* the *our Mahara8as: the .!n" o* mounta!ns' Mound Sumeru: Mount ;!madr!' Mount Mu+!l!nda' Mount Mahamu+!l!nda' Mount 2andhamadana' Mount Ratna ar)ata' Mount Kala ar)ata' Mount Ca.ra)ada' Mount Maha+a.ra)ada: all the "reat o+eans' r!)ers' bays torrents' streams' broo.s' and s r!n"s: *!nally' all the )!lla"es' suburbs' +!t!es' +a !tals' ro)!n+es' and /!ldernesses. All th!s +ould be +learly seen by e)eryone. And the )o!+es o* all the ,uddhas o* the ten d!re+t!ons +ould be heard ro+la!m!n" the!r tea+h!n"s o* the Dharma !n all the /orlds' the sounds re)erberat!n" !n the s a+e beneath the "reat re+!ous +ano y. At th!s )!s!on o* the ma"n!*!+ent m!ra+le e**e+ted by the su ernatural o/er o* the Lord ,uddha' the ent!re host /as e+stat!+' enra tured' aston!shed' del!"hted' sat!s*!ed' and *!lled /!th a/e and leasure. They all bo/ed do/n to the Tatha"ata' /!thdre/ to one s!de /!th alms ressed to"ether' and "a7ed u on h!m /!th *!1ed attent!on. The youn" L!++ha)! Ratna.ara .nelt /!th h!s r!"ht .nee on the "round' ra!sed h!s hands' alms ressed to"ether !n salute o* the ,uddha' and ra!sed h!m /!th the *ollo/!n" hymn. (ure are your eyes' broad and beaut!*ul' l!.e the etals o* a blue

lotus. (ure !s your thou"ht' ha)!n" d!s+o)ered the su reme trans+enden+e o* all tran+es. Immeasurable !s the o+ean o* your )!rtues' the a++umulat!on o* your "ood deeds. <ou a**!rm the ath o* ea+e. 0h' 2reat As+et!+' obe!san+e to you= Leader' bull o* men' /e behold the re)elat!on o* your m!ra+le. The su erb and rad!ant *!elds o* the Su"atas a ear be*ore us' And your e1tens!)e s !r!tual tea+h!n"s' that lead to !mmortal!ty Ma.e themsel)es heard throu"hout the /hole rea+h o* s a+e. Dharma-K!n"' you rule /!th the Dharma your su reme Dharma.!n"dom' And thereby besto/ the treasures o* the Dharma u on all l!)!n" be!n"s. E1 ert !n the dee analys!s o* th!n"s' you tea+h the!r ult!mate mean!n". So)ere!"n Lord o* Dharma' obe!san+e to you. All these th!n"s ar!se de endently' *rom +auses' <et they are ne!ther e1!stent nor none1!stent. There!n !s ne!ther e"o' nor e1 er!en+er' nor doer' <et no a+t!on' "ood or e)!l' loses !ts e**e+ts. Su+h !s your tea+h!n". 0 Sa.yamun!' +on6uer!n" the o/er*ul host o* Mara' <ou *ound ea+e' !mmortal!ty' and the ha enl!"htenment' !ness o* that su reme

4h!+h !s not real!7ed by any amon" the heterodo1' Thou"h they arrest the!r *eel!n"' thou"ht and mental ro+esses.

0 4onder*ul K!n" o* Dharma' <ou turned the /heel o* Dharma be*ore men and "ods' Its ur!ty o* nature' and !ts e1treme ea+e: And thereby the Three 5e/els /ere re)ealed. Those /ho are /ell d!s+! l!ned by your re+!ous Dharma Are *ree o* )a!n !ma"!n!n"s and al/ays dee ly ea+e*ul. Su reme do+tor' you ut an end to b!rth' de+ay' s!+.ness' and death. Immeasurable o+ean o* )!rtue' obe!san+e to you= L!.e Mount Sumeru' you are unmo)ed by honor or s+orn. <ou lo)e moral be!n"s and !mmoral be!n"s e6ually. (o!sed !n e6uan!m!ty' your m!nd !s l!.e the s.y. 4ho /ould not honor su+h a re+!ous 8e/el o* a be!n"> 2reat Sa"e' !n all these mult!tudes "athered here' 4ho loo. u on your +ountenan+e /!th hearts s!n+ere !n *a!th' Ea+h be!n" beholds the V!+tor' as !* 8ust be*ore h!m. Th!s !s a s e+!al 6ual!ty o* the ,uddha. Althou"h the Lord s ea.s /!th but one )o!+e' Those resent er+e!)e that same )o!+e d!**erently' And ea+h understands !n h!s o/n lan"ua"e a++ord!n" to h!s o/n needs. Th!s !s a s e+!al 6ual!ty o* the ,uddha. From the Leader3s a+t o* s ea.!n" !n a s!n"le )o!+e' Some merely de)elo an !nst!n+t *or the tea+h!n"' some "a!n real!7at!on'

Some *!nd a+!*!+at!on o* all the!r doubts. Th!s !s a s e+!al 6ual!ty o* the ,uddha. 0be!san+e to you /ho +ommand the *or+e o* leadersh! and the ten o/ers= 0be!san+e to you /ho are dauntless' .no/!n" no *ear= 0be!san+e to you' leader o* all l!)!n" be!n"s' 4ho *ully man!*ests the s e+!al 6ual!t!es= 0be!san+e to you /ho ha)e +ut the bonda"e o* all *etters= 0be!san+e to you /ho' ha)!n" "one beyond' stand on *!rm "round= 0be!san+e to you /ho sa)e the su**er!n" be!n"s= 0be!san+e to you /ho do not rema!n !n the m!"rat!ons= <ou asso+!ate /!th l!)!n" be!n"s by *re6uent!n" the!r m!"rat!ons. <et your m!nd !s l!berated *rom all m!"rat!ons. 5ust as the lotus' born o* mud' !s not ta!nted thereby' So the lotus o* the ,uddha reser)es the real!7at!on o* )o!dness. <ou null!*y all s!"ns !n all th!n"s e)ery/here. <ou are not sub8e+t to any /!sh *or anyth!n" at all. The m!ra+ulous o/er o* the ,uddhas !s !n+on+e!)able. I bo/ to you' /ho stand no/here' l!.e !n*!n!te s a+e. Then' the youn" L!++ha)! Ratna.ara' ha)!n" +elebrated the ,uddha /!th these )erses' *urther addressed h!m9 ?Lord' these *!)e hundred youn" L!++ha)!s are truly on the!r /ay to une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment' and they ha)e as.ed /hat !s the bodh!satt)as3 ur!*!+at!on o* the buddha-*!eld. (lease' Lord' e1 la!n to them the bodh!satt)as3 ur!*!+at!on o* the buddha-*!eld=? U on th!s re6uest' the ,uddha "a)e h!s a ro)al to the youn"

L!++ha)! Ratna.ara9 ?2ood' "ood' youn" man= <our 6uest!on to the Tatha"ata about the ur!*!+at!on o* the buddha-*!eld !s !ndeed "ood. There*ore' youn" man' l!sten /ell and remember= I /!ll e1 la!n to you the ur!*!+at!on o* the buddha-*!eld o* the bodh!satt)as.? ?Very "ood' Lord'? re l!ed Ratna.ara and the *!)e hundred youn" L!++ha)!s' and they set themsel)es to l!sten. The ,uddha sa!d' ?Noble sons' a buddha-*!eld o* bodh!satt)as !s a *!eld o* l!)!n" be!n"s. 4hy so> A bodh!satt)a embra+es a buddha-*!eld to the same e1tent that he +auses the de)elo ment o* l!)!n" be!n"s. ;e embra+es a buddha-*!eld to the same e1tent that l!)!n" be!n"s be+ome d!s+! l!ned. ;e embra+es a buddha-*!eld to the same e1tent that' throu"h entran+e !nto a buddha-*!eld' l!)!n" be!n"s are !ntrodu+ed to the buddha-"nos!s. ;e embra+es a buddha-*!eld to the same e1tent that' throu"h entran+e !nto that buddha-*!eld' l!)!n" be!n"s !n+rease the!r holy s !r!tual *a+ult!es. 4hy so> Noble son' a buddha-*!eld o* bodh!satt)as s r!n"s *rom the a!ms o* l!)!n" be!n"s. ?For e1am le' Ratna.ara' should one /!sh to bu!ld !n em ty s a+e' one m!"ht "o ahead !n s !te o* the *a+t that !t !s not oss!ble to bu!ld or to adorn anyth!n" !n em ty s a+e. In 8ust the same /ay' should a bodh!satt)a' /ho .no/s *ull /ell that all th!n"s are l!.e em ty s a+e' /!sh to bu!ld a buddha-*!eld !n order to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s' he m!"ht "o ahead' !n s !te o* the *a+t that !t !s not oss!ble to bu!ld or to adorn a buddha-*!eld !n em ty s a+e. ?<et' Ratna.ara' a bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s a *!eld o* os!t!)e thou"ht. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s *ree o* hy o+r!sy and de+e!t /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?Noble son' a bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s a *!eld o* h!"h resol)e. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s /ho ha)e har)ested the t/o stores and ha)e lanted the roots o* )!rtue /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s a *!eld o* )!rtuous a l!+at!on. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment l!)!n" be!n"s /ho l!)e by all )!rtuous

r!n+! les /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s the ma"n!*!+en+e o* the +on+e t!on o* the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are a+tually art!+! at!n" !n the Mahayana /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s a *!eld o* "eneros!ty. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s /ho "!)e a/ay all the!r ossess!ons /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s a *!eld o* toleran+e. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s /!th the trans+enden+es o* toleran+e' d!s+! l!ne' and the su er!or tran+e - hen+e beaut!*ul /!th the th!rty-t/o aus !+!ous s!"ns - /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s a *!eld o* med!tat!on. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are e)enly balan+ed throu"h m!nd*ulness and a/areness /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s a *!eld o* /!sdom. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are dest!ned *or the ult!mate /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld +ons!sts o* the *our !mmeasurables. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s /ho l!)e by lo)e' +om ass!on' 8oy' and !m art!al!ty /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld +ons!sts o* the *our means o* un!*!+at!on. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are held to"ether by all the l!berat!ons /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s s.!lled !n all l!berat!)e

te+hn!6ues and a+t!)!t!es /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld +ons!sts o* the th!rty-se)en a!ds to enl!"htenment. L!)!n" be!n"s /ho de)ote the!r e**orts to the *our *o+! o* m!nd*ulness' the *our r!"ht e**orts' the *our bases o* ma"!+al o/er' the *!)e s !r!tual *a+ult!es' the *!)e stren"ths' the se)en *a+tors o* enl!"htenment' and the e!"ht bran+hes o* the holy ath /!ll be born !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s h!s m!nd o* total ded!+at!on. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' the ornaments o* all )!rtues /!ll a ear !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s the do+tr!ne that erad!+ates the e!"ht ad)ers!t!es. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' the three bad m!"rat!ons /!ll +ease' and there /!ll be no su+h th!n" as the e!"ht ad)ers!t!es !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld +ons!sts o* h!s ersonal obser)an+e o* the bas!+ re+e ts and h!s restra!nt !n blam!n" others *or the!r trans"ress!ons. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' e)en the /ord 3+r!me3 /!ll ne)er be ment!oned !n h!s buddha-*!eld. ?A bodh!satt)a3s buddha-*!eld !s the ur!ty o* the ath o* the ten )!rtues. 4hen he atta!ns enl!"htenment' l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are se+ure !n lon" l!*e' "reat !n /ealth' +haste !n +ondu+t' enhan+ed by true s ee+h' so*t-s o.en' *ree o* d!)!s!)e !ntr!"ues and adro!t !n re+on+!l!n" *a+t!ons' enl!"hten!n" !n the!r +on)ersat!ons' *ree o* en)y' *ree o* mal!+e' and endo/ed /!th er*e+t )!e/s /!ll be born !n h!s buddha*!eld. ?Thus' noble son' 8ust as !s the bodh!satt)a3s rodu+t!on o* the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment' so !s h!s os!t!)e thou"ht. And 8ust as !s h!s os!t!)e thou"ht' so !s h!s )!rtuous a l!+at!on. ?;!s )!rtuous a l!+at!on !s tantamount to h!s h!"h resol)e' h!s h!"h resol)e !s tantamount to h!s determ!nat!on' h!s determ!nat!on !s

tantamount to h!s ra+t!+e' h!s ra+t!+e !s tantamount to h!s total ded!+at!on' h!s total ded!+at!on !s tantamount to h!s l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue' h!s l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !s tantamount to h!s de)elo ment o* l!)!n" be!n"s' and h!s de)elo ment o* l!)!n" be!n"s !s tantamount to the ur!ty o* h!s buddha-*!eld. ?The ur!ty o* h!s buddha-*!eld re*le+ts the ur!ty o* l!)!n" be!n"s: the ur!ty o* the l!)!n" be!n"s re*le+ts the ur!ty o* h!s "nos!s: the ur!ty o* h!s "nos!s re*le+ts the ur!ty o* h!s do+tr!ne: the ur!ty o* h!s do+tr!ne re*le+ts the ur!ty o* h!s trans+endental ra+t!+e: and the ur!ty o* h!s trans+endental ra+t!+e re*le+ts the ur!ty o* h!s o/n m!nd.? Thereu on' ma"!+ally !n*luen+ed by the ,uddha' the )enerable Sar! utra had th!s thou"ht9 ?I* the buddha-*!eld !s ure only to the e1tent that the m!nd o* the bodh!satt)a !s ure' then' /hen Sa.yamun! ,uddha /as en"a"ed !n the +areer o* the bodh!satt)a' h!s m!nd must ha)e been !m ure. 0ther/!se' ho/ +ould th!s buddha-*!eld a ear to be so !m ure>? The ,uddha' .no/!n" tele ath!+ally the thou"ht o* )enerable Sar! utra' sa!d to h!m' ?4hat do you th!n.' Sar! utra> Is !t be+ause the sun and moon are !m ure that those bl!nd *rom b!rth do not see them>? Sar! utra re l!ed' ?No' Lord. It !s not so. The *ault l!es /!th those bl!nd *rom b!rth' and not /!th the sun and moon.? The ,uddha de+lared' ?In the same /ay' Sar! utra' the *a+t that some l!)!n" be!n"s do not behold the s lend!d d!s lay o* )!rtues o* the buddha-*!eld o* the Tatha"ata !s due to the!r o/n !"noran+e. It !s not the *ault o* the Tatha"ata. Sar! utra' the buddha-*!eld o* the Tatha"ata !s ure' but you do not see !t.? Then the ,rahma S!.h!n sa!d to the )enerable Sar! utra' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' do not say that the buddha-*!eld o* the Tatha"ata !s !m ure. Re)erend Sar! utra' the buddha-*!eld o* the Tatha"ata !s ure. I see the s lend!d e1 anse o* the buddha-*!eld o* the Lord Sa.yamun! as e6ual to the s lendor o*' *or e1am le' the abodes o* the h!"hest

de!t!es.? Then the )enerable Sar! utra sa!d to the ,rahma S!.h!n' ?As *or me' 0 ,rahma' I see th!s "reat earth' /!th !ts h!"hs and lo/s' !ts thorns' !ts re+! !+es' !ts ea.s' and !ts abysses' as !* !t /ere ent!rely *!lled /!th ordure.? ,rahma S!.h!n re l!ed' ?The *a+t that you see su+h a buddha-*!eld as th!s as !* !t /ere so !m ure' re)erend Sar! utra' !s a sure s!"n that there are h!"hs and lo/s !n your m!nd and that your os!t!)e thou"ht !n re"ard to the buddha-"nos!s !s not ure e!ther. Re)erend Sar! utra' those /hose m!nds are !m art!al to/ard all l!)!n" be!n"s and /hose os!t!)e thou"hts to/ard the buddha-"nos!s are ure see th!s buddha*!eld as er*e+tly ure.? Thereu on the Lord tou+hed the "round o* th!s b!ll!on-/orld-"ala+t!+ un!)erse /!th h!s b!" toe' and suddenly !t /as trans*ormed !nto a hu"e mass o* re+!ous 8e/els' a ma"n!*!+ent array o* many hundreds o* thousands o* +lusters o* re+!ous "ems' unt!l !t resembled the un!)erse o* the Tatha"ata Ratna)yuha' +alled Ananta"unaratna)yuha. E)eryone !n the ent!re assembly /as *!lled /!th /onder' ea+h er+e!)!n" h!msel* seated on a throne o* 8e/eled lotuses. Then' the ,uddha sa!d to the )enerable Sar! utra' ?Sar! utra' do you see th!s s lendor o* the )!rtues o* the buddha-*!eld>? Sar! utra re l!ed' ?I see !t' Lord= ;ere be*ore me !s a d!s lay o* s lendor su+h as I ne)er be*ore heard o* or beheld=? The ,uddha sa!d' ?Sar! utra' th!s buddha-*!eld !s al/ays thus ure' but the Tatha"ata ma.es !t a ear to be s o!led by many *aults' !n order to br!n" about the matur!ty o* the !n*er!or l!)!n" be!n"s. For e1am le' Sar! utra' the "ods o* the Trayastr!msa hea)en all ta.e the!r *ood *rom a s!n"le re+!ous )essel' yet the ne+tar /h!+h nour!shes ea+h one d!**ers a++ord!n" to the d!**eren+es o* the mer!ts ea+h has a++umulated. 5ust so' Sar! utra' l!)!n" be!n"s born !n the same buddha-*!eld see the s lendor o* the )!rtues o* the buddha-*!elds o* the ,uddhas a++ord!n" to the!r o/n de"rees o* ur!ty.?

4hen th!s s lendor o* the beauty o* the )!rtues o* the buddha-*!eld shone *orth' e!"hty-*our thousand be!n"s +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled er*e+t enl!"htenment' and the *!)e hundred L!++ha)! youths /ho had a++om an!ed the youn" L!++ha)! Ratna.ara all atta!ned the +on*ormat!)e toleran+e o* ult!mate b!rthlessness. Then' the Lord /!thdre/ h!s m!ra+ulous o/er and at on+e the buddha-*!eld /as restored to !ts usual a earan+e. Then' both men and "ods /ho subs+r!bed to the d!s+! le-)eh!+le thou"ht' ?Alas= All +onstru+ted th!n"s are !m ermanent.? Thereby' th!rty-t/o thousand l!)!n" be!n"s ur!*!ed the!r !mma+ulate' und!storted Dharma-eye !n re"ard to all th!n"s. The e!"ht thousand bh!.shus /ere l!berated *rom the!r mental de*!lements' atta!n!n" the state o* non"ras !n". And the e!"hty-*our thousand l!)!n" be!n"s /ho /ere de)oted to the "randeur o* the buddha-*!eld' ha)!n" understood that all th!n"s are by nature but ma"!+al +reat!ons' all +on+e!)ed !n the!r o/n m!nds the s !r!t o* une1+elled' totally er*e+t enl!"htenment.

@. In+on+e!)able S.!ll !n L!berat!)e Te+hn!6ue At that t!me' there l!)ed !n the "reat +!ty o* Va!sal! a +erta!n L!++ha)!' V!mala.!rt! by name. ;a)!n" ser)ed the an+!ent ,uddhas' he had "enerated the roots o* )!rtue by honor!n" them and ma.!n" o**er!n"s to them. ;e had atta!ned toleran+e as /ell as elo6uen+e. ;e layed /!th the "reat su er.no/led"es. ;e had atta!ned the o/er o* !n+antat!ons and the *earlessnesses. ;e had +on6uered all demons and o onents. ;e had enetrated the ro*ound /ay o* the Dharma. ;e /as l!berated throu"h the trans+enden+e o* /!sdom. ;a)!n" !nte"rated h!s real!7at!on /!th s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue' he /as e1 ert !n .no/!n" the thou"hts and a+t!ons o* l!)!n" be!n"s. Kno/!n" the stren"th or /ea.ness o* the!r *a+ult!es' and be!n" "!*ted /!th unr!)aled elo6uen+e' he tau"ht the Dharma a ro r!ately to ea+h. ;a)!n" a l!ed h!msel* ener"et!+ally to the Mahayana' he understood !t and a++om l!shed h!s tas.s /!th "reat *!nesse. ;e l!)ed /!th the de ortment o* a ,uddha' and h!s su er!or !ntell!"en+e /as as /!de as an o+ean. ;e /as ra!sed' honored' and +ommended by all the

,uddhas and /as res e+ted by Indra' ,rahma' and all the Lo.a alas. In order to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s /!th h!s s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue' he l!)ed !n the "reat +!ty o* Va!sal!. ;!s /ealth /as !ne1haust!ble *or the ur ose o* susta!n!n" the oor and the hel less. ;e obser)ed a ure moral!ty !n order to rote+t the !mmoral. ;e ma!nta!ned toleran+e and sel*-+ontrol !n order to re+on+!le be!n"s /ho /ere an"ry' +ruel' )!olent' and brutal. ;e bla7ed /!th ener"y !n order to !ns !re eo le /ho /ere la7y. ;e ma!nta!ned +on+entrat!on' m!nd*ulness' and med!tat!on !n order to susta!n the mentally troubled. ;e atta!ned de+!s!)e /!sdom !n order to susta!n the *ool!sh. ;e /ore the /h!te +lothes o* the layman' yet l!)ed !m e++ably l!.e a rel!"!ous de)otee. ;e l!)ed at home' but rema!ned aloo* *rom the realm o* des!re' the realm o* ure matter' and the !mmater!al realm. ;e had a son' a /!*e' and *emale attendants' yet al/ays ma!nta!ned +ont!nen+e. ;e a eared to be surrounded by ser)ants' yet l!)ed !n sol!tude. ;e a eared to be adorned /!th ornaments' yet al/ays /as endo/ed /!th the aus !+!ous s!"ns and mar.s. ;e seemed to eat and dr!n.' yet al/ays too. nour!shment *rom the taste o* med!tat!on. ;e made h!s a earan+e at the *!elds o* s orts and !n the +as!nos' but h!s a!m /as al/ays to mature those eo le /ho /ere atta+hed to "ames and "ambl!n". ;e )!s!ted the *ash!onable heterodo1 tea+hers' yet al/ays .e t uns/er)!n" loyalty to the ,uddha. ;e understood the mundane and trans+endental s+!en+es and esoter!+ ra+t!+es' yet al/ays too. leasure !n the del!"hts o* the Dharma. ;e m!1ed !n all +ro/ds' yet /as res e+ted as *oremost o* all. In order to be !n harmony /!th eo le' he asso+!ated /!th elders' /!th those o* m!ddle a"e' and /!th the youn"' yet al/ays s o.e !n harmony /!th the Dharma. ;e en"a"ed !n all sorts o* bus!nesses' yet had no !nterest !n ro*!t or ossess!ons. To tra!n l!)!n" be!n"s' he /ould a ear at +rossroads and on street +orners' and to rote+t them he art!+! ated !n "o)ernment. To turn eo le a/ay *rom the ;!nayana and to en"a"e them !n the Mahayana' he a eared amon" l!steners and tea+hers o* the Dharma. To de)elo +h!ldren' he )!s!ted all the s+hools. To demonstrate the e)!ls o* des!re' he e)en entered the brothels. To establ!sh drun.ards !n +orre+t m!nd*ulness' he entered all the +abarets.

;e /as honored as the bus!nessman amon" bus!nessmen be+ause he demonstrated the r!or!ty o* the Dharma. ;e /as honored as the landlord amon" landlords be+ause he renoun+ed the a""ress!)eness o* o/nersh! . ;e /as honored as the /arr!or amon" /arr!ors be+ause he +ult!)ated enduran+e' determ!nat!on' and *ort!tude. ;e /as honored as the ar!sto+rat amon" ar!sto+rats be+ause he su ressed r!de' )an!ty' and arro"an+e. ;e /as honored as the o**!+!al amon" o**!+!als be+ause he re"ulated the *un+t!ons o* "o)ernment a++ord!n" to the Dharma. ;e /as honored as the r!n+e o* r!n+es be+ause he re)ersed the!r atta+hment to royal leasures and so)ere!"n o/er. ;e /as honored as a eunu+h !n the royal harem be+ause he tau"ht the youn" lad!es a++ord!n" to the Dharma. ;e /as +om at!ble /!th ord!nary eo le be+ause he a re+!ated the e1+ellen+e o* ord!nary mer!ts. ;e /as honored as the Indra amon" Indras be+ause he sho/ed them the tem oral!ty o* the!r lordsh! . ;e /as honored as the ,rahma amon" ,rahmas be+ause he sho/ed them the s e+!al e1+ellen+e o* "nos!s. ;e /as honored as the Lo.a ala amon" Lo.a alas be+ause he *ostered the de)elo ment o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. Thus l!)ed the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! !n the "reat +!ty o* Va!sal!' endo/ed /!th an !n*!n!te .no/led"e o* s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ues. At that t!me' out o* th!s )ery s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue' V!mala.!rt! man!*ested h!msel* as !* s!+.. To !n6u!re a*ter h!s health' the .!n"' the o**!+!als' the lords' the youths' the ar!sto+rats' the householders' the bus!nessmen' the to/n*ol.' the +ountry*ol.' and thousands o* other l!)!n" be!n"s +ame *orth *rom the "reat +!ty o* Va!sal! and +alled on the !n)al!d. 4hen they arr!)ed' V!mala.!rt! tau"ht them the Dharma' be"!nn!n" h!s d!s+ourse *rom the a+tual!ty o* the *our ma!n elements9 ?Fr!ends' th!s body !s so !m ermanent' *ra"!le' un/orthy o* +on*!den+e' and *eeble. It !s so !nsubstant!al' er!shable' short-l!)ed' a!n*ul' *!lled /!th d!seases' and sub8e+t to +han"es. Thus' my *r!ends' as th!s body !s only a )essel o* many s!+.nesses' /!se men do not rely on !t. Th!s body !s l!.e a ball o* *oam' unable to bear any ressure. It !s l!.e a /ater bubble' not rema!n!n" )ery lon". It !s l!.e a m!ra"e' born

*rom the a et!tes o* the ass!ons. It !s l!.e the trun. o* the lanta!n tree' ha)!n" no +ore. Alas= Th!s body !s l!.e a ma+h!ne' a ne1us o* bones and tendons. It !s l!.e a ma"!+al !llus!on' +ons!st!n" o* *als!*!+at!ons. It !s l!.e a dream' be!n" an unreal )!s!on. It !s l!.e a re*le+t!on' be!n" the !ma"e o* *ormer a+t!ons. It !s l!.e an e+ho' be!n" de endent on +ond!t!on!n". It !s l!.e a +loud' be!n" +hara+ter!7ed by turbulen+e and d!ssolut!on. It !s l!.e a *lash o* l!"htn!n"' be!n" unstable' and de+ay!n" e)ery moment. The body !s o/nerless' be!n" the rodu+t o* a )ar!ety o* +ond!t!ons. ?Th!s body !s !nert' l!.e the earth: sel*less' l!.e /ater: l!*eless' l!.e *!re: !m ersonal' l!.e the /!nd: and nonsubstant!al' l!.e s a+e. Th!s body !s unreal' be!n" a +ollo+at!on o* the *our ma!n elements. It !s )o!d' not e1!st!n" as sel* or as sel*- ossessed. It !s !nan!mate' be!n" l!.e "rass' trees' /alls' +lods o* earth' and hallu+!nat!ons. It !s !nsensate' be!n" dr!)en l!.e a /!ndm!ll. It !s *!lthy' be!n" an a""lomerat!on o* us and e1+rement. It !s *alse' be!n" *ated to be bro.en and destroyed' !n s !te o* be!n" ano!nted and massa"ed. It !s a**l!+ted by the *our hundred and *our d!seases. It !s l!.e an an+!ent /ell' +onstantly o)er/helmed by old a"e. Its durat!on !s ne)er +erta!n - +erta!n only !s !ts end !n death. Th!s body !s a +omb!nat!on o* a""re"ates' elements' and sense-med!a' /h!+h are +om arable to murderers' o!sonous sna.es' and an em ty to/n' res e+t!)ely. There*ore' you should be re)ulsed by su+h a body. <ou should des a!r o* !t and should arouse your adm!rat!on *or the body o* the Tatha"ata. ?Fr!ends' the body o* a Tatha"ata !s the body o* Dharma' born o* "nos!s. The body o* a Tatha"ata !s born o* the stores o* mer!t and /!sdom. It !s born o* moral!ty' o* med!tat!on' o* /!sdom' o* the l!berat!ons' and o* the .no/led"e and )!s!on o* l!berat!on. It !s born o* lo)e' +om ass!on' 8oy' and !m art!al!ty. It !s born o* +har!ty' d!s+! l!ne' and sel*-+ontrol. It !s born o* the ath o* ten )!rtues. It !s born o* at!en+e and "entleness. It !s born o* the roots o* )!rtue lanted by sol!d e**orts. It !s born o* the +on+entrat!ons' the l!berat!ons' the med!tat!ons' and the absor t!ons. It !s born o* learn!n"' /!sdom' and l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue. It !s born o* the th!rty-se)en a!ds to enl!"htenment. It !s born o* mental 6u!es+en+e and trans+endental analys!s. It !s born o* the ten o/ers' the *our *earlessnesses' and the e!"hteen s e+!al 6ual!t!es. It !s born o* all the trans+enden+es. It !s born *rom s+!en+es and su er.no/led"es. It !s born o* the abandonment o* all e)!l 6ual!t!es' and o* the +olle+t!on o* all "ood 6ual!t!es. It !s born o* truth. It !s born o* real!ty. It !s born o* +ons+!ous

a/areness. ?Fr!ends' the body o* a Tatha"ata !s born o* !nnumerable "ood /or.s. To/ard su+h a body you should turn your as !rat!ons' and' !n order to el!m!nate the s!+.nesses o* the ass!ons o* all l!)!n" be!n"s' you should +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment.? 4h!le the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! thus tau"ht the Dharma to those /ho had +ome to !n6u!re about h!s s!+.ness' many hundreds o* thousands o* l!)!n" be!n"s +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment.

A. The D!s+! les3 Relu+tan+e to V!s!t V!mala.!rt! Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! thou"ht to h!msel*' ?I am s!+.' ly!n" on my bed !n a!n' yet the Tatha"ata' the sa!nt' the er*e+tly a++om l!shed ,uddha' does not +ons!der or ta.e !ty u on me' and sends no one to !n6u!re a*ter my !llness.? The Lord .ne/ th!s thou"ht !n the m!nd o* V!mala.!rt! and sa!d to the )enerable Sar! utra' ?Sar! utra' "o to !n6u!re a*ter the !llness o* the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!.? Thus ha)!n" been addressed' the )enerable Sar! utra ans/ered the ,uddha' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to as. the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! about h!s !llness. 4hy> I remember one day' /hen I /as s!tt!n" at the *oot o* a tree !n the *orest' absorbed !n +ontem lat!on' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame to the *oot o* that tree and sa!d to me' 3Re)erend Sar! utra' th!s !s not the /ay to absorb yoursel* !n +ontem lat!on. <ou should absorb yoursel* !n +ontem lat!on so that ne!ther body nor m!nd a ear any/here !n the tr! le /orld. <ou should absorb yoursel* !n +ontem lat!on !n su+h a /ay that you +an man!*est all ord!nary beha)!or /!thout *orsa.!n" +essat!on. <ou should absorb yoursel* !n +ontem lat!on !n su+h a /ay that you +an man!*est the nature o* an ord!nary erson /!thout abandon!n" your +ult!)ated s !r!tual nature. <ou should absorb yoursel* !n

+ontem lat!on so that the m!nd ne!ther settles /!th!n nor mo)es /!thout to/ard e1ternal *orms. <ou should absorb yoursel* !n +ontem lat!on !n su+h a /ay that the th!rty-se)en a!ds to enl!"htenment are man!*est /!thout de)!at!on to/ard any +on)!+t!ons. <ou should absorb yoursel* !n +ontem lat!on !n su+h a /ay that you are released !n l!berat!on /!thout abandon!n" the ass!ons that are the ro)!n+e o* the /orld. ?3Re)erend Sar! utra' those /ho absorb themsel)es !n +ontem lat!on !n su+h a /ay are de+lared by the Lord to be truly absorbed !n +ontem lat!on.3 ?Lord' /hen I heard th!s tea+h!n"' I /as unable to re ly and rema!ned s!lent. There*ore' I am relu+tant to "o to as. that "ood man about h!s s!+.ness.? Then' the ,uddha sa!d to the )enerable Mahamaud"alyayana' ?Maud"alyayana' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Maud"alyayana re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> I remember one day /hen I /as tea+h!n" the Dharma to the householders !n a s6uare !n the "reat +!ty o* Va!sal!' and the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame alon" and sa!d to me' 3Re)erend Maud"alyayana' that !s not the /ay to tea+h the Dharma to the householders !n the!r /h!te +lothes. The Dharma must be tau"ht a++ord!n" to real!ty. ?3Re)erend Maud"alyayana' the Dharma !s /!thout l!)!n" be!n"s' be+ause !t !s *ree o* the dust o* l!)!n" be!n"s. It !s sel*less' be+ause !t !s *ree o* the dust o* des!re. It !s l!*eless' be+ause !t !s *ree o* b!rth and death. It !s /!thout ersonal!t!es' be+ause !t d!s enses /!th ast or!"!ns and *uture dest!n!es. ?3The Dharma !s ea+e and a+!*!+at!on' be+ause !t !s *ree *rom des!re. It does not be+ome an ob8e+t' be+ause !t !s *ree o* /ords and letters: !t !s !ne1 ress!ble' and !t trans+ends all mo)ement o* m!nd.

?3The Dharma !s omn! resent' be+ause !t !s l!.e !n*!n!te s a+e. It !s /!thout +olor' mar.' or sha e' be+ause !t !s *ree o* all ro+ess. It !s /!thout the +on+e t o* ?m!ne'? be+ause !t !s *ree o* the hab!tual not!on o* ossess!on. It !s /!thout !deat!on' be+ause !t !s *ree o* m!nd' thou"ht' or +ons+!ousness. It !s !n+om arable' be+ause !t has no ant!theses. It !s /!thout resum t!on o* +ond!t!onal!ty' be+ause !t does not +on*orm to +auses. ?3It ermeates e)enly all th!n"s' be+ause all are !n+luded !n the ult!mate realm. It +on*orms to real!ty by means o* the ro+ess o* non+on*orm!ty. It ab!des at the real!ty-l!m!t' *or !t !s utterly /!thout *lu+tuat!on. It !s !mmo)able' be+ause !t !s !nde endent o* the s!1 ob8e+ts o* sense. It !s /!thout +om!n" and "o!n"' *or !t ne)er stands st!ll. It !s +om r!sed by )o!dness' !s remar.able throu"h s!"nlessness' and !s *ree o* resum t!on and re ud!at!on' be+ause o* /!shlessness. It !s /!thout establ!shment and re8e+t!on' /!thout b!rth or destru+t!on. It !s /!thout any *undamental +ons+!ousness' trans+end!n" the ran"e o* eye' ear' nose' ton"ue' body' and thou"ht. It !s /!thout h!"hness and lo/ness. It ab!des /!thout mo)ement or a+t!)!ty. ?3Re)erend Mahamaud"alyayana' ho/ +ould there be a tea+h!n" !n re"ard to su+h a Dharma> Re)erend Mahamaud"alyayana' e)en the e1 ress!on ?to tea+h the Dharma? !s resum tuous' and those /ho l!sten to !t l!sten to resum t!on. Re)erend Maud"alyayana' /here there are no resum tuous /ords' there !s no tea+her o* the Dharma' no one to l!sten' and no one to understand. It !s as !* an !llusory erson /ere to tea+h the Dharma to !llusory eo le. ?3There*ore' you should tea+h the Dharma by .ee !n" your m!nd on th!s. <ou should be ade t !n re"ard to the s !r!tual *a+ult!es o* l!)!n" be!n"s. ,y means o* the +orre+t )!s!on o* the /!sdom-eye' man!*est!n" the "reat +om ass!on' a+.no/led"!n" the bene)olent a+t!)!ty o* the ,uddha' ur!*y!n" your !ntent!ons' understand!n" the de*!n!t!)e e1 ress!ons o* the Dharma' you should tea+h the Dharma !n order that the +ont!nu!ty o* the Three 5e/els may ne)er be !nterru ted.3 ?Lord' /hen V!mala.!rt! had d!s+oursed thus' e!"ht hundred householders !n the +ro/d +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t

enl!"htenment' and I mysel* /as s ee+hless. There*ore' Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to th!s "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Then' the ,uddha sa!d to the )enerable Maha.asya a' ?Maha.asya a' you "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> I remember one day' /hen I /as !n the street o* the oor be""!n" *or my *ood' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame alon" and sa!d to me' 3Re)erend Maha.asya a' to a)o!d the houses o* the /ealthy' and to *a)or the houses o* the oor - th!s !s art!al!ty !n bene)olen+e. Re)erend Maha.asya a' you should d/ell on the *a+t o* the e6ual!ty o* th!n"s' and you should see. alms /!th +ons!derat!on *or all l!)!n" be!n"s at all t!mes. <ou should be" your *ood !n a/areness o* the ult!mate none1!sten+e o* *ood. <ou should see. alms *or the sa.e o* el!m!nat!n" the mater!al!sm o* others. 4hen you enter a to/n' you should .ee !n m!nd !ts a+tual )o!dness' yet you should ro+eed throu"h !t !n order to de)elo men and /omen. <ou should enter homes as !* enter!n" the *am!ly o* the ,uddha. <ou should a++e t alms by not ta.!n" anyth!n". <ou should see *orm l!.e a man bl!nd *rom b!rth' hear sounds as !* they /ere e+hoes' smell s+ents as !* they /ere /!nds' e1 er!en+e tastes /!thout any d!s+r!m!nat!on' tou+h tan"!bles !n a/areness o* the ult!mate la+. o* +onta+t !n "nos!s' and .no/ th!n"s /!th the +ons+!ousness o* an !llusory +reature. That /h!+h !s /!thout !ntr!ns!+ substan+e and /!thout !m arted substan+e does not burn. And /hat does not burn /!ll not be e1t!n"u!shed. ?3Elder Maha.asya a' !*' e6u! o!sed !n the e!"ht l!berat!ons /!thout trans+end!n" the e!"ht er)ers!ons' you +an enter the e6uan!m!ty o* real!ty by means o* the e6uan!m!ty o* er)ers!on' and !* you +an ma.e a "!*t to all l!)!n" be!n"s and an o**er!n" to all the sa!nts and ,uddhas out o* e)en a s!n"le measure o* alms' then you yoursel* may eat. Thus' /hen you eat' a*ter o**er!n"' you should be ne!ther a**e+ted by ass!ons nor *ree o* ass!ons' ne!ther !n)ol)ed !n +on+entrat!on nor *ree *rom +on+entrat!on' ne!ther l!)!n" !n the /orld nor ab!d!n" !n l!berat!on. Furthermore' those /ho "!)e su+h alms' re)erend' ha)e ne!ther "reat mer!t nor small mer!t' ne!ther "a!n nor loss. They should *ollo/ the /ay o* the ,uddhas' not the /ay o* the d!s+! les. 0nly !n th!s /ay' Elder Maha.asya a' !s the ra+t!+e o* eat!n" by alms mean!n"*ul.3

?Lord' /hen I heard th!s tea+h!n"' I /as aston!shed and thou"ht9 3Re)eren+e to all bodh!satt)as= I* a lay bodh!satt)a may be endo/ed /!th su+h elo6uen+e' /ho !s there /ho /ould not +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment> From that t!me *orth' I no lon"er re+ommend the )eh!+les o* the d!s+! les and o* the sol!tary sa"es but re+ommend the Mahayana. And thus' Lord' I am relu+tant to "o to th!s "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Then' the ,uddha sa!d to the )enerable Subhut!' ?Subhut!' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Subhut! re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to th!s "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> My Lord' I remember one day' /hen I /ent to be" my *ood at the house o* the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! !n the "reat +!ty o* Va!sal!' he too. my bo/l and *!lled !t /!th some e1+ellent *ood and sa!d to me' 3Re)erend Subhut!' ta.e th!s *ood !* you understand the e6ual!ty o* all th!n"s' by means o* the e6ual!ty o* mater!al ob8e+ts' and !* you understand the e6ual!ty o* all the attr!butes o* the ,uddha' by means o* the e6ual!ty o* all th!n"s. Ta.e th!s *ood !*' /!thout abandon!n" des!re' hatred' and *olly' you +an a)o!d asso+!at!on /!th them: !* you +an *ollo/ the ath o* the s!n"le /ay /!thout e)er d!sturb!n" the e"o!st!+ )!e/s: !* you +an rodu+e the .no/led"es and l!berat!ons /!thout +on6uer!n" !"noran+e and the +ra)!n" *or e1!sten+e: !*' by the e6ual!ty o* the *!)e deadly s!ns' you rea+h the e6ual!ty o* l!berat!on: !* you are ne!ther l!berated nor bound: !* you do not see the Four ;oly Truths' yet are not the one /ho ?has not seen the truth?: !* you ha)e not atta!ned any *ru!t' yet are not the one /ho ?has not atta!ned?: !* you are an ord!nary erson' yet ha)e not the 6ual!t!es o* an ord!nary erson: !* you are not holy' yet are not unholy: !* you are res ons!ble *or all th!n"s' yet are *ree o* any not!on +on+ern!n" anyth!n". ?3Ta.e th!s *ood' re)erend Subhut!' !*' /!thout see!n" the ,uddha' hear!n" the Dharma' or ser)!n" the San"ha' you underta.e the rel!"!ous l!*e under the s!1 heterodo1 masters: namely' (urana Kasya a' Mas.ar!n 2osal! utra' Sam8ay!n Va!rat! utra' Ka.uda Katyayana' A8!ta Kesa.ambala' and N!r"rantha 5nan! utra' and *ollo/ the /ays they res+r!be.

?3Ta.e th!s *ood' re)erend Subhut!' !*' enterta!n!n" all *alse )!e/s' you *!nd ne!ther e1tremes nor m!ddle: !*' bound u !n the e!"ht ad)ers!t!es' you do not obta!n *a)orable +ond!t!ons: !*' ass!m!lat!n" the ass!ons' you do not atta!n ur!*!+at!on: !* the d!s ass!on o* all l!)!n" be!n"s !s your d!s ass!on' re)erend: !* those /ho ma.e o**er!n"s to you are not thereby ur!*!ed: !* those /ho o**er you *ood' re)erend' st!ll *all !nto the three bad m!"rat!ons: !* you asso+!ate /!th all Maras: !* you enterta!n all ass!ons: !* the nature o* ass!ons !s the nature o* a re)erend: !* you ha)e host!le *eel!n"s to/ard all l!)!n" be!n"s: !* you des !se all the ,uddhas: !* you +r!t!+!7e all the tea+h!n"s o* the ,uddha: !* you do not rely on the San"ha: and *!nally' !* you ne)er enter ult!mate l!berat!on.3 ?Lord' /hen I heard these /ords o* the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' I /ondered /hat I should say and /hat I should do' but I /as totally !n the dar.. Lea)!n" the bo/l' I /as about to lea)e the house /hen the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to me' 3Re)erend Subhut!' do not *ear these /ords' and !+. u your bo/l. 4hat do you th!n.' re)erend Subhut!> I* !t /ere an !n+arnat!on +reated by the Tatha"ata /ho s o.e thus to you' /ould you be a*ra!d>3 ?I ans/ered' 3No !ndeed' noble s!r=3 ;e then sa!d' 3Re)erend Subhut!' the nature o* all th!n"s !s l!.e !llus!on' l!.e a ma"!+al !n+arnat!on. So you should not *ear them. 4hy> All /ords also ha)e that nature' and thus the /!se are not atta+hed to /ords' nor do they *ear them. 4hy> All lan"ua"e does not ult!mately e1!st' e1+e t as l!berat!on. The nature o* all th!n"s !s l!berat!on.3 ?4hen V!mala.!rt! had d!s+oursed !n th!s /ay' t/o hundred "ods obta!ned the ure do+tr!nal )!s!on !n re"ard to all th!n"s' /!thout obs+ur!ty or de*!lement' and *!)e hundred "ods obta!ned the +on*ormat!)e toleran+e. As *or me' I /as s ee+hless and unable to res ond to h!m. There*ore' Lord' I am relu+tant to "o to th!s "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Then' the ,uddha sa!d to the )enerable (urnama!trayan! utra' ?(urna' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? (urna re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to th!s "ood man to

!n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> Lord' I remember one day' /hen I /as tea+h!n" the Dharma to some youn" mon.s !n the "reat *orest' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame there and sa!d to me' 3Re)erend (urna' *!rst +on+entrate yoursel*' re"ard the m!nds o* these youn" bh!.shus' and then tea+h them the Dharma= Do not ut rotten *ood !nto a 8e/eled bo/l= F!rst understand the !n+l!nat!ons o* these mon.s' and do not +on*use r!+eless sa h!res /!th "lass beads= ?3Re)erend (urna' /!thout e1am!n!n" the s !r!tual *a+ult!es o* l!)!n" be!n"s' do not resume u on the one-s!dedness o* the!r *a+ult!es: do not /ound those /ho are /!thout /ounds: do not !m ose a narro/ ath u on those /ho as !re to a "reat ath: do not try to our the "reat o+ean !nto the hoo*- r!nt o* an o1: do not try to ut Mount Sumeru !nto a "ra!n o* mustard: do not +on*use the br!ll!an+e o* the sun /!th the l!"ht o* a "lo//orm: and do not e1 ose those /ho adm!re the roar o* a l!on to the ho/l o* a 8a+.al= ?3Re)erend (urna' all these mon.s /ere *ormerly en"a"ed !n the Mahayana but ha)e *or"otten the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment. So do not !nstru+t them !n the d!s+! le-)eh!+le. The d!s+! le-)eh!+le !s not ult!mately )al!d' and you d!s+! les are l!.e men bl!nd *rom b!rth' !n re"ard to re+o"n!t!on o* the de"rees o* the s !r!tual *a+ult!es o* l!)!n" be!n"s.3 ?At that moment' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! entered !nto su+h a +on+entrat!on that those mon.s /ere +aused to remember the!r )ar!ous *ormer e1!sten+es' !n /h!+h they had rodu+ed the roots o* )!rtue by ser)!n" *!)e hundred ,uddhas *or the sa.e o* er*e+t enl!"htenment. As soon as the!r o/n s !r!ts o* enl!"htenment had be+ome +lear to them' they bo/ed at the *eet o* that "ood man and ressed the!r alms to"ether !n re)eren+e. ;e tau"ht them the Dharma' and they all atta!ned the sta"e o* !rre)ers!b!l!ty *rom the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment. It o++urred to me then' 3The d!s+! les' /ho do not .no/ the thou"hts or the !n+l!nat!ons o* others' are not able to tea+h the Dharma to anyone. 4hy> These d!s+! les are not e1 ert !n d!s+ern!n" the su er!or!ty and !n*er!or!ty o* the s !r!tual *a+ult!es o* l!)!n" be!n"s' and they are not al/ays !n a state o* +on+entrat!on l!.e the Tatha"ata' the Sa!nt' the er*e+tly a++om l!shed ,uddha.3 ?There*ore' Lord' I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re

about h!s health.? The ,uddha then sa!d to the )enerable Maha.atyayana' ?Katyayana' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Katyayana re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> Lord' I remember one day /hen' a*ter the Lord had "!)en some br!e* !nstru+t!on to the mon.s' I /as de*!n!n" the e1 ress!ons o* that d!s+ourse by tea+h!n" the mean!n" o* !m ermanen+e' su**er!n"' sel*lessness' and ea+e: the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame there and sa!d to me' 3Re)erend Maha.atyayana' do not tea+h an ult!mate real!ty endo/ed /!th a+t!)!ty' rodu+t!on' and destru+t!on= Re)erend Maha.atyayana' noth!n" /as e)er destroyed' !s destroyed' or /!ll e)er be destroyed. Su+h !s the mean!n" o* ?!m ermanen+e.? The mean!n" o* the real!7at!on o* b!rthlessness' throu"h the real!7at!on o* the )o!dness o* the *!)e a""re"ates' !s the mean!n" o* ?su**er!n".? The *a+t o* the nondual!ty o* sel* and sel*lessness !s the mean!n" o* ?sel*lessness.? That /h!+h has no !ntr!ns!+ substan+e and no other sort o* substan+e does not burn' and /hat does not burn !s not e1t!n"u!shed: su+h la+. o* e1t!n+t!on !s the mean!n" o* ? ea+e.?3 ?4hen he had d!s+oursed thus' the m!nds o* the mon.s /ere l!berated *rom the!r de*!lements and entered a state o* non"ras !n". There*ore' Lord' I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? The ,uddha then sa!d to the )enerable An!ruddha' ?An!ruddha' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? ?My Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> I remember' Lord' one day /hen I /as ta.!n" a /al.' the "reat ,rahma named Subha)yuha and the ten thousand other ,rahmas /ho a++om an!ed h!m !llum!nated the la+e /!th the!r rad!an+e and' ha)!n" bo/ed the!r heads at my *eet' /!thdre/ to one s!de and as.ed me' 3Re)erend An!ruddha' you ha)e been ro+la!med by the ,uddha to be the *oremost amon" those /ho ossess the d!)!ne

eye. To /hat d!stan+e does the d!)!ne )!s!on o* the )enerable An!ruddha e1tend>3 I ans/ered' 3Fr!ends' I see the ent!re b!ll!on-/orld-"ala+t!+ un!)erse o* the Lord Sa.yamun! 8ust as la!nly as a man o* ord!nary )!s!on sees a myrobalan nut on the alm o* h!s hand.3 4hen I had sa!d these /ords' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame there and' ha)!n" bo/ed h!s head at my *eet' sa!d to me' 3Re)erend An!ruddha' !s your d!)!ne eye +om ounded !n nature> 0r !s !t un+om ounded !n nature> I* !t !s +om ounded !n nature' !t !s the same as the su er.no/led"es o* the heterodo1. I* !t !s un+om ounded !n nature' then !t !s not +onstru+ted and' as su+h' !s !n+a able o* see!n". Then' ho/ do you see' 0 elder>3 ?At these /ords' I be+ame s ee+hless' and ,rahma also /as ama7ed to hear th!s tea+h!n" *rom that "ood man. ;a)!n" bo/ed to h!m' he sa!d' 34ho then' !n the /orld' ossesses the d!)!ne eye>3 ?V!mala.!rt! ans/ered' 3In the /orld' !t !s the ,uddhas /ho ha)e the d!)!ne eye. They see all the buddha-*!elds /!thout e)en lea)!n" the!r state o* +on+entrat!on and /!thout be!n" a**e+ted by dual!ty.3 ?;a)!n" heard these /ords' the ten thousand ,rahmas /ere !ns !red /!th h!"h resol)e and +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment. ;a)!n" a!d homa"e and res e+t both to me and to that "ood man' they d!sa eared. As *or me' I rema!ned s ee+hless' and there*ore I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? The ,uddha then sa!d to the )enerable U al!' ?U al!' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? U al! re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> Lord' I remember that one day there /ere t/o mon.s /ho had +omm!tted some !n*ra+t!on and /ere too ashamed to a ear be*ore the Lord' so they +ame to me and sa!d'

3Re)erend U al!' /e ha)e both +omm!tted an !n*ra+t!on but are too ashamed to a ear be*ore the ,uddha. Venerable U al!' .!ndly remo)e our an1!et!es by absol)!n" us o* these !n*ra+t!ons.3 ?Lord' /h!le I /as "!)!n" those t/o mon.s some rel!"!ous d!s+ourse' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame there and sa!d to me' 3Re)erend U al!' do not a""ra)ate *urther the s!ns o* these t/o mon.s. 4!thout er le1!n" them' rel!e)e the!r remorse. Re)erend U al!' s!n !s not to be a rehended /!th!n' or /!thout' or bet/een the t/o. 4hy> The ,uddha has sa!d' ?L!)!n" be!n"s are a**l!+ted by the ass!ons o* thou"ht' and they are ur!*!ed by the ur!*!+at!on o* thou"ht.? ?3Re)erend U al!' the m!nd !s ne!ther /!th!n nor /!thout' nor !s !t to be a rehended bet/een the t/o. S!n !s 8ust the same as the m!nd' and all th!n"s are 8ust the same as s!n. They do not es+a e th!s same real!ty. ?3Re)erend U al!' th!s nature o* the m!nd' by )!rtue o* /h!+h your m!nd' re)erend' !s l!berated - does !t e)er be+ome a**l!+ted>3 ?3Ne)er'3 I re l!ed. ?3Re)erend U al!' the m!nds o* all l!)!n" be!n"s ha)e that )ery nature. Re)erend U al!' ass!ons +ons!st o* +on+e tual!7at!ons. The ult!mate none1!sten+e o* these +on+e tual!7at!ons and !ma"!nary *abr!+at!ons that !s the ur!ty that !s the !ntr!ns!+ nature o* the m!nd. M!sa rehens!ons are ass!ons. The ult!mate absen+e o* m!sa rehens!ons !s the !ntr!ns!+ nature o* the m!nd. The resum t!on o* sel* !s ass!on. The absen+e o* sel* !s the !ntr!ns!+ nature o* the m!nd. Re)erend U al!' all th!n"s are /!thout rodu+t!on' destru+t!on' and durat!on' l!.e ma"!+al !llus!ons' +louds' and l!"htn!n": all th!n"s are e)anes+ent' not rema!n!n" e)en *or an !nstant: all th!n"s are l!.e dreams' hallu+!nat!ons' and unreal )!s!ons: all th!n"s are l!.e the re*le+t!on o* the moon !n /ater and l!.e a m!rror-!ma"e: they are born o* mental +onstru+t!on. Those /ho .no/ th!s are +alled the true u holders o* the d!s+! l!ne' and those d!s+! l!ned !n that /ay are !ndeed /ell d!s+! l!ned.3? ?Then the t/o mon.s sa!d' 3Th!s householder !s e1tremely /ell

endo/ed /!th /!sdom. The re)erend U al!' /ho /as ro+la!med by the Lord as the *oremost o* the u holders o* the d!s+! l!ne' !s not h!s e6ual.3 ?I then sa!d to the t/o mon.s' 3Do not enterta!n the not!on that he !s a mere householder= 4hy> 4!th the e1+e t!on o* the Tatha"ata h!msel*' there !s no d!s+! le or bodh!satt)a +a able o* +om et!n" /!th h!s elo6uen+e or r!)al!n" the br!ll!an+e o* h!s /!sdom.3 ?Thereu on' the t/o mon.s' del!)ered *rom the!r an1!et!es and !ns !red /!th a h!"h resol)e' +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment. ,o/!n" do/n to that "ood man' they made the /!sh9 3May all l!)!n" be!n"s atta!n elo6uen+e su+h as th!s=3 There*ore' I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? The ,uddha then sa!d to the )enerable Rahula' ?Rahula' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Rahula re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> Lord' I remember that one day many youn" L!++ha)! "entlemen +ame to the la+e /here I /as and sa!d to me' 3Re)erend Rahula' you are the son o* the Lord' and' ha)!n" renoun+ed a .!n"dom o* a un!)ersal monar+h' you ha)e le*t the /orld. 4hat are the )!rtues and bene*!ts you sa/ !n lea)!n" the /orld>3 ?As I /as tea+h!n" them ro erly the bene*!ts and )!rtues o* renoun+!n" the /orld' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame there and' ha)!n" "reeted me' sa!d' 3Re)erend Rahula' you should not tea+h the bene*!ts and )!rtues o* renun+!at!on !n the /ay that you do. 4hy> Renun+!at!on !s !tsel* the )ery absen+e o* )!rtues and bene*!ts. Re)erend Rahula' one may s ea. o* bene*!ts and )!rtues !n re"ard to +om ounded th!n"s' but renun+!at!on !s un+om ounded' and there +an be no 6uest!on o* bene*!ts and )!rtues !n re"ard to the un+om ounded. Re)erend Rahula' renun+!at!on !s not mater!al but !s *ree o* matter. It !s *ree o* the e1treme )!e/s o* be"!nn!n" and end. It !s the ath o* l!berat!on. It !s ra!sed by the /!se' embra+ed by the sa!nts' and +auses the de*eat o* all Maras. It l!berates *rom the *!)e states o* e1!sten+e' ur!*!es the *!)e eyes' +ult!)ates the *!)e o/ers' and su orts the *!)e s !r!tual *a+ult!es. Renun+!at!on !s totally harmless to others and !s not

adulterated /!th e)!l th!n"s. It d!s+! l!nes the heterodo1' trans+end!n" all denom!nat!ons. It !s the br!d"e o)er the s/am o* des!re' /!thout "ras !n"' and *ree o* the hab!ts o* ?I? and ?m!ne.? It !s /!thout atta+hment and /!thout d!sturban+e' el!m!nat!n" all +ommot!on. It d!s+! l!nes one3s o/n m!nd and rote+ts the m!nds o* others. It *a)ors mental 6u!es+en+e and st!mulates trans+endental analys!s. It !s !rre roa+hable !n all res e+ts and so !s +alled renun+!at!on. Those /ho lea)e the mundane !n th!s /ay are +alled ?truly renun+!ant.? <oun" men' renoun+e the /orld !n the l!"ht o* th!s +lear tea+h!n"= The a earan+e o* the ,uddha !s e1tremely rare. ;uman l!*e endo/ed /!th le!sure and o ortun!ty !s )ery hard to obta!n. To be a human be!n" !s )ery re+!ous.3 ?The youn" men +om la!ned9 3,ut' householder' /e ha)e heard the Tatha"ata de+lare that one should not renoun+e the /orld /!thout the erm!ss!on o* one3s arents.3 ?V!mala.!rt! ans/ered9 3<oun" men' you should +ult!)ate yoursel)es !ntens!)ely to +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment. That !n !tsel* /!ll be your renun+!at!on and h!"h ord!nat!on=3 ?Thereu on' th!rty-t/o o* the L!++ha)! youths +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment. There*ore' Lord' I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? The ,uddha then sa!d to the )enerable Ananda' ?Ananda' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Ananda re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> Lord' I remember one day /hen the body o* the Lord man!*ested some !nd!s os!t!on and he re6u!red some m!l.: I too. the bo/l and /ent to the door o* the mans!on o* a "reat ,rahman *am!ly. The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame there' and' ha)!n" saluted me' sa!d' 3Re)erend Ananda' /hat are you do!n" on the threshold o* th!s house /!th your bo/l !n your hand so early !n the morn!n">3 ?I re l!ed9 3The body o* the Lord man!*ests some !nd!s os!t!on' and he

needs some m!l.. There*ore' I ha)e +ome to *et+h some.3 ?V!mala.!rt! then sa!d to me' 3Re)erend Ananda' do not say su+h a th!n"= Re)erend Ananda' the body o* the Tatha"ata !s tou"h as a d!amond' ha)!n" el!m!nated all the !nst!n+tual tra+es o* e)!l and be!n" endo/ed /!th all "oodness. ;o/ +ould d!sease or d!s+om*ort a**e+t su+h a body> ?3Re)erend Ananda' "o !n s!len+e' and do not bel!ttle the Lord. Do not say su+h th!n"s to others. It /ould not be "ood *or the o/er*ul "ods or *or the bodh!satt)as +om!n" *rom the )ar!ous buddha-*!elds to hear su+h /ords. ?3Re)erend Ananda' a un!)ersal monar+h' /ho !s endo/ed only /!th a small root o* )!rtue' !s *ree o* d!seases. ;o/ then +ould the Lord' /ho has an !n*!n!te root o* )!rtue' ha)e any d!sease> It !s !m oss!ble. ?3Re)erend Ananda' do not br!n" shame u on us' but "o !n s!len+e' lest the heterodo1 se+tar!ans should hear your /ords. They /ould say' ?For shame= The tea+her o* these eo le +annot e)en +ure h!s o/n s!+.nesses. ;o/ then +an he +ure the s!+.nesses o* others>? Re)erend Ananda' "o then d!s+reetly so that no one obser)es you. ?3Re)erend Ananda' the Tatha"atas ha)e the body o* the Dharma - not a body that !s susta!ned by mater!al *ood. The Tatha"atas ha)e a trans+endental body that has trans+ended all mundane 6ual!t!es. There !s no !n8ury to the body o* a Tatha"ata' as !t !s r!d o* all de*!lements. The body o* a Tatha"ata !s un+om ounded and *ree o* all *ormat!)e a+t!)!ty. Re)erend Ananda' to bel!e)e there +an be !llness !n su+h a body !s !rrat!onal and unseemly=3 ?4hen I had heard these /ords' I /ondered !* I had re)!ously m!sheard and m!sunderstood the ,uddha' and I /as )ery mu+h ashamed. Then I heard a )o!+e *rom the s.y9 3Ananda= The householder s ea.s to you truly. Ne)ertheless' s!n+e the ,uddha has a eared dur!n" the t!me o* the *!)e +orru t!ons' he d!s+! l!nes l!)!n"

be!n"s by a+t!n" lo/ly and humble. There*ore' Ananda' do not be ashamed' and "o and "et the m!l.=3 ?Lord' su+h /as my +on)ersat!on /!th the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' and there*ore I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? In the same /ay' the rest o* the *!)e hundred d!s+! les /ere relu+tant to "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' and ea+h told the ,uddha h!s o/n ad)enture' re+ount!n" all h!s +on)ersat!ons /!th the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!.

B. The Relu+tan+e o* the ,odh!satt)as Then' the ,uddha sa!d to the bodh!satt)a Ma!treya' ?Ma!treya' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Ma!treya re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> Lord' I remember that one day I /as en"a"ed !n a +on)ersat!on /!th the "ods o* the Tus!ta hea)en' the "od Samtus!ta and h!s ret!nue' about the sta"e o* nonre"ress!on o* the "reat bodh!satt)as. At that t!me' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame there and addressed me as *ollo/s9 ?3Ma!treya' the ,uddha has ro hes!ed that only one more b!rth stands bet/een you and une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment. 4hat .!nd o* b!rth does th!s ro he+y +on+ern' Ma!treya> Is !t ast> Is !t *uture> 0r !s !t resent> I* !t !s a ast b!rth' !t !s already *!n!shed. I* !t !s a *uture b!rth' !t /!ll ne)er arr!)e. I* !t !s a resent b!rth' !t does not ab!de. For the ,uddha has de+lared' ?,h!.shus' !n a s!n"le moment' you are born' you a"e' you d!e' you transm!"rate' and you are reborn.? ?3Then m!"ht the ro he+y +on+ern b!rthlessness> ,ut b!rthlessness a l!es to the sta"e o* dest!ny *or the ult!mate' !n /h!+h there !s ne!ther ro he+y nor atta!nment o* er*e+t enl!"htenment.

?3There*ore' Ma!treya' !s your real!ty *rom b!rth> 0r !s !t *rom +essat!on> <our real!ty as ro hes!ed !s not born and does not +ease' nor /!ll !t be born nor /!ll !t +ease. Furthermore' your real!ty !s 8ust the same as the real!ty o* all l!)!n" be!n"s' the real!ty o* all th!n"s' and the real!ty o* all the holy ones. I* your enl!"htenment +an be ro hes!ed !n su+h a /ay' so +an that o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. 4hy> ,e+ause real!ty does not +ons!st o* dual!ty or o* d!)ers!ty. Ma!treya' /hene)er you atta!n ,uddhahood' /h!+h !s the er*e+t!on o* enl!"htenment' at the same t!me all l!)!n" be!n"s /!ll also atta!n ult!mate l!berat!on. 4hy> The Tatha"atas do not enter ult!mate l!berat!on unt!l all l!)!n" be!n"s ha)e entered ult!mate l!berat!on. For' s!n+e all l!)!n" be!n"s are utterly l!berated' the Tatha"atas see them as ha)!n" the nature o* ult!mate l!berat!on. ?3There*ore' Ma!treya' do not *ool and delude these de!t!es= No one ab!des !n' or re"resses *rom' enl!"htenment. Ma!treya' you should !ntrodu+e these de!t!es to the re ud!at!on o* all d!s+r!m!nat!)e +onstru+t!ons +on+ern!n" enl!"htenment. ?3Enl!"htenment !s er*e+tly real!7ed ne!ther by the body nor by the m!nd. Enl!"htenment !s the erad!+at!on o* all mar.s. Enl!"htenment !s *ree o* resum t!ons +on+ern!n" all ob8e+ts. Enl!"htenment !s *ree o* the *un+t!on!n" o* all !ntent!onal thou"hts. Enl!"htenment !s the ann!h!lat!on o* all +on)!+t!ons. Enl!"htenment !s *ree *rom all d!s+r!m!nat!)e +onstru+t!ons. Enl!"htenment !s *ree *rom all )a+!llat!on' mentat!on' and a"!tat!on. Enl!"htenment !s not !n)ol)ed !n any +omm!tments. Enl!"htenment !s the arr!)al at deta+hment' throu"h *reedom *rom all hab!tual att!tudes. The "round o* enl!"htenment !s the ult!mate realm. Enl!"htenment !s real!7at!on o* real!ty. Enl!"htenment ab!des at the l!m!t o* real!ty. Enl!"htenment !s /!thout dual!ty' s!n+e there!n are no m!nds and no th!n"s. Enl!"htenment !s e6ual!ty' s!n+e !t !s e6ual to !n*!n!te s a+e. ?3Enl!"htenment !s un+onstru+ted' be+ause !t !s ne!ther born nor destroyed' ne!ther ab!des nor under"oes any trans*ormat!on. Enl!"htenment !s the +om lete .no/led"e o* the thou"hts' deeds' and !n+l!nat!ons o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. Enl!"htenment !s not a door *or the

s!1 med!a o* sense. Enl!"htenment !s unadulterated' s!n+e !t !s *ree o* the ass!ons o* the !nst!n+tually dr!)en su++ess!on o* l!)es. Enl!"htenment !s ne!ther some/here nor no/here' ab!d!n" !n no lo+at!on or d!mens!on. Enl!"htenment' not be!n" +onta!ned !n anyth!n"' does not stand !n real!ty. Enl!"htenment !s merely a name and e)en that name !s unmo)!n". Enl!"htenment' *ree o* abstent!on and underta.!n"' !s ener"yless. There !s no a"!tat!on !n enl!"htenment' as !t !s utterly ure by nature. Enl!"htenment !s rad!an+e' ure !n essen+e. Enl!"htenment !s /!thout sub8e+t!)!ty and +om letely /!thout ob8e+t. Enl!"htenment' /h!+h enetrates the e6ual!ty o* all th!n"s' !s und!**erent!ated. Enl!"htenment' /h!+h !s not sho/n by any e1am le' !s !n+om arable. Enl!"htenment !s subtle' s!n+e !t !s e1tremely d!**!+ult to real!7e. Enl!"htenment !s all- er)as!)e' as !t has the nature o* !n*!n!te s a+e. Enl!"htenment +annot be real!7ed' e!ther hys!+ally or mentally. 4hy> The body !s l!.e "rass' trees' /alls' aths' and hallu+!nat!ons. And the m!nd !s !mmater!al' !n)!s!ble' baseless' and un+ons+!ous.3 ?Lord' /hen V!mala.!rt! had d!s+oursed thus' t/o hundred o* the de!t!es !n that assembly atta!ned the toleran+e o* b!rthlessness. As *or me' Lord' I /as rendered s ee+hless. There*ore' I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? The ,uddha then sa!d to the youn" L!++ha)! (rabha)yuha' ?(rabha)yuha' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? (rabha)yuha re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> Lord' I remember one day' /hen I /as "o!n" out o* the "reat +!ty o* Va!sal!' I met the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +om!n" !n. ;e "reeted me' and I then addressed h!m9 3;ouseholder' /here do you +ome *rom>3 ;e re l!ed' 3I +ome *rom the seat o* enl!"htenment.3 I then !n6u!red' 34hat !s meant by ?seat o* enl!"htenment?>3 ;e then s o.e the *ollo/!n" /ords to me' 3Noble son' the seat o* enl!"htenment !s the seat o* os!t!)e thou"ht be+ause !t !s /!thout art!*!+!al!ty. It !s the seat o* e**ort' be+ause !t releases ener"et!+ a+t!)!t!es. It !s the seat o* h!"h resol)e' be+ause !ts !ns!"ht !s su er!or. It !s the seat o* the "reat s !r!t o* enl!"htenment' be+ause !t does not ne"le+t anyth!n".

?3It !s the seat o* "eneros!ty' be+ause !t has no e1 e+tat!on o* re/ard. It !s the seat o* moral!ty' be+ause !t *ul*!lls all +omm!tments. It !s the seat o* toleran+e' be+ause !t !s *ree o* an"er to/ard any l!)!n" be!n". It !s the seat o* e**ort' be+ause !t does not turn ba+.. It !s the seat o* med!tat!on' be+ause !t "enerates *!tness o* m!nd. It !s the seat o* /!sdom' be+ause !t sees e)eryth!n" d!re+tly. ?3It !s the seat o* lo)e' be+ause !t !s e6ual to all l!)!n" be!n"s. It !s the seat o* +om ass!on' be+ause !t tolerates all !n8ur!es. It !s the seat o* 8oy' be+ause !t !s 8oy*ully de)oted to the bl!ss o* the Dharma. It !s the seat o* e6uan!m!ty' be+ause !t abandons a**e+t!on and a)ers!on. ?3It !s the seat o* aranormal er+e t!on' be+ause !t has the s!1 su er.no/led"es. It !s the seat o* l!berat!on' be+ause !t does not !ntelle+tual!7e. It !s the seat o* l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue' be+ause !t de)elo s l!)!n" be!n"s. It !s the seat o* the means o* un!*!+at!on' be+ause !t br!n"s to"ether l!)!n" be!n"s. It !s the seat o* learn!n"' be+ause !t ma.es ra+t!+e o* the essen+e. It !s the seat o* de+!s!)eness' be+ause o* !ts re+!se d!s+r!m!nat!on. It !s the seat o* the a!ds to enl!"htenment' be+ause !t el!m!nates the dual!ty o* the +om ounded and the un+om ounded. It !s the seat o* truth' be+ause !t does not de+e!)e anyone. ?3It !s the seat o* !nterde endent or!"!nat!on' be+ause !t ro+eeds *rom the e1haust!on o* !"noran+e to the e1haust!on o* old a"e and death. It !s the seat o* erad!+at!on o* all ass!ons' be+ause !t !s er*e+tly enl!"htened about the nature o* real!ty. It !s the seat o* all l!)!n" be!n"s' be+ause all l!)!n" be!n"s are /!thout !ntr!ns!+ !dent!ty. It !s the seat o* all th!n"s' be+ause !t !s er*e+tly enl!"htened /!th re"ard to )o!dness. ?3It !s the seat o* the +on6uest o* all de)!ls' be+ause !t ne)er *l!n+hes. It !s the seat o* the tr! le /orld' be+ause !t !s *ree o* !n)ol)ement. It !s the seat o* the hero!sm that sounds the l!on3s roar' be+ause !t !s *ree o* *ear and trembl!n". It !s the seat o* the stren"ths' the *earlessnesses' and all the s e+!al 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha' be+ause !t !s !rre roa+hable !n all res e+ts. It !s the seat o* the three .no/led"es' be+ause !n !t no ass!ons rema!n. It !s the seat o* !nstantaneous' total understand!n" o*

all th!n"s' be+ause !t real!7es *ully the "nos!s o* omn!s+!en+e. ?3Noble son' /hen bodh!satt)as are thus endo/ed /!th the trans+enden+es' the roots o* )!rtue' the ab!l!ty to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s' and the !n+or orat!on o* the holy Dharma' /hether they l!*t u the!r *eet or ut them do/n' they all +ome *rom the seat o* enl!"htenment. They +ome *rom the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha' and stand on the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha.3 ?Lord' /hen V!mala.!rt! had e1 la!ned th!s tea+h!n"' *!)e hundred "ods and men +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment' and I be+ame s ee+hless. There*ore' Lord' I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? The ,uddha then sa!d to the bodh!satt)a 5a"at!mdhara' ?5a"at!mdhara' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? 5a"at!mdhara re l!ed' ?My Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> Lord' I remember that one day' /hen I /as at home' the /!+.ed Mara' d!s"u!sed as Indra and surrounded /!th t/el)e thousand hea)enly ma!dens' a roa+hed me /!th the sounds o* mus!+ and s!n"!n". ;a)!n" saluted me by tou+h!n" my *eet /!th h!s head' he /!thdre/ /!th h!s ret!nue to one s!de. I then' th!n.!n" he /as Sa.ra' the .!n" o* the "ods' sa!d to h!m' 34el+ome' 0 Kaus!.a= <ou should rema!n +ons+!ously a/are !n the m!dst o* the leasures o* des!re. <ou should o*ten th!n. on !m ermanen+e and str!)e to ut!l!7e the essent!al !n body' l!*e' and /ealth.3 ?Mara then sa!d to me' 32ood s!r' a++e t *rom me these t/el)e thousand d!)!ne ma!dens and ma.e them your ser)ants.3 ?I re l!ed' 30 Kaus!.a' do not o**er me' /ho am rel!"!ous and a son o* the Sa.ya' th!n"s /h!+h are not a ro r!ate. It !s not ro er *or me to ha)e these ma!dens.3 ?No sooner had I sa!d these /ords than the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame there and sa!d to me' 3Noble son' do not th!n. that th!s !s Indra= Th!s !s

not Indra but the e)!l Mara' /ho has +ome to r!d!+ule you.3 ?Then the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to Mara' 3E)!l Mara' s!n+e these hea)enly ma!dens are not su!table *or th!s rel!"!ous de)otee' a son o* the Sa.ya' "!)e them to me.3 ?Then Mara /as terr!*!ed and d!stressed' th!n.!n" that the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! had +ome to e1 ose h!m. ;e tr!ed to ma.e h!msel* !n)!s!ble' but' try as he m!"ht /!th all h!s ma"!+al o/ers' he +ould not )an!sh *rom s!"ht. Then a )o!+e resounded !n the s.y' say!n"' 3E)!l 0ne' "!)e these hea)enly ma!dens to the "ood man V!mala.!rt!' and only then /!ll you be able to return to your o/n abode.3 ?Then Mara /as e)en more *r!"htened and' mu+h a"a!nst h!s /!ll' "a)e the hea)enly ma!dens. ?The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ha)!n" re+e!)ed the "oddesses' sa!d to them' 3No/ that you ha)e been "!)en to me by Mara' you should all +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment.3 ?;e then e1horted them /!th d!s+ourse su!table *or the!r de)elo ment to/ard enl!"htenment' and soon they +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment. ;e then sa!d to them' 3<ou ha)e 8ust +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment. From no/ on' you should de)ote yoursel)es to *!nd 8oy !n leasures o* the Dharma' and should ta.e no leasure !n des!res.3 ?They then as.ed h!m' 34hat !s ?8oy !n the leasures o* the Dharma?>3 ?;e de+lared' 3It !s the 8oy o* unbrea.able *a!th !n the ,uddha' o* /!sh!n" to hear the Dharma' o* ser)!n" the San"ha and honor!n" the s !r!tual bene*a+tors /!thout r!de. It !s the 8oy o* renun+!at!on o* the /hole /orld' o* not be!n" *!1ed !n ob8e+ts' o* +ons!der!n" the *!)e a""re"ates to be l!.e murderers' o* +ons!der!n" the elements to be l!.e )enomous ser ents' and o* +ons!der!n" the sense-med!a to be l!.e an em ty to/n. It !s the 8oy o* al/ays "uard!n" the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment' o* hel !n" l!)!n" be!n"s' o* shar!n" throu"h "eneros!ty'

o* not sla+.en!n" !n moral!ty' o* +ontrol and toleran+e !n at!en+e' o* thorou"h +ult!)at!on o* )!rtue by e**ort' o* total absor t!on !n med!tat!on' and o* absen+e o* ass!ons !n /!sdom. It !s the 8oy o* e1tend!n" enl!"htenment' o* +on6uer!n" the Maras' o* destroy!n" the ass!ons' and o* ur!*y!n" the buddha-*!eld. It !s the 8oy o* a++umulat!n" all )!rtues' !n order to +ult!)ate the aus !+!ous mar.s and s!"ns. It !s the 8oy o* the l!berat!on o* non!nt!m!dat!on /hen hear!n" the ro*ound tea+h!n". It !s the 8oy o* e1 lorat!on o* the three doors o* l!berat!on' and o* the real!7at!on o* l!berat!on. It !s the 8oy o* be!n" an ornament o* the seat o* enl!"htenment' and o* not atta!n!n" l!berat!on at the /ron" t!me. It !s the 8oy o* ser)!n" those o* e6ual *ortune' o* not hat!n" or resent!n" those o* su er!or *ortune' o* ser)!n" the s !r!tual bene*a+tors' and o* a)o!d!n" s!n*ul *r!ends. It !s the 8oy o* the su er!or "ladness o* *a!th and de)ot!on to the Dharma. It !s the 8oy o* a+6u!r!n" l!berat!)e te+hn!6ues and o* the +ons+!ous +ult!)at!on o* the a!ds to enl!"htenment. Thus' the bodh!satt)a adm!res and *!nds 8oy !n the del!"hts o* the Dharma.3 ?Thereu on' Mara sa!d to the "oddesses' 3No/ +ome alon" and let us return home.3 ?They sa!d' 3<ou "a)e us to th!s householder. No/ /e should en8oy the del!"hts o* the Dharma and should no lon"er en8oy the leasures o* des!res.3 ?Then Mara sa!d to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' 3I* !t !s so that the bodh!satt)a' the s !r!tual hero' has no mental atta+hment' and "!)es a/ay all h!s ossess!ons' then' householder' lease "!)e me these "oddesses.3 ?V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' 3They are "!)en' Mara. 2o home /!th your ret!nue. May you *ul*!ll the rel!"!ous as !rat!ons o* all l!)!n" be!n"s=3 ?Then the "oddesses' salut!n" V!mala.!rt!' sa!d to h!m' 3;ouseholder' ho/ should /e l!)e !n the abode o* the Maras>3 ?V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' 3S!sters' there !s a door o* the Dharma +alled ?The Ine1haust!ble Lam .? (ra+t!+e !t= 4hat !s !t> S!sters' a s!n"le

lam may l!"ht hundreds o* thousands o* lam s /!thout !tsel* be!n" d!m!n!shed. L!.e/!se' s!sters' a s!n"le bodh!satt)a may establ!sh many hundreds o* thousands o* l!)!n" be!n"s !n enl!"htenment /!thout h!s m!nd*ulness be!n" d!m!n!shed. In *a+t' not only does !t not d!m!n!sh' !t "ro/s stron"er. L!.e/!se' the more you tea+h and demonstrate )!rtuous 6ual!t!es to others' the more you "ro/ /!th res e+t to these )!rtuous 6ual!t!es. Th!s !s the door o* the Dharma +alled ?The Ine1haust!ble Lam .? 4hen you are l!)!n" !n the realm o* Mara' !ns !re !nnumerable "ods and "oddesses /!th the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment. In su+h a /ay' you /!ll re ay the .!ndness o* the Tatha"ata' and you /!ll be+ome the bene*a+tors o* all l!)!n" be!n"s.3 ?Then' those "oddesses bo/ed at the *eet o* the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! and de arted !n the +om any o* Mara. Thus' Lord' I sa/ the su rema+y o* the ma"!+al o/er' /!sdom' and elo6uen+e o* the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' and there*ore I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? The ,uddha then sa!d to the mer+hant3s son' Sudatta' ?Noble son' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Sudatta re l!ed' ?Lord' I am !ndeed relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness. 4hy> Lord' I remember one day !n my *ather3s house /hen' !n order to +elebrate a "reat sa+r!*!+e' I /as besto/!n" "!*ts u on rel!"!ous de)otees' ,rahmans' the oor' the /ret+hed' the un*ortunate' be""ars' and all the needy. 0n the se)enth and *!nal day o* th!s "reat sa+r!*!+e' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ame there and sa!d' 3Mer+hant3s son' you should not +elebrate a sa+r!*!+e !n th!s /ay. <ou should +elebrate a Dharma-sa+r!*!+e. 4hat !s the use o* the sa+r!*!+e o* mater!al th!n"s>3 ?I then as.ed h!m' 3;o/ does one "!)e a Dharma-sa+r!*!+e>3 ?;e re l!ed' 3A Dharma-sa+r!*!+e !s that /h!+h de)elo s l!)!n" be!n"s /!thout be"!nn!n" or end' "!)!n" "!*ts to them all s!multaneously. 4hat !s that> It +ons!sts o* the "reat lo)e /h!+h !s +onsummated !n enl!"htenment: o* the "reat +om ass!on /h!+h !s +onsummated !n the +on+entrat!on o* the holy Dharma on the l!berat!on o* all l!)!n" be!n"s: o* the "reat 8oy /h!+h !s +onsummated !n the a/areness o* the

su reme ha !ness o* all l!)!n" be!n"s: and o* the "reat e6uan!m!ty /h!+h !s +onsummated !n +on+entrat!on throu"h .no/led"e. ?3The Dharma-sa+r!*!+e +ons!sts o* the trans+enden+e o* "eneros!ty' /h!+h !s +onsummated !n ea+e*ulness and sel*-d!s+! l!ne: o* the trans+enden+e o* moral!ty' /h!+h !s +onsummated !n the moral de)elo ment o* !mmoral be!n"s: o* the trans+enden+e o* toleran+e' +onsummated throu"h the r!n+! le o* sel*lessness: o* the trans+enden+e o* e**ort' +onsummated !n !n!t!at!)e to/ard enl!"htenment: o* the trans+enden+e o* med!tat!on' +onsummated !n the sol!tude o* body and m!nd: and o* the trans+enden+e o* /!sdom' +onsummated !n the omn!s+!ent "nos!s. ?3The Dharma-sa+r!*!+e +ons!sts o* the med!tat!on o* )o!dness' +onsummated !n e**e+t!)eness !n the de)elo ment o* all l!)!n" be!n"s: o* the med!tat!on o* s!"nlessness' +onsummated !n the ur!*!+at!on o* all +om ounded th!n"s: and o* the med!tat!on o* /!shlessness' +onsummated !n )oluntar!ly assum!n" reb!rths. ?3The Dharma-sa+r!*!+e +ons!sts o* hero!+ stren"th' +onsummated !n the u hold!n" o* the holy Dharma: o* the o/er o* l!*e' +onsummated !n the means o* un!*!+at!on: o* the absen+e o* r!de' +onsummated !n be+om!n" the sla)e and the d!s+! le o* all l!)!n" be!n"s: o* the "a!n o* body' health' and /ealth' +onsummated by the e1tra+t!on o* essen+e *rom the essen+eless: o* m!nd*ulness' +onsummated by the s!1 remembran+es: o* os!t!)e thou"ht' +onsummated throu"h the truly en8oyable Dharma: o* ur!ty o* l!)el!hood' +onsummated by +orre+t s !r!tual ra+t!+e: o* the res e+t o* sa!nts' +onsummated by 8oy*ul and *a!th*ul ser)!+e: o* soberness o* m!nd' +onsummated by absen+e o* d!sl!.e *or ord!nary eo le: o* h!"h resol)e' +onsummated by renun+!at!on: o* s.!ll !n erud!t!on' +onsummated by rel!"!ous ra+t!+e: o* ret!rement !n sol!tary retreats' +onsummated by understand!n" th!n"s *ree o* ass!ons: o* !ntros e+t!)e med!tat!on' +onsummated by atta!nment o* the ,uddha-"nos!s: o* the sta"e o* the ra+t!+e o* yo"a' +onsummated by the yo"a o* l!berat!n" all l!)!n" be!n"s *rom the!r ass!ons. ?3The Dharma-sa+r!*!+e +ons!sts o* the store o* mer!t /h!+h !s +onsummated by the aus !+!ous s!"ns and mar.s' the ornaments o* the buddha-*!elds' and all other means o* de)elo ment o* l!)!n" be!n"s: o*

the store o* .no/led"e /h!+h !s +onsummated !n the ab!l!ty to tea+h the Dharma a++ord!n" to the thou"hts and a+t!ons o* all l!)!n" be!n"s: o* the store o* /!sdom' /h!+h !s +onsummated !n the un!*orm "nos!s *ree o* a++e tan+e and re8e+t!on !n re"ard to all th!n"s: o* the store o* all roots o* )!rtue' +onsummated !n the abandonment o* all ass!ons' obs+urat!ons' and un)!rtuous th!n"s: and o* the atta!nment o* all the a!ds to enl!"htenment' +onsummated !n the real!7at!on o* the "nos!s o* omn!s+!en+e as /ell as !n a++om l!shment o* all )!rtue. ?3That' noble son' !s the Dharma-sa+r!*!+e. The bodh!satt)a /ho l!)es by th!s Dharma-sa+r!*!+e !s the best o* sa+r!*!+ers' and' throu"h h!s e1treme sa+r!*!+e' !s h!msel* /orthy o* o**er!n"s *rom all eo le' !n+lud!n" the "ods.3 ?Lord' as soon as the householder had d!s+oursed thus' t/o hundred ,rahmans amon" the +ro/d o* ,rahmans resent +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment. And I' *ull o* aston!shment' ha)!n" saluted th!s "ood man by tou+h!n" h!s *eet /!th my head' too. *rom around my ne+. a ne+.la+e o* earls /orth one hundred thousand !e+es o* "old and o**ered !t to h!m. ,ut he /ould not a++e t !t. I then sa!d to h!m' 3(lease a++e t' "ood man' th!s ne+.la+e o* earls' out o* +om ass!on *or me' and "!)e !t to /homsoe)er you /!sh.3 ?Then' V!mala.!rt! too. the earls and d!)!ded them !nto t/o hal)es. ;e "a)e one hal* o* them to the lo/l!est oor o* the +!ty' /ho had been d!sda!ned by those resent at the sa+r!*!+e. The other hal* he o**ered to the Tatha"ata Dus rasaha. And he er*ormed a m!ra+le su+h that all resent beheld the un!)erse +alled Mar!+! and the Tatha"ata Dus rasaha. 0n the head o* the Tatha"ata Dus rasaha' the earl ne+.la+e too. the *orm o* a a)!l!on' de+orated /!th str!n"s o* earls' rest!n" on *our bases' /!th *our +olumns' symmetr!+al' /ell +onstru+ted' and lo)ely to behold. ;a)!n" sho/n su+h a m!ra+le' V!mala.!rt! sa!d' 3The "!)er /ho ma.es "!*ts to the lo/l!est oor o* the +!ty' +ons!der!n" them as /orthy o* o**er!n" as the Tatha"ata h!msel*' the "!)er /ho "!)es /!thout any d!s+r!m!nat!on' !m art!ally' /!th no e1 e+tat!on o* re/ard' and /!th "reat lo)e - th!s "!)er' I say' totally *ul*!lls the Dharma-sa+r!*!+e.3 ?Then the oor o* the +!ty' ha)!n" seen that m!ra+le and ha)!n" heard that tea+h!n"' +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t

enl!"htenment. There*ore' Lord' I am relu+tant to "o to that "ood man to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? In the same /ay' all the bodh!satt)as' "reat s !r!tual heroes' told the stor!es o* the!r +on)ersat!ons /!th V!mala.!rt! and de+lared the!r relu+tan+e to "o to h!m.

C. The Consolat!on o* the In)al!d Then' the ,uddha sa!d to the +ro/n r!n+e' Man8usr!' ?Man8usr!' "o to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! to !n6u!re about h!s !llness.? Man8usr! re l!ed' ?Lord' !t !s d!**!+ult to attend u on the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!. ;e !s "!*ted /!th mar)elous elo6uen+e +on+ern!n" the la/ o* the ro*ound. ;e !s e1tremely s.!lled !n *ull e1 ress!ons and !n the re+on+!l!at!on o* d!+hotom!es. ;!s elo6uen+e !s !ne1orable' and no one +an res!st h!s !m erturbable !ntelle+t. ;e a++om l!shes all the a+t!)!t!es o* the bodh!satt)as. ;e enetrates all the se+ret myster!es o* the bodh!satt)as and the ,uddhas. ;e !s s.!lled !n +!)!l!7!n" all the abodes o* de)!ls. ;e lays /!th the "reat su er.no/led"es. ;e !s +onsummate !n /!sdom and l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue. ;e has atta!ned the su reme e1+ellen+e o* the !nd!)!s!ble' nondual s here o* the ult!mate realm. ;e !s s.!lled !n tea+h!n" the Dharma /!th !ts !n*!n!te modal!t!es /!th!n the un!*orm ult!mate. ;e !s s.!lled !n "rant!n" means o* atta!nment !n a++ordan+e /!th the s !r!tual *a+ult!es o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. ;e has thorou"hly !nte"rated h!s real!7at!on /!th s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue. ;e has atta!ned de+!s!)eness /!th re"ard to all 6uest!ons. Thus' althou"h he +annot be /!thstood by someone o* my *eeble de*enses' st!ll' susta!ned by the "ra+e o* the ,uddha' I /!ll "o to h!m and /!ll +on)erse /!th h!m as /ell as I +an.? Thereu on' !n that assembly' the bodh!satt)as' the "reat d!s+! les' the Sa.ras' the ,rahmas' the Lo.a alas' and the "ods and "oddesses' all had th!s thou"ht9 ?Surely the +on)ersat!ons o* the youn" r!n+e Man8usr! and that "ood man /!ll result !n a ro*ound tea+h!n" o* the Dharma.?

Thus' e!"ht thousand bodh!satt)as' *!)e hundred d!s+! les' a "reat number o* Sa.ras' ,rahmas' Lo.a alas' and many hundreds o* thousands o* "ods and "oddesses' all *ollo/ed the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr! to l!sten to the Dharma. And the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr!' surrounded and *ollo/ed by these bodh!satt)as' d!s+! les' Sa.ras' ,rahmas' Lo.a alas' "ods' and "oddesses' entered the "reat +!ty o* Va!sal!. Mean/h!le' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! thou"ht to h!msel*' ?Man8usr!' the +ro/n r!n+e' !s +om!n" here /!th numerous attendants. No/' may th!s house be trans*ormed !nto em t!ness=? Then' ma"!+ally h!s house be+ame em ty. E)en the door.ee er d!sa eared. And' e1+e t *or the !n)al!d3s +ou+h u on /h!+h V!mala.!rt! h!msel* /as ly!n"' no bed or +ou+h or seat +ould be seen any/here. Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa/ the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr! and addressed h!m thus9 ?Man8usr!= 4el+ome' Man8usr!= <ou are )ery /el+ome= There you are' /!thout any +om!n". <ou a ear' /!thout any see!n". <ou are heard' /!thout any hear!n".? Man8usr! de+lared' ?;ouseholder' !t !s as you say. 4ho +omes' *!nally +omes not. 4ho "oes' *!nally "oes not. 4hy> 4ho +omes !s not .no/n to +ome. 4ho "oes !s not .no/n to "o. 4ho a ears !s *!nally not to be seen. ?2ood s!r' !s your +ond!t!on tolerable> Is !t l!)able> Are your hys!+al elements not d!sturbed> Is your s!+.ness d!m!n!sh!n"> Is !t not !n+reas!n"> The ,uddha as.s about you - !* you ha)e sl!"ht trouble' sl!"ht d!s+om*ort' sl!"ht s!+.ness' !* your d!stress !s l!"ht' !* you are +ared *or' stron"' at ease' /!thout sel*-re roa+h' and !* you are l!)!n" !n tou+h /!th the su reme ha !ness. ?;ouseholder' /hen+e +ame th!s s!+.ness o* yours> ;o/ lon" /!ll !t +ont!nue> ;o/ does !t stand> ;o/ +an !t be alle)!ated>?

V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' ?Man8usr!' my s!+.ness +omes *rom !"noran+e and the th!rst *or e1!sten+e and !t /!ll last as lon" as do the s!+.nesses o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. 4ere all l!)!n" be!n"s to be *ree *rom s!+.ness' I also /ould not be s!+.. 4hy> Man8usr!' *or the bodh!satt)a' the /orld +ons!sts only o* l!)!n" be!n"s' and s!+.ness !s !nherent !n l!)!n" !n the /orld. 4ere all l!)!n" be!n"s *ree o* s!+.ness' the bodh!satt)a also /ould be *ree o* s!+.ness. For e1am le' Man8usr!' /hen the only son o* a mer+hant !s s!+.' both h!s arents be+ome s!+. on a++ount o* the s!+.ness o* the!r son. And the arents /!ll su**er as lon" as that only son does not re+o)er *rom h!s s!+.ness. 5ust so' Man8usr!' the bodh!satt)a lo)es all l!)!n" be!n"s as !* ea+h /ere h!s only +h!ld. ;e be+omes s!+. /hen they are s!+. and !s +ured /hen they are +ured. <ou as. me' Man8usr!' /hen+e +omes my s!+.ness: the s!+.nesses o* the bodh!satt)as ar!se *rom "reat +om ass!on.? Man8usr!9 ;ouseholder' /hy !s your house em ty> 4hy ha)e you no ser)ants> V!mala.!rt!9 Man8usr!' all buddha-*!elds are also em ty. Man8usr!9 4hat ma.es them em ty> V!mala.!rt!9 They are em ty be+ause o* em t!ness. Man8usr!9 4hat !s ?em ty? about em t!ness> V!mala.!rt!9 Constru+t!ons are em ty' be+ause o* em t!ness. Man8usr!9 Can em t!ness be +on+e tually +onstru+ted> V!mala.!rt!9 E)en that +on+e t !s !tsel* em ty' and em t!ness +annot +onstru+t em t!ness. Man8usr!9 ;ouseholder' /here should em t!ness be sou"ht>

V!mala.!rt!9 Man8usr!' em t!ness should be sou"ht amon" the s!1tyt/o +on)!+t!ons. Man8usr!9 4here should the s!1ty-t/o +on)!+t!ons be sou"ht> V!mala.!rt!9 They should be sou"ht !n the l!berat!on o* the Tatha"atas. Man8usr!9 4here should the l!berat!on o* the Tatha"atas be sou"ht> V!mala.!rt!9 It should be sou"ht !n the r!me mental a+t!)!ty o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. Man8usr!' you as. me /hy I am /!thout ser)ants' but all Maras and o onents are my ser)ants. 4hy> The Maras ad)o+ate th!s l!*e o* b!rth and death and the bodh!satt)a does not a)o!d l!*e. The heterodo1 o onents ad)o+ate +on)!+t!ons' and the bodh!satt)a !s not troubled by +on)!+t!ons. There*ore' all Maras and o onents are my ser)ants. Man8usr!9 ;ouseholder' o* /hat sort !s your s!+.ness> V!mala.!rt!9 It !s !mmater!al and !n)!s!ble. Man8usr!9 Is !t hys!+al or mental> V!mala.!rt!9 It !s not hys!+al' s!n+e the body !s !nsubstant!al !n !tsel*. It !s not mental' s!n+e the nature o* the m!nd !s l!.e !llus!on. Man8usr!9 ;ouseholder' /h!+h o* the *our ma!n elements !s d!sturbed earth' /ater' *!re' or a!r> V!mala.!rt!9 Man8usr!' I am s!+. only be+ause the elements o* l!)!n" be!n"s are d!sturbed by s!+.nesses.

Man8usr!9 ;ouseholder' ho/ should a bodh!satt)a +onsole another bodh!satt)a /ho !s s!+.> V!mala.!rt!9 ;e should tell h!m that the body !s !m ermanent' but should not e1hort h!m to renun+!at!on or d!s"ust. ;e should tell h!m that the body !s m!serable' but should not en+oura"e h!m to *!nd sola+e !n l!berat!on: that the body !s sel*less' but that l!)!n" be!n"s should be de)elo ed: that the body !s ea+e*ul' but not to see. any ult!mate +alm. ;e should ur"e h!m to +on*ess h!s e)!l deeds' but not *or the sa.e o* absolut!on. ;e should en+oura"e h!s em athy *or all l!)!n" be!n"s on a++ount o* h!s o/n s!+.ness' h!s remembran+e o* su**er!n" e1 er!en+ed *rom be"!nn!n"less t!me' and h!s +ons+!ousness o* /or.!n" *or the /el*are o* l!)!n" be!n"s. ;e should en+oura"e h!m not to be d!stressed' but to man!*est the roots o* )!rtue' to ma!nta!n the r!mal ur!ty and the la+. o* +ra)!n"' and thus to al/ays str!)e to be+ome the .!n" o* healers' /ho +an +ure all s!+.nesses. Thus should a bodh!satt)a +onsole a s!+. bodh!satt)a' !n su+h a /ay as to ma.e h!m ha y. Man8usr! as.ed' ?Noble s!r' ho/ should a s!+. bodh!satt)a +ontrol h!s o/n m!nd>? V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' ?Man8usr!' a s!+. bodh!satt)a should +ontrol h!s o/n m!nd /!th the *ollo/!n" +ons!derat!on9 S!+.ness ar!ses *rom total !n)ol)ement !n the ro+ess o* m!sunderstand!n" *rom be"!nn!n"less t!me. It ar!ses *rom the ass!ons that result *rom unreal mental +onstru+t!ons' and hen+e ult!mately noth!n" !s er+e!)ed /h!+h +an be sa!d to be s!+.. 4hy> The body !s the !ssue o* the *our ma!n elements' and !n these elements there !s no o/ner and no a"ent. There !s no sel* !n th!s body' and e1+e t *or arb!trary !ns!sten+e on sel*' ult!mately no ?I? /h!+h +an be sa!d to be s!+. +an be a rehended. There*ore' th!n.!n" ?I? should not adhere to any sel*' and ?I? should rest !n the .no/led"e o* the root o* !llness'3 he should abandon the +on+e t!on o* h!msel* as a ersonal!ty and rodu+e the +on+e t!on o* h!msel* as a th!n"' th!n.!n"' 3Th!s body !s an a""re"ate o* many th!n"s: /hen !t !s born' only th!n"s are born: /hen !t +eases' only th!n"s +ease: these th!n"s ha)e no a/areness or *eel!n" o* ea+h other: /hen they are born' they do not th!n.' ?I am born.? 4hen they +ease' they do not th!n.' ?I +ease.?3

?Furthermore' he should understand thorou"hly the +on+e t!on o* h!msel* as a th!n" by +ult!)at!n" the *ollo/!n" +ons!derat!on9 35ust as !n the +ase o* the +on+e t!on o* ?sel*'? so the +on+e t!on o* ?th!n"? !s also a m!sunderstand!n"' and th!s m!sunderstand!n" !s also a "ra)e s!+.ness: I should *ree mysel* *rom th!s s!+.ness and should str!)e to abandon !t.3 ?4hat !s the el!m!nat!on o* th!s s!+.ness> It !s the el!m!nat!on o* e"o!sm and ossess!)eness. 4hat !s the el!m!nat!on o* e"o!sm and ossess!)eness> It !s the *reedom *rom dual!sm. 4hat !s *reedom *rom dual!sm> It !s the absen+e o* !n)ol)ement /!th e!ther the e1ternal or the !nternal. 4hat !s absen+e o* !n)ol)ement /!th e!ther e1ternal or !nternal> It !s nonde)!at!on' non*lu+tuat!on' and nond!stra+t!on *rom e6uan!m!ty. 4hat !s e6uan!m!ty> It !s the e6ual!ty o* e)eryth!n" *rom sel* to l!berat!on. 4hy> ,e+ause both sel* and l!berat!on are )o!d. ;o/ +an both be )o!d> As )erbal des!"nat!ons' they both are )o!d' and ne!ther !s establ!shed !n real!ty. There*ore' one /ho sees su+h e6ual!ty ma.es no d!**eren+e bet/een s!+.ness and )o!dness: h!s s!+.ness !s !tsel* )o!dness' and that s!+.ness as )o!dness !s !tsel* )o!d. ?The s!+. bodh!satt)a should re+o"n!7e that sensat!on !s ult!mately nonsensat!on' but he should not real!7e the +essat!on o* sensat!on. Althou"h both leasure and a!n are abandoned /hen the buddha6ual!t!es are *ully a++om l!shed' there !s then no sa+r!*!+e o* the "reat +om ass!on *or all l!)!n" be!n"s l!)!n" !n the bad m!"rat!ons. Thus' re+o"n!7!n" !n h!s o/n su**er!n" the !n*!n!te su**er!n"s o* these l!)!n" be!n"s' the bodh!satt)a +orre+tly +ontem lates these l!)!n" be!n"s and resol)es to +ure all s!+.nesses. As *or these l!)!n" be!n"s' there !s noth!n" to be a l!ed' and there !s noth!n" to be remo)ed: one has only to tea+h them the Dharma *or them to real!7e the bas!s *rom /h!+h s!+.nesses ar!se. 4hat !s th!s bas!s> It !s ob8e+t- er+e t!on. Inso*ar as a arent ob8e+ts are er+e!)ed' they are the bas!s o* s!+.ness. 4hat th!n"s are er+e!)ed as ob8e+ts> The three realms o* e1!sten+e are er+e!)ed as ob8e+ts. 4hat !s the thorou"h understand!n" o* the bas!+' a arent ob8e+t> It !s !ts non er+e t!on' as no ob8e+ts e1!st ult!mately. 4hat !s non er+e t!on> The !nternal sub8e+t and the e1ternal ob8e+t are not er+e!)ed dual!st!+ally. There*ore' !t !s +alled non er+e t!on.

?Man8usr!' thus should a s!+. bodh!satt)a +ontrol h!s o/n m!nd !n order to o)er+ome old a"e' s!+.ness' death' and b!rth. Su+h' Man8usr!' !s the s!+.ness o* the bodh!satt)a. I* he ta.es !t other/!se' all h!s e**orts /!ll be !n )a!n. For e1am le' one !s +alled 3hero3 /hen one +on6uers the m!ser!es o* a"!n"' s!+.ness' and death. ?The s!+. bodh!satt)a should tell h!msel*9 35ust as my s!+.ness !s unreal and none1!stent' so the s!+.nesses o* all l!)!n" be!n"s are unreal and none1!stent.3 Throu"h su+h +ons!derat!ons' he arouses the "reat +om ass!on to/ard all l!)!n" be!n"s /!thout *all!n" !nto any sent!mental +om ass!on. The "reat +om ass!on that str!)es to el!m!nate the a++!dental ass!ons does not +on+e!)e o* any l!*e !n l!)!n" be!n"s. 4hy> ,e+ause "reat +om ass!on that *alls !nto sent!mentally ur os!)e )!e/s only e1hausts the bodh!satt)a !n h!s re!n+arnat!ons. ,ut the "reat +om ass!on /h!+h !s *ree o* !n)ol)ement /!th sent!mentally ur os!)e )!e/s does not e1haust the bodh!satt)a !n all h!s re!n+arnat!ons. ;e does not re!n+arnate throu"h !n)ol)ement /!th su+h )!e/s but re!n+arnates /!th h!s m!nd *ree o* !n)ol)ement. ;en+e' e)en h!s re!n+arnat!on !s l!.e a l!berat!on. ,e!n" re!n+arnated as !* be!n" l!berated' he has the o/er and ab!l!ty to tea+h the Dharma /h!+h l!berates l!)!n" be!n"s *rom the!r bonda"e. As the Lord de+lares9 3It !s not oss!ble *or one /ho !s h!msel* bound to del!)er others *rom the!r bonda"e. ,ut one /ho !s h!msel* l!berated !s able to l!berate others *rom the!r bonda"e.3 There*ore' the bodh!satt)a should art!+! ate !n l!berat!on and should not art!+! ate !n bonda"e. ?4hat !s bonda"e> And /hat !s l!berat!on> To !ndul"e !n l!berat!on *rom the /orld /!thout em loy!n" l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !s bonda"e *or the bodh!satt)a. To en"a"e !n l!*e !n the /orld /!th *ull em loyment o* l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !s l!berat!on *or the bodh!satt)a. To e1 er!en+e the taste o* +ontem lat!on' med!tat!on' and +on+entrat!on /!thout s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !s bonda"e. To e1 er!en+e the taste o* +ontem lat!on and med!tat!on /!th s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !s l!berat!on. 4!sdom not !nte"rated /!th l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !s bonda"e' but /!sdom !nte"rated /!th l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !s l!berat!on. L!berat!)e te+hn!6ue not !nte"rated /!th /!sdom !s bonda"e' but l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !nte"rated /!th /!sdom !s l!berat!on. ?;o/ !s /!sdom not !nte"rated /!th l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue a bonda"e> 4!sdom not !nte"rated /!th l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue +ons!sts o* +on+entrat!on on )o!dness' s!"nlessness' and /!shlessness' and yet'

be!n" mot!)ated by sent!mental +om ass!on' *a!lure to +on+entrate on +ult!)at!on o* the aus !+!ous s!"ns and mar.s' on the adornment o* the buddha-*!eld' and on the /or. o* de)elo ment o* l!)!n" be!n"s !t !s bonda"e. ?;o/ !s /!sdom !nte"rated /!th l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue a l!berat!on> 4!sdom !nte"rated /!th l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue +ons!sts o* be!n" mot!)ated by the "reat +om ass!on and thus o* +on+entrat!on on +ult!)at!on o* the aus !+!ous s!"ns and mar.s' on the adornment o* the buddha-*!eld' and on the /or. o* de)elo ment o* l!)!n" be!n"s' all the /h!le +on+entrat!n" on dee !n)est!"at!on o* )o!dness' s!"nlessness' and /!shlessness - and !t !s l!berat!on. ?4hat !s the bonda"e o* l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue not !nte"rated /!th /!sdom> The bonda"e o* l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue not !nte"rated /!th /!sdom +ons!sts o* the bodh!satt)a3s lant!n" o* the roots o* )!rtue /!thout ded!+at!n" them *or the sa.e o* enl!"htenment' /h!le l!)!n" !n the "r! o* do"mat!+ +on)!+t!ons' ass!ons' atta+hments' resentments' and the!r sub+ons+!ous !nst!n+ts. ?4hat !s the l!berat!on o* l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !nte"rated /!th /!sdom> The l!berat!on o* l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue !nte"rated /!th /!sdom +ons!sts o* the bodh!satt)a3s ded!+at!on o* h!s roots o* )!rtue *or the sa.e o* enl!"htenment' /!thout ta.!n" any r!de there!n' /h!le *or"o!n" all +on)!+t!ons' ass!ons' atta+hments' resentments' and the!r sub+ons+!ous !nst!n+ts. ?Man8usr!' thus should the s!+. bodh!satt)a +ons!der th!n"s. ;!s /!sdom !s the +ons!derat!on o* body' m!nd' and s!+.ness as !m ermanent' m!serable' em ty' and sel*less. ;!s l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue +ons!sts o* not e1haust!n" h!msel* by try!n" to a)o!d all hys!+al s!+.ness' and !n a ly!n" h!msel* to a++om l!sh the bene*!t o* l!)!n" be!n"s' /!thout !nterru t!n" the +y+le o* re!n+arnat!ons. Furthermore' h!s /!sdom l!es !n understand!n" that the body' m!nd' and s!+.ness are ne!ther ne/ nor old' both s!multaneously and se6uent!ally. And h!s l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue l!es !n not see.!n" +essat!on o* body' m!nd' or s!+.nesses. ?That' Man8usr!' !s the /ay a s!+. bodh!satt)a should +on+entrate h!s

m!nd: he should l!)e ne!ther !n +ontrol o* h!s m!nd' nor !n !ndul"en+e o* h!s m!nd. 4hy> To l!)e by !ndul"!n" the m!nd !s ro er *or *ools and to l!)e !n +ontrol o* the m!nd !s ro er *or the d!s+! les. There*ore' the bodh!satt)a should l!)e ne!ther !n +ontrol nor !n !ndul"en+e o* h!s m!nd. Not l!)!n" !n e!ther o* the t/o e1tremes !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. ?Not the doma!n o* the ord!nary !nd!)!dual and not the doma!n o* the sa!nt' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the /orld yet not the doma!n o* the ass!ons' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. 4here one understands l!berat!on' yet does not enter *!nal and +om lete l!berat!on' there !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. 4here the *our Maras man!*est' yet /here all the /or.s o* Maras are trans+ended' there !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. 4here one see.s the "nos!s o* omn!s+!en+e' yet does not atta!n th!s "nos!s at the /ron" t!me' there !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. 4here one .no/s the Four ;oly Truths' yet does not real!7e those truths at the /ron" t!me' there !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. A doma!n o* !ntros e+t!)e !ns!"ht' /here!n one does not arrest )oluntary re!n+arnat!on !n the /orld' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. A doma!n /here one real!7es b!rthlessness' yet does not be+ome dest!ned *or the ult!mate' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. 4here one sees relat!)!ty /!thout enterta!n!n" any +on)!+t!ons' there !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. 4here one asso+!ates /!th all be!n"s' yet .ee s *ree o* all a**l!+t!)e !nst!n+ts' there !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. A doma!n o* sol!tude /!th no la+e *or the e1haust!on o* body and m!nd' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the tr! le /orld' yet !nd!)!s!ble *rom the ult!mate realm' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* )o!dness' yet /here one +ult!)ates all ty es o* )!rtues' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* s!"nlessness' /here one .ee s !n s!"ht the del!)eran+e o* all l!)!n" be!n"s' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* /!shlessness' /here one )oluntar!ly man!*ests l!)es !n the /orld' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. ?A doma!n essent!ally /!thout underta.!n"' yet /here all the roots o* )!rtue are underta.en /!thout !nterru t!on' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the s!1 trans+enden+es' /here one atta!ns the trans+enden+e o* the thou"hts and a+t!ons o* all l!)!n" be!n"s' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the s!1 su er.no/led"es' /here!n de*!lements are not e1hausted' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* l!)!n" by the holy Dharma'

/!thout e)en er+e!)!n" any e)!l aths' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the *our !mmeasurables' /here one does not a++e t reb!rth !n the hea)en o* ,rahma' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the s!1 remembran+es' una**e+ted by any sort o* de*!lement' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* +ontem lat!on' med!tat!on' and +on+entrat!on' /here one does not re!n+arnate !n the *ormless realms by *or+e o* these med!tat!ons and +on+entrat!ons' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the *our r!"ht e**orts' /here the dual!ty o* "ood and e)!l !s not a rehended' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the *our bases o* ma"!+al o/ers' /here they are e**ortlessly mastered' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the *!)e s !r!tual *a+ult!es' /here one .no/s the de"rees o* the s !r!tual *a+ult!es o* l!)!n" be!n"s' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* l!)!n" /!th the *!)e o/ers' /here one del!"hts !n the ten o/ers o* the Tatha"ata' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* er*e+t!on o* the se)en *a+tors o* enl!"htenment' /here one !s s.!lled !n the .no/led"e o* *!ne !ntelle+tual d!st!n+t!ons' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the holy e!"ht*old ath' /here one del!"hts !n the unl!m!ted ath o* the ,uddha' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the +ult!)at!on o* the a t!tude *or mental 6u!es+en+e and trans+endental analys!s' /here one does not *all !nto e1treme 6u!et!sm' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* the real!7at!on o* the unborn nature o* all th!n"s' yet o* the er*e+t!on o* the body' the aus !+!ous s!"ns and mar.s' and the ornaments o* the ,uddha' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* man!*est!n" the att!tudes o* the d!s+! les and the sol!tary sa"es /!thout sa+r!*!+!n" the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n o* +on*orm!ty to all th!n"s utterly ure !n nature /h!le man!*est!n" beha)!or that su!ts the !n+l!nat!ons o* all l!)!n" be!n"s' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. A doma!n /here one real!7es that all the buddha-*!elds are !ndestru+t!ble and un+reatable' ha)!n" the nature o* !n*!n!te s a+e' yet /here one man!*ests the establ!shment o* the 6ual!t!es o* the buddha*!elds !n all the!r )ar!ety and ma"n!tude' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a. The doma!n /here one turns the /heel o* the holy Dharma and man!*ests the ma"n!*!+en+e o* ult!mate l!berat!on' yet ne)er *orsa.es the +areer o* the bodh!satt)a' su+h !s the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a=? 4hen V!mala.!rt! had s o.en th!s d!s+ourse' e!"ht thousand o* the "ods !n the +om any o* the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr! +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment.

&. The In+on+e!)able L!berat!on Thereu on' the )enerable Sar! utra had th!s thou"ht9 ?There !s not e)en a s!n"le +ha!r !n th!s house. 4here are these d!s+! les and bodh!satt)as "o!n" to s!t>? The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! read the thou"ht o* the )enerable Sar! utra and sa!d' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' d!d you +ome here *or the sa.e o* the Dharma> 0r d!d you +ome here *or the sa.e o* a +ha!r>? Sar! utra re l!ed' ?I +ame *or the sa.e o* the Dharma' not *or the sa.e o* a +ha!r.? V!mala.!rt! +ont!nued' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' he /ho !s !nterested !n the Dharma !s not !nterested e)en !n h!s o/n body' mu+h less !n a +ha!r. Re)erend Sar! utra' he /ho !s !nterested !n the Dharma has no !nterest !n matter' sensat!on' !ntelle+t' mot!)at!on' or +ons+!ousness. ;e has no !nterest !n these a""re"ates' or !n the elements' or !n the sense-med!a. Interested !n the Dharma' he has no !nterest !n the realm o* des!re' the realm o* matter' or the !mmater!al realm. Interested !n the Dharma' he !s not !nterested !n atta+hment to the ,uddha' atta+hment to the Dharma' or atta+hment to the San"ha. Re)erend Sar! utra' he /ho !s !nterested !n the Dharma !s not !nterested !n re+o"n!7!n" su**er!n"' abandon!n" !ts or!"!nat!on' real!7!n" !ts +essat!on' or ra+t!+!n" the ath. 4hy> The Dharma !s ult!mately /!thout *ormulat!on and /!thout )erbal!7at!on. 4ho )erbal!7es9 3Su**er!n" should be re+o"n!7ed' or!"!nat!on should be el!m!nated' +essat!on should be real!7ed' the ath should be ra+t!+ed'3 !s not !nterested !n the Dharma but !s !nterested !n )erbal!7at!on. ?Re)erend Sar! utra' the Dharma !s +alm and ea+e*ul. Those /ho are en"a"ed !n rodu+t!on and destru+t!on are not !nterested !n the Dharma' are not !nterested !n sol!tude' but are !nterested !n rodu+t!on and destru+t!on.

?Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' the Dharma !s /!thout ta!nt and *ree o* de*!lement. ;e /ho !s atta+hed to anyth!n"' e)en to l!berat!on' !s not !nterested !n the Dharma but !s !nterested !n the ta!nt o* des!re. The Dharma !s not an ob8e+t. ;e /ho ursues ob8e+ts !s not !nterested !n the Dharma but !s !nterested !n ob8e+ts. The Dharma !s /!thout a++e tan+e or re8e+t!on. ;e /ho holds on to th!n"s or lets "o o* th!n"s !s not !nterested !n the Dharma but !s !nterested !n hold!n" and lett!n" "o. The Dharma !s not a se+ure re*u"e. ;e /ho en8oys a se+ure re*u"e !s not !nterested !n the Dharma but !s !nterested !n a se+ure re*u"e. The Dharma !s /!thout s!"n. ;e /hose +ons+!ousness ursues s!"ns !s not !nterested !n the Dharma but !s !nterested !n s!"ns. The Dharma !s not a so+!ety. ;e /ho see.s to asso+!ate /!th the Dharma !s not !nterested !n the Dharma but !s !nterested !n asso+!at!on. The Dharma !s not a s!"ht' a sound' a +ate"ory' or an !dea. ;e /ho !s !n)ol)ed !n s!"hts' sounds' +ate"or!es' and !deas !s not !nterested !n the Dharma but !s !nterested !n s!"hts' sounds' +ate"or!es' and !deas. Re)erend Sar! utra' the Dharma !s *ree o* +om ounded th!n"s and un+om ounded th!n"s. ;e /ho adheres to +om ounded th!n"s and un+om ounded th!n"s !s not !nterested !n the Dharma but !s !nterested !n adher!n" to +om ounded th!n"s and un+om ounded th!n"s. ?Thereu on' re)erend Sar! utra' !* you are !nterested !n the Dharma' you should ta.e no !nterest !n anyth!n".? 4hen V!mala.!rt! had s o.en th!s d!s+ourse' *!)e hundred "ods obta!ned the ur!ty o* the Dharma-eye !n )!e/!n" all th!n"s. Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to the +ro/n r!n+e' Man8usr!' ?Man8usr!' you ha)e already been !n !nnumerable hundreds o* thousands o* buddha-*!elds throu"hout the un!)erses o* the ten d!re+t!ons. In /h!+h buddha-*!eld d!d you see the best l!on-thrones /!th the *!nest 6ual!t!es>? Man8usr! re l!ed' ?Noble s!r' !* one +rosses the buddha-*!elds to the east' /h!+h are more numerous than all the "ra!ns o* sand o* th!rtyt/o 2an"es r!)ers' one /!ll d!s+o)er a un!)erse +alled Merudh)a8a. There d/ells a Tatha"ata +alled Meru rad! ara8a. ;!s body measures e!"hty-*our hundred thousand lea"ues !n he!"ht' and the he!"ht o* h!s throne !s s!1ty-e!"ht hundred thousand lea"ues. The bodh!satt)as there are *orty-t/o hundred thousand lea"ues tall and the!r o/n thrones are

th!rty-*our hundred thousand lea"ues h!"h. Noble s!r' the *!nest and most su erb thrones e1!st !n that un!)erse Merudh)a8a' /h!+h !s the buddha-*!eld o* the Tatha"ata Meru rad! ara8a.? At that moment' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ha)!n" *o+used h!msel* !n +on+entrat!on' er*ormed a m!ra+ulous *eat su+h that the Lord Tatha"ata Meru rad! ara8a' !n the un!)erse Merudh)a8a' sent to th!s un!)erse th!rty-t/o hundred thousand thrones. These thrones /ere so tall' s a+!ous' and beaut!*ul that the bodh!satt)as' "reat d!s+! les' Sa.ras' ,rahmas' Lo.a alas' and other "ods had ne)er be*ore seen the l!.e. The thrones des+ended *rom the s.y and +ame to rest !n the house o* the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!. The th!rty-t/o hundred thousand thrones arran"ed themsel)es /!thout +ro/d!n" and the house seemed to enlar"e !tsel* a++ord!n"ly. The "reat +!ty o* Va!sal! d!d not be+ome obs+ured: ne!ther d!d the land o* 5ambud)! a' nor the /orld o* *our +ont!nents. E)eryth!n" else a eared 8ust as !t /as be*ore. Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to the youn" r!n+e Man8usr!' ?Man8usr!' let the bodh!satt)as be seated on these thrones' ha)!n" trans*ormed the!r bod!es to a su!table s!7e=? Then' those bodh!satt)as /ho had atta!ned the su er.no/led"es trans*ormed the!r bod!es to a he!"ht o* *orty-t/o hundred thousand lea"ues and sat u on the thrones. ,ut the be"!nner bodh!satt)as /ere not able to trans*orm themsel)es to s!t u on the thrones. Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! tau"ht these be"!nner bodh!satt)as a tea+h!n" that enabled them to atta!n the *!)e su er.no/led"es' and' ha)!n" atta!ned them' they trans*ormed the!r bod!es to a he!"ht o* *orty-t/o hundred thousand lea"ues and sat u on the thrones. ,ut st!ll the "reat d!s+! les /ere not able to seat themsel)es u on the thrones. The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to the )enerable Sar! utra' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' ta.e your seat u on a throne.? ;e re l!ed' ?2ood s!r' the thrones are too b!" and too h!"h' and I +annot s!t u on them.? V!mala.!rt! sa!d' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' bo/ do/n to the Tatha"ata

Meru rad! ara8a' and you /!ll be able to ta.e your seat.? Then' the "reat d!s+! les bo/ed do/n to the Meru rad! ara8a and they /ere seated u on the thrones. Tatha"ata

Then' the )enerable Sar! utra sa!d to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ?Noble s!r' !t !s aston!sh!n" that these thousands o* thrones' so b!" and so h!"h' should *!t !nto su+h a small house and that the "reat +!ty o* Va!sal!' the )!lla"es' +!t!es' .!n"doms' +a !tals o* 5ambud)! a' the other three +ont!nents' the abodes o* the "ods' the na"as' the ya.sas' the "andhar)as' the asuras' the "arudas' the .!mnaras' and the mahora"as - that all o* these should a ear /!thout any obsta+le' 8ust as they /ere be*ore=? The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' *or the Tatha"atas and the bodh!satt)as' there !s a l!berat!on +alled 3In+on+e!)able.3 The bodh!satt)a /ho l!)es !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on +an ut the .!n" o* mounta!ns' Sumeru' /h!+h !s so h!"h' so "reat' so noble' and so )ast' !nto a mustard seed. ;e +an er*orm th!s *eat /!thout enlar"!n" the mustard seed and /!thout shr!n.!n" Mount Sumeru. And the de!t!es o* the assembly o* the *our Mahara8as and o* the Trayastr!msa hea)ens do not e)en .no/ /here they are. 0nly those be!n"s /ho are dest!ned to be d!s+! l!ned by m!ra+les see and understand the utt!n" o* the .!n" o* mounta!ns' Sumeru' !nto the mustard seed. That' re)erend Sar! utra' !s an entran+e to the doma!n o* the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on o* the bodh!satt)as. ?Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' the bodh!satt)a /ho l!)es !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on +an our !nto a s!n"le ore o* h!s s.!n all the /aters o* the *our "reat o+eans' /!thout !n8ur!n" the /ater-an!mals su+h as *!sh' torto!ses' +ro+od!les' *ro"s' and other +reatures' and /!thout the na"as' ya.sas' "andhar)as' and asuras e)en be!n" a/are o* /here they are. And the /hole o erat!on !s )!s!ble /!thout any !n8ury or d!sturban+e to any o* those l!)!n" be!n"s. ?Su+h a bodh!satt)a +an !+. u /!th h!s r!"ht hand th!s b!ll!on-/orld"ala+t!+ un!)erse as !* !t /ere a otter3s /heel and' s !nn!n" !t round'

thro/ !t beyond un!)erses as numerous as the sands o* the 2an"es' /!thout the l!)!n" be!n"s there!n .no/!n" the!r mot!on or !ts or!"!n' and he +an +at+h !t and ut !t ba+. !n !ts la+e' /!thout the l!)!n" be!n"s sus e+t!n" the!r +om!n" and "o!n": and yet the /hole o erat!on !s )!s!ble. ?Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' there are be!n"s /ho be+ome d!s+! l!ned a*ter an !mmense er!od o* e)olut!on' and there are also those /ho are d!s+! l!ned a*ter a short er!od o* e)olut!on. The bodh!satt)a /ho l!)es !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on' *or the sa.e o* d!s+! l!n!n" those l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are d!s+! l!ned throu"h !mmeasurable er!ods o* e)olut!on' +an ma.e the ass!n" o* a /ee. seem l!.e the ass!n" o* an aeon' and he +an ma.e the ass!n" o* an aeon seem l!.e the ass!n" o* a /ee. *or those /ho are d!s+! l!ned throu"h a short er!od o* e)olut!on. The l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are d!s+! l!ned throu"h an !mmeasurable er!od o* e)olut!on a+tually er+e!)e a /ee. to be the ass!n" o* an aeon' and those d!s+! l!ned by a short er!od o* e)olut!on a+tually er+e!)e an aeon to be the ass!n" o* a /ee.. ?Thus' a bodh!satt)a /ho l!)es !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on +an man!*est all the s lendors o* the )!rtues o* all the buddha-*!elds /!th!n a s!n"le buddha-*!eld. L!.e/!se' he +an la+e all l!)!n" be!n"s !n the alm o* h!s r!"ht hand and +an sho/ them /!th the su ernatural s eed o* thou"ht all the buddha-*!elds /!thout e)er lea)!n" h!s o/n buddha*!eld. ;e +an d!s lay !n a s!n"le ore all the o**er!n"s e)er o**ered to all the ,uddhas o* the ten d!re+t!ons' and the orbs o* all the suns' moons' and stars o* the ten d!re+t!ons. ;e +an !nhale all the hurr!+anes o* the +osm!+ /!nd-atmos heres o* the ten d!re+t!ons !nto h!s mouth /!thout harm!n" h!s o/n body and /!thout lett!n" the *orests and the "rasses o* the buddha-*!elds be *lattened. ;e +an ta.e all the masses o* *!re o* all the su erno)as that ult!mately +onsume all the un!)erses o* all the buddha-*!elds !nto h!s stoma+h /!thout !nter*er!n" /!th the!r *un+t!ons. ;a)!n" +rossed buddha-*!elds as numerous as the sands o* the 2an"es do/n/ard' and ha)!n" ta.en u a buddha-*!eld' he +an r!se u throu"h buddha-*!elds as numerous as the sands o* the 2an"es and la+e !t on h!"h' 8ust as a stron" man may !+. u a 8u8ube lea* on the o!nt o* a needle. ?Thus' a bodh!satt)a /ho l!)es !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on +an ma"!+ally trans*orm any .!nd o* l!)!n" be!n" !nto a un!)ersal

monar+h' a Lo.a ala' a Sa.ra' a ,rahma' a d!s+! le' a sol!tary sa"e' a bodh!satt)a' and e)en !nto a ,uddha. The bodh!satt)a +an trans*orm m!ra+ulously all the +r!es and no!ses' su er!or' med!o+re' and !n*er!or' o* all l!)!n" be!n"s o* the ten d!re+t!ons' !nto the )o!+e o* the ,uddha' /!th the /ords o* the ,uddha' the Dharma' and the San"ha' ha)!n" them ro+la!m' 3Im ermanent= M!serable= Em ty= Sel*less=3 And he +an +ause them to re+!te the /ords and sounds o* all the tea+h!n"s tau"ht by all the ,uddhas o* the ten d!re+t!ons. ?Re)erend Sar! utra' I ha)e sho/n you only a small art o* the entran+e !nto the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a /ho l!)es !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on. Re)erend Sar! utra' to e1 la!n to you the tea+h!n" o* the *ull entran+e !nto the doma!n o* the bodh!satt)a /ho l!)es !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on /ould re6u!re more than an aeon' and e)en more than that.? Then' the atr!ar+h Maha.asya a' ha)!n" heard th!s tea+h!n" o* the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on o* the bodh!satt)as' /as ama7ed' and he sa!d to the )enerable Sar! utra' ?Venerable Sar! utra' !* one /ere to sho/ a )ar!ety o* th!n"s to a erson bl!nd *rom b!rth' he /ould not be able to see a s!n"le th!n". L!.e/!se' )enerable Sar! utra' /hen th!s door o* the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on !s tau"ht' all the d!s+! les and sol!tary sa"es are s!"htless' l!.e the man bl!nd *rom b!rth' and +annot +om rehend e)en a s!n"le +ause o* the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on. 4ho !s there amon" the /!se /ho' hear!n" about th!s !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on' does not +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment> As *or us' /hose *a+ult!es are deter!orated' l!.e a burned and rotten seed' /hat else +an /e do !* /e do not be+ome re+e t!)e to th!s "reat )eh!+le> 4e' all the d!s+! les and sol!tary sa"es' u on hear!n" th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma' should utter a +ry o* re"ret that /ould sha.e th!s b!ll!on-/orld-"ala+t!+ un!)erse= And as *or the bodh!satt)as' /hen they hear o* th!s !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on they should be as 8oy*ul as a youn" +ro/n r!n+e /hen he ta.es the d!adem and !s ano!nted' and they should !n+rease to the utmost the!r de)ot!on to th!s !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on. Indeed' /hat +ould the ent!re host o* Maras e)er do to one /ho !s de)oted to th!s !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on>? 4hen the atr!ar+h Maha.asya a had uttered th!s d!s+ourse' th!rtyt/o thousand "ods +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment.

Then the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to the atr!ar+h Maha.asya a' ?Re)erend Maha.asya a' the Maras /ho lay the de)!l !n the !nnumerable un!)erses o* the ten d!re+t!ons are all bodh!satt)as d/ell!n" !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on' /ho are lay!n" the de)!l !n order to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s throu"h the!r s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue. Re)erend Maha.asya a' all the m!serable be""ars /ho +ome to the bodh!satt)as o* the !nnumerable un!)erses o* the ten d!re+t!ons to as. *or a hand' a *oot' an ear' a nose' some blood' mus+les' bones' marro/' an eye' a torso' a head' a l!mb' a member' a throne' a .!n"dom' a +ountry' a /!*e' a son' a dau"hter' a sla)e' a sla)e-"!rl' a horse' an ele hant' a +har!ot' a +art' "old' s!l)er' 8e/els' earls' +on+hes' +rystal' +oral' beryl' treasures' *ood' dr!n.' el!1!rs' and +lothes - these demand!n" be""ars are usually bodh!satt)as l!)!n" !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on /ho' throu"h the!r s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue' /!sh to test and thus demonstrate the *!rmness o* the h!"h resol)e o* the bodh!satt)as. 4hy> Re)erend Maha.asya a' the bodh!satt)as demonstrate that *!rmness by means o* terr!ble auster!t!es. 0rd!nary ersons ha)e no o/er to be thus demand!n" o* bodh!satt)as' unless they are "ranted the o ortun!ty. They are not +a able o* .!ll!n" and de r!)!n" !n that manner /!thout be!n" *reely "!)en the +han+e. ?Re)erend Maha.asya a' 8ust as a "lo//orm +annot e+l! se the l!"ht o* the sun' so re)erend Maha.asya a' !t !s not oss!ble /!thout s e+!al allo/an+e that an ord!nary erson +an thus atta+. and de r!)e a bodh!satt)a. Re)erend Maha.asya a' 8ust as a don.ey +ould not muster an atta+. on a /!ld ele hant' e)en so' re)erend Maha.asya a' one /ho !s not h!msel* a bodh!satt)a +annot harass another bodh!satt)a' and only a bodh!satt)a +an tolerate the harassment o* another bodh!satt)a. Re)erend Maha.asya a' su+h !s the !ntrodu+t!on to the o/er o* the .no/led"e o* l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue o* the bodh!satt)as /ho l!)e !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on.?

%. The 2oddess Thereu on' Man8usr!' the +ro/n r!n+e' addressed the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!9 ?2ood s!r' ho/ should a bodh!satt)a re"ard all l!)!n" be!n"s>?

V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' ?Man8usr!' a bodh!satt)a should re"ard all l!)!n"s be!n"s as a /!se man re"ards the re*le+t!on o* the moon !n /ater or as ma"!+!ans re"ard men +reated by ma"!+. ;e should re"ard them as be!n" l!.e a *a+e !n a m!rror: l!.e the /ater o* a m!ra"e: l!.e the sound o* an e+ho: l!.e a mass o* +louds !n the s.y: l!.e the re)!ous moment o* a ball o* *oam: l!.e the a earan+e and d!sa earan+e o* a bubble o* /ater: l!.e the +ore o* a lanta!n tree: l!.e a *lash o* l!"htn!n": l!.e the *!*th "reat element: l!.e the se)enth sense-med!um: l!.e the a earan+e o* matter !n an !mmater!al realm: l!.e a s rout *rom a rotten seed: l!.e a torto!se-ha!r +oat: l!.e the *un o* "ames *or one /ho /!shes to d!e: l!.e the e"o!st!+ )!e/s o* a stream-/!nner: l!.e a th!rd reb!rth o* a on+e-returner: l!.e the des+ent o* a nonreturner !nto a /omb: l!.e the e1!sten+e o* des!re' hatred' and *olly !n a sa!nt: l!.e thou"hts o* a)ar!+e' !mmoral!ty' /!+.edness' and host!l!ty !n a bodh!satt)a /ho has atta!ned toleran+e: l!.e the !nst!n+ts o* ass!ons !n a Tatha"ata: l!.e the er+e t!on o* +olor !n one bl!nd *rom b!rth: l!.e the !nhalat!on and e1halat!on o* an as+et!+ absorbed !n the med!tat!on o* +essat!on: l!.e the tra+. o* a b!rd !n the s.y: l!.e the ere+t!on o* a eunu+h: l!.e the re"nan+y o* a barren /oman: l!.e the un rodu+ed ass!ons o* an emanated !n+arnat!on o* the Tatha"ata: l!.e dream)!s!ons seen a*ter /a.!n": l!.e the ass!ons o* one /ho !s *ree o* +on+e tual!7at!ons: l!.e *!re burn!n" /!thout *uel: l!.e the re!n+arnat!on o* one /ho has atta!ned ult!mate l!berat!on. ?(re+!sely thus' Man8usr!' does a bodh!satt)a /ho real!7es the ult!mate sel*lessness +ons!der all be!n"s.? Man8usr! then as.ed *urther' ?Noble s!r' !* a bodh!satt)a +ons!ders all l!)!n" be!n"s !n su+h a /ay' ho/ does he "enerate the "reat lo)e to/ard them>? V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' ?Man8usr!' /hen a bodh!satt)a +ons!ders all l!)!n" be!n"s !n th!s /ay' he th!n.s9 35ust as I ha)e real!7ed the Dharma' so should I tea+h !t to l!)!n" be!n"s.3 Thereby' he "enerates the lo)e that !s truly a re*u"e *or all l!)!n" be!n"s: the lo)e that !s ea+e*ul be+ause *ree o* "ras !n": the lo)e that !s not *e)er!sh' be+ause *ree o* ass!ons: the lo)e that a++ords /!th real!ty be+ause !t !s e6uan!mous !n all three t!mes: the lo)e that !s /!thout +on*l!+t be+ause *ree o* the )!olen+e o* the ass!ons: the lo)e that !s nondual be+ause !t !s !n)ol)ed ne!ther

/!th the e1ternal nor /!th the !nternal: the lo)e that !s !m erturbable be+ause totally ult!mate. ?Thereby he "enerates the lo)e that !s *!rm' !ts h!"h resol)e unbrea.able' l!.e a d!amond: the lo)e that !s ure' ur!*!ed !n !ts !ntr!ns!+ nature: the lo)e that !s e)en' !ts as !rat!ons be!n" e6ual: the sa!nt3s lo)e that has el!m!nated !ts enemy: the bodh!satt)a3s lo)e that +ont!nuously de)elo s l!)!n" be!n"s: The Tatha"ata3s lo)e that understands real!ty: the ,uddha3s lo)e that +auses l!)!n" be!n"s to a/a.en *rom the!r slee : the lo)e that !s s ontaneous be+ause !t !s *ully enl!"htened s ontaneously: the lo)e that !s enl!"htenment be+ause !t !s un!ty o* e1 er!en+e: the lo)e that has no resum t!on be+ause !t has el!m!nated atta+hment and a)ers!on: the lo)e that !s "reat +om ass!on be+ause !t !n*uses the Mahayana /!th rad!an+e: the lo)e that !s ne)er e1hausted be+ause !t a+.no/led"es )o!dness and sel*lessness: the lo)e that !s "!)!n" be+ause !t besto/s the "!*t o* Dharma *ree o* the t!"ht *!st o* a bad tea+her: the lo)e that !s moral!ty be+ause !t !m ro)es !mmoral l!)!n" be!n"s: the lo)e that !s toleran+e be+ause !t rote+ts both sel* and others: the lo)e that !s e**ort be+ause !t ta.es res ons!b!l!ty *or all l!)!n" be!n"s: the lo)e that !s +ontem lat!on be+ause !t re*ra!ns *rom !ndul"en+e !n tastes: the lo)e that !s /!sdom be+ause !t +auses atta!nment at the ro er t!me: the lo)e that !s l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue be+ause !t sho/s the /ay e)ery/here: the lo)e that !s /!thout *ormal!ty be+ause !t !s ure !n mot!)at!on: the lo)e that !s /!thout de)!at!on be+ause !t a+ts *rom de+!s!)e mot!)at!on: the lo)e that !s h!"h resol)e be+ause !t !s /!thout ass!ons: the lo)e that !s /!thout de+e!t be+ause !t !s not art!*!+!al: the lo)e that !s ha !ness be+ause !t !ntrodu+es l!)!n" be!n"s to the ha !ness o* the ,uddha. Su+h' Man8usr!' !s the "reat lo)e o* a bodh!satt)a.? Man8usr!9 4hat !s the "reat +om ass!on o* a bodh!satt)a> V!mala.!rt!9 It !s the "!)!n" o* all a++umulated roots o* )!rtue to all l!)!n" be!n"s. Man8usr!9 4hat !s the "reat 8oy o* the bodh!satt)a> V!mala.!rt!9 It !s to be 8oy*ul and /!thout re"ret !n "!)!n".

Man8usr!9 4hat !s the e6uan!m!ty o* the bodh!satt)a> V!mala.!rt!9 It !s /hat bene*!ts both sel* and others. Man8usr!9 To /hat should one resort /hen terr!*!ed by *ear o* l!*e> V!mala.!rt!9 Man8usr!' a bodh!satt)a /ho !s terr!*!ed by *ear o* l!*e should resort to the ma"nan!m!ty o* the ,uddha. Man8usr!9 4here should he /ho /!shes to resort to the ma"nan!m!ty o* the ,uddha ta.e h!s stand> V!mala.!rt!9 ;e should stand !n e6uan!m!ty to/ard all l!)!n" be!n"s. Man8usr!9 4here should he /ho /!shes to stand !n e6uan!m!ty to/ard all l!)!n" be!n"s ta.e h!s stand> V!mala.!rt!9 ;e should l!)e *or the l!berat!on o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. Man8usr!9 4hat should he /ho /!shes to l!berate all l!)!n" be!n"s do> V!mala.!rt!9 ;e should l!berate them *rom the!r ass!ons. Man8usr!9 ;o/ should he /ho /!shes to el!m!nate ass!ons a ly h!msel*> V!mala.!rt!9 ;e should a ly h!msel* a ro r!ately.

Man8usr!9 ;o/ should he a ly h!msel*' to ?a ly h!msel* a ro r!ately?>

V!mala.!rt!9 ;e should a ly h!msel* to rodu+t!onlessness and to destru+t!onlessness. Man8usr!9 4hat !s not rodu+ed> And /hat !s not destroyed> V!mala.!rt!9 E)!l !s not rodu+ed and "ood !s not destroyed. Man8usr!9 4hat !s the root o* "ood and e)!l> V!mala.!rt!9 Mater!al!ty !s the root o* "ood and e)!l. Man8usr!9 4hat !s the root o* mater!al!ty> V!mala.!rt!9 Des!re !s the root o* mater!al!ty. Man8usr!9 4hat !s the root o* des!re and atta+hment> V!mala.!rt!9 Unreal +onstru+t!on !s the root o* des!re. Man8usr!9 4hat !s the root o* unreal +onstru+t!on> V!mala.!rt!9 The *alse +on+e t !s !ts root. Man8usr!9 4hat !s the root o* the *alse +on+e t> V!mala.!rt!9 ,aselessness. Man8usr!9 4hat !t the root o* baselessness>

V!mala.!rt!9 Man8usr!' /hen someth!n" !s baseless' ho/ +an !t ha)e any root> There*ore' all th!n"s stand on the root /h!+h !s baseless. Thereu on' a +erta!n "oddess /ho l!)ed !n that house' ha)!n" heard th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma o* the "reat hero!+ bodh!satt)as' and be!n" del!"hted' leased' and o)er8oyed' man!*ested hersel* !n a mater!al body and sho/ered the "reat s !r!tual heroes' the bodh!satt)as' and the "reat d!s+! les /!th hea)enly *lo/ers. 4hen the *lo/ers *ell on the bod!es o* the bodh!satt)as' they *ell o** on the *loor' but /hen they *ell on the bod!es o* the "reat d!s+! les' they stu+. to them and d!d not *all. The "reat d!s+! les shoo. the *lo/ers and e)en tr!ed to use the!r ma"!+al o/ers' but st!ll the *lo/ers /ould not sha.e o**. Then' the "oddess sa!d to the )enerable Sar! utra' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' /hy do you sha.e these *lo/ers>? Sar! utra re l!ed' ?2oddess' these *lo/ers are not ro er *or rel!"!ous ersons and so /e are try!n" to sha.e them o**.? The "oddess sa!d' ?Do not say that' re)erend Sar! utra. 4hy> These *lo/ers are ro er !ndeed= 4hy> Su+h *lo/ers ha)e ne!ther +onstru+tual thou"ht nor d!s+r!m!nat!on. ,ut the elder Sar! utra has both +onstru+tual thou"ht and d!s+r!m!nat!on. ?Re)erend Sar! utra' !m ro r!ety *or one /ho has renoun+ed the /orld *or the d!s+! l!ne o* the r!"htly tau"ht Dharma +ons!sts o* +onstru+tual thou"ht and d!s+r!m!nat!on' yet the elders are *ull o* su+h thou"hts. 0ne /ho !s /!thout su+h thou"hts !s al/ays ro er. ?Re)erend Sar! utra' see ho/ these *lo/ers do not st!+. to the bod!es o* these "reat s !r!tual heroes' the bodh!satt)as= Th!s !s be+ause they ha)e el!m!nated +onstru+tual thou"hts and d!s+r!m!nat!ons. ?For e1am le' e)!l s !r!ts ha)e o/er o)er *ear*ul men but +annot d!sturb the *earless. L!.e/!se' those !nt!m!dated by *ear o* the /orld are !n the o/er o* *orms' sounds' smells' tastes' and te1tures' /h!+h do not d!sturb those /ho are *ree *rom *ear o* the ass!ons !nherent !n the +onstru+t!)e /orld. Thus' these *lo/ers st!+. to the bod!es o* those /ho ha)e not el!m!nated the!r !nst!n+ts *or the ass!ons and do not

st!+. to the bod!es o* those /ho ha)e el!m!nated the!r !nst!n+ts. There*ore' the *lo/ers do not st!+. to the bod!es o* these bodh!satt)as' /ho ha)e abandoned all !nst!n+ts.? Then the )enerable Sar! utra sa!d to the "oddess' ?2oddess' ho/ lon" ha)e you been !n th!s house>? The "oddess re l!ed' ?I ha)e been here as lon" as the elder has been !n l!berat!on.? Sar! utra sa!d' ?Then' ha)e you been !n th!s house *or 6u!te some t!me>? The "oddess sa!d' ?;as the elder been !n l!berat!on *or 6u!te some t!me>? At that' the elder Sar! utra *ell s!lent. The "oddess +ont!nued' ?Elder' you are 3*oremost o* the /!se=3 4hy do you not s ea.> No/' /hen !t !s your turn' you do not ans/er the 6uest!on.? Sar! utra9 S!n+e l!berat!on !s !ne1 ress!ble' "oddess' I do not .no/ /hat to say. 2oddess9 All the syllables ronoun+ed by the elder ha)e the nature o* l!berat!on. 4hy> L!berat!on !s ne!ther !nternal nor e1ternal' nor +an !t be a rehended a art *rom them. L!.e/!se' syllables are ne!ther !nternal nor e1ternal' nor +an they be a rehended any/here else. There*ore' re)erend Sar! utra' do not o!nt to l!berat!on by abandon!n" s ee+h= 4hy> The holy l!berat!on !s the e6ual!ty o* all th!n"s= Sar! utra9 2oddess' !s not l!berat!on the *reedom *rom des!re' hatred' and *olly>

2oddess9 ?L!berat!on !s *reedom *rom des!re' hatred' and *olly? that !s the tea+h!n" o* the e1+ess!)ely roud. ,ut those *ree o* r!de are tau"ht that the )ery nature o* des!re' hatred' and *olly !s !tsel* l!berat!on. Sar! utra9 E1+ellent= E1+ellent' "oddess= (ray' /hat ha)e you atta!ned' /hat ha)e you real!7ed' that you ha)e su+h elo6uen+e> 2oddess9 I ha)e atta!ned noth!n"' re)erend Sar! utra. I ha)e no real!7at!on. There*ore I ha)e su+h elo6uen+e. 4hoe)er th!n.s' ?I ha)e atta!ned= I ha)e real!7ed=? !s o)erly roud !n the d!s+! l!ne o* the /elltau"ht Dharma. Sar! utra9 2oddess' do you belon" to the d!s+! le-)eh!+le' to the sol!tary-)eh!+le' or to the "reat )eh!+le> 2oddess9 I belon" to the d!s+! le-)eh!+le /hen I tea+h !t to those /ho need !t. I belon" to the sol!tary-)eh!+le /hen I tea+h the t/el)e l!n.s o* de endent or!"!nat!on to those /ho need them. And' s!n+e I ne)er abandon the "reat +om ass!on' I belon" to the "reat )eh!+le' as all need that tea+h!n" to atta!n ult!mate l!berat!on. Ne)ertheless' re)erend Sar! utra' 8ust as one +annot smell the +astor lant !n a ma"nol!a /ood' but only the ma"nol!a *lo/ers' so' re)erend Sar! utra' l!)!n" !n th!s house' /h!+h !s redolent /!th the er*ume o* the )!rtues o* the ,uddha-6ual!t!es' one does not smell the er*ume o* the d!s+! les and the sol!tary sa"es. Re)erend Sar! utra' the Sa.ras' the ,rahmas' the Lo.a alas' the de)as' na"as' ya.sas' "andhar)as' asuras' "arudas' .!mnaras' and mahora"as /ho l!)e !n th!s house hear the Dharma *rom the mouth o* th!s holy man and' ent!+ed by the er*ume o* the )!rtues o* the ,uddha-6ual!t!es' ro+eed to +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment. Re)erend Sar! utra' I ha)e been !n th!s house *or t/el)e years' and I ha)e heard no d!s+ourses +on+ern!n" the d!s+! les and sol!tary sa"es but ha)e heard only those +on+ern!n" the "reat lo)e' the "reat

+om ass!on' and the !n+on+e!)able 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha. Re)erend Sar! utra' e!"ht stran"e and /onder*ul th!n"s man!*est themsel)es +onstantly !n th!s house. 4hat are these e!"ht> A l!"ht o* "olden hue sh!nes here +onstantly' so br!"ht that !t !s hard to d!st!n"u!sh day and n!"ht: and ne!ther the moon nor the sun sh!nes here d!st!n+tly. That !s the *!rst /onder o* th!s house. Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' /hoe)er enters th!s house !s no lon"er troubled by h!s ass!ons *rom the moment he !s /!th!n. That !s the se+ond stran"e and /onder*ul th!n". Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' th!s house !s ne)er *orsa.en by Sa.ra' ,rahma' the Lo.a alas' and the bodh!satt)as *rom all the other buddha-*!elds. That !s the th!rd stran"e and /onder*ul th!n". Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' th!s house !s ne)er em ty o* the sounds o* the Dharma' the d!s+ourse on the s!1 trans+enden+es' and the d!s+ourses o* the !rre)ers!ble /heel o* the Dharma. That !s the *ourth stran"e and /onder*ul th!n". Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' !n th!s house one al/ays hears the rhythms' son"s' and mus!+ o* "ods and men' and *rom th!s mus!+ +onstantly resounds the sound o* the !n*!n!te Dharma o* the ,uddha. That !s the *!*th stran"e and /onder*ul th!n". Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' !n th!s house there are al/ays *our !ne1haust!ble treasures' re lete /!th all .!nds o* 8e/els' /h!+h ne)er de+rease' althou"h all the oor and /ret+hed may arta.e to the!r sat!s*a+t!on. That !s the s!1th stran"e and /onder*ul th!n". Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' at the /!sh o* th!s "ood man' to th!s house +ome the !nnumerable Tatha"atas o* the ten d!re+t!ons' su+h as the Tatha"atas Sa.yamun!' Am!tabha' A.sobhya' Ratnasr!' Ratnar+!s' Ratna+andra' Ratna)yuha' Dus rasaha' Sar)arthas!ddha' Ratnabahula'

S!mha.!rt!' S!mhas)ara' and so *orth: and /hen they +ome they tea+h the door o* Dharma +alled the ?Se+rets o* the Tatha"atas? and then de art. That !s the se)enth stran"e and /onder*ul th!n". Furthermore' re)erend Sar! utra' all the s lendors o* the abodes o* the "ods and all the s lendors o* the *!elds o* the ,uddhas sh!ne *orth !n th!s house. That !s the e!"hth stran"e and /onder*ul th!n". Re)erend Sar! utra' these e!"ht stran"e and /onder*ul th!n"s are seen !n th!s house. 4ho then' see!n" su+h !n+on+e!)able th!n"s' /ould bel!e)e the tea+h!n" o* the d!s+! les> Sar! utra9 2oddess' /hat re)ents you *rom trans*orm!n" yoursel* out o* your *emale state> 2oddess9 Althou"h I ha)e sou"ht my ?*emale state? *or these t/el)e years' I ha)e not yet *ound !t. Re)erend Sar! utra' !* a ma"!+!an /ere to !n+arnate a /oman by ma"!+' /ould you as. her' ?4hat re)ents you *rom trans*orm!n" yoursel* out o* your *emale state>? Sar! utra9 No= Su+h a /oman /ould not really e1!st' so /hat /ould there be to trans*orm> 2oddess9 5ust so' re)erend Sar! utra' all th!n"s do not really e1!st. No/' /ould you th!n.' ?4hat re)ents one /hose nature !s that o* a ma"!+al !n+arnat!on *rom trans*orm!n" hersel* out o* her *emale state>? Thereu on' the "oddess em loyed her ma"!+al o/er to +ause the elder Sar! utra to a ear !n her *orm and to +ause hersel* to a ear !n h!s *orm. Then the "oddess' trans*ormed !nto Sar! utra' sa!d to Sar! utra' trans*ormed !nto a "oddess' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' /hat re)ents you *rom trans*orm!n" yoursel* out o* your *emale state>? And Sar! utra' trans*ormed !nto the "oddess' re l!ed' ?I no lon"er a ear !n the *orm o* a male= My body has +han"ed !nto the body o* a

/oman= I do not .no/ /hat to trans*orm=? The "oddess +ont!nued' ?I* the elder +ould a"a!n +han"e out o* the *emale state' then all /omen +ould also +han"e out o* the!r *emale states. All /omen a ear !n the *orm o* /omen !n 8ust the same /ay as the elder a ears !n the *orm o* a /oman. 4h!le they are not /omen !n real!ty' they a ear !n the *orm o* /omen. 4!th th!s !n m!nd' the ,uddha sa!d' 3In all th!n"s' there !s ne!ther male nor *emale.3? Then' the "oddess released her ma"!+al o/er and ea+h returned to h!s ord!nary *orm. She then sa!d to h!m' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' /hat ha)e you done /!th your *emale *orm>? Sar! utra9 I ne!ther made !t nor d!d I +han"e !t. 2oddess9 5ust so' all th!n"s are ne!ther made nor +han"ed' and that they are not made and not +han"ed' that !s the tea+h!n" o* the ,uddha. Sar! utra9 2oddess' /here /!ll you be born /hen you transm!"rate a*ter death> 2oddess9 I /!ll be born /here all the ma"!+al !n+arnat!ons o* the Tatha"ata are born. Sar! utra9 ,ut the emanated !n+arnat!ons o* the Tatha"ata do not transm!"rate nor are they born. 2oddess9 All th!n"s and l!)!n" be!n"s are 8ust the same: they do not transm!"rate nor are they born= Sar! utra9 2oddess' ho/ soon /!ll you atta!n the enl!"htenment o* ,uddhahood> er*e+t

2oddess9 At su+h t!me as you' elder' be+ome endo/ed on+e more /!th the 6ual!t!es o* an ord!nary !nd!)!dual' then /!ll I atta!n the er*e+t enl!"htenment o* ,uddhahood. Sar! utra9 2oddess' !t !s !m oss!ble that I should be+ome endo/ed on+e more /!th the 6ual!t!es o* an ord!nary !nd!)!dual. 2oddess9 5ust so' re)erend Sar! utra' !t !s !m oss!ble that I should atta!n the er*e+t enl!"htenment o* ,uddhahood= 4hy> ,e+ause er*e+t enl!"htenment stands u on the !m oss!ble. ,e+ause !t !s !m oss!ble' no one atta!ns the er*e+t enl!"htenment o* ,uddhahood. Sar! utra9 ,ut the Tatha"ata has de+lared9 ?The Tatha"atas' /ho are as numerous as the sands o* the 2an"es' ha)e atta!ned er*e+t ,uddhahood' are atta!n!n" er*e+t ,uddhahood' and /!ll "o on atta!n!n" er*e+t ,uddhahood.? 2oddess9 Re)erend Sar! utra' the e1 ress!on' ?the ,uddhas o* the ast' resent and *uture'? !s a +on)ent!onal e1 ress!on made u o* a +erta!n number o* syllables. The ,uddhas are ne!ther ast' nor resent' nor *uture. The!r enl!"htenment trans+ends the three t!mes= ,ut tell me' elder' ha)e you atta!ned sa!nthood> Sar! utra9 It !s atta!ned' be+ause there !s no atta!nment. 2oddess9 5ust so' there !s er*e+t enl!"htenment be+ause there !s no atta!nment o* er*e+t enl!"htenment. Then the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to the )enerable elder Sar! utra' ?Re)erend Sar! utra' th!s "oddess has already ser)ed n!nety-t/o m!ll!on b!ll!on ,uddhas. She lays /!th the su er.no/led"es. She has truly su++eeded !n all her )o/s. She has "a!ned the toleran+e o* the b!rthlessness o* th!n"s. She has a+tually atta!ned !rre)ers!b!l!ty. She +an l!)e /here)er she /!shes on the stren"th o* her )o/ to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s.?

D. The Fam!ly o* the Tatha"atas Then' the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr! sa!d to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ?Noble s!r' ho/ does the bodh!satt)a *ollo/ the /ay to atta!n the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha>? V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' ?Man8usr!' /hen the bodh!satt)a *ollo/s the /ron" /ay' he *ollo/s the /ay to atta!n the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha.? Man8usr! +ont!nued' ?;o/ does the bodh!satt)a *ollo/ the /ron" /ay>? V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' ?E)en should he ena+t the *!)e deadly s!ns' he *eels no mal!+e' )!olen+e' or hate. E)en should he "o !nto the hells' he rema!ns *ree o* all ta!nt o* ass!ons. E)en should he "o !nto the states o* the an!mals' he rema!ns *ree o* dar.ness and !"noran+e. 4hen he "oes !nto the states o* the asuras' he rema!ns *ree o* r!de' +on+e!t' and arro"an+e. 4hen he "oes !nto the realm o* the lord o* death' he a++umulates the stores o* mer!t and /!sdom. 4hen he "oes !nto the states o* mot!onlessness and !mmater!al!ty' he does not d!ssol)e there!n. ?;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* des!re' yet he stays *ree o* atta+hment to the en8oyments o* des!re. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* hatred' yet he *eels no an"er to any l!)!n" be!n". ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* *olly' yet he !s e)er +ons+!ous /!th the /!sdom o* *!rm understand!n". ?;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* a)ar!+e' yet he "!)es a/ay all !nternal and e1ternal th!n"s /!thout re"ard e)en *or h!s o/n l!*e. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* !mmoral!ty' yet' see!n" the horror o* e)en the sl!"htest trans"ress!ons' he l!)es by the as+et!+ ra+t!+es and auster!t!es. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* /!+.edness and an"er' yet he rema!ns utterly *ree o* mal!+e and l!)es by lo)e. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* la7!ness' yet h!s e**orts are un!nterru ted as he str!)es !n the +ult!)at!on o* roots o* )!rtue. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* sensuous d!stra+t!on' yet'

naturally +on+entrated' h!s +ontem lat!on !s not d!ss! ated. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* *alse /!sdom' yet' ha)!n" rea+hed the trans+enden+e o* /!sdom' he !s e1 ert !n all mundane and trans+endental s+!en+es. ?;e may sho/ the /ays o* so h!stry and +ontent!on' yet he !s al/ays +ons+!ous o* ult!mate mean!n"s and has er*e+ted the use o* l!berat!)e te+hn!6ues. ;e may sho/ the /ays o* r!de' yet he ser)es as a br!d"e and a ladder *or all eo le. ;e may sho/ the /ays o* the ass!ons' yet he !s utterly d!s ass!onate and naturally ure. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* the Maras' yet he does not really a++e t the!r author!ty !n re"ard to h!s .no/led"e o* the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* the d!s+! les' yet he lets l!)!n" be!n"s hear the tea+h!n" they ha)e not heard be*ore. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* the sol!tary sa"es' yet he !s !ns !red /!th "reat +om ass!on !n order to de)elo all l!)!n" be!n"s. ?;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* the oor' yet he holds !n h!s hand a 8e/el o* !ne1haust!ble /ealth. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* +r! les' yet he !s beaut!*ul and /ell adorned /!th the aus !+!ous s!"ns and mar.s. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* those o* lo/ly b!rth' yet' throu"h h!s a++umulat!on o* the stores o* mer!t and /!sdom' he !s born !n the *am!ly o* the Tatha"atas. ;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* the /ea.' the u"ly' and the /ret+hed' yet he !s beaut!*ul to loo. u on' and h!s body !s l!.e that o* Narayana. ?;e may man!*est to l!)!n" be!n"s the /ays o* the s!+. and the unha y' yet he has ent!rely +on6uered and trans+ended the *ear o* death. ?;e may *ollo/ the /ays o* the r!+h' yet he !s /!thout a+6u!s!t!)eness and o*ten re*le+ts u on the not!on o* !m ermanen+e. ;e may sho/ h!msel* en"a"ed !n dan+!n" /!th harem "!rls' yet he +lea)es to sol!tude' ha)!n" +rossed the s/am o* des!re. ?;e *ollo/s the /ays o* the dumb and the !n+oherent' yet' ha)!n" a+6u!red the o/er o* !n+antat!ons' he !s adorned /!th a )ar!ed elo6uen+e.

?;e *ollo/s the /ays o* the heterodo1 /!thout e)er be+om!n" heterodo1. ;e *ollo/s the /ays o* all the /orld' yet he re)erses all states o* e1!sten+e. ;e *ollo/s the /ay o* l!berat!on /!thout e)er abandon!n" the ro"ress o* the /orld. ?Man8usr!' thus does the bodh!satt)a *ollo/ the /ron" /ays' thereby *ollo/!n" the /ay to the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha.? Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr!' ?Man8usr!' /hat !s the 3*am!ly o* the Tatha"atas3>? Man8usr! re l!ed' ?Noble s!r' the *am!ly o* the Tatha"atas +ons!sts o* all bas!+ e"o!sm: o* !"noran+e and the th!rst *or e1!sten+e: o* lust' hate' and *olly: o* the *our m!sa rehens!ons' o* the *!)e obs+urat!ons' o* the s!1 med!a o* sense' o* the se)en abodes o* +ons+!ousness' o* the e!"ht *alse aths' o* the n!ne +auses o* !rr!tat!on' o* the aths o* ten s!ns. Su+h !s the *am!ly o* the Tatha"atas. In short' noble s!r' the s!1tyt/o .!nds o* +on)!+t!ons +onst!tute the *am!ly o* the Tatha"atas=? V!mala.!rt!9 Man8usr!' /!th /hat !n m!nd do you say so> Man8usr!9 Noble s!r' one /ho stays !n the *!1ed determ!nat!on o* the )!s!on o* the un+reated !s not +a able o* +on+e!)!n" the s !r!t o* une1+elled er*e+t enl!"htenment. ;o/e)er' one /ho l!)es amon" +reated th!n"s' !n the m!nes o* ass!ons' /!thout see!n" any truth' !s !ndeed +a able o* +on+e!)!n" the s !r!t o* une1+elled er*e+t enl!"htenment. Noble s!r' *lo/ers l!.e the blue lotus' the red lotus' the /h!te lotus' the /ater l!ly' and the moon l!ly do not "ro/ on the dry "round !n the /!lderness' but do "ro/ !n the s/am s and mud ban.s. 5ust so' the ,uddha-6ual!t!es do not "ro/ !n l!)!n" be!n"s +erta!nly dest!ned *or the un+reated but do "ro/ !n those l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are l!.e s/am s and mud ban.s o* ass!ons. L!.e/!se' as seeds do not "ro/ !n the s.y but do "ro/ !n the earth' so the ,uddha-6ual!t!es do not "ro/ !n those determ!ned *or the absolute but do "ro/ !n those /ho +on+e!)e the

s !r!t o* enl!"htenment' a*ter ha)!n" rodu+ed a Sumeru-l!.e mounta!n o* e"o!st!+ )!e/s. Noble s!r' throu"h these +ons!derat!ons one +an understand that all ass!ons +onst!tute the *am!ly o* the Tatha"atas. For e1am le' noble s!r' /!thout "o!n" out !nto the "reat o+ean' !t !s !m oss!ble to *!nd re+!ous' r!+eless earls. L!.e/!se' /!thout "o!n" !nto the o+ean o* ass!ons' !t !s !m oss!ble to obta!n the m!nd o* omn!s+!en+e. Then' the elder Maha.asya a a lauded the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr!9 ?2ood= 2ood Man8usr!= Th!s !s !ndeed /ell s o.en= Th!s !s r!"ht= The ass!ons do !ndeed +onst!tute the *am!ly o* the Tatha"atas. ;o/ +an su+h as /e' the d!s+! les' +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment' or be+ome *ully enl!"htened !n re"ard to the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha> 0nly those "u!lty o* the *!)e deadly s!ns +an +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment and +an atta!n ,uddhahood' /h!+h !s the *ull a++om l!shment o* the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha= ?5ust as' *or e1am le' the *!)e des!re ob8e+ts ha)e no !m ress!on or e**e+t on those bere*t o* *a+ult!es' e)en so all the 6ual!t!es o* the ,uddha ha)e no !m ress!on or e**e+t on the d!s+! les' /ho ha)e abandoned all adheren+es. Thus' the d!s+! les +an ne)er a re+!ate those 6ual!t!es. ?There*ore' Man8usr!' the ord!nary !nd!)!dual !s "rate*ul to the Tatha"ata' but the d!s+! les are not "rate*ul. 4hy> The ord!nary !nd!)!duals' u on learn!n" o* the )!rtues o* the ,uddha' +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* une1+elled er*e+t enl!"htenment' !n order to !nsure the un!nterru ted +ont!nu!ty o* the her!ta"e o* the Three 5e/els: but the d!s+! les' althou"h they may hear o* the 6ual!t!es' o/ers' and *earlessnesses o* the ,uddha unt!l the end o* the!r days' are not +a able o* +on+e!)!n" the s !r!t o* une1+elled er*e+t enl!"htenment.? Thereu on' the bodh!satt)a Sar)aru asamdarsana' /ho /as resent !n that assembly' addressed the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!9 ?;ouseholder' /here are your *ather and mother' your +h!ldren' your /!*e' your ser)ants' your ma!ds' your laborers' and your attendants> 4here are your *r!ends' your relat!)es' and your .!nsmen> 4here are your ser)ants' your horses' your ele hants' your +har!ots' your body"uards'

and your bearers>? Thus addressed' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! s o.e the *ollo/!n" )erses to the bodh!satt)a Sar)aru asamdarsana9 0* the true bodh!satt)as' The mother !s the trans+enden+e o* /!sdom' The *ather !s the s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue: The Leaders are born o* su+h arents. The!r /!*e !s the 8oy !n the Dharma' Lo)e and +om ass!on are the!r dau"hters' The Dharma and the truth are the!r sons: And the!r home !s dee thou"ht on the mean!n" o* )o!dness. All the ass!ons are the!r d!s+! les' Controlled at /!ll. The!r *r!ends are the a!ds to enl!"htenment: Thereby they real!7e su reme enl!"htenment. The!r +om an!ons' e)er /!th them' Are the s!1 trans+enden+es. The!r +onsorts are the means o* un!*!+at!on' The!r mus!+ !s the tea+h!n" o* the Dharma. The !n+antat!ons ma.e the!r "arden' 4h!+h blossoms /!th the *lo/ers o* the *a+tors o* enl!"htenment' 4!th trees o* the "reat /ealth o* the Dharma' And *ru!ts o* the "nos!s o* l!berat!on.

The!r ool +ons!sts o* the e!"ht l!berat!ons' F!lled /!th the /ater o* +on+entrat!on' Co)ered /!th the lotuses o* the se)en !m ur!t!es 4ho bathes there!n be+omes !mma+ulate. The!r bearers are the s!1 su er.no/led"es' The!r )eh!+le !s the une1+elled Mahayana' The!r dr!)er !s the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment' And the!r ath !s the e!"ht*old ea+e. The!r ornaments are the aus !+!ous s!"ns' And the e!"hty mar.s: The!r "arland !s )!rtuous as !rat!on' And the!r +loth!n" !s "ood +ons+!en+e and +ons!derat!on. The!r /ealth !s the holy Dharma' And the!r bus!ness !s !ts tea+h!n"' The!r "reat !n+ome !s ure ra+t!+e' And !t !s ded!+ated to the su reme enl!"htenment. The!r bed +ons!sts o* the *our +ontem lat!ons' And !ts s read !s the ure l!)el!hood' And the!r a/a.en!n" +ons!sts o* "nos!s' 4h!+h !s +onstant learn!n" and med!tat!on. The!r *ood !s the ambros!a o* the tea+h!n"s' And the!r dr!n. !s the 8u!+e o* l!berat!on. The!r bath !s ure as !rat!on' And moral!ty the!r un"uent and er*ume.

;a)!n" +on6uered the enemy ass!ons' They are !n)!n+!ble heroes. ;a)!n" subdued the *our Maras' They ra!se the!r standard on the *!eld o* enl!"htenment. They man!*est b!rth )oluntar!ly' <et they are not born' nor do they or!"!nate. They sh!ne !n all the *!elds o* the ,uddhas' 5ust l!.e the r!s!n" sun. Thou"h they /orsh! ,uddhas by the m!ll!ons' 4!th e)ery +on+e!)able o**er!n"' They ne)er d/ell u on the least d!**eren+e ,et/een the ,uddhas and themsel)es. They 8ourney throu"h all ,uddha-*!elds In order to br!n" bene*!t to l!)!n" be!n"s' <et they see those *!elds as 8ust l!.e em ty s a+e' Free o* any +on+e tual not!ons o* ?l!)!n" be!n"s.? The *earless bodh!satt)as +an man!*est' All !n a s!n"le !nstant' The *orms' sounds' and manners o* beha)!or 0* all l!)!n" be!n"s. Althou"h they re+o"n!7e the deeds o* Maras' They +an "et alon" e)en /!th these Maras: For e)en su+h a+t!)!t!es may be man!*ested ,y those er*e+ted !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue.

They lay /!th !llusory man!*estat!ons In order to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s' Sho/!n" themsel)es to be old or s!+.' And e)en man!*est!n" the!r o/n deaths. They demonstrate the burn!n" o* the earth In the +onsum!n" *lames o* the /orld3s end' In order to demonstrate !m ermanen+e To l!)!n" be!n"s /!th the not!on o* ermanen+e. In)!ted by hundreds o* thousands o* l!)!n" be!n"s' All !n the same +ountry' They arta.e o* o**er!n"s at the homes o* all' And ded!+ate all *or the sa.e o* enl!"htenment. They e1+el !n all esoter!+ s+!en+es' And !n the many d!**erent +ra*ts' And they br!n" *orth the ha !ness 0* all l!)!n" be!n"s. ,y de)ot!n" themsel)es as mon.s To all the stran"e se+ts o* the /orld' They de)elo all those be!n"s 4ho ha)e atta+hed themsel)es to do"mat!+ )!e/s. They may be+ome suns or moons' Indras' ,rahmas' or lords o* +reatures' They may be+ome *!re or /ater 0r earth or /!nd.

Dur!n" the short aeons o* malad!es' They be+ome the best holy med!+!ne: They ma.e be!n"s /ell and ha And br!n" about the!r l!berat!on. Dur!n" the short aeons o* *am!ne' They be+ome *ood and dr!n.. ;a)!n" *!rst alle)!ated th!rst and hun"er' They tea+h the Dharma to l!)!n" be!n"s. Dur!n" the short aeons o* s/ords' They med!tate on lo)e' Introdu+!n" to non)!olen+e ;undreds o* m!ll!ons o* l!)!n" be!n"s. In the m!ddle o* "reat battles They rema!n !m art!al to both s!des: For bodh!satt)as o* "reat stren"th Del!"ht !n re+on+!l!at!on o* +on*l!+t. In order to hel the l!)!n" be!n"s' They )oluntar!ly des+end !nto The hells /h!+h are atta+hed To all the !n+on+e!)able buddha-*!elds. They man!*est the!r l!)es In all the s e+!es o* the an!mal .!n"dom' Tea+h!n" the Dharma e)ery/here. Thus they are +alled ?Leaders.? y'

They d!s lay sensual en8oyment to the /orldl!n"s' And tran+es to the med!tat!)e. They +om letely +on6uer the Maras' And allo/ them no +han+e to re)a!l. 5ust as !t +an be sho/n that a lotus Cannot e1!st !n the +enter o* a *!re' So they sho/ the ult!mate unreal!ty 0* both leasures and tran+es. They !ntent!onally be+ome +ourtesans In order to /!n men o)er' And' ha)!n" +au"ht them /!th the hoo. o* des!re' They establ!sh them !n the buddha-"nos!s. In order to hel l!)!n" be!n"s' They al/ays be+ome +h!e*ta!ns' Ca ta!ns' r!ests' and m!n!sters' 0r e)en r!me m!n!sters. For the sa.e o* the oor' They be+ome !ne1haust!ble treasures' Caus!n" those to /hom they "!)e the!r "!*ts To +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* enl!"htenment. They be+ome !n)!n+!ble +ham !ons' For the sa.e o* the roud and the )a!n' And' ha)!n" +on6uered all the!r r!de' They start them on the 6uest *or enl!"htenment.

They al/ays stand at the head 0* those terr!*!ed /!th *r!"ht' And' ha)!n" besto/ed *earlessness u on them' They de)elo them to/ard enl!"htenment. They be+ome "reat holy men' 4!th the su er.no/led"es and ure +ont!nen+e' And thus !ndu+e l!)!n" be!n"s to the moral!ty 0* toleran+e' "entleness' and d!s+! l!ne. ;ere !n the /orld' they *earlessly behold Those /ho are masters to be ser)ed' And they be+ome the!r ser)ants or sla)es' 0r ser)e as the!r d!s+! les. 4ell tra!ned !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue' They demonstrate all a+t!)!t!es' 4h!+he)er oss!bly may be a means To ma.e be!n"s del!"ht !n the Dharma. The!r ra+t!+es are !n*!n!te: And the!r s heres o* !n*luen+e are !n*!n!te: ;a)!n" er*e+ted an !n*!n!te /!sdom' They l!berate an !n*!n!ty o* l!)!n" be!n"s. E)en *or the ,uddhas themsel)es' Dur!n" a m!ll!on aeons' 0r e)en a hundred m!ll!on aeons' It /ould be hard to e1 ress all the!r )!rtues.

E1+e t *or some !n*er!or l!)!n" be!n"s' 4!thout any !ntell!"en+e at all' Is there anyone /!th any d!s+ernment 4ho' ha)!n" heard th!s tea+h!n"' 4ould not /!sh *or the su reme enl!"htenment>

$. The Dharma-Door o* Nondual!ty Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! as.ed those bodh!satt)as' ?2ood s!rs' lease e1 la!n ho/ the bodh!satt)as enter the Dharma-door o* nondual!ty=? The bodh!satt)a Dharma)!.ur)ana de+lared' ?Noble s!r' rodu+t!on and destru+t!on are t/o' but /hat !s not rodu+ed and does not o++ur +annot be destroyed. Thus the atta!nment o* the toleran+e o* the b!rthlessness o* th!n"s !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Sr!"andha de+lared' ?3I3 and 3m!ne3 are t/o. I* there !s no resum t!on o* a sel*' there /!ll be no ossess!)eness. Thus' the absen+e o* resum t!on !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Sr!.uta de+lared' ?3De*!lement3 and 3 ur!*!+at!on3 are t/o. 4hen there !s thorou"h .no/led"e o* de*!lement' there /!ll be no +on+e!t about ur!*!+at!on. The ath lead!n" to the +om lete +on6uest o* all +on+e!t !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a ,hadra8yot!s de+lared' ?3D!stra+t!on3 and 3attent!on3 are t/o. 4hen there !s no d!stra+t!on' there /!ll be no attent!on' no mentat!on' and no mental !ntens!ty. Thus' the absen+e o* mental !ntens!ty !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Subahu de+lared' ?3,odh!satt)a-s !r!t3 and 3d!s+! les !r!t3 are t/o. 4hen both are seen to resemble an !llusory s !r!t' there !s no bodh!satt)a-s !r!t' nor any d!s+! le-s !r!t. Thus' the sameness o*

natures o* s !r!ts !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a An!m!sa de+lared' ?32ras !n"3 and 3non"ras !n"3 are t/o. 4hat !s not "ras ed !s not er+e!)ed' and /hat !s not er+e!)ed !s ne!ther resumed nor re ud!ated. Thus' the !na+t!on and non!n)ol)ement o* all th!n"s !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Sunetra de+lared' ?3Un!6ueness3 and 3+hara+terlessness3 are t/o. Not to resume or +onstru+t someth!n" !s ne!ther to establ!sh !ts un!6ueness nor to establ!sh !ts +hara+terlessness. To enetrate the e6ual!ty o* these t/o !s to enter nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a T!sya de+lared' ?32ood3 and 3e)!l3 are t/o. See.!n" ne!ther "ood nor e)!l' the understand!n" o* the nondual!ty o* the s!"n!*!+ant and the mean!n"less !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a S!mha de+lared' ?3S!n*ulness3 and 3s!nlessness3 are t/o. ,y means o* the d!amond-l!.e /!sdom that !er+es to the 6u!+.' not to be bound or l!berated !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a S!mhamat! de+lared' ?To say' 3Th!s !s !m ure3 and 3Th!s !s !mma+ulate3 ma.es *or dual!ty. 0ne /ho' atta!n!n" e6uan!m!ty' *orms no +on+e t!on o* !m ur!ty or !mma+ulateness' yet !s not utterly /!thout +on+e t!on' has e6uan!m!ty /!thout any atta!nment o* e6uan!m!ty - he enters the absen+e o* +on+e tual .nots. Thus' he enters !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Suddhadh!mu.t! de+lared' ?To say' 3Th!s !s ha !ness3 and 3That !s m!sery3 !s dual!sm. 0ne /ho !s *ree o* all +al+ulat!ons' throu"h the e1treme ur!ty o* "nos!s - h!s m!nd !s aloo*' l!.e em ty s a+e: and thus he enters !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Narayana de+lared' ?To say' 3Th!s !s mundane3 and 3That !s trans+endental3 !s dual!sm. Th!s /orld has the nature o* )o!dness' so there !s ne!ther trans+enden+e nor !n)ol)ement' ne!ther ro"ress nor standst!ll. Thus' ne!ther to trans+end nor to be !n)ol)ed'

ne!ther to "o nor to sto - th!s !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Dantamat! de+lared' ?3L!*e3 and 3l!berat!on3 are dual!st!+. ;a)!n" seen the nature o* l!*e' one ne!ther belon"s to !t nor !s one utterly l!berated *rom !t. Su+h understand!n" !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a (ratya.sadarsana de+lared' ?3Destru+t!ble3 and 3!ndestru+t!ble3 are dual!st!+. 4hat !s destroyed !s ult!mately destroyed. 4hat !s ult!mately destroyed does not be+ome destroyed: hen+e' !t !s +alled 3!ndestru+t!ble.3 4hat !s !ndestru+t!ble !s !nstantaneous' and /hat !s !nstantaneous !s !ndestru+t!ble. The e1 er!en+e o* su+h !s +alled 3the entran+e !nto the r!n+! le o* nondual!ty.3? The bodh!satt)a (ar!"udha de+lared' ?3Sel*3 and 3sel*lessness3 are dual!st!+. S!n+e the e1!sten+e o* sel* +annot be er+e!)ed' /hat !s there to be made 3sel*less3> Thus' the nondual!sm o* the )!s!on o* the!r nature !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a V!dyudde)a de+lared' ?3Kno/led"e3 and 3!"noran+e3 are dual!st!+. The natures o* !"noran+e and .no/led"e are the same' *or !"noran+e !s unde*!ned' !n+al+ulable' and beyond the s here o* thou"ht. The real!7at!on o* th!s !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a (r!yadarsana de+lared' ?Matter !tsel* !s )o!d. Vo!dness does not result *rom the destru+t!on o* matter' but the nature o* matter !s !tsel* )o!dness. There*ore' to s ea. o* )o!dness on the one hand' and o* matter' or o* sensat!on' or o* !ntelle+t' or o* mot!)at!on' or o* +ons+!ousness on the other - !s ent!rely dual!st!+. Cons+!ousness !tsel* !s )o!dness. Vo!dness does not result *rom the destru+t!on o* +ons+!ousness' but the nature o* +ons+!ousness !s !tsel* )o!dness. Su+h understand!n" o* the *!)e +om uls!)e a""re"ates and the .no/led"e o* them as su+h by means o* "nos!s !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a (rabha.etu de+lared' ?To say that the *our ma!n elements are one th!n" and the ether!+ s a+e-element another !s dual!st!+. The *our ma!n elements are themsel)es the nature o* s a+e. The ast !tsel* !s also the nature o* s a+e. The *uture !tsel* !s also the

nature o* s a+e. L!.e/!se' the resent !tsel* !s also the nature o* s a+e. The "nos!s that enetrates the elements !n su+h a /ay !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a (ramat! de+lared' ?3Eye3 and 3*orm3 are dual!st!+. To understand the eye +orre+tly' and not to ha)e atta+hment' a)ers!on' or +on*us!on /!th re"ard to *orm - that !s +alled 3 ea+e.3 S!m!larly' 3ear3 and 3sound'3 3nose3 and 3smell'3 3ton"ue3 and taste'3 3body3 and tou+h'3 and 3m!nd3 and 3 henomena3 - all are dual!st!+. ,ut to .no/ the m!nd' and to be ne!ther atta+hed' a)erse' nor +on*used /!th re"ard to henomena - that !s +alled 3 ea+e.3 To l!)e !n su+h ea+e !s to enter !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a A.sayamat! de+lared' ?The ded!+at!on o* "eneros!ty *or the sa.e o* atta!n!n" omn!s+!en+e !s dual!st!+. The nature o* "eneros!ty !s !tsel* omn!s+!en+e' and the nature o* omn!s+!en+e !tsel* !s total ded!+at!on. L!.e/!se' !t !s dual!st!+ to ded!+ate moral!ty' toleran+e' e**ort' med!tat!on' and /!sdom *or the sa.e o* omn!s+!en+e. 0mn!s+!en+e !s the nature o* /!sdom' and total ded!+at!on !s the nature o* omn!s+!en+e. Thus' the entran+e !nto th!s r!n+! le o* un!6ueness !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a 2ambh!ramat! de+lared' ?It !s dual!st!+ to say that )o!dness !s one th!n"' s!"nlessness another' and /!shlessness st!ll another. 4hat !s )o!d has no s!"n. 4hat has no s!"n has no /!sh. 4here there !s no /!sh there !s no ro+ess o* thou"ht' m!nd' or +ons+!ousness. To see the doors o* all l!berat!ons !n the door o* one l!berat!on !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Santendr!ya de+lared' ?It !s dual!st!+ to say 3,uddha'3 3Dharma'3 and 3San"ha.3 The Dharma !s !tsel* the nature o* the ,uddha' the San"ha !s !tsel* the nature o* the Dharma' and all o* them are un+om ounded. The un+om ounded !s !n*!n!te s a+e' and the ro+esses o* all th!n"s are e6u!)alent to !n*!n!te s a+e. Ad8ustment to th!s !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a A rat!hatanetra de+lared' ?It !s dual!st!+ to re*er to 3a""re"ates3 and to the 3+essat!on o* a""re"ates.3 A""re"ates themsel)es are +essat!on. 4hy> The e"o!st!+ )!e/s o* a""re"ates'

be!n" un rodu+ed themsel)es' do not e1!st ult!mately. ;en+e su+h )!e/s do not really +on+e tual!7e 3These are a""re"ates3 or 3These a""re"ates +ease.3 Ult!mately' they ha)e no su+h d!s+r!m!nat!)e +onstru+t!ons and no su+h +on+e tual!7at!ons. There*ore' su+h )!e/s ha)e themsel)es the nature o* +essat!on. Nono++urren+e and nondestru+t!on are the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Su)!n!ta de+lared' ?(hys!+al' )erbal' and mental )o/s do not e1!st dual!st!+ally. 4hy> These th!n"s ha)e the nature o* !na+t!)!ty. The nature o* !na+t!)!ty o* the body !s the same as the nature o* !na+t!)!ty o* s ee+h' /hose nature o* !na+t!)!ty !s the same as the nature o* !na+t!)!ty o* the m!nd. It !s ne+essary to .no/ and to understand th!s *a+t o* the ult!mate !na+t!)!ty o* all th!n"s' *or th!s .no/led"e !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a (unya.setra de+lared' ?It !s dual!st!+ to +ons!der a+t!ons mer!tor!ous' s!n*ul' or neutral. The non-underta.!n" o* mer!tor!ous' s!n*ul' and neutral a+t!ons !s not dual!st!+. The !ntr!ns!+ nature o* all su+h a+t!ons !s )o!dness' /here!n ult!mately there !s ne!ther mer!t' nor s!n' nor neutral!ty' nor a+t!on !tsel*. The nona++om l!shment o* su+h a+t!ons !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a (adma)yuha de+lared' ?Dual!sm !s rodu+ed *rom obsess!on /!th sel*' but true understand!n" o* sel* does not result !n dual!sm. 4ho thus ab!des !n nondual!ty !s /!thout !deat!on' and that absen+e o* !deat!on !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Sr!"arbha de+lared' ?Dual!ty !s +onst!tuted by er+e tual man!*estat!on. Nondual!ty !s ob8e+tlessness. There*ore' non"ras !n" and nonre8e+t!on !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Candrottara de+lared' ?3Dar.ness3 and 3l!"ht3 are dual!st!+' but the absen+e o* both dar.ness and l!"ht !s nondual!ty. 4hy> At the t!me o* absor t!on !n +essat!on' there !s ne!ther dar.ness nor l!"ht' and l!.e/!se /!th the natures o* all th!n"s. The entran+e !nto th!s e6uan!m!ty !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Ratnamudrahasta de+lared' ?It !s dual!st!+ to detest

the /orld and to re8o!+e !n l!berat!on' and ne!ther detest!n" the /orld nor re8o!+!n" !n l!berat!on !s nondual!ty. 4hy> L!berat!on +an be *ound /here there !s bonda"e' but /here there !s ult!mately no bonda"e /here !s there need *or l!berat!on> The mend!+ant /ho !s ne!ther bound nor l!berated does not e1 er!en+e any l!.e or any d!sl!.e and thus he enters nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Man!.utara8a de+lared' ?It !s dual!st!+ to s ea. o* "ood aths and bad aths. 0ne /ho !s on the ath !s not +on+erned /!th "ood or bad aths. L!)!n" !n su+h un+on+ern' he enterta!ns no +on+e ts o* 3 ath3 or 3non ath.3 Understand!n" the nature o* +on+e ts' h!s m!nd does not en"a"e !n dual!ty. Su+h !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? The bodh!satt)a Satyarata de+lared' ?It !s dual!st!+ to s ea. o* 3true3 and 3*alse.3 4hen one sees truly' one does not e)er see any truth' so ho/ +ould one see *alsehood> 4hy> 0ne does not see /!th the hys!+al eye' one sees /!th the eye o* /!sdom. And /!th the /!sdomeye one sees only !nso*ar as there !s ne!ther s!"ht nor nons!"ht. There' /here there !s ne!ther s!"ht nor nons!"ht' !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? 4hen the bodh!satt)as had "!)en the!r e1 lanat!ons' they all addressed the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr!9 ?Man8usr!' /hat !s the bodh!satt)a3s entran+e !nto nondual!ty>? Man8usr! re l!ed' ?2ood s!rs' you ha)e all s o.en /ell. Ne)ertheless' all your e1 lanat!ons are themsel)es dual!st!+. To .no/ no one tea+h!n"' to e1 ress noth!n"' to say noth!n"' to e1 la!n noth!n"' to announ+e noth!n"' to !nd!+ate noth!n"' and to des!"nate noth!n" - that !s the entran+e !nto nondual!ty.? Then the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr! sa!d to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ?4e ha)e all "!)en our o/n tea+h!n"s' noble s!r. No/' may you elu+!date the tea+h!n" o* the entran+e !nto the r!n+! le o* nondual!ty=? Thereu on' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! .e t h!s s!len+e' say!n" noth!n" at all.

The +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr! a lauded the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!9 ?E1+ellent= E1+ellent' noble s!r= Th!s !s !ndeed the entran+e !nto the nondual!ty o* the bodh!satt)as. ;ere there !s no use *or syllables' sounds' and !deas.? 4hen these tea+h!n"s had been de+lared' *!)e thousand bodh!satt)as entered the door o* the Dharma o* nondual!ty and atta!ned toleran+e o* the b!rthlessness o* th!n"s.

#E. The Feast ,rou"ht by the Emanated In+arnat!on Thereu on' the )enerable Sar! utra thou"ht to h!msel*' ?I* these "reat bodh!satt)as do not ad8ourn be*ore noont!me' /hen are they "o!n" to eat>? The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' .no/!n" tele ath!+ally the thou"ht o* the )enerable Sar! utra' s o.e to h!m9 ?Re)erend Sar! utra' the Tatha"ata has tau"ht the e!"ht l!berat!ons. <ou should +on+entrate on those l!berat!ons' l!sten!n" to the Dharma /!th a m!nd *ree o* reo++u at!ons /!th mater!al th!n"s. 5ust /a!t a m!nute' re)erend Sar! utra' and you /!ll eat su+h *ood as you ha)e ne)er be*ore tasted.? Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! set h!msel* !n su+h a +on+entrat!on and er*ormed su+h a m!ra+ulous *eat that those bodh!satt)as and those "reat d!s+! les /ere enabled to see the un!)erse +alled Sar)a"andhasu"andha' /h!+h !s lo+ated !n the d!re+t!on o* the 7en!th' beyond as many buddha-*!elds as there are sands !n *orty-t/o 2an"es r!)ers. There the Tatha"ata named Su"andha.uta res!des' l!)es' and !s man!*est. In that un!)erse' the trees em!t a *ra"ran+e that *ar sur asses all the *ra"ran+es' human and d!)!ne' o* all the buddha-*!elds o* the ten d!re+t!ons. In that un!)erse' e)en the names ?d!s+! le? and ?sol!tary sa"e? do not e1!st' and the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta tea+hes the Dharma to a "ather!n" o* bodh!satt)as only. In that un!)erse' all the houses' the a)enues' the ar.s' and the ala+es are made o* )ar!ous er*umes' and the *ra"ran+e o* the *ood eaten by those bodh!satt)as er)ades !mmeasurable un!)erses.

At th!s t!me' the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta sat do/n /!th h!s bodh!satt)as to ta.e h!s meal' and the de!t!es +alled 2andha)yuhahara' /ho /ere all de)oted to the Mahayana' ser)ed and attended u on the ,uddha and h!s bodh!satt)as. E)eryone !n the "ather!n" at the house o* V!mala.!rt! /as able to see d!st!n+tly th!s un!)erse /here!n the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta and h!s bodh!satt)as /ere ta.!n" the!r meal. The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! addressed the /hole "ather!n" o* bodh!satt)as9 ?2ood s!rs' !s there any amon" you /ho /ould l!.e to "o to that buddha-*!eld to br!n" ba+. some *ood>? ,ut' restra!ned by the su ernatural o/er o* Man8usr!' none o* them )olunteered to "o. The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr!' ?Man8usr!' are you not ashamed o* su+h a "ather!n">? Man8usr! re l!ed' ?Noble s!r' d!d not the Tatha"ata de+lare' 3Those /ho are unlearned should not be des !sed3>? Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' /!thout r!s!n" *rom h!s +ou+h' ma"!+ally emanated an !n+arnat!on-bodh!satt)a' /hose body /as o* "olden +olor' adorned /!th the aus !+!ous s!"ns and mar.s' and o* su+h an a earan+e that he outshone the /hole assembly. The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! addressed that !n+arnated bodh!satt)a9 ?Noble son' "o !n the d!re+t!on o* the 7en!th and /hen you ha)e +rossed as many buddha-*!elds as there are sands !n *orty-t/o 2an"es r!)ers' you /!ll rea+h a un!)erse +alled Sar)a"andhasu"andha' /here you /!ll *!nd the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta ta.!n" h!s meal. 2o to h!m and' ha)!n" bo/ed do/n at h!s *eet' ma.e the *ollo/!n" re6uest o* h!m9 ?3The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! bo/s do/n one hundred thousand t!mes at your *eet' 0 Lord' and as.s a*ter your health - !* you ha)e but l!ttle trouble' l!ttle d!s+om*ort' l!ttle unrest: !* you are stron"' /ell' /!thout +om la!nt' and l!)!n" !n tou+h /!th su reme ha !ness.3

?;a)!n" thus as.ed a*ter h!s health' you should re6uest o* h!m 3V!mala.!rt! as.s the Lord to "!)e me the rema!ns o* your meal' /!th /h!+h he /!ll a++om l!sh the buddha-/or. !n the un!)erse +alled Saha. Thus' those l!)!n" be!n"s /!th !n*er!or as !rat!ons /!ll be !ns !red /!th lo*ty as !rat!ons' and the "ood name o* the Tatha"ata /!ll be +elebrated *ar and /!de.? At that' the !n+arnated bodh!satt)a sa!d' ?Very "ood=? to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! and obeyed h!s !nstru+t!ons. In s!"ht o* all the bodh!satt)as' he turned h!s *a+e u /ard and /as "one' and they sa/ h!m no more. 4hen he rea+hed the un!)erse Sar)a"andhasu"andha' he bo/ed do/n at the *eet o* the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta and sa!d' ?Lord' the bodh!satt)a V!mala.!rt!' bo/!n" do/n at the *eet o* the Lord' "reets the Lord' say!n"9 3Do you ha)e l!ttle trouble' l!ttle d!s+om*ort' and l!ttle unrest> Are you stron"' /ell' /!thout +om la!nt' and l!)!n" !n tou+h /!th the su reme ha !ness>3 ;e then re6uests' ha)!n" bo/ed do/n one hundred thousand t!mes at the *eet o* the Lord9 3May the Lord be "ra+!ous and "!)e to me the rema!ns o* h!s meal !n order to a++om l!sh the buddha-/or. !n the un!)erse +alled Saha. Then' those l!)!n" be!n"s /ho as !re to !n*er!or /ays may "a!n the !ntell!"en+e to as !re to the "reat Dharma o* the ,uddha' and the name o* the ,uddha /!ll be +elebrated *ar and /!de.3? At that the bodh!satt)as o* the buddha-*!eld o* the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta /ere aston!shed and as.ed the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta' ?Lord' /here !s there su+h a "reat be!n" as th!s> 4here !s the un!)erse Saha> 4hat does he mean by 3those /ho as !re to !n*er!or /ays3>? ;a)!n" thus been 6uest!oned by those bodh!satt)as' the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta sa!d' ?Noble sons' the un!)erse Saha e1!sts beyond as many buddha-*!elds !n the d!re+t!on o* the nad!r as there are sands !n *orty-t/o 2an"es r!)ers. There the Tatha"ata Sa.yamun! tea+hes the Dharma to l!)!n" be!n"s /ho as !re to the !n*er!or /ays' !n that buddha-*!eld ta!nted /!th *!)e +orru t!ons. There the bodh!satt)a V!mala.!rt!' /ho l!)es !n the !n+on+e!)able l!berat!on' tea+hes the Dharma to the bodh!satt)as. ;e sends th!s !n+arnat!on-bodh!satt)a here !n order to +elebrate my name' !n order to sho/ the ad)anta"es o* th!s un!)erse' and !n order to !n+rease the roots o* )!rtue o* those bodh!satt)as.?

The bodh!satt)as e1+la!med' ?;o/ "reat must that bodh!satt)a be h!msel* !* h!s ma"!+al !n+arnat!on !s thus endo/ed /!th su ernatural o/er' stren"th' and *earlessness=? The Tatha"ata sa!d' ?The "reatness o* that bodh!satt)a !s su+h that he sends ma"!+al !n+arnat!ons to all the buddha-*!elds o* the ten d!re+t!ons' and all these !n+arnat!ons a++om l!sh the buddha-/or. *or all the l!)!n" be!n"s !n all those buddha-*!elds.? Then' the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta oured some o* h!s *ood' !m re"nated /!th all er*umes' !nto a *ra"rant )essel and "a)e !t to the !n+arnat!on-bodh!satt)a. And the n!nety m!ll!on bodh!satt)as o* that un!)erse )olunteered to "o alon" /!th h!m9 ?Lord' /e also /ould l!.e to "o to that un!)erse Saha' to see' honor' and ser)e the ,uddha Sa.yamun! and to see V!mala.!rt! and those bodh!satt)as.? The Tatha"ata de+lared' ?Noble sons' "o ahead !* you th!n. !t !s the r!"ht t!me. ,ut' lest those l!)!n" be!n"s be+ome mad and !nto1!+ated' "o /!thout your er*umes. And' lest those l!)!n" be!n"s o* the Saha /orld be+ome 8ealous o* you' +han"e your bod!es to h!de your beauty. And do not +on+e!)e !deas o* +ontem t and a)ers!on *or that un!)erse. 4hy> Noble sons' a buddha-*!eld !s a *!eld o* ure s a+e' but the Lord ,uddhas' !n order to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s' do not re)eal all at on+e the ure realm o* the ,uddha.? Then the !n+arnat!on-bodh!satt)a too. the *ood and de arted /!th the n!nety m!ll!on bodh!satt)as and by the o/er o* the ,uddha and the su ernatural o erat!on o* V!mala.!rt!' d!sa eared *rom that un!)erse Sar)a"andhasu"andha and stood a"a!n !n the house o* V!mala.!rt! !n a *ra+t!on o* a se+ond. The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +reated n!nety m!ll!on l!on-thrones e1a+tly l!.e those already there' and the bodh!satt)as /ere seated. Then' the !n+arnat!on-bodh!satt)a "a)e the )essel *ull o* *ood to V!mala.!rt!' and the *ra"ran+e o* that *ood ermeated the ent!re "reat +!ty o* Va!sal! and !ts s/eet er*ume s read throu"hout one hundred un!)erses. 4!th!n the +!ty o* Va!sal!' the brahmans' householders' and

e)en the L!++ha)! +h!e*ta!n Candra++hattra' ha)!n" not!+ed th!s *ra"ran+e' /ere ama7ed and *!lled /!th /onder. They /ere so +leansed !n body and m!nd that they +ame at on+e to the house o* V!mala.!rt!' alon" /!th all e!"hty-*our thousand o* the L!++ha)!s. See!n" there the bodh!satt)as seated on the h!"h' /!de' and beaut!*ul l!on-thrones' they /ere *!lled /!th adm!rat!on and "reat 8oy. They all bo/ed do/n to those "reat d!s+! les and bodh!satt)as and then sat do/n to one s!de. And the "ods o* the earth' the "ods o* the des!re/orld' and the "ods o* the mater!al /orld' attra+ted by the er*ume' also +ame to the house o* V!mala.!rt!. Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! s o.e to the elder Sar! utra and the "reat d!s+! les9 ?Re)erends' eat o* the *ood o* the Tatha"ata= It !s ambros!a er*umed by the "reat +om ass!on. ,ut do not *!1 your m!nds !n narro/-m!nded att!tudes' lest you be unable to re+e!)e !ts "!*t.? ,ut some o* the d!s+! les had already had the thou"ht9 ?;o/ +an su+h a hu"e mult!tude eat su+h a small amount o* *ood>? Then the !n+arnat!on-bodh!satt)a sa!d to those d!s+! les' ?Do not +om are' )enerable ones' your o/n /!sdom and mer!ts /!th the /!sdom and the mer!ts o* the Tatha"ata= 4hy> For e1am le' the *our "reat o+eans m!"ht dry u ' but th!s *ood /ould ne)er be e1hausted. I* all l!)!n" be!n"s /ere to eat *or an aeon an amount o* th!s *ood e6ual to Mount Sumeru !n s!7e' !t /ould not be de leted. 4hy> Issued *rom !ne1haust!ble moral!ty' +on+entrat!on' and /!sdom' the rema!ns o* the *ood o* the Tatha"ata +onta!ned !n th!s )essel +annot be e1hausted.? Indeed' the ent!re "ather!n" /as sat!s*!ed by that *ood' and the *ood /as not at all de leted. ;a)!n" eaten that *ood' there arose !n the bod!es o* those bodh!satt)as' d!s+! les' Sa.ras' ,rahmas' Lo.a alas' and other l!)!n" be!n"s' a bl!ss 8ust l!.e the bl!ss o* the bodh!satt)as o* the un!)erse Sar)asu.hamand!ta. And *rom all the ores o* the!r s.!n arose a er*ume l!.e that o* the trees that "ro/ !n the un!)erse Sar)a"andhasu"andha.

Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! .no/!n"ly addressed those bodh!satt)as /ho had +ome *rom the buddha-*!eld o* the Lord Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta9 ?Noble s!rs' ho/ does the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta tea+h h!s Dharma>? They re l!ed' ?The Tatha"ata does not tea+h the Dharma by means o* sound and lan"ua"e. ;e d!s+! l!nes the bodh!satt)as only by means o* er*umes. At the *oot o* ea+h er*ume-tree s!ts a bodh!satt)a' and the trees em!t er*umes l!.e th!s one. From the moment they smell that er*ume' the bodh!satt)as atta!n the +on+entrat!on +alled 3sour+e o* all bodh!satt)a-)!rtues.3 From the moment they atta!n that +on+entrat!on' all the bodh!satt)a-)!rtues are rodu+ed !n them.? Those bodh!satt)as then as.ed the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ?;o/ does the ,uddha Sa.yamun! tea+h the Dharma>? V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' ?2ood s!rs' these l!)!n" be!n"s here are hard to d!s+! l!ne. There*ore' he tea+hes them /!th d!s+ourses a ro r!ate *or the d!s+! l!n!n" o* the /!ld and un+!)!l!7ed. ;o/ does he d!s+! l!ne the /!ld and un+!)!l!7ed> 4hat d!s+ourses are a ro r!ate> ;ere they are9 ?3Th!s !s hell. Th!s !s the an!mal /orld. Th!s !s the /orld o* the lord o* death. These are the ad)ers!t!es. These are the reb!rths /!th +r! led *a+ult!es. These are hys!+al m!sdeeds' and these are the retr!but!ons *or hys!+al m!sdeeds. These are )erbal m!sdeeds' and these are the retr!but!ons *or )erbal m!sdeeds. These are mental m!sdeeds' and these are the retr!but!ons *or mental m!sdeeds. Th!s !s .!ll!n". Th!s !s steal!n". Th!s !s se1ual m!s+ondu+t. Th!s !s ly!n". Th!s !s ba+.b!t!n". Th!s !s harsh s ee+h. Th!s !s *r!)olous s ee+h. Th!s !s +o)etousness. Th!s !s mal!+e. Th!s !s *alse )!e/. These are the!r retr!but!ons. Th!s !s m!serl!ness' and th!s !s !ts e**e+t. Th!s !s !mmoral!ty. Th!s !s hatred. Th!s !s sloth. Th!s !s the *ru!t o* sloth. Th!s !s *alse /!sdom and th!s !s the *ru!t o* *alse /!sdom. These are the trans"ress!ons o* the re+e ts. Th!s !s the )o/ o* ersonal l!berat!on. Th!s should be done and that should not be done. Th!s !s ro er and that should be abandoned. Th!s !s an obs+urat!on and that !s /!thout obs+urat!on. Th!s !s s!n and that r!ses abo)e s!n. Th!s !s the ath and that !s the /ron" ath. Th!s !s )!rtue and that !s e)!l. Th!s !s blame/orthy and that !s blameless. Th!s !s de*!led and that !s !mma+ulate. Th!s !s mundane and that !s

trans+endental. Th!s !s +om ounded and that !s un+om ounded. Th!s !s ass!on and that !s ur!*!+at!on. Th!s !s l!*e and that !s l!berat!on.3 ?Thus' by means o* these )ar!ed e1 lanat!ons o* the Dharma' the ,uddha tra!ns the m!nds o* those l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are 8ust l!.e /!ld horses. 5ust as /!ld horses or /!ld ele hants /!ll not be tamed unless the "oad !er+es them to the marro/' so l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are /!ld and hard to +!)!l!7e are d!s+! l!ned only by means o* d!s+ourses about all .!nds o* m!ser!es.? The bodh!satt)as sa!d' ?Thus !s establ!shed the "reatness o* the ,uddha Sa.yamun!= It !s mar)elous ho/' +on+eal!n" h!s m!ra+ulous o/er' he +!)!l!7es the /!ld l!)!n" be!n"s /ho are oor and !n*er!or. And the bodh!satt)as /ho settle !n a buddha-*!eld o* su+h !ntense hardsh! s must ha)e !n+on+e!)ably "reat +om ass!on=? The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! de+lared' ?So be !t' "ood s!rs= It !s as you say. The "reat +om ass!on o* the bodh!satt)as /ho re!n+arnate here !s e1tremely *!rm. In a s!n"le l!*et!me !n th!s un!)erse' they a++om l!sh mu+h bene*!t *or l!)!n" be!n"s. So mu+h bene*!t *or l!)!n" be!n"s +ould not be a++om l!shed !n the un!)erse Sar)a"andhasu"andha e)en !n one hundred thousand aeons. 4hy> 2ood s!rs' !n th!s Saha un!)erse' there are ten )!rtuous ra+t!+es /h!+h do not e1!st !n any other buddha-*!eld. 4hat are these ten> ;ere they are9 to /!n the oor by "eneros!ty: to /!n the !mmoral by moral!ty: to /!n the hate*ul by means o* toleran+e: to /!n the la7y by means o* e**ort: to /!n the mentally troubled by means o* +on+entrat!on: to /!n the *alsely /!se by means o* true /!sdom: to sho/ those su**er!n" *rom the e!"ht ad)ers!t!es ho/ to r!se abo)e them: to tea+h the Mahayana to those o* narro/-m!nded beha)!or: to /!n those /ho ha)e not rodu+ed the roots o* )!rtue by means o* the roots o* )!rtue: and to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s /!thout !nterru t!on throu"h the *our means o* un!*!+at!on. Those /ho en"a"e !n these ten )!rtuous ra+t!+es do not e1!st !n any other buddha-*!eld.? A"a!n the bodh!satt)as as.ed' ?;o/ many 6ual!t!es must a bodh!satt)a ha)e' to "o sa*e and sound to a ure buddha-*!eld a*ter he transm!"rates at death a/ay *rom th!s Saha un!)erse>?

V!mala.!rt! re l!ed' ?A*ter he transm!"rates at death a/ay *rom th!s Saha un!)erse' a bodh!satt)a must ha)e e!"ht 6ual!t!es to rea+h a ure buddha-*!eld sa*e and sound. 4hat are the e!"ht> ;e must resol)e to h!msel*9 3I must bene*!t all l!)!n" be!n"s' /!thout see.!n" e)en the sl!"htest bene*!t *or mysel*. I must bear all the m!ser!es o* all l!)!n" be!n"s and "!)e all my a++umulated roots o* )!rtue to all l!)!n" be!n"s. I must ha)e no resentment to/ard any l!)!n" be!n". I must re8o!+e !n all bodh!satt)as as !* they /ere the Tea+her. I must not ne"le+t any tea+h!n"s' /hether or not I ha)e heard them be*ore. I must +ontrol my m!nd' /!thout +o)et!n" the "a!ns o* others' and /!thout ta.!n" r!de !n "a!ns o* my o/n. I must e1am!ne my o/n *aults and not blame others *or the!r *aults. I must ta.e leasure !n be!n" +ons+!ously a/are and must truly underta.e all )!rtues.3 ?I* a bodh!satt)a has these e!"ht 6ual!t!es' /hen he transm!"rates at death a/ay *rom the Saha un!)erse' he /!ll "o sa*e and sound to a ure buddha-*!eld.? 4hen the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! and the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr! had thus tau"ht the Dharma to the mult!tude "athered there' one hundred thousand l!)!n" be!n"s +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment' and ten thousand bodh!satt)as atta!ned the toleran+e o* the b!rthlessness o* th!n"s.

##. Lesson o* the Destru+t!ble and the Indestru+t!ble Mean/h!le' the area !n /h!+h the Lord /as tea+h!n" the Dharma !n the "arden o* Amra al! e1 anded and "re/ lar"er' and the ent!re assembly a eared t!n"ed /!th a "olden hue. Thereu on' the )enerable Ananda as.ed the ,uddha' ?Lord' th!s e1 ans!on and enlar"ement o* the "arden o* Amra al! and th!s "olden hue o* the assembly - /hat do these aus !+!ous s!"ns ortend>? The ,uddha de+lared' ?Ananda' these aus !+!ous s!"ns ortend that the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! and the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr!' attended by a "reat mult!tude' are +om!n" !nto the resen+e o* the Tatha"ata.?

At that moment the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr!' ?Man8usr!' let us ta.e these many l!)!n" be!n"s !nto the resen+e o* the Lord' so that they may see the Tatha"ata and bo/ do/n to h!m=? Man8usr! re l!ed' ?Noble s!r' send them !* you *eel the t!me !s r!"ht=? Thereu on the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! er*ormed the m!ra+ulous *eat o* la+!n" the ent!re assembly' re lete /!th thrones' u on h!s r!"ht hand and then' ha)!n" trans orted h!msel* ma"!+ally !nto the resen+e o* the ,uddha' la+!n" !t on the "round. ;e bo/ed do/n at the *eet o* the ,uddha' +!r+umambulated h!m to the r!"ht se)en t!mes /!th alms to"ether' and /!thdre/ to one s!de. The bodh!satt)as /ho had +ome *rom the buddha-*!eld o* the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta des+ended *rom the!r l!on-thrones and' bo/!n" do/n at the *eet o* the ,uddha' la+ed the!r alms to"ether !n re)eren+e and /!thdre/ to one s!de. And the other bodh!satt)as' "reat s !r!tual heroes' and the "reat d!s+! les des+ended *rom the!r thrones l!.e/!se and' ha)!n" bo/ed at the *eet o* the ,uddha' /!thdre/ to one s!de. L!.e/!se all those Indras' ,rahmas' Lo.a alas' and "ods bo/ed at the *eet o* the ,uddha' la+ed the!r alms to"ether !n re)eren+e and /!thdre/ to one s!de. Then' the ,uddha' ha)!n" del!"hted those bodh!satt)as /!th "reet!n"s' de+lared' ?Noble sons' be seated u on your thrones=? Thus +ommanded by the ,uddha' they too. the!r thrones. The ,uddha sa!d to Sar! utra' ?Sar! utra' d!d you see the m!ra+ulous er*orman+es o* the bodh!satt)as' those best o* be!n"s>? ?I ha)e seen them' Lord.? ?4hat +on+e t d!d you rodu+e to/ard them>?

?Lord' I rodu+ed the +on+e t o* !n+on+e!)ab!l!ty to/ard them. The!r a+t!)!t!es a eared !n+on+e!)able to me to the o!nt that I /as unable to th!n. o* them' to 8ud"e them' or e)en to !ma"!ne them.? Then the )enerable Ananda as.ed the ,uddha' ?Lord' /hat !s th!s er*ume' the l!.es o* /h!+h I ha)e ne)er smelled be*ore>? The ,uddha ans/ered' ?Ananda' th!s er*ume emanates *rom all the ores o* all these bodh!satt)as.? Sar! utra added' ?Venerable Ananda' th!s same *rom all our ores as /ell=? Ananda9 4here does the er*ume +ome *rom> Sar! utra9 The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! obta!ned some *ood *rom the un!)erse +alled Sar)a"andhasu"andha' the buddha-*!eld o* the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta' and th!s er*ume emanates *rom the bod!es o* all those /ho artoo. o* that *ood. Then the )enerable Ananda addressed the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!9 ?;o/ lon" /!ll th!s er*ume rema!n>? V!mala.!rt!9 Unt!l !s !t d!"ested. Ananda9 4hen /!ll !t be d!"ested> V!mala.!rt!9 It /!ll be d!"ested !n *orty-n!ne days' and !ts er*ume /!ll emanate *or se)en days more a*ter that' but there /!ll be no trouble o* !nd!"est!on dur!n" that t!me. Furthermore' re)erend Ananda' !* mon.s /ho ha)e not entered ult!mate determ!nat!on eat th!s *ood' !t /!ll be d!"ested /hen they enter that determ!nat!on. 4hen those /ho ha)e entered ult!mate determ!nat!on eat th!s *ood' !t /!ll not be d!"ested unt!l the!r m!nds are totally l!berated. I* l!)!n" be!n"s /ho ha)e not +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment eat th!s *ood' er*ume emanates

!t /!ll be d!"ested /hen they +on+e!)e the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment. I* those /ho ha)e +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* er*e+t enl!"htenment eat th!s *ood' !t /!ll not be d!"ested unt!l they ha)e atta!ned toleran+e. And !* those /ho ha)e atta!ned toleran+e eat th!s *ood' !t /!ll be d!"ested /hen they ha)e be+ome bodh!satt)as one l!*et!me a/ay *rom ,uddhahood. Re)erend Ananda' !t !s l!.e the med!+!ne +alled ?del!+!ous'? /h!+h rea+hes the stoma+h but !s not d!"ested unt!l all o!sons ha)e been el!m!nated only then !s !t d!"ested. Thus' re)erend Ananda' th!s *ood !s not d!"ested unt!l all the o!sons o* the ass!ons ha)e been el!m!nated only then !s !t d!"ested. Then' the )enerable Ananda sa!d to the ,uddha' ?Lord' !t !s /onder*ul that th!s *ood a++om l!shes the /or. o* the ,uddha=? ?So !t !s' Ananda= It !s as you say' Ananda= There are buddha-*!elds that a++om l!sh the buddha-/or. by means o* bodh!satt)as: those that do so by means o* l!"hts: those that do so by means o* the tree o* enl!"htenment: those that do so by means o* the hys!+al beauty and the mar.s o* the Tatha"ata: those that do so by means o* rel!"!ous robes: those that do so by means o* "ood: those that do so by means o* /ater: those that do so by means o* "ardens: those that do so by means o* ala+es: those that do so by means o* mans!ons: those that do so by means o* ma"!+al !n+arnat!ons: those that do so by means o* em ty s a+e: and those that do so by means o* l!"hts !n the s.y. 4hy !s !t so' Ananda> ,e+ause by these )ar!ous means' l!)!n" be!n"s be+ome d!s+! l!ned. S!m!larly' Ananda' there are buddha-*!elds that a++om l!sh the buddha-/or. by means o* tea+h!n" l!)!n" be!n"s /ords' de*!n!t!ons' and e1am les' su+h as 3dreams'3 3!ma"es'3 3the re*le+t!on o* the moon !n /ater'3 3e+hoes'3 3!llus!ons'3 and 3m!ra"es3: and those that a++om l!sh the buddha-/or. by ma.!n" /ords understandable. Also' Ananda' there are utterly ure buddha-*!elds that a++om l!sh the buddha-/or. *or l!)!n" be!n"s /!thout s ee+h' by s!len+e' !ne1 ress!b!l!ty' and untea+hab!l!ty. Ananda' amon" all the a+t!)!t!es' en8oyments' and ra+t!+es o* the ,uddhas' there are none that do not a++om l!sh the buddha-/or.' be+ause all d!s+! l!ne l!)!n" be!n"s. F!nally' Ananda' the ,uddhas a++om l!sh the buddha-/or. by means o* the *our Maras and all the e!"hty-*our thousand ty es o* ass!on that a**l!+t l!)!n" be!n"s. ?Ananda' th!s !s a Dharma-door +alled 3Introdu+t!on to all the ,uddha6ual!t!es.3 The bodh!satt)a /ho enters th!s Dharma-door e1 er!en+es

ne!ther 8oy nor r!de /hen +on*ronted by a buddha-*!eld adorned /!th the s lendor o* all noble 6ual!t!es' and e1 er!en+es ne!ther sadness nor a)ers!on /hen +on*ronted by a buddha-*!eld a arently /!thout that s lendor' but !n all +ases rodu+es a ro*ound re)eren+e *or all the Tatha"atas. Indeed' !t !s /onder*ul ho/ all the Lord ,uddhas' /ho understand the e6ual!ty o* all th!n"s' man!*est all sorts o* buddha*!elds !n order to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s= ?Ananda' 8ust as the buddha-*!elds are d!)erse as to the!r s e+!*!+ 6ual!t!es but ha)e no d!**eren+e as to the s.y that +o)ers them' so' Ananda' the Tatha"atas are d!)erse as to the!r hys!+al bod!es but do not d!**er as to the!r un!m eded "nos!s. ?Ananda' all the ,uddhas are the same as to the er*e+t!on o* the ,uddha-6ual!t!es' that !s9 the!r *orms' the!r +olors' the!r rad!an+e' the!r bod!es' the!r mar.s' the!r nob!l!ty' the!r moral!ty' the!r +on+entrat!on' the!r /!sdom' the!r l!berat!on' the "nos!s and )!s!on o* l!berat!on' the!r stren"ths' the!r *earlessnesses' the!r s e+!al ,uddha-6ual!t!es' the!r "reat lo)e' the!r "reat +om ass!on' the!r hel *ul !ntent!ons' the!r att!tudes' the!r ra+t!+es' the!r aths' the len"ths o* the!r l!)es' the!r tea+h!n"s o* the Dharma' the!r de)elo ment and l!berat!on o* l!)!n" be!n"s' and the!r ur!*!+at!on o* buddha-*!elds. There*ore' they are all +alled 3Samya.sambuddhas'3 3Tatha"atas'3 and 3,uddhas.3 ?Ananda' /ere your l!*e to last an ent!re aeon' !t /ould not be easy *or you to understand thorou"hly the e1tens!)e mean!n" and re+!se )erbal s!"n!*!+an+e o* these three names. Also' Ananda' !* all the l!)!n" be!n"s o* th!s b!ll!on-/orld "ala+t!+ un!)erse /ere l!.e you the *oremost o* the learned and the *oremost o* those endo/ed /!th memory and !n+antat!ons - and /ere they to de)ote an ent!re aeon' they /ould st!ll be unable to understand +om letely the e1a+t and e1tens!)e mean!n" o* the three /ords 3Samya.sambuddha'3 3Tatha"ata'3 and 3,uddha.3 Thus' Ananda' the enl!"htenment o* the ,uddhas !s !mmeasurable' and the /!sdom and the elo6uen+e o* the Tatha"atas are !n+on+e!)able.? Then' the )enerable Ananda addressed the ,uddha9 ?Lord' *rom th!s day *orth' I shall no lon"er de+lare mysel* to be the *oremost o* the learned.?

The ,uddha sa!d' ?Do not be d!s+oura"ed' Ananda= 4hy> I ronoun+ed you' Ananda' the *oremost o* the learned' /!th the d!s+! les !n m!nd' not +ons!der!n" the bodh!satt)as. Loo.' Ananda' loo. at the bodh!satt)as. They +annot be *athomed e)en by the /!sest o* men. Ananda' one +an *athom the de ths o* the o+ean' but one +annot *athom the de ths o* the /!sdom' "nos!s' memory' !n+antat!ons' or elo6uen+e o* the bodh!satt)as. Ananda' you should rema!n !n e6uan!m!ty /!th re"ard to the deeds o* the bodh!satt)as. 4hy> Ananda' these mar)els d!s layed !n a s!n"le morn!n" by the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! +ould not be er*ormed by the d!s+! les and sol!tary sa"es /ho ha)e atta!ned m!ra+ulous o/ers' /ere they to de)ote all the!r o/ers o* !n+arnat!on and trans*ormat!on dur!n" one hundred thousand m!ll!ons o* aeons.? Then' all those bodh!satt)as *rom the buddha-*!eld o* the Tatha"ata Su"andha.uta 8o!ned the!r alms !n re)eren+e and' salut!n" the Tatha"ata Sa.yamun!' addressed h!m as *ollo/s9 ?Lord' /hen /e *!rst arr!)ed !n th!s buddha-*!eld' /e +on+e!)ed a ne"at!)e !dea' but /e no/ abandon th!s /ron" !dea. 4hy> Lord' the realms o* the ,uddhas and the!r s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue are !n+on+e!)able. In order to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s' they man!*est su+h and su+h a *!eld to su!t the des!re o* su+h and su+h a l!)!n" be!n". Lord' lease "!)e us a tea+h!n" by /h!+h /e may remember you' /hen /e ha)e returned to Sar)a"andhasu"andha.? Thus ha)!n" been re6uested' the ,uddha de+lared' ?Noble sons' there !s a l!berat!on o* bodh!satt)as +alled 3destru+t!ble and !ndestru+t!ble.3 <ou must tra!n yoursel)es !n th!s l!berat!on. 4hat !s !t> 3Destru+t!ble3 re*ers to +om ounded th!n"s. 3Indestru+t!ble3 re*ers to the un+om ounded. ,ut the bodh!satt)a should ne!ther destroy the +om ounded nor rest !n the un+om ounded. ?Not to destroy +om ounded th!n"s +ons!sts !n not los!n" the "reat lo)e: not "!)!n" u the "reat +om ass!on: not *or"ett!n" the omn!s+!ent m!nd "enerated by h!"h resol)e: not t!r!n" !n the os!t!)e de)elo ment o* l!)!n" be!n"s: not abandon!n" the means o* un!*!+at!on: "!)!n" u body and l!*e !n order to u hold the holy Dharma: ne)er be!n" sat!s*!ed /!th the roots o* )!rtue already a++umulated: ta.!n" leasure !n s.!ll*ul ded!+at!on: ha)!n" no la7!ness

!n see.!n" the Dharma: be!n" /!thout sel*!sh ret!+en+e !n tea+h!n" the Dharma: s ar!n" no e**ort !n see!n" and /orsh! !n" the Tatha"atas: be!n" *earless !n )oluntary re!n+arnat!ons: be!n" ne!ther roud !n su++ess nor bo/ed !n *a!lure: not des !s!n" the unlearned' and res e+t!n" the learned as !* they /ere the Tea+her h!msel*: ma.!n" reasonable those /hose ass!ons are e1+ess!)e: ta.!n" leasure !n sol!tude' /!thout be!n" atta+hed to !t: not lon"!n" *or one3s o/n ha !ness but lon"!n" *or the ha !ness o* others: +on+e!)!n" o* tran+e' med!tat!on' and e6uan!m!ty as !* they /ere the A)!+! hell: +on+e!)!n" o* the /orld as a "arden o* l!berat!on: +ons!der!n" be""ars to be s !r!tual tea+hers: +ons!der!n" the "!)!n" a/ay o* all ossess!ons to be the means o* real!7!n" ,uddhahood: +ons!der!n" !mmoral be!n"s to be sa)!ors: +ons!der!n" the trans+enden+es to be arents: +ons!der!n" the a!ds to enl!"htenment to be ser)ants: ne)er +eas!n" a++umulat!on o* the roots o* )!rtue: establ!sh!n" the )!rtues o* all buddha-*!elds !n one3s o/n buddha-*!eld: o**er!n" l!m!tless ure sa+r!*!+es to *ul*!ll the aus !+!ous mar.s and s!"ns: adorn!n" body' s ee+h and m!nd by re*ra!n!n" *rom all s!ns: +ont!nu!n" !n re!n+arnat!ons dur!n" !mmeasurable aeons' /h!le ur!*y!n" body' s ee+h' and m!nd: a)o!d!n" d!s+oura"ement' throu"h s !r!tual hero!sm' /hen learn!n" o* the !mmeasurable )!rtues o* the ,uddha: /!eld!n" the shar s/ord o* /!sdom to +hast!se the enemy ass!ons: .no/!n" /ell the a""re"ates' the elements' and the sense-med!a !n order to bear the burdens o* all l!)!n" be!n"s: bla7!n" /!th ener"y to +on6uer the host o* demons: see.!n" .no/led"e !n order to a)o!d r!de: be!n" +ontent /!th l!ttle des!re !n order to u hold the Dharma: not m!1!n" /!th /orldly th!n"s !n order to del!"ht all the eo le: be!n" *aultless !n all a+t!)!t!es !n order to +on*orm to all eo le: rodu+!n" the su er.no/led"es to a+tually a++om l!sh all dut!es o* bene*!t to l!)!n" be!n"s: a+6u!r!n" !n+antat!ons' memory' and .no/led"e !n order to reta!n all learn!n": understand!n" the de"rees o* eo le3s s !r!tual *a+ult!es to d!s el the doubts o* all l!)!n" be!n"s: d!s lay!n" !n)!n+!ble m!ra+ulous *eats to tea+h the Dharma: ha)!n" !rres!st!ble s ee+h by a+6u!r!n" un!m eded elo6uen+e: tast!n" human and d!)!ne su++ess by ur!*y!n" the ath o* ten )!rtues: establ!sh!n" the ath o* the ure states o* ,rahma by +ult!)at!n" the *our !mmeasurables: !n)!t!n" the ,uddhas to tea+h the Dharma' re8o!+!n" !n them' and a laud!n" them' thereby obta!n!n" the melod!ous )o!+e o* a ,uddha: d!s+! l!n!n" body' s ee+h' and m!nd' thus ma!nta!n!n" +onstant s !r!tual ro"ress: be!n" /!thout atta+hment to anyth!n" and thus a+6u!r!n" the beha)!or o* a ,uddha: "ather!n" to"ether the order o* bodh!satt)as to attra+t be!n"s to the Mahayana: and be!n" +ons+!ously a/are at all t!mes not to ne"le+t any "ood 6ual!ty. Noble sons' a bodh!satt)a /ho thus a l!es h!msel* to the Dharma !s a bodh!satt)a

/ho does not destroy the +om ounded realm. ?4hat !s not rest!n" !n the un+om ounded> The bodh!satt)a ra+t!+es )o!dness' but he does not real!7e )o!dness. ;e ra+t!+es s!"nlessness but does not real!7e s!"nlessness. ;e ra+t!+es /!shlessness but does not real!7e /!shlessness. ;e ra+t!+es non- er*orman+e but does not real!7e non- er*orman+e. ;e .no/s !m ermanen+e but !s not +om la+ent about h!s roots o* )!rtue. ;e +ons!ders m!sery' but he re!n+arnates )oluntar!ly. ;e .no/s sel*lessness but does not /aste h!msel*. ;e +ons!ders ea+e*ulness but does not see. e1treme ea+e. ;e +her!shes sol!tude but does not a)o!d mental and hys!+al e**orts. ;e +ons!ders la+elessness but does not abandon the la+e o* "ood a+t!ons. ;e +ons!ders o++urren+elessness but underta.es to bear the burdens o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. ;e +ons!ders !mma+ulateness' yet he *ollo/s the ro+ess o* the /orld. ;e +ons!ders mot!onlessness' yet he mo)es !n order to de)elo all l!)!n" be!n"s. ;e +ons!ders sel*lessness yet does not abandon the "reat +om ass!on to/ard all l!)!n" be!n"s. ;e +ons!ders b!rthlessness' yet he does not *all !nto the ult!mate determ!nat!on o* the d!s+! les. ;e +ons!ders )an!ty' *ut!l!ty' !nsubstant!al!ty' de enden+y' and la+elessness' yet he establ!shes h!msel* on mer!ts that are not )a!n' on .no/led"e that !s not *ut!le' on re*le+t!ons that are substant!al' on the str!)!n" *or the +onse+rat!on o* the !nde endent "nos!s' and on the ,uddha-*am!ly !n !ts de*!n!t!)e mean!n". ?Thus' noble sons' a bodh!satt)a /ho as !res to su+h a Dharma ne!ther rests !n the un+om ounded nor destroys the +om ounded. ?Furthermore' noble sons' !n order to a++om l!sh the store o* mer!t' a bodh!satt)a does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' !n order to a++om l!sh the store o* /!sdom' he does not destroy the +om ounded. In order to *ul*!ll the "reat lo)e' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' !n order to *ul*!ll the "reat +om ass!on' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. In order to de)elo l!)!n" be!n"s' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and !n order to as !re to the ,uddha-6ual!t!es' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. To er*e+t the mar.s o* ,uddhahood' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' to er*e+t the "nos!s o* omn!s+!en+e' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. 0ut o* s.!ll !n l!berat!)e te+hn!6ue' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' throu"h thorou"h analys!s /!th h!s /!sdom' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. To ur!*y the buddha-*!eld' he

does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' by the o/er o* the "ra+e o* the ,uddha' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. ,e+ause he *eels the needs o* l!)!n" be!n"s' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' !n order to sho/ truly the mean!n" o* the Dharma' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. ,e+ause o* h!s store o* roots o* )!rtue' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and be+ause o* h!s !nst!n+t!)e enthus!asm *or these roots o* )!rtue' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. To *ul*!ll h!s rayers' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' be+ause he has no /!shes' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. ,e+ause h!s os!t!)e thou"ht !s ure' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' be+ause h!s h!"h resol)e !s ure' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. In order to lay /!th the *!)e su er.no/led"es' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' be+ause o* the s!1 su er.no/led"es o* the buddha-"nos!s' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. To *ul*!ll the s!1 trans+enden+es' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' to *ul*!ll the t!me' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. To "ather the treasures o* the Dharma' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' be+ause he does not l!.e any narro/-m!nded tea+h!n"s' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. ,e+ause he "athers all the med!+!nes o* the Dharma' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' to a ly the med!+!ne o* the Dharma a ro r!ately' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. To +on*!rm h!s +omm!tments' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' to mend any *a!lure o* these +omm!tments' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. To +on+o+t all the el!1!rs o* the Dharma' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' to "!)e out the ne+tar o* th!s subtle Dharma' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. ,e+ause he .no/s thorou"hly all the s!+.nesses due to ass!ons' he does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and' !n order to +ure all s!+.nesses o* all l!)!n" be!n"s' he does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s. ?Thus' noble sons' the bodh!satt)a does not destroy +om ounded th!n"s and does not rest !n the un+om ounded' and that !s the l!berat!on o* bodh!satt)as +alled 3destru+t!ble and !ndestru+t!ble.3 Noble s!rs' you should also str!)e !n th!s.? Then' those bodh!satt)as' ha)!n" heard th!s tea+h!n"' /ere sat!s*!ed' del!"hted' and re)erent. They /ere *!lled /!th re8o!+!n" and ha !ness o* m!nd. In order to /orsh! the ,uddha Sa.yamun! and the bodh!satt)as o* the Saha un!)erse' as /ell as th!s tea+h!n"' they +o)ered the /hole earth o* th!s b!ll!on-/orld un!)erse /!th *ra"rant o/der' !n+ense' er*umes' and *lo/ers u to the he!"ht o* the .nees.

;a)!n" thus re"aled the /hole ret!nue o* the Tatha"ata' bo/ed the!r heads at the *eet o* the ,uddha' and +!r+umambulated h!m to the r!"ht three t!mes' they san" a hymn o* ra!se to h!m. They then d!sa eared *rom th!s un!)erse and !n a s l!t se+ond /ere ba+. !n the un!)erse Sar)a"andhasu"andha.

#@. V!s!on o* the Un!)erse Abh!rat! and the Tatha"ata A.sobhya Thereu on' the ,uddha sa!d to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ?Noble son' /hen you /ould see the Tatha"ata' ho/ do you )!e/ h!m>? Thus addressed' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d to the ,uddha' ?Lord' /hen I /ould see the Tatha"ata' I )!e/ h!m by not see!n" any Tatha"ata. 4hy> I see h!m as not born *rom the ast' not ass!n" on to the *uture' and not ab!d!n" !n the resent t!me. 4hy> ;e !s the essen+e /h!+h !s the real!ty o* matter' but he !s not matter. ;e !s the essen+e /h!+h !s the real!ty o* sensat!on' but he !s not sensat!on. ;e !s the essen+e /h!+h !s the real!ty o* !ntelle+t' but he !s not !ntelle+t. ;e !s the essen+e /h!+h !s the real!ty o* mot!)at!on' yet he !s not mot!)at!on. ;e !s the essen+e /h!+h !s the real!ty o* +ons+!ousness' yet he !s not +ons+!ousness. L!.e the element o* s a+e' he does not ab!de !n any o* the *our elements. Trans+end!n" the s+o e o* eye' ear' nose' ton"ue' body' and m!nd' he !s not rodu+ed !n the s!1 sense-med!a. ;e !s not !n)ol)ed !n the three /orlds' !s *ree o* the three de*!lements' !s asso+!ated /!th the tr! le l!berat!on' !s endo/ed /!th the three .no/led"es' and has truly atta!ned the unatta!nable. ?The Tatha"ata has rea+hed the e1treme o* deta+hment !n re"ard to all th!n"s' yet he !s not a real!ty-l!m!t. ;e ab!des !n ult!mate real!ty' yet there !s no relat!onsh! bet/een !t and h!m. ;e !s not rodu+ed *rom +auses' nor does he de end on +ond!t!ons. ;e !s not /!thout any +hara+ter!st!+' nor has he any +hara+ter!st!+. ;e has no s!n"le nature nor any d!)ers!ty o* natures. ;e !s not a +on+e t!on' not a mental +onstru+t!on' nor !s he a non+on+e t!on. ;e !s ne!ther the other shore' nor th!s shore' nor that bet/een. ;e !s ne!ther here' nor there' nor any/here else. ;e !s ne!ther th!s nor that. ;e +annot be d!s+o)ered by +ons+!ousness' nor !s he !nherent !n +ons+!ousness. ;e !s ne!ther dar.ness nor l!"ht. ;e !s ne!ther name nor s!"n. ;e !s ne!ther /ea. nor

stron". ;e l!)es !n no +ountry or d!re+t!on. ;e !s ne!ther "ood nor e)!l. ;e !s ne!ther +om ounded nor un+om ounded. ;e +annot be e1 la!ned as ha)!n" any mean!n" /hatsoe)er. ?The Tatha"ata !s ne!ther "eneros!ty nor a)ar!+e' ne!ther moral!ty nor !mmoral!ty' ne!ther toleran+e nor mal!+e' ne!ther e**ort nor sloth' ne!ther +on+entrat!on nor d!stra+t!on' ne!ther /!sdom nor *ool!shness. ;e !s !ne1 ress!ble. ;e !s ne!ther truth nor *alsehood: ne!ther es+a e *rom the /orld nor *a!lure to es+a e *rom the /orld: ne!ther +ause o* !n)ol)ement !n the /orld nor not a +ause o* !n)ol)ement !n the /orld: he !s the +essat!on o* all theory and all ra+t!+e. ;e !s ne!ther a *!eld o* mer!t nor not a *!eld o* mer!t: he !s ne!ther /orthy o* o**er!n"s nor un/orthy o* o**er!n"s. ;e !s not an ob8e+t' and +annot be +onta+ted. ;e !s not a /hole' nor a +on"lomerat!on. ;e sur asses all +al+ulat!ons. ;e !s utterly une6ualed' yet e6ual to the ult!mate real!ty o* th!n"s. ;e !s mat+hless' es e+!ally !n e**ort. ;e sur asses all measure. ;e does not "o' does not stay' does not ass beyond. ;e !s ne!ther seen' heard' d!st!n"u!shed' nor .no/n. ;e !s /!thout any +om le1!ty' ha)!n" atta!ned the e6uan!m!ty o* omn!s+!ent "nos!s. E6ual to/ard all th!n"s' he does not d!s+r!m!nate bet/een them. ;e !s /!thout re roa+h' /!thout e1+ess' /!thout +orru t!on' /!thout +on+e t!on' and /!thout !ntelle+tual!7at!on. ;e !s /!thout a+t!)!ty' /!thout b!rth' /!thout o++urren+e' /!thout or!"!n' /!thout rodu+t!on' and /!thout non rodu+t!on. ;e !s /!thout *ear and /!thout sub+ons+!ousness: /!thout sorro/' /!thout 8oy' and /!thout stra!n. No )erbal tea+h!n" +an e1 ress h!m. ?Su+h !s the body o* the Tatha"ata and thus should he be seen. 4ho sees thus' truly sees. 4ho sees other/!se' sees *alsely.? The )enerable Sar! utra then as.ed the ,uddha' ?Lord' !n /h!+h buddha-*!eld d!d the noble V!mala.!rt! d!e' be*ore re!n+arnat!n" !n th!s buddha-*!eld>? The ,uddha sa!d' ?Sar! utra' as. th!s "ood man d!re+tly /here he d!ed to re!n+arnate here.? Then the )enerable Sar! utra as.ed the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ?Noble s!r' /here d!d you d!e to re!n+arnate here>?

V!mala.!rt! de+lared' ?Is there anyth!n" amon" the th!n"s that you see' elder' that d!es or !s reborn>? Sar! utra9 There !s noth!n" that d!es or !s reborn. V!mala.!rt!9 L!.e/!se' re)erend Sar! utra' as all th!n"s ne!ther d!e nor are reborn' /hy do you as.' ?4here d!d you d!e to re!n+arnate here>? Re)erend Sar! utra' !* one /ere to as. a man or /oman +reated by a ma"!+!an /here he or she had d!ed to re!n+arnate there' /hat do you th!n. he or she /ould ans/er> Sar! utra9 Noble s!r' a ma"!+al +reat!on does not d!e' nor !s !t reborn. V!mala.!rt!9 Re)erend Sar! utra' d!d not the Tatha"ata de+lare that all th!n"s ha)e the nature o* a ma"!+al +reat!on> Sar! utra9 <es' noble s!r' that !s !ndeed so. V!mala.!rt!9 Re)erend Sar! utra' ?death? !s an end o* er*orman+e' and ?reb!rth? !s the +ont!nuat!on o* er*orman+e. ,ut' althou"h a bodh!satt)a d!es' he does not ut an end to the er*orman+e o* the roots o* )!rtue' and althou"h he !s reborn' he does not adhere to the +ont!nuat!on o* s!n. Then' the ,uddha sa!d to the )enerable Sar! utra' ?Sar! utra' th!s holy erson +ame here *rom the resen+e o* the Tatha"ata A.sobhya !n the un!)erse Abh!rat!.? Sar! utra9 Lord' !t !s /onder*ul that th!s holy erson' ha)!n" le*t a buddha-*!eld as ure as Abh!rat!' should en8oy a buddha-*!eld as *ull o* de*e+ts as th!s Saha un!)erse= The L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! sa!d' ?Sar! utra' /hat do you th!n.> Does the l!"ht o* the sun a++om any the dar.ness>?

Sar! utra9 Certa!nly not' noble s!r= V!mala.!rt!9 Then the t/o do not "o to"ether> Sar! utra9 Noble s!r' those t/o do not "o to"ether. As soon as the sun r!ses' all dar.ness !s destroyed. V!mala.!rt!9 Then /hy does the sun r!se o)er the /orld> Sar! utra9 It r!ses to !llum!nate the /orld' and to el!m!nate the dar.ness. V!mala.!rt!9 5ust !n the same /ay' re)erend Sar! utra' the bodh!satt)a re!n+arnates )oluntar!ly !n the !m ure buddha-*!elds !n order to ur!*y the l!)!n" be!n"s' !n order to ma.e the l!"ht o* /!sdom sh!ne' and !n order to +lear a/ay the dar.ness. S!n+e they do not asso+!ate /!th the ass!ons' they d!s el the dar.ness o* the ass!ons o* all l!)!n" be!n"s. Thereu on' the ent!re mult!tude e1 er!en+ed the des!re to behold the un!)erse Abh!rat!' the Tatha"ata A.sobhya' h!s bodh!satt)as' and h!s "reat d!s+! les. The ,uddha' .no/!n" the thou"hts o* the ent!re mult!tude' sa!d to the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ?Noble son' th!s mult!tude /!shes to behold the un!)erse Abh!rat! and the Tatha"ata A.sobhya sho/ them=? Then the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! thou"ht' ?4!thout r!s!n" *rom my +ou+h' I shall !+. u !n my r!"ht hand the un!)erse Abh!rat! and all !t +onta!ns9 !ts hundreds o* thousands o* bodh!satt)as: !ts abodes o* de)as' na"as' ya.sas' "andhar)as' and asuras' bounded by !ts Ca.ra)ada mounta!ns: !ts r!)ers' la.es' *ounta!ns' streams' o+eans' and other bod!es o* /ater: !ts Mount Sumeru and other h!lls and mounta!n ran"es: !ts moon' !ts sun' and !ts stars: !ts de)as' na"as' ya.sas' "andhar)as' and asuras themsel)es: !ts ,rahma and h!s ret!nues: !ts )!lla"es' +!t!es' to/ns' ro)!n+es' .!n"doms' men' /omen' and houses: !ts bodh!satt)as: !ts d!s+! les: the tree o* enl!"htenment o* the Tatha"ata A.sobhya: and the Tatha"ata A.sobhya h!msel*' seated !n

the m!ddle o* an assembly )ast as an o+ean' tea+h!n" the Dharma. Also the lotuses that a++om l!sh the buddha-/or. amon" the l!)!n" be!n"s: the three 8e/eled ladders that r!se *rom !ts earth to !ts Trayastr!msa hea)en' on /h!+h ladders the "ods o* that hea)en des+end to the /orld to see' honor' and ser)e the Tatha"ata A.sobhya and to hear the Dharma' and on /h!+h the men o* the earth +l!mb to the Trayastr!msa hea)en to )!s!t those "ods. L!.e a otter /!th h!s /heel' I /!ll redu+e that un!)erse Abh!rat!' /!th !ts store o* !nnumerable )!rtues' *rom !ts /atery base u to !ts A.an!stha hea)en' to a m!nute s!7e and' +arry!n" !t "ently l!.e a "arland o* *lo/ers' /!ll br!n" !t to th!s Saha un!)erse and /!ll sho/ !t to the mult!tudes.? Then' the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt! entered !nto a +on+entrat!on' and er*ormed a m!ra+ulous *eat su+h that he redu+ed the un!)erse Abh!rat! to a m!nute s!7e' and too. !t /!th h!s r!"ht hand' and brou"ht !t !nto th!s Saha un!)erse. In that un!)erse Abh!rat!' the d!s+! les' bodh!satt)as' and those amon" "ods and men /ho ossessed the su er.no/led"e o* the d!)!ne eye all +r!ed out' ?Lord' /e are be!n" +arr!ed a/ay= Su"ata' /e are be!n" +arr!ed o**= (rote+t us' 0 Tatha"ata=? ,ut' to d!s+! l!ne them' the Tatha"ata A.sobhya sa!d to them' ?<ou are be!n" +arr!ed o** by the bodh!satt)a V!mala.!rt!. It !s not my a**a!r.? As *or the other men and "ods' they had no a/areness at all that they /ere be!n" +arr!ed any/here. Althou"h the un!)erse Abh!rat! had been brou"ht !nto the un!)erse Saha' the Saha un!)erse /as not !n+reased or d!m!n!shed: !t /as ne!ther +om ressed nor obstru+ted. Nor /as the un!)erse Abh!rat! redu+ed !nternally' and both un!)erses a eared to be the same as they had e)er been. Thereu on' the ,uddha Sa.yamun! as.ed all the mult!tudes' ?Fr!ends' behold the s lendors o* the un!)erse Abh!rat!' the Tatha"ata A.sobhya' the array o* h!s buddha-*!eld' and the s lendors o* these

d!s+! les and bodh!satt)as=? They re l!ed' ?4e see them' Lord=? The ,uddha sa!d' ?Those bodh!satt)as /ho /!sh to embra+e su+h a buddha-*!eld should tra!n themsel)es !n all the bodh!satt)a- ra+t!+es o* the Tatha"ata A.sobhya.? 4h!le V!mala.!rt!' /!th h!s m!ra+ulous o/er' sho/ed them thus the un!)erse Abh!rat! and the Tatha"ata A.sobhya' one hundred and *orty thousand l!)!n" be!n"s amon" the men and "ods o* the Saha un!)erse +on+e!)ed the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment' and all o* them *ormed a rayer to be reborn !n the un!)erse Abh!rat!. And the ,uddha ro hes!ed that !n the *uture all /ould be reborn !n the un!)erse Abh!rat!. And the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' ha)!n" thus de)elo ed all the l!)!n" be!n"s /ho +ould thereby be de)elo ed' returned the un!)erse Abh!rat! e1a+tly to !ts *ormer la+e. The Lord then sa!d to the )enerable Sar! utra' ?Sar! utra' d!d you see that un!)erse Abh!rat!' and the Tatha"ata A.sobhya>? Sar! utra re l!ed' ?I sa/ !t' Lord= May all l!)!n" be!n"s +ome to l!)e !n a buddha-*!eld as s lend!d as that= May all l!)!n" be!n"s +ome to ha)e m!ra+ulous o/ers 8ust l!.e those o* the noble L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!= ?4e ha)e "a!ned "reat bene*!t *rom ha)!n" seen a holy man su+h as he. 4e ha)e "a!ned a "reat bene*!t *rom ha)!n" heard su+h tea+h!n" o* the Dharma' /hether the Tatha"ata h!msel* st!ll a+tually e1!sts or /hether he has already atta!ned ult!mate l!berat!on. ;en+e' there !s no need to ment!on the "reat bene*!t *or those /ho' ha)!n" heard !t' bel!e)e !t' rely on !t' embra+e !t' remember !t' read !t' and enetrate to !ts de th: and' ha)!n" *ound *a!th !n !t' tea+h' re+!te' and sho/ !t to others and a ly themsel)es to the yo"a o* med!tat!on u on !ts tea+h!n". ?Those l!)!n" be!n"s /ho understand +orre+tly th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma /!ll obta!n the treasury o* the 8e/els o* the Dharma.

?Those /ho study +orre+tly th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma /!ll be+ome the +om an!ons o* the Tatha"ata. Those /ho honor and ser)e the ade ts o* th!s do+tr!ne /!ll be the true rote+tors o* the Dharma. Those /ho /r!te' tea+h' and /orsh! th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma /!ll be )!s!ted by the Tatha"ata !n the!r homes. Those /ho ta.e leasure !n th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma /!ll embra+e all mer!ts. Those /ho tea+h !t to others' /hether !t be no more than a s!n"le stan7a o* *our l!nes' or a s!n"le summary hrase *rom th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma' /!ll be er*orm!n" the "reat Dharma-sa+r!*!+e. And those /ho de)ote to th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma the!r toleran+e' the!r 7eal' the!r !ntell!"en+e' the!r d!s+ernment' the!r )!s!on' and the!r as !rat!ons' thereby be+ome sub8e+t to the ro hesy o* *uture ,uddhahood=?

E !lo"ue9 Ante+edents and Transm!ss!on o* the ;oly Dharma Then Sa.ra' the r!n+e o* the "ods' sa!d to the ,uddha' ?Lord' *ormerly I ha)e heard *rom the Tatha"ata and *rom Man8usr!' the +ro/n r!n+e o* /!sdom' many hundreds o* thousands o* tea+h!n"s o* the Dharma' but I ha)e ne)er be*ore heard a tea+h!n" o* the Dharma as remar.able as th!s !nstru+t!on !n the entran+e !nto the method o* !n+on+e!)able trans*ormat!ons. Lord' those l!)!n" be!n"s /ho' ha)!n" heard th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma' a++e t !t' remember !t' read !t' and understand !t dee ly /!ll be' /!thout a doubt' true )essels o* the Dharma: there !s no need to ment!on those /ho a ly themsel)es to the yo"a o* med!tat!on u on !t. They /!ll +ut o** all oss!b!l!ty o* unha y l!)es' /!ll o en the!r /ay to all *ortunate l!)es' /!ll al/ays be loo.ed a*ter by all ,uddhas' /!ll al/ays o)er+ome all ad)ersar!es' and /!ll al/ays +on6uer all de)!ls. They /!ll ra+t!+e the ath o* the bodh!satt)as' /!ll ta.e the!r la+es u on the seat o* Enl!"htenment' and /!ll ha)e truly entered the doma!n o* the Tatha"atas. Lord' the noble sons and dau"hters /ho /!ll tea+h and ra+t!+e th!s e1 os!t!on o* the Dharma /!ll be honored and ser)ed by me and my *ollo/ers. To the )!lla"es' to/ns' +!t!es' states' .!n"doms' and +a !tals /here!n th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma /!ll be a l!ed' tau"ht' and demonstrated' I and my *ollo/ers /!ll +ome to hear the Dharma. I /!ll !ns !re the unbel!e)!n" /!th *a!th' and I /!ll "uarantee my hel and rote+t!on to those /ho bel!e)e and u hold the Dharma.?

At these /ords' the ,uddha sa!d to Sa.ra' the r!n+e o* the "ods' ?E1+ellent= E1+ellent' r!n+e o* "ods= The Tatha"ata re8o!+es !n your "ood /ords. (r!n+e o* "ods' the enl!"htenment o* the ,uddhas o* the ast' resent' and *uture !s e1 ressed !n th!s d!s+ourse o* Dharma. There*ore' r!n+e o* "ods' /hen noble sons and dau"hters a++e t !t' re eat !t' understand !t dee ly' /r!te !t +om letely' and' ma.!n" !t !nto a boo.' honor !t' those sons and dau"hters thereby ay homa"e to the ,uddhas o* the ast' resent and *uture. ?Let us su ose' r!n+e o* "ods' that th!s b!ll!on-/orld-"ala+t!+ un!)erse /ere as *ull o* Tatha"atas as !t !s +o)ered /!th "ro)es o* su"ar+ane' /!th rosebushes' /!th bamboo th!+.ets' /!th herbs' and /!th *lo/ers' and that a noble son or dau"hter /ere to honor them' re)ere them' res e+t and adore them' o**er!n" them all sorts o* +om*orts and o**er!n"s *or an aeon or more than an aeon. And let us su ose that' these Tatha"atas ha)!n" entered ult!mate l!berat!on' he or she honored ea+h o* them by enshr!n!n" the!r reser)ed bod!es !n a memor!al stu a made o* re+!ous stones' ea+h as lar"e as a /orld /!th *our "reat +ont!nents' r!s!n" as h!"h as the /orld o* ,rahma' adorned /!th arasols' banners' standards' and lam s. And let us su ose *!nally that' ha)!n" ere+ted all these stu as *or the Tatha"atas' he or she /ere to de)ote an aeon or more to o**er!n" them *lo/ers' er*umes' banners' and standards' /h!le lay!n" drums and mus!+. That be!n" done' /hat do you th!n.' r!n+e o* "ods> 4ould that noble son or dau"hter re+e!)e mu+h mer!t as a +onse6uen+e o* su+h a+t!)!t!es>? Sa.ra' the r!n+e o* "ods' re l!ed' ?Many mer!ts' Lord= Many mer!ts' 0 Su"ata= 4ere one to s end hundreds o* thousands o* m!ll!ons o* aeons' !t /ould be !m oss!ble to measure the l!m!t o* the mass o* mer!ts that that noble son or dau"hter /ould thereby "ather=? The ,uddha sa!d' ?;a)e *a!th' r!n+e o* "ods' and understand th!s9 4hoe)er a++e ts th!s e1 os!t!on o* the Dharma +alled 3Instru+t!on !n the In+on+e!)able L!berat!on'3 re+!tes !t' and understands !t dee ly' he or she /!ll "ather mer!ts e)en "reater than those /ho er*orm the abo)e a+ts. 4hy so> ,e+ause' r!n+e o* "ods' the enl!"htenment o* the ,uddhas ar!ses *rom the Dharma' and one honors them by the Dharma /orsh! ' and not by mater!al /orsh! . Thus !t !s tau"ht' r!n+e o*

"ods' and thus you must understand !t.? The ,uddha then *urther sa!d to Sa.ra' the r!n+e o* "ods' ?0n+e' r!n+e o* "ods' lon" a"o' lon" be*ore aeons more numerous than the !nnumerable' !mmense' !mmeasurable' !n+on+e!)able' and e)en be*ore then' the Tatha"ata +alled ,ha!sa8yara8a a eared !n the /orld9 a sa!nt' er*e+tly and *ully enl!"htened' endo/ed /!th .no/led"e and +ondu+t' a bl!ss*ul one' .no/er o* the /orld' !n+om arable .no/er o* men /ho need to be +!)!l!7ed' tea+her o* "ods and men' a Lord' a ,uddha. ;e a eared !n the aeon +alled V!+arana !n the un!)erse +alled Maha)yuha. ?The len"th o* l!*e o* th!s Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a' er*e+tly and *ully enl!"htened one' /as t/enty short aeons. ;!s ret!nue o* d!s+! les numbered th!rty-s!1 m!ll!on b!ll!on' and h!s ret!nue o* bodh!satt)as numbered t/el)e m!ll!on b!ll!on. In that same era' r!n+e o* "ods' there /as a un!)ersal monar+h +alled K!n" Ratna++hattra' /ho re!"ned o)er the *our +ont!nents and ossessed se)en re+!ous 8e/els. ;e had one thousand hero!+ sons' o/er*ul' stron"' and able to +on6uer enemy arm!es. Th!s K!n" Ratna++hattra honored the Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a and h!s ret!nue /!th many e1+ellent o**er!n"s dur!n" *!)e short aeons. At the end o* th!s t!me' the K!n" Ratna++hattra sa!d to h!s sons' 3Re+o"n!7!n" that dur!n" my re!"n I ha)e /orsh! ed the Tatha"ata' !n your turn you also should /orsh! h!m.3 ?The thousand r!n+es "a)e the!r +onsent' obey!n" the!r *ather the .!n"' and all to"ether' dur!n" another *!)e short aeons' they honored the Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a /!th all sorts o* e1+ellent o**er!n"s. ?Amon" them' there /as a r!n+e by the name o* Candra++hattra' /ho ret!red !nto sol!tude and thou"ht to h!msel*' 3Is there not another mode o* /orsh! ' e)en better and more noble than th!s>3 ?Then' by the su ernatural o/er o* the ,uddha ,ha!sa8yara8a' the "ods s o.e to h!m *rom the hea)ens9 32ood man' the su reme /orsh! !s the Dharma-/orsh! .3 ?Candra++hattra as.ed them' 34hat !s th!s ?Dharma-/orsh! ?>3

?The "ods re l!ed' 32ood man' "o to the Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a' as. h!m about the ?Dharma-/orsh! '? and he /!ll e1 la!n !t to you *ully.3 ?Then' the r!n+e Candra++hattra /ent to the Lord ,ha!sa8yara8a' the sa!nt' the Tatha"ata' the !nsu erably' er*e+tly enl!"htened one' and ha)!n" a roa+hed h!m' bo/ed do/n at h!s *eet' +!r+umambulated h!m to the r!"ht three t!mes' and /!thdre/ to one s!de. ;e then as.ed' 3Lord' I ha)e heard o* a ?Dharma-/orsh! '? /h!+h sur asses all other /orsh! . 4hat !t th!s ?Dharma-/orsh! ?>3 ?The Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a sa!d' 3Noble son' the Dharma-/orsh! !s that /orsh! rendered to the d!s+ourses tau"ht by the Tatha"ata. These d!s+ourses are dee and ro*ound !n !llum!nat!on. They do not +on*orm to the mundane and are d!**!+ult to understand' d!**!+ult to see and d!**!+ult to real!7e. They are subtle' re+!se' and ult!mately !n+om rehens!ble. As S+r! tures' they are +olle+ted !n the +anon o* the bodh!satt)as' stam ed /!th the !ns!"n!a o* the .!n" o* !n+antat!ons and tea+h!n"s. They re)eal the !rre)ers!ble /heel o* Dharma' ar!s!n" *rom the s!1 trans+enden+es' +leansed o* any *alse not!ons. They are endo/ed /!th all the a!ds to enl!"htenment and embody the se)en *a+tors o* enl!"htenment. They !ntrodu+e l!)!n" be!n"s to the "reat +om ass!on and tea+h them the "reat lo)e. They el!m!nate all the +on)!+t!ons o* the Maras' and they man!*est relat!)!ty. ?3They +onta!n the messa"e o* sel*lessness' l!)!n"-be!n"lessness' l!*elessness' ersonlessness' )o!dness' s!"nlessness' /!shlessness' non er*orman+e' non rodu+t!on' and nono++urren+e. ?3They ma.e oss!ble the atta!nment o* the seat o* enl!"htenment and set !n mot!on the /heel o* the Dharma. They are a ro)ed and ra!sed by the +h!e*s o* the "ods' na"as' ya.sas' "andhar)as' asuras' "arudas' .!mnaras' and mahora"as. They reser)e unbro.en the her!ta"e o* the holy Dharma' +onta!n the treasury o* the Dharma' and re resent the summ!t o* the Dharma-/orsh! . They are u held by all holy be!n"s and tea+h all the bodh!satt)a ra+t!+es. They !ndu+e the unm!sta.en understand!n" o* the Dharma !n !ts ult!mate sense. They +ert!*y that all th!n"s are !m ermanent' m!serable' sel*less' and ea+e*ul' thus e !tom!7!n" the Dharma. They +ause the abandonment o* a)ar!+e'

!mmoral!ty' mal!+e' la7!ness' *or"et*ulness' *ool!shness' and 8ealousy' as /ell as bad +on)!+t!ons' adheren+e to ob8e+ts' and all o os!t!on. They are ra!sed by all the ,uddhas. They are the med!+!nes *or the tenden+!es o* mundane l!*e' and they authent!+ally man!*est the "reat ha !ness o* l!berat!on. To tea+h +orre+tly' to u hold' to !n)est!"ate' and to understand su+h S+r! tures' thus !n+or orat!n" !nto one3s o/n l!*e the holy Dharma - that !s the ?Dharma-/orsh! .? ?3Furthermore' noble son' the Dharma-/orsh! +ons!sts o* determ!n!n" the Dharma a++ord!n" to the Dharma: a ly!n" the Dharma a++ord!n" to the Dharma: be!n" !n harmony /!th relat!)!ty: be!n" *ree o* e1trem!st +on)!+t!ons: atta!n!n" the toleran+e o* ult!mate b!rthlessness and nono++urren+e o* all th!n"s: real!7!n" sel*lessness and l!)!n"be!n"lessness: re*ra!n!n" *rom stru""le about +auses and +ond!t!ons' /!thout 6uarrel!n"' or d!s ut!n": not be!n" ossess!)e: be!n" *ree o* e"o!sm: rely!n" on the mean!n" and not on the l!teral e1 ress!on: rely!n" on "nos!s and not on +ons+!ousness: rely!n" on the ult!mate tea+h!n"s de*!n!t!)e !n mean!n" and not !ns!st!n" on the su er*!+!al tea+h!n"s !nter retable !n mean!n": rely!n" on real!ty and not !ns!st!n" on o !n!ons der!)ed *rom ersonal author!t!es: real!7!n" +orre+tly the real!ty o* the ,uddha: real!7!n" the ult!mate absen+e o* any *undamental +ons+!ousness: and o)er+om!n" the hab!t o* +l!n"!n" to an ult!mate "round. F!nally' atta!n!n" ea+e by sto !n" e)eryth!n" *rom !"noran+e to old a"e' death' sorro/' lamentat!on' m!sery' an1!ety' and trouble' and real!7!n" that l!)!n" be!n"s .no/ no end to the!r )!e/s +on+ern!n" these t/el)e l!n.s o* de endent or!"!nat!on: then' noble son' /hen you do not hold to any )!e/ at all' !t !s +alled the une1+elled Dharma-/orsh! .3 ?(r!n+e o* "ods' /hen the r!n+e Candra++hattra had heard th!s de*!n!t!on o* Dharma-/orsh! *rom the Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a' he atta!ned the +on*ormat!)e toleran+e o* ult!mate b!rthlessness: and' ta.!n" h!s robes and ornaments' he o**ered them to the ,uddha ,ha!sa8yara8a' say!n"' 34hen the Tatha"ata /!ll be !n ult!mate l!berat!on' I /!sh to de*end h!s holy Dharma' to rote+t !t' and to /orsh! !t. May the Tatha"ata "rant me h!s su ernatural bless!n"' that I may be able to +on6uer Mara and all ad)ersar!es and to !n+or orate !n all my l!)es the holy Dharma o* the ,uddha=3 ?The Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a' .no/!n" the h!"h resol)e o* Candra++hattra' ro hes!ed to h!m that he /ould be' at a later t!me' !n

the *uture' the rote+tor' "uard!an' and de*ender o* the +!ty o* the holy Dharma. Then' r!n+e o* "ods' the r!n+e Candra++hattra' out o* h!s "reat *a!th !n the Tatha"ata' le*t the household l!*e !n order to enter the homeless l!*e o* a mon. and ha)!n" done so' l!)ed ma.!n" "reat e**orts to/ard the atta!nment o* )!rtue. ;a)!n" made "reat e**ort and be!n" /ell establ!shed !n )!rtue' he soon rodu+ed the *!)e su er.no/led"es' understood the !n+antat!ons' and obta!ned the !n)!n+!ble elo6uen+e. 4hen the Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a atta!ned ult!mate l!berat!on' Candra++hattra' on the stren"th o* h!s su er.no/led"es and by the o/er o* h!s !n+antat!ons' made the /heel o* the Dharma turn 8ust as the Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a had done and +ont!nued to do so *or ten short aeons. ?(r!n+e o* "ods' /h!le the mon. Candra++hattra /as e1ert!n" h!msel* thus to rote+t the holy Dharma' thousands o* m!ll!ons o* l!)!n" be!n"s rea+hed the sta"e o* !rre)ers!b!l!ty on the ath to une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment' *ourteen b!ll!on l!)!n" be!n"s /ere d!s+! l!ned !n the )eh!+les o* the d!s+! les and sol!tary sa"es' and !nnumerable l!)!n" be!n"s too. reb!rth !n the human and hea)enly realms. ?(erha s' r!n+e o* "ods' you are /onder!n" or e1 er!en+!n" some doubt about /hether or not' at that *ormer t!me' the K!n" Ratna++hattra /as not some other than the a+tual Tatha"ata Ratnar+!s. <ou must not !ma"!ne that' *or the resent Tatha"ata Ratnar+!s /as at that t!me' !n that e o+h' the un!)ersal monar+h Ratna++hattra. As *or the thousand sons o* the K!n" Ratna++hattra' they are no/ the thousand bodh!satt)as o* the resent blessed aeon' dur!n" the +ourse o* /h!+h one thousand ,uddhas /!ll a ear !n the /orld. Amon" them' Kra.u++handa and others are already born' and those rema!n!n" /!ll st!ll be born' *rom Ka.utsunda u to the Tatha"ata Ro+a' /ho /!ll be the last to be born. ?(erha s' r!n+e o* "ods' you are as.!n" yoursel* !*' !n that l!*e' !n that t!me' the (r!n+e Candra++hattra /ho u held the ;oly Dharma o* Lord Tatha"ata ,ha!sa8yara8a /as not someone other than mysel*. ,ut you must not !ma"!ne that' *or I /as' !n that l!*e' !n that t!me' the (r!n+e Candra++hattra. Thus !t !s ne+essary to .no/' r!n+e o* "ods' that amon" all the /orsh! s rendered to the Tatha"ata' the Dharma/orsh! !s the )ery best. <es' !t !s "ood' em!nent' e1+ellent' er*e+t' su reme' and une1+elled. And there*ore' r!n+e o* "ods' do not /orsh! me /!th mater!al ob8e+ts but /orsh! me /!th the Dharma-

/orsh! = Do not honor me /!th mater!al ob8e+ts but honor me by honor to the Dharma=? Then the Lord Sa.yamun! sa!d to the bodh!satt)a Ma!treya' the "reat s !r!tual hero' ?I transm!t to you' Ma!treya' th!s une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment /h!+h I atta!ned only a*ter !nnumerable m!ll!ons o* b!ll!ons o* aeons' !n order that' at a later t!me' dur!n" a later l!*e' a s!m!lar tea+h!n" o* the Dharma' rote+ted by your su ernatural o/er' /!ll s read !n the /orld and /!ll not d!sa ear. 4hy> Ma!treya' !n the *uture there /!ll be noble sons and dau"hters' de)as' na"as' ya.sas' "andhar)as' and asuras' /ho' ha)!n" lanted the roots o* )!rtue' /!ll rodu+e the s !r!t o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment. I* they do not hear th!s tea+h!n" o* the Dharma' they /!ll +erta!nly lose boundless ad)anta"es and e)en er!sh. ,ut !* they hear su+h a tea+h!n"' they /!ll re8o!+e' /!ll bel!e)e' and /!ll a++e t !t u on the +ro/ns o* the!r heads. ;en+e' !n order to rote+t those *uture noble sons and dau"hters' you must s read a tea+h!n" su+h as th!s= ?Ma!treya' there are t/o "estures o* the bodh!satt)as. 4hat are they> The *!rst "esture !s to bel!e)e !n all sorts o* hrases and /ords' and the se+ond "esture !s to enetrate e1a+tly the ro*ound r!n+! le o* the Dharma /!thout be!n" a*ra!d. Su+h are the t/o "estures o* the bodh!satt)as. Ma!treya' !t must be .no/n that the bodh!satt)as /ho bel!e)e !n all sorts o* /ords and hrases' and a ly themsel)es a++ord!n"ly' are be"!nners and not e1 er!en+ed !n rel!"!ous ra+t!+e. ,ut the bodh!satt)as /ho read' hear' bel!e)e' and tea+h th!s ro*ound tea+h!n" /!th !ts !m e++able e1 ress!ons re+on+!l!n" d!+hotom!es and !ts analyses o* sta"es o* de)elo ment these are )eterans !n the rel!"!ous ra+t!+e. ?Ma!treya' there are t/o reasons the be"!nner bodh!satt)as hurt themsel)es and do not +on+entrate on the ro*ound Dharma. 4hat are they> ;ear!n" th!s ro*ound tea+h!n" ne)er be*ore heard' they are terr!*!ed and doubt*ul' do not re8o!+e' and re8e+t !t' th!n.!n"' 34hen+e +omes th!s tea+h!n" ne)er be*ore heard>3 They then behold other noble sons a++e t!n"' be+om!n" )essels *or' and tea+h!n" th!s ro*ound tea+h!n"' and they do not attend u on them' do not be*r!end them' do not res e+t them' and do not honor them' and e)entually they "o so *ar as to +r!t!+!7e them. These are the t/o reasons the be"!nner bodh!satt)as hurt themsel)es and do not enetrate the ro*ound Dharma.

?There are t/o reasons the bodh!satt)as /ho do as !re to the ro*ound Dharma hurt themsel)es and do not atta!n the toleran+e o* the ult!mate b!rthlessness o* th!n"s. 4hat are these t/o> These bodh!satt)as des !se and re roa+h the be"!nner bodh!satt)as' /ho ha)e not been ra+t!+!n" *or a lon" t!me' and they do not !n!t!ate them or !nstru+t them !n the ro*ound tea+h!n". ;a)!n" no "reat res e+t *or th!s ro*ound tea+h!n"' they are not +are*ul about !ts rules. They hel l!)!n" be!n"s by means o* mater!al "!*ts and do not hel them by means o* the "!*t o* the Dharma. Su+h' Ma!treya' are the t/o reasons the bodh!satt)as /ho as !re to the ro*ound Dharma hurt themsel)es and /!ll not 6u!+.ly atta!n the toleran+e o* the ult!mate b!rthlessness o* all th!n"s.? Thus ha)!n" been tau"ht' the bodh!satt)a Ma!treya sa!d to the ,uddha' ?Lord' the beaut!*ul tea+h!n"s o* the Tatha"ata are /onder*ul and truly e1+ellent. Lord' *rom th!s t!me *orth' I /!ll a)o!d all su+h errors and /!ll de*end and u hold th!s atta!nment o* une1+elled' er*e+t enl!"htenment by the Tatha"ata dur!n" !nnumerable hundreds o* thousands o* m!ll!ons o* b!ll!ons o* aeons= In the *uture' I /!ll la+e !n the hands o* noble sons and noble dau"hters /ho are /orthy )essels o* the holy Dharma th!s ro*ound tea+h!n". I /!ll !nst!ll !n them the o/er o* memory /!th /h!+h they may' ha)!n" bel!e)ed !n th!s tea+h!n"' reta!n !t' re+!te' !t' enetrate !ts de ths' tea+h !t' ro a"ate !t' /r!te !t do/n' and ro+la!m !t e1tens!)ely to others. ?Thus I /!ll !nstru+t them' Lord' and thus !t may be .no/n that !n that *uture t!me those /ho bel!e)e !n th!s tea+h!n" and /ho enter dee ly !nto !t /!ll be susta!ned by the su ernatural bless!n" o* the bodh!satt)a Ma!treya.? Thereu on the ,uddha "a)e h!s a ro)al to the bodh!satt)a Ma!treya9 ?E1+ellent= E1+ellent= <our /ord !s /ell "!)en= The Tatha"ata re8o!+es and +ommends your "ood rom!se.? Then all the bodh!satt)as sa!d to"ether !n one )o!+e' ?Lord' /e also' a*ter the ult!mate l!berat!on o* the Tatha"ata' /!ll +ome *rom our )ar!ous buddha-*!elds to s read *ar and /!de th!s enl!"htenment o* the er*e+t ,uddha' the Tatha"ata. May all noble sons and dau"hters

bel!e)e !n that=? Then the *our Mahara8as' the "reat .!n"s o* the 6uarters' sa!d to the ,uddha' ?Lord' !n all the to/ns' )!lla"es' +!t!es' .!n"doms' and ala+es' /here)er th!s d!s+ourse o* the Dharma /!ll be ra+t!sed' u held' and +orre+tly tau"ht' /e' the *our "reat .!n"s' /!ll "o there /!th our arm!es' our youn" /arr!ors' and our ret!nues' to hear the Dharma. And /e /!ll rote+t the tea+hers o* th!s Dharma *or a rad!us o* one lea"ue so that no one /ho lots !n8ury or d!sru t!on a"a!nst these tea+hers /!ll ha)e any o ortun!ty to do them harm.? Then the ,uddha sa!d to the )enerable Ananda' ?Re+e!)e then' Ananda' th!s e1 ress!on o* the tea+h!n" o* the Dharma. Remember !t' and tea+h !t /!dely and +orre+tly to others=? Ananda re l!ed' ?I ha)e memor!7ed' Lord' th!s e1 ress!on o* the tea+h!n" o* the Dharma. ,ut /hat !s the name o* th!s tea+h!n"' and ho/ should I remember !t>? The ,uddha sa!d' ?Ananda' th!s e1 os!t!on o* the Dharma !s +alled 3The Tea+h!n" o* V!mala.!rt!'3 or 3The Re+on+!l!at!on o* D!+hotom!es'3 or e)en 3Se+t!on o* the In+on+e!)able L!berat!on.3 Remember !t thus=? Thus s o.e the ,uddha. And the L!++ha)! V!mala.!rt!' the +ro/n r!n+e Man8usr!' the )enerable Ananda' the bodh!satt)as' the "reat d!s+! les' the ent!re mult!tude' and the /hole un!)erse /!th !ts "ods' men' asuras and "andhar)as' re8o!+ed e1+eed!n"ly. All heart!ly ra!sed these de+larat!ons by the Lord. 3Du3 means /orthless' and 3kha3 means hollo/. So 3dukkha3 en+om asses more than a!n F !t !n+ludes 3l!*e s!m ly be!n" d!**erent to ho/ I /ould re*er !t to be3 F and !nd!+ates the !llusory nature o* du..ha. The T!betan /ord /h!+h e6uates /!th du..ha !s du"-n"al GsDug bsNgalH /h!+h means 3unsat!s*a+tor!ness3. It +omb!nes the /ord 3sDug3 F /h!+h means 3*rustrat!on3 F /!th the /ord 3 bsNgal3 /h!+h means 3/ear!ness3. N"a.3+han" R!n o+he says o* du"-n"al9 ?Du.ha or du"-n"al does not really mean 3su**er!n"3 er se. Du"-

n"al !s a term /h!+h +onta!ns su**er!n" as art o* a broad s e+rtum o* e16u!s!te dual!st!+ !n+on)en!en+es /h!+h ran"e *rom m!ld d!s leasure to utter a"ony. 3Unsat!s*a+tor!ness3 !s there*ore a re*erable term !n res e+t o* translat!n" du"-n"al.I 34orthlessness3 and 3hollo/ness3 h!nt that /e oursel)es +reate d!ssat!s*a+t!on. It !s not sel*-e1!stent. Samsara !s dual!sm F !t !s the ro+ess o* "ras !n" at *orm and retra+t!n" *rom em t!ness !n /h!+h /e en"a"e moment by moment' day by day' throu"hout our l!)es. Samsara !s the ro+ess o* attem t!n" to su++eed at dual!ty be+ause /e bel!e)e su++ess !s oss!ble. Samsara !s the ro+ess o* a+6u!r!n" /ealth' relat!onsh! s' o++u at!ons be+ause /e bel!e)e the!r a arent *orm /!ll ma.e us sa*e and se+ure. The e1 er!en+e o* samsara !s the base o* Sutrayana. The tea+h!n"s o* Sutrayana ar!se !n res onse to our e1 er!en+e o* samsara as unsat!s*a+tory. The !dea o* samsara e1 er!en+ed as d!ssat!s*a+t!on !m l!es the e1!sten+e o* n!r)ana as a *ul*!ll!n" e1 er!en+e. N!r)ana may m!sta.enly be thou"ht o* as an 3other-/orldly state3' a ure land' hea)en' or arad!se. Th!s !s a m!s+on+e t!on. Samsara !s n!r)ana. N!r)ana !s samsara. They are the same en)!ronment. They are e1a+tly the same +!r+umstan+es. It !s our relat!onsh! /!th en)!ronment and +!r+umstan+e /h!+h +han"es our e1 er!en+e. 4hen /e "a!n real!sat!on' /e /!ll not suddenly *!nd oursel)es reborn !nto a totally ne/ hys!+al e1!sten+e. Rather' /e /!ll d!s+o)er oursel)es reborn !n the real!ty o* our resent e1!sten+e /!th a/a.ened )!e/. 0ur bod!es and our /orld are er*e+t as they are. There !s noth!n" that /e need to "et r!d o* or ur!*y !n order to d!s+o)er n!r)ana. 4e s!m ly need to +lar!*y our )!e/. The bel!e* that l!berat!on re6u!res us to d!s+o)er another +on+rete realm /here e)eryth!n" !s er*e+t /!ll not hel us d!s+o)er the er*e+t!on o* /here /e are. The e1 er!en+e o* ure ha !ness and leasure !s a)a!lable to us !n th!s l!*e. 4e +an e1 er!en+e the s ar.le o* enl!"htenment !n a moment o* lo)!n" or lau"hter. Then /e may start to /onder /hy /e lose these moments. It !s not a+tually oss!ble to "ras the subtlety o* our e1 er!en+e o* the unsat!s*a+tor!ness o* samsara !* /e are su**er!n" too "reatly. I* my /hole l!*e has been de r!)at!on' a""ress!on' lonel!ness' an1!ety' and a!n*ul +on*us!on' then !t /ould be easy merely to )!e/ bad lu+.' arental abuse' or so+!etal !n8ust!+e as the +ause o* my unha !ness. In order to a+tually er+e!)e the hollo/ness o* du..ha' /e ha)e to ha)e some measure o* su++ess and leasure !n our l!)es. I ha)e to be able to ma!nta!n healthy relat!onsh! s /!th *r!ends and *am!ly' and ma.e my o/n /ay !n the /orld. It !s /hen I *!nd the *eel!n" o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on rema!ns' e)en thou"h my l!*e !s su++ess*ul !n samsar!+ terms' that I

start to be sus !+!ous that there m!"ht be a roblem /!th my )!e/. It !s only then that I +an be"!n to understand that dual!ty !s the sour+e o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on. My *ear o* the em t!ness o* leasure F be+ause !t ends: my *ear o* the *orm o* a!n F be+ause !t ha ens: +auses me to se arate em t!ness and *orm. 4hen I real!se that there !s also the *orm o* ha !ness and the em t!ness o* a!n' I +an be"!n to let "o o* my need to see. *orm and a)o!d em t!ness. 4e are all try!n" to be ha y. 4e all /ant to be *ree o* the e1 er!en+e o* loss' a!n' sorro/' and *ear' and /!sh to only e1 er!en+e leasure and ha !ness. Th!s !s un!)ersal. 0ur !nab!l!ty to a+h!e)e ha !ness !n any last!n" and mean!n"*ul /ay e1 resses the un!)ersal e1 er!en+e o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on /!th!n dual!st!+ e1 er!en+e. Th!s !s the unsat!s*a+tory 6ual!ty o* the +ont!nually +y+l!n" atterns o* er+e t!on and res onse !n /h!+h no ermanent ha !ness +an e)er be *ound. 4hen I !ntell!"ently er+e!)e th!s underly!n" sense o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on' there !s the dan"er that !t may underm!ne e)ery a+h!e)ement. 4!thout an understand!n" o* dual!ty' I may be+"!n to doubt and lose a re+!at!on o* the moments o* ha !ness I do e1 er!en+e. Dharma o**ers a /ay to harness the re+o"n!t!on o* d!ssats!*a+t!on to the tas. o* +han"!n" !t !nto sat!s*a+t!on. Throu"h *eel!n" the sus !+!on that ar!ses /hen I ha)e ro)ed mysel* to be a +a able' +om etent' *un+t!onal erson /!th!n the bounds o* /hat !s oss!ble /!th!n samsara F I be+ome a/are o* the underly!n" sensat!on o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness. Throu"h the ar!s!n" o* the n!""l!n" *eel!n" that the /hole th!n" !s )a"uely hollo/ and that noth!n" !s 6u!te /hat !t seems F I be+ome a/are o* the underly!n" sensat!on o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness. Throu"h ha)!n" /or.ed *or the "ood th!n"s I o/n and by l!)!n" !n a reasonable de"ree o* +om*ort F I be+ome a/are o* the underly!n" sensat!on o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness. I *!nd that I +an a+h!e)e almost /hate)er I set out to a+h!e)e !n terms o* /hat the /orld o**ers: yet I +ome to real!se that these a+h!e)ements are at best a ast!meJ. Th!s sus !+!on !s an o en!n" o* )!e/. It !s an o ortun!ty. It +an be the start o* my l!*e as a Dharma ra+t!t!oner. It +an be the be"!nn!n" o* a/a.en!n".
J ast!me F an a+t!)!ty /h!+h ma.es t!me ass leasantly

The de+larat!on that samsara !s ult!mately unsat!s*a+tory !s not a statement that den!"rates the body and the /orld. It !s not the body or the /orld that are !n themsel)es unsat!s*a+tory. It !s s!m ly that our e1 er!en+e !s +hara+ter!sed as unsat!s*a+tory. In the Vimalakirti Sutra'

!n ans/er to a 6uest!on about the !m er*e+t!on o* human l!*e and +ond!t!ons' Sha.yamun! ,uddha says9 KI see no unsat!s*a+tory l!*e or unsat!s*a+tory +ond!t!ons. They are !llusory. The /orld !s er*e+t as !t !s.I ;en+e /e +an understand that !t !s the d!stort!on o* our er+e t!on as human be!n"s d/ell!n" !n dual!ty that +auses us to e1 er!en+e d!ssat!s*a+t!on. It !s not our bod!es and our /orld !n themsel)es that are unsat!s*a+tory. N"a.3+han" R!n o+he on+e e1 la!ned to me that the !dea that samsara !s the body and the /orld o* *orm' o/es !ts or!"!n to the T!rth!.a h!loso h!es. It !s not that ,uddh!sm !s a body ne"at!)e or l!*e ne"at!)e rel!"!on. ,uddh!sm arose /!th!n the +onte1t o* Ind!an mon!sm and there*ore +erta!n !deas re)alent /!th!n modern-day ;!ndu!sm ha)e be+ome +on*used /!th ,uddh!sm. Th!s +on*us!on es e+!ally ar!ses be+ause Sutr!+ ,uddh!sm does tea+h renun+!at!on F deta+hment *rom *orm. That Sutr!+ ,uddh!sm tea+hes deta+hment *rom *orm ho/e)er' !s not a statement that de*!nes *orm as dual!ty. It !s merely our re*erent!al relat!onsh! that !s dual!st!+. Sha.yamun! ,uddha d!s+o)ered the hollo/ness o* su++ess e1 er!ent!ally. As the r!n+e' the son o* the .!n"' he had to e1+el !n e)ery *!eld. ;e had to be the "reatest ar+her' /restler' oet' art!st' and mus!+!an. ;e had to sur ass others !n e)eryth!n"' be+ause to be se+ond-best or to *a!l /ould underm!ne h!s os!t!on as the *uture .!n". The D7o"+hen )!e/ o* th!s *am!l!ar story as resented !n the Ulu.hamu.ha Sutra' states that !t /as thus F throu"h h!s su++ess F that he +ame to )!e/ 3a++om l!shment3 /!th sus !+!on. All he had le*t /as to *!nd /hat lay both beyond and /!th!n the !ssue o* hollo/ness. ;!s ath !s based on the unsat!s*a+tor!ness o* 3su++ess as a re*eren+e o!nt3. The trad!t!onal Sutr!+ )!e/ resents the s!"hts o* s!+.ness' old a"e and death as be!n" the +ause o* S!ddhartha turn!n" a/ay *rom h!s r!)!le"ed and lu1ur!ous l!*e to *ollo/ a s !r!tual ath. From the ers e+t!)e o* D7o"+hen' !t !s not that s!+.ness' old a"e' and death *a!l as !ssues to turn oneLs attent!on to s !r!tual en6u!ry: !t !s rather that there !s a more subtle le)el o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness /h!+h needs to be er+e!)ed. (er+e!)!n" the re*erent!al!ty o* su++ess means that e)en !* /e /ere !mmortal' the +y+l!+ nature o* ser!al su++esses /ould st!ll lea)e us /!th a sense o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness. A++ord!n" to th!s !nter retat!on o* the tea+h!n"s' s!+.ness' old a"e' and death +annot a+tually be

des+r!bed as unsat!s*a+tory. They are s!m ly the lay o* *orm F the ar!s!n"' ab!d!n" and d!ssol)!n" o* as e+ts o* our l!)es. I* /e are born as a human be!n"' then !t !s !ne)!table that /e /!ll e1 er!en+e s!+.ness at t!mes' that /e /!ll "ro/ old' and that /e /!ll d!e one day. Sha.yamun! ,uddha sa!d that /here there !s dual!sm +han"e !s er+e!)ed as du..ha. 4e do not /ant to lose the "ood th!n"s !n our l!*e' but e)eryth!n" +han"es F al/ays. The a arent e1!sten+e o* all henomena sl! s a/ay *rom us' es e+!ally !* /e try to "ras at ermanen+e. I e1 er!en+ed !t as someth!n" o* a rel!e* to d!s+o)er that a *eel!n" o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on !s un!)ersal. I *elt that I +ould let "o o* de ress!on and .no/ that the n!""l!n" *eel!n" o* 3surely there has to be more to !t than th!s>3 or 3/hat !s the o!nt o* "ett!n" /ashed and dressed a"a!n' "o!n" to /or. a"a!n' eat!n" another meal>L d!dn3t mean I /as "o!n" +ra7y. I +ould "et /ashed and dressed .no/!n" that there /as no ult!mate ur ose !n these a+t!ons. I +ould "o to /or. .no/!n" that !n the "rand s+ale o* th!n"s !t /as o!ntless. I +ould en8oy eat!n" the meal .no/!n" that !t /as a trans!ent sat!s*a+t!on. I +ould let "o o* /onder!n" /hether I /as so+!ally a++e table !n the /ay I dressed and beha)ed' be+ause so+!al norms are ult!mately hollo/. I +ould let "o o* /onder!n" /hether !t /as alr!"ht to really l!.e a art!+ular ty e o* mus!+' be+ause I understood that all o !n!ons are ult!mately em ty. No-one else3s dress-sense' beha)!our' l!.es and d!sl!.es' and o !n!ons had any more )alue than m!ne. I /as *ree to be e1a+tly /ho I /as. Kno/!n" that there !s noth!n" !n the relat!)e /orld that /e +an do that /!ll ma.e any real d!**eren+e !n an ult!mate sense' "!)es us erm!ss!on to ded!+ate t!me to ra+t!+e. Th!s +an be an ener"y boost *or en"a"!n" !n a s !r!tual ath. (ra+t!+e /!ll ma.e a d!**eren+e be+ause !t /!ll enable us to mo)e beyond the relat!)e e1!sten+e o* samsara. 4e +an be su++ess*ul at .no/!n" /e +an ne)er be su++ess*ul at samsara. 4e +an +elebrate that our bod!es and our /orld are a+tually er*e+t. Death' !m ermanen+e' th!n"s "o!n" /ron"' lau"hter' +olour' autumn lea)es' l!"ht s ar.l!n" !n uddles' +ars brea.!n" do/n' relat!onsh! s end!n"' *all!n" !n lo)e F all are the lay o* e1!sten+e' the mo)ement and +han"e that !s real!ty. It !s only e1 er!en+ed as unsat!s*a+tory /hen /e try to sto mo)ement and +han"e' or see mo)ement and +han"e as a!n*ul. 0n+e /e ha)e a real understand!n" o* the +ause o* our e1 er!en+e o* samsara as unsat!s*a+tory' /e +an en"a"e /!th !t !n a l!"ht-hearted manner. 4e +an lay /!th our l!*e e1 er!en+e' rather than *eel!n" l!.e a )!+t!m o* our +!r+umstan+es.

;o/e)er' !t +ould be ar"ued that su+h an understand!n" o* the nature o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on +ould lead us to be+ome un+ar!n"9 !* the /orld !s er*e+t and !t !s only )!e/ that !s d!storted' then there !s no ur ose !n try!n" to hel eo le. The!r unha !ness !s the!r roblem. The Dharma ra+t!+e' thou"h' !s to re"ard samsara as !llusory *rom our o/n ers e+t!)e. As s !r!tual ra+t!t!oners /e ha)e de)elo ed a +lear understand!n" o* the root o* our e1 er!en+e o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on. ;o/e)er' as our ra+t!+e !s also rooted !n +om ass!on' /e relate to othersL e1 er!en+e o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on as real *rom the!r ers e+t!)e#. 4e en"a"e /!th other eo le3s er+e t!on as !* samsara +an be made to /or.. 4e do not underm!ne others3 sense o* mean!n" and ur ose !n l!*e. Most eo le do bel!e)e that samsara /!ll /or. e)entually F !* I 8ust shu**le the !e+es o* the u77le +are*ully enou"h and +ons+!ent!ously enou"h' one day !t /!ll all /or. out er*e+tly. 4e /ould l!.e to +om lete the 8!"sa/ so that /e +an e1 er!en+e that moment o* sat!s*a+t!on' but at the same t!me /!thout lett!n" "o o* the *un o* mo)!n" the !e+es around. 4e l!)e !n ho e that th!n"s /!ll +ont!nue to run smoothly or that one day !t /!ll all +l!+. !nto la+e and /e /!ll be ha y *ore)er. 0n+e /e real!se that the !e+es o* our 8!"sa/ /!ll ne)er m!ra+ulously +l!+. !nto la+e' /e are *reed *rom the e**ort o* attem t!n" to ma.e !t ha en. 4e +an rela1 !nto the real!sat!on o* the real!ty o* /hat !s' and en8oy the ener"y that !s l!berated. 4e +an then hel those /ho st!ll hold th!s )!e/ to be +om*ortable and su++ess*ul !n the!r terms. 4e understand that !t !s e1tremely d!**!+ult to er+e!)e the subtle unsat!s*a+tory 6ual!ty o* samsara *rom a ers e+t!)e o* su**er!n"' so our +om ass!onate a+t!)!ty !s to hel others a+h!e)e relat!)e su++ess /!th!n samsara' and *ree them *rom "ross su**er!n". 0nly then /!ll they too ha)e the +han+e o* real!s!n" the hollo/ness o* su++ess. The understand!n" o* the unsat!s*a+tor!ness o* samsara !s the *!rst o* a *our-*old tea+h!n" "!)en by Sha.yamun! ,uddha +alled the Dharma+ha.ra- ar)atana Sutra' the *!rst turn!n" o* the 4heel o* Dharma. Th!s tea+h!n" !s usually +alled the Four Noble Truths. The F!rst Noble Truth !s the su**er!n" o* samsara. The se+ond !s that th!s su**er!n" has a +ause that +an be !dent!*!ed and understood. The th!rd !s the oss!b!l!ty o* the +essat!on o* the e1 er!en+e o* su**er!n"' and the last Noble Truth !s that there !s a ath /h!+h +an be *ollo/ed to

real!se the +essat!on o* su**er!n". Th!s ath !s +alled the Noble E!"ht*old (ath. 4hen a roa+hed *rom the ers e+t!)e o* the lay o* em t!ness and *orm' th!s *undamental tea+h!n" +an be )!e/ed !n some de th and /!th some subtlety. 4hen 3su**er!n"3 !s understood !n the more subtle sense o* the e1 er!en+e o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on' as an !llus!on +reated by dual!ty' the three truths that *ollo/ +an be understood at a dee er le)el as /ell. Sha.yamun! ,uddha o!nted out that !* /e ha)e true understand!n"' ea+h truth su""ests the subse6uent truth to us. I* /e are able to "a!n a sense o* the hollo/ness o* su++ess and the !llusory nature o* sat!s*a+t!on !n the dual!st!+' relat!)e terms o* +y+l!+ e1!sten+e' /e +an d!s+o)er the Se+ond Noble Truth as a natural out+ome. It /!ll naturally o++ur to us that there must be a +ause *or th!s *eel!n" o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on. Ea+h truth /!ll naturally ro"ress on *rom the other !n th!s /ay. There !s a tremendously o/er*ul messa"e /!th!n the Four Noble Truths and the E!"ht*old (ath' /h!+h the Ulu.hamu.ha U adesha Da.!n! Sutra resents as a o!nt!n"-out !nstru+t!on. Re*le+t!n" on th!s ta.es us *ar beyond the )!+t!m!sed sense o* su**er!n" and the /ay /h!+h asses beyond su**er!n". The Four Noble Truths +an be +ommonly m!sunderstood as !nd!+at!n" that release *rom du..ha l!es beyond the body and the hys!+al /orld: but the Ulu.hamu.ha Sutra +om letely re)erses th!s m!s+on+e t!on' and lays o en the )ast oss!b!l!ty that !s !nherent !n e)ery as e+t o* e)ery moment o* e1!sten+e. The truth o* the +ause o* the e1 er!en+e o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness !s su""ested to us throu"h understand!n" the *orm and em t!ness o* sat!s*a+t!on. 4e see that sat!s*a+t!on !s short-l!)ed and de endant on )!e/ and +!r+umstan+es' and there*ore em ty as /ell as ha)!n" *orm. 4e real!se that there !s someth!n" about the /ay !n /h!+h /e )!e/ and e1 er!en+e henomena that +auses our e1 er!en+e o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness. In the Sutr!+ te1ts' the +auses o* the e1 er!en+e o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness are sa!d to be .arma and .lMsha GT!b9 nyon-mon" F nyon mon"sH. Karma /as d!s+ussed !n deta!l !n the re)!ous +ha ter. 4e remember here that !t !s des+r!bed as +ause and e**e+t' /h!+h means that throu"h d!storted er+e t!on our res onse +reates the +y+l!+ atterns o* our neurot!+ +ond!t!on!n". KlMsha are the er+e tual d!stort!ons o* attra+t!on' a)ers!on' and !nd!**eren+e /h!+h ma!nta!n the +y+l!+

atterns o* our neuroses. KlMsha !s the "ras !n" o* *orm and re8e+t!on o* em t!ness. 4e e1 er!en+e du..ha be+ause /e d!)!de *orm and em t!ness. 0n+e /e real!se that /e +reate our o/n unsat!s*a+tor!ness throu"h dual!st!+ re+on+e t!on' the oss!b!l!ty su""ests !tsel* o* allo/!n" our )!e/ to +han"e. 4e real!se that /e +an let "o o* +reat!n" d!ssat!s*a+t!on. The +essat!on o* the e1 er!en+e o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness !s the Th!rd Noble Truth. It !s the truth that !* there !s a +ause o* du..ha' then there must be a /ay to sto +reat!n" the +ause o* du..ha. 4e +an +ut the +ause at the root. 4e a+t!)ely +reate samsara by +ont!nually de*!n!n" our e1!sten+e a++ord!n" to our need *or *orm. 4e re*use to let the ebb and *lo/ o* our e1!sten+e be 3as !t !s3. 0n+e /e understand the +ause o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on' /e real!se /e +an s!m ly sto 3do!n"3 samsara. 4e d!s+o)er /e +an allo/ a )!e/ and e1 er!en+e to emer"e !n /h!+h *orm and em t!ness de*!ne ea+h other. Th!s +om letely alters our er+e t!on o* leasure. 4!th!n the non-dual ers e+t!)e o* D7o"+hen' the tem orary nature o* leasure +eases to be re"arded as roblemat!+. Its tem orary nature !s s!m ly !ts em ty 6ual!ty. 4e do not ha)e to renoun+e a re+!at!on o* leasure s!m ly be+ause !t man!*ests as *orm and em t!ness. S!m!larly' /e re+o"n!se that our e1 er!en+e o* a!n !s re*erent!al and also em ty. (a!n does not need to be *eared be+ause o* !ts *orm 6ual!ty. Understand!n" the oss!b!l!ty o* th!s )!e/ and e1 er!en+e !ns !res +on*!den+e that there !s a state /h!+h +an be atta!ned /here /e are able to e1!st /!thout the d!storted er+e t!ons o* dual!sm. 4e +an e1!st as ha y and sat!s*!ed be!n"s. 4e may be *ortunate enou"h to meet Lamas /ho a ear to e1 er!en+e the!r l!)es as sat!s*a+tory /hate)er o++urs: and /ho d!re+t us to/ard the *a+t that our o/n enl!"htenment s ar.les throu"h the *abr!+ o* our sel*-+reated +ond!t!on!n". 4e are all be"!nn!n"lessly enl!"htened' and be+ause o* th!s' our o/n non-dual state o!nts to !tsel* throu"h the e1 er!en+e o* du..ha. Throu"h understand!n" that unsat!s*a+tor!ness !s someth!n" /e +reate' /e +an underm!ne our o/n +reat!on. 4e +an d!s+o)er the *un+t!on and )alue o* s !r!tual ra+t!+e. In *a+t not to ra+t!+e be+omes madness. I* you real!sed you /ere dro/n!n" F /ould you re*use to a++e t a l!*el!ne> I* you real!sed you /ere s!+. F /ould you re8e+t l!*esa)!n" med!+!ne> The Fourth Noble Truth !s the ath that leads to the +essat!on o* the

e1 er!en+e o* unsat!s*a+tor!ness. ;a)!n" re+o"n!sed our e1 er!en+e o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on' ha)!n" understood that /e +reate the +ause throu"h dual!ty' and ha)!n" real!sed /e +an +ease to +reate th!s +ause' /e +an a roa+h the method o* ra+t!+e. The method o* ra+t!+e des+r!bed !n the Four Noble Truths !s the Noble E!"ht*old (ath. The Noble E!"ht*old (ath !s a dee and deta!led tea+h!n" that +an be )!e/ed !n many /ays. It !s a d!s+ourse on method. The e!"ht ste s are9 r!"ht )!e/ or understand!n": r!"ht !ntent!on or mot!)at!on: r!"ht s ee+h or +ommun!+at!on: r!"ht a+t!on or +ondu+t: r!"ht )o+at!on or l!)el!hood: r!"ht e**ort: r!"ht attent!on or m!nd*ulness: r!"ht resen+e or +on+entrat!on. To *ully d!s+uss th!s ath /ould be a boo. !n !tsel*' but I /!ll des+r!be !t !n a l!ttle deta!l !n the ne1t +ha ter. It /!ll be )!e/ed *rom the ers e+t!)e o* en"a"!n" !n ra+t!+e be+ause o* the understand!n" o* the need *or s !r!tual a+t!)!ty "a!ned throu"h an understand!n" o* the Four Thou"hts. Samsara !s +y+l!+ e1!sten+e F the +ont!nual man! ulat!on o* *orm !n an attem t to a+h!e)e last!n" su++ess and sat!s*a+t!on. 4e e1 er!en+e samsara as unsat!s*y!n"' be+ause su++ess and sat!s*a+t!on +an only e1!st !n the moment. There +an be no last!n" and +ont!nuous sat!s*a+t!on that ab!des !nde endent o* !ts +ause and er+e!)er. The )ery mean!n" o* 3su++ess3 !s o en to !nter retat!on. 0ne ersonLs su++ess may be anotherLs *a!lure. 0ne erson3s r!de o* a++om l!shment may be re"arded as a /aste o* t!me by another. 0ur a+h!e)ements are relat!)e and trans!ent. 4hen I /as *!)e I thou"ht the most en8oyable /ay to o++u y my t!me /as dress!n" my doll !n her beaut!*ul br!deLs out*!t. I /ould not re"ard th!s o++u at!on as sat!s*y!n" today= Some eo le lo)e to l!e !n the sun *or hours on end and re"ard a+6u!r!n" a tan as a su++ess' /h!le others re"ard th!s as a /aste o* o* t!me or e)en as *ool!shly dan"erous. E)ery o++u at!on has !ts o/n ur ose and otent!al *or sat!s*a+t!on !n the moment de endent u on the er+e!)er. D!ssat!s*a+t!on ar!ses /hen /e re6u!re the )er!*!+at!on o* others as to the )alue o* our e1 er!en+e' and /hen /e see. to de*!ne oursel)es throu"h sat!s*a+t!on. In th!s +ha ter /e ha)e loo.ed at the +ause o* our e1 er!en+e o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on' and d!s+o)ered that !t !s sel*-+reated. Real!s!n" that d!ssat!s*a+t!on !s sel* +reated: !t o++urs to us that /e +ould +ease th!s +reat!on. 0n+e /e truly +om rehend at a "ut le)el that th!s !s the essen+e o* samsara F that +ont!nu!n" to shu**le the !e+es o* our l!)es

!s hollo/' and that the trans!ent a+h!e)ements o* samsara are ult!mately /orthless F /e +an de+!de to sto . 4e +an de+!de that /e /!sh to d!s+o)er ur ose and mean!n". 4e +an /!sh to en"a"e /!th our l!)es !n a /ay that /!ll br!n" +om lete and last!n" sat!s*a+t!on. Th!s !s ra+t!+e F en"a"ement /!th a s !r!tual ath that br!n"s ur ose and sat!s*a+t!on to our l!)es. The methods o**ered by ,uddh!sm ro)!de o ortun!t!es to d!s+o)er' throu"h s ar.l!n" resen+e' that ea+h moment naturally has !ts o/n ur ose o* !tsel*' that ar!ses and d!ssol)es !n the moment. The methods o* ,uddh!sm +an tea+h us to d/ell !n resen+e' understand!n" the em ty 6ual!ty o* *orm and the *orm 6ual!ty o* em t!ness !n the resent moment. Then all moments +an be real!sed as moments o* utter bl!ss*ul sat!s*a+t!on. In these last *our +ha ters /e ha)e loo.ed at the Four Thou"hts that turn the m!nd to ra+t!+e. 4e ha)e e1am!ned the re+!ous nature o* our be!n" F that our e1!sten+e !s !n !tsel* an o ortun!ty. 4e ha)e loo.ed at the !m ermanent nature o* our e1!sten+e' and understood that death and b!rth are a +ont!nu!n" moment-by-moment dan+e o* be!n". 4e ha)e e1 lored .arma and seen that !t !s *uelled by the attern!n" o* er+e t!on and res onse. 4e ha)e seen that our !nab!l!ty to let "o o* add!+t!on to *orm' and our *ear o* em t!ness' +reate +ont!nual d!ssat!s*a+t!on. (erha s /e are attra+ted to the !dea o* a/a.en!n"' but *eel the ro+ess !s too +hallen"!n" or beyond our ab!l!ty. In *a+t /hat /ould be !deal /ould be to /at+h oursel)es a/a.en F to atta!n enl!"htenment' but reta!n our relat!onsh! /!th *orm as /ell. Lett!n" "o o* *orm add!+t!on *eels l!.e +utt!n" the +ords o* our ara+hute /hen /e are A'EEE *eet abo)e the "round F !* /e +ould 8ust see a )!deo o* us do!n" !t *!rst' to be sure !t /as sa*e. I* /e +ould taste the ne+tar /!thout a+tually ha)!n" to la+e !t on our ton"ue. I* /e +ould only arr!)e at our des!red dest!nat!on /!thout the r!"ours and del!"hts o* the 8ourney. As Khandro DM+hen sa!d9 ?There are many 3Arm+ha!r ,uddh!sts3 F art!+ularly those !nterested !n Va8rayana. They lo)e to read about ad)an+ed ra+t!+es. They lo)e to read about /rath*ul Lamas and the Cra7y 4!sdom Master F but they /ould not /ant to *!nd themsel)es !n a real relat!onsh! /!th su+h a master or to be authent!+ally en"a"ed !n su+h ra+t!+es. To be an 3arm+ha!r3 anyth!n" !s relat!)ely harmless F but to be an 3arm+ha!r ,uddh!st3 usually leads to un leasantness' to ant!so+!al beha)!our' and to "oss! mon"er!n". Those /ho retend to be ra+t!t!oners "!)e a bad

name to Va8rayana. They are eo le /ho /ould o*ten be better ser)ed by emulat!n" the .!ndness o* de+ent ord!nary eo le /ho ha)e no as !rat!on to s !r!tual!ty.? 4hat /e need to +om rehend !s that the r!"ours and del!"hts o* the 8ourney are the ath and the dest!nat!on. 4e ha)e the ab!l!ty to d!s+ern and a re+!ate: /e ha)e the !ntell!"en+e to understand the !m ortan+e o* the resent moment: /e +an re+o"n!se the d!stort!on /e !n*l!+t on er+e t!on and res onse: /e +an see that e)en throu"h the su++esses o* our l!*e there !s st!ll d!ssat!s*a+t!on. Throu"h th!s s.!l*ul o en!n" o* )!e/' /e .no/ that our +urrent )!e/ and a roa+h to our l!)es /!ll not br!n" true ha !ness *or oursel)es or others. At th!s o!nt /e ha)e the +ho!+e F to a+t!)ely retra+t !nto !"noran+e' or to en"a"e /!th Dharma. 4e +an settle *or eternal d!ssat!s*a+t!on' or ra+t!+e F and learn to d/ell !n the s ar.l!n"ly !n*!n!te' )!)!dly resent +ont!nu!ty o* no/-moments. 4e +an de+!de to "o ba+. to slee and !"nore our understand!n" o* the Four Thou"hts' or /e +an ta.e th!s understand!n" *urther and +ont!nue to /a.e u . Nuest!oner9 ;o/ does *!nd!n" the em t!ness o* a!n ha e1 er!en+e> en !n our

N"a.ma Nor3d7!n9 4e are otently a/are o* the *orm 6ual!ty o* a!n F !t hurts. (a!n !s a!n be+ause /e are human be!n"s. It has a ne+essary hys!olo"!+al *un+t!on. I* /e d!d not *eel a!n /e /ould be !n "reat dan"er o* dama"!n" oursel)es +ont!nually. ,ut e)en !* /e are unlu+.y enou"h to be !n hys!+al a!n' /e do not ha)e to let !t de*!ne us !n any /ay. 4e +an ha)e a ha y m!nd and a a!n*ul body. To/ards the end o* h!s l!*e Kyab8M Chh!-mOd R!"Ld7!n R!n o+he3s body /as 6u!te ob)!ously *a!l!n"' but he 8ust +arr!ed on tea+h!n". ;e loo.ed +om letely at ease !n h!s *ra!l body' and as o/er*ul and !m os!n" as e)er. ;!s *ra!lty d!d not mean that he /as not a ha y human be!n". N9 ,ut /hat about sy+holo"!+al a!n> NN9 (sy+holo"!+al a!n !s e1 er!en+ed be+ause /e relate to the /orld throu"h attern and ro8e+t!on rather than as !t !s. 4e e1!st !n dual!sm. I* /e d!d not attem t to s l!t em t!ness and *orm' /e /ould not e1 er!en+e th!s as a!n.

N@9 Some eo le +o e /!th bad e1 er!en+es better than others. They don3t seem to let !t +olour ho/ they relate to others. NN9 True. Some eo le are better at be!n" +on+a)e !n the!r relat!onsh! /!th the!r +!r+umstan+es. ,y that I mean that they allo/ themsel)es to *le1 /!th +!r+umstan+es rather than *or+!n" the!r de*!n!t!on o* themsel)es onto +!r+umstan+es. 4e don3t need to lat+h on to /hat ha ens to us F PI am !ll there*ore I must be unha yL. N9 Do /e need e1 er!en+e o* more subtle *orms o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on to understand th!s tea+h!n"> NN9 <es and no . . . These tea+h!n"s +on+ern the subtle nature o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on' and th!s +annot be +om rehended !* /e are al/ays e1 er!en+!n" "ross a!n and *a!lure. 4e need to be relat!)ely su++ess*ul and /e need to be relat!)ely ha y be*ore /e +an be+ome sus !+!ous o* !ts hollo/ness. So *rom th!s o!nt o* )!e/ the ans/er !s 3yes3. 4e must "a!n e1 er!en+e o* em t!ness throu"h e1 er!en+!n" the hollo/ness o* the su++ess o* our l!)es' to arr!)e at the base o* the ath o* Tantra F /h!+h !s em t!ness. ;o/e)er' !* /e ha)e de)ot!on to the Lama' /e +an by ass the need to e1 er!en+e em t!ness !n th!s /ay. 4e +an enter the ath o* Tantra throu"h the em ty e1 er!en+e o* our de)ot!on. I* /e +an enter the s here o* the Lama /holeheartedly and o enly' then that !s our base o* em t!ness. Th!s !s not to say that !t /!ll not st!ll be e1 ed!ent to en"a"e !n ra+t!+es to de)elo our e1 er!en+e o* em t!ness or that !t !s no lon"er !m ortant to ma.e our l!)es *un+t!onal and use*ul !n an ord!nary sense. ,ut /e +an be"!n *rom the base o* de)ot!on. N9 There ha)e been lenty o* t!mes /hen I ha)e /anted th!s or that' but I ha)e ne)er *elt that any o* these th!n"s /as "o!n" to be PThe Ans/erL. NN9 For you !t m!"ht be the other /ay round F rather than bel!e)!n" that ha)!n" th!n"s /!ll ma.e you ha y' you bel!e)e that not ha)!n" th!n"s /!ll ma.e you ha y. <ou th!n. you /ould be unha y !* you /ore a sh!rt and t!e and l!)ed !n a house and had a mort"a"e. 4e all

de*!ne the th!n"s !n our l!*e that /!ll ma.e us ha +ont!nually ad8ust!n" those de*!n!t!ons.

y and are all

N9 I "uess ILm too +yn!+al. I +an see the emot!onal th!n"' but not the +on+e tual th!n" o* th!n.!n" that someth!n" /!ll be the ans/er to e)eryth!n". NN9 4ell you ha)e been ra+t!s!n" *or 6u!te a lon" t!me no/. Th!s tea+h!n" !s !ntended *or the entry-le)el ra+t!t!oner' or to o en the )!e/ o* a non- ra+t!t!oner. Th!s understand!n" may ha)e be+ome so mu+h the "round o* your ra+t!+e that you do not e)en see !t anymore. N9 4hen /e ha)e a+h!e)ed the "oals that /e ha)e set oursel)es and *ound th!s unsat!s*a+tory' !s there a dan"er o* !na+t!)!ty> NN9 <es' you +an enter !nto a sort o* )o!d /hen there does not seem to be any o!nt to anyth!n". N9 So !s there a /ay o* a+t!n" that does not !n+lude a /!sh *or su++ess F the a+t!ons are st!ll done but /!thout the a!m o* ersonal sat!s*a+t!on> NN9 Th!s sounds as thou"h you m!"ht be "ett!n" +on*used. There !s noth!n" /ron" /!th *!nd!n" the th!n"s /e a+h!e)e sat!s*y!n". There !s no roblem /!th ha)!n" "oals and amb!t!ons and rea+h!n" them. 4hat !s be!n" sa!d here !s that you +annot shu**le the !e+es o* samsara !n any /ay that !s "o!n" to br!n" ult!mate' last!n"' 3th!s !s !t=3 sat!s*a+t!on. There !s sat!s*a+t!on !n the moment' but /e tend to +on+ret!se th!s !nto a de*!n!t!on. To "!)e an e1am le9 I must not *abr!+ate a real!ty around su++ess*ully los!n" a lot o* /e!"ht F I am a th!n erson no/ and there*ore more )aluable: no/ that I am th!n my l!*e /!ll be er*e+tLthat sort o* att!tude. Dharma !s not about turn!n" our l!)es !nto orr!d"e F a sort o* "ruel o* a++e tan+e and humourless +om rom!se. I* you /ant the Lambor"h!n!' "o *or !t= 2et !t. Lo)e !t. En8oy !t. ,ut donLt delude yoursel* !nto th!n.!n" that youLre better than someone /ho +an only a**ord a +hea )eh!+le' or that !t /!ll ne)er brea. do/n.

N9 I* you are +ont!nually su++ess*ul at someth!n" then *a!lure !s a sho+.. NN9 Indeed. ,ut !n non-dual!ty /e +annot tal. about su++ess or *a!lure. These !m ly o os!t!on and +ontrad!+t!on. N"a.3+han" R!n o+he tal.s about the 3 lay o* henomena3. I* there !s no sense o* su++ess or *a!lure !t !s 8ust lay*ul. 0ne ersonLs su++ess !s to l!)e a s!m le l!*e' !n a yurt' /!th *e/ ossess!ons. To others that m!"ht seem l!.e *a!lure. Th!s !s /hy !tLs so !m ortant not to 8ud"e and *!1 eo le. 4e must also not *!1 our er+e t!on o* oursel)es and our l!*estyle. The m!nute /e *!1 th!n"s there !s no oss!b!l!ty o* e1 er!en+!n" non-dual!ty. Non-dual!ty !s o en and *lu!d. N@9 Does that hold true !* someone3s )!e/ !s dama"!n"> NN9 I* that means they treat eo le badly' !t3s not a "ood !dea' and erha s you +ould try to !n*luen+e them. ;o/e)er' unless they ha)e "reat res e+t *or you and )alue your )!e/ and o !n!on !n some /ay' +hallen"!n" them may 8ust +ause them to entren+h and sol!d!*y the!r )!e/. 2enerally !t !s best to loo. to our o/n !ntent!on and mot!)at!on and allo/ /ho /e are to be the manner o* !n*luen+e rather than try!n" to ta.e d!re+t a+t!on. N#9 From my e1 er!en+e thereLs another dan"er F that all o !n!ons are e6ually mean!n"*ul or mean!n"less' and I be+ome un*eel!n" o* otherLs o !n!ons. NN9 4here there are human be!n"s there are roblems= D7o"+hen )!e/ +an also be m!s!nter reted as 3!t doesnLt matter /hat I do3. It !s !m ortant to remember that D7o"+hen does not deny the other )eh!+les and the !m ortan+e o* .!ndness. Althou"h !t !s ult!mately true that the!r o !n!on !s !rrele)ant' /e /ould not a+t *rom that )!e/. D7o"+hen !s not a +old and d!s ass!onate ath. 4e res ond to the needs o* others and do not +onstantly unsettle eo le by +hallen"!n" the r!"!d!ty o* the!r )!e/ and o !n!on. 4e m!"ht do th!s o++as!onally /!th eo le /e .no/ /ell' or /!th other ra+t!t!oners' but "enerally

/e ha)e no r!"ht to be anyth!n" other than .!nd. E)en thou"h D7o"+hen )!e/ !s d!re+t and !er+!n"' there !s the underly!n" mot!)at!on o* .!ndness and a+t!n" a ro r!ately. NA9 So moral!ty !s the res onse to eo leLs +ond!t!on> NN9 4e ha)e to be +are*ul o* the /ord moral!ty as !t "enerally !m l!es a +ode o* beha)!our. A +ode o* +ondu+t may not allo/ room *or d!re+t er+e t!on and understand!n". D7o"+hen tal.s o* ure a ro r!ateness. ItLs a 6uest!on o* res ond!n" a ro r!ately !n the moment. 0ur res onse !s based !n the non-dual!ty o* /!sdom and .!ndness. There !s no 8ud"ement *rom a moral base o* 3"ood or bad3' or *!tt!n" !nto a moral +ode o* /hat !s 3"ood3 or 3bad3. There !s the res onse that mo)es !n the d!re+t!on o* real!sat!on' and the res onse that mo)es a/ay *rom !t. N@9 ItLs d!**!+ult to ha)e a +om ass!onate )!e/ !* the s!tuat!on !s hurt!n" us. NN9 <es' /e ha)e to a l!m!tat!ons and +a a+!ty. ly +ommon sense and be a/are o* our

N@9 Th!s )!e/ o* la+. o* sat!s*a+t!on seems to su""est there !s no o!nt !n try!n" to hel eo le /ho are star)!n" or homeless. NN9 There !s al/ays a o!nt !n hel !n" eo le /ho are !n need. 4e are not underm!n!n" the "ood !ntent!ons o* eo le /ho hel on the sou run or /or. !n a +har!ty sho . ;o/e)er !* your /hole sense o* /ho you are and the o!nt o* your e1!sten+e !s bound u !n a+h!e)!n" /orld ea+e or an end to hun"er F you are l!.ely to be !n *or a de)astat!n" d!sa o!ntment at some o!nt. It may be that your ea+e /or. /!ll a+h!e)e small su++esses !n +erta!n areas' and th!s !s to be )alued' but to e1 e+t total /orld/!de' e)erlast!n" su++ess !s unreal!st!+. Su++ess has to be a re+!ated !n the moment' but not "ras ed at as a +on+rete' a+h!e)able' eternal a!m. N@9 Is there a oss!b!l!ty o* th!n.!n" that ra+t!+e /!ll br!n" you

ult!mate sat!s*a+t!on> NN9 I* you ra+t!se !t /!ll br!n" you ha !ness F the ha !ness o* en8oy!n" ea+h resent moment as r!+h' s ar.l!n"' ass!onate' un+onstra!ned and beyond de*!n!t!on. It /!ll br!n" you a last!n" sense o* +ontentment e)en /hen your l!*e !s turned u s!de do/n and there !s sadness and /orry' and more than that9 a sense o* e1 ans!)eness' o* the resent moment be!n" all t!me and no t!me. N@9 So does !t not matter !* I enter !nto ra+t!+e /!th that )!e/ F o* /!sh!n" to be ha y> NN9 0ur mot!)at!on !s al/ays m!1ed. 4e al/ays ha)e dual!st!+ mot!)at!on. N@9 So !t st!ll m!"ht /or.> NN9 2uaranteed= Qlau"hterR Footnotes:
#

The only e1+e t!on to th!s /ould be other ra+t!t!oners /!th!n our san"ha. San"ha are the +ommun!ty o* ra+t!t!oners G"endSn' d2e LdunH. Th!s +ould be the red san"ha o* mon.s and nuns' or the /h!te san"ho* non-+el!bate orda!ned ra+t!t!oners F the n"a. as and n"a.mas GsN"a"s a and sN"a"s maH. The /h!te san"ha !s also +alled the "T .ar +han" loL! dM G"os dKar lCan" loL! sDeH /h!+h means /h!te s.!rt U lon" ha!r. Another name !s the N"a.L han" 2endSn GsN"a"s L han" d2e LdunH l!terally mean!n" Pmantra /!eld!n"L and re*ers to the Tantr!+ +ommun!ty o* ra+t!t!oners. 4!th *ello/ ra+t!t!oners /e re*ra!n *rom !ndul"!n" the!r add!+t!on to dual!ty and en+oura"e them to a/a.en to the real!ty o* the nature o* the e1 er!en+e o* d!ssat!s*a+t!on.