Sie sind auf Seite 1von 164

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-1

GSM Handover Algorithm


www.huawei.com

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-2

Foreword

Handover is a key technology of mobile communication system and make continued conversation possible.

Handover algorithm in Huawei product is flexible and powerful.

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-3

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:


Outline the types of handover Master handover judgment flow Understand algorithm of different handovers Explain HO data configuration

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page3

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-4

Contents
1. Introduction of Handover 2. HO Algorithm Process

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page4

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-5

Contents
1. Introduction of Handover 2. HO Algorithm Process

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page5

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-6

Purposes of HO

To keep a continuous communication with a moving MS To improve network service performance


To reduce the call drop rate To reduce the congestion rate

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page6

Handover can maintain the communication continuity of MS which moves across different cells and lower the call drop rate and provide better communication service.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-7

Classification by Reason
1

Emergency HO Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO

No DL MR Emergency HO Timing Advance (TA) HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO Bad Quality (BQ) HO

Classification by Reason 3
4

EDGE HO PBGT HO Layer HO MS Fast Moving HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page7

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-8

Classification by Synchronization

MSC

NSS Network

MSC

BSC BTS
CELL

BSC

BSC

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Case 4

Case 5

Synchronous Handover: the target BTS shall not send PHY INFO message Asynchronous Handover: the target BTS shall send PHY INFO message

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page8

Synchronous handover: source and target cell belong the same BTS

Asynchronous handover: source and target cell belong the different BTS

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-9

Classification by Equipment and Channel


Intra Cell HO

Inter Cell HO

TCH TCH

Intra BSC HO

SDCCH SDCCH

Intra MSC HO Inter MSC HO SDCCH TCH (Direct Retry)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page9

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-10

Contents
1. Introduction of Handover 2. HO Algorithm Process

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page10

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-11

Contents
2. HO Algorithm Process
2.1 General HO Process 2.2 Measure and Measurement Result Report 2.3 Measurement Report Preprocessing 2.4 Handover Judgment 2.5 Handover Implementation

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page11

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-12

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Measure and Measurement Result Report

Measurement Report Preprocessing

Handover Judgment

Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page12

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-13

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Measure and Measurement Result Report

Measurement Report Preprocessing

Handover Judgment

Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page13

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-14

Measurement Report

Uplink MR includes uplink receiving level and quality. Downlink MR includes downlink receiving level, downlink receiving quality of the serving cell and other downlink receiving levels from the neighbor cells.

The downlink MR The uplink MR

The downlink measurement report of the neighbor cell (BCCH)

Serving cell Neighbor cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page14

In dedicated mode, the system performs handover and power control judgment based on measurement reports. The downlink MR are reported to the network via uplink SACCH channel. Downlink--In dedicated mode, MS reports MR via uplink SACCH channel periodically. The report includes the receiving level, received quality, TA, power class and whether DTX is used. At the same time, MS will perform pre-synchronization to neighbor cell defined by the system to obtain BCCH frequencies and BSIC, measure their received signal level and report the six max. neighbor cells with the highest received signal level. Uplink--The uplink measurement report is measured by BTS, including the receiving level and receiving quality from the MS. Both parts are sent by BTS to BSC for further processing at the same time.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-15

Measurement Report

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page15

There are two values in the measurement report: FULL MR and SUB MR. FULL--Averaging 100 TCH bursts (except the four idle frames in the four 26multiframes) SUB--Averaging 12 bursts (four SACCH bursts and eight TCH bursts in specific position). SUB should be selected when the Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) function is activated.

RXQUAL level in MR

Huawei value

BER behind

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Less than 0.2% 0.2% ~ 0.4% 0.4% ~ 0.8% 0.8% ~ 1.6% 1.6% ~ 3.2% 3.2% ~ 6.4% 6.4% ~ 12.8% Greater than 12.8%

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-16

Period of Measurement Report


The downlink MR is sent to BTS in SACCH uplink


The interval is 480ms/per time when MS is on TCH The interval is 470ms/per time when MS is on SDCCH

480ms

4 TCH Multiframes

12TCH

1SACCH

12TCH

1 Idle

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page16

SACCH is a bidirectional channel. It sends the downlink measurement report to BTS in uplink SACCH. It sends SYS.INFO. 5 and SYS. INFO. 6 to MS in downlink SACCH.

1.

The SACCH measurement report period varies with the channel occupied by MS in dedicated mode. When associated with SDCCH, SACCH measurement period is 470ms, this is because there is an entire SACCH message block in 2 SDCCH 51-multiframes. When associated with TCH, SACCH measurement period is 480ms, this is because there is an entire SACCH message block in 4 TCH 26multiframes

2.

3.

A complete measurement report is formed by four consecutive SACCH bursts. In SDCCH channel the four bursts are transmitted continuously. In TCH channel there is only one SACCH burst in each 26-multiframe, therefore only four 26-multiframe can constitute a complete measurement report.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-17

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Measure and Measurement Result Report

Measurement Report Preprocessing

Handover Judgment

Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page17

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-18

MR Preprocessing
Interpolation


Filtering
Smooth the instantaneous fading point

Recover the lost measurement report

MR Preprocessing

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page18

MR preprocessing consists of two steps: interpolation and filtering.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-19

MR Interpolation
C on tin sM uou ow R Fl
MR MR MR

No. n+4
MR MR

No. n Missing by some reasons

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page19

MR Interpolation recover the lost measurement report BTS may fail to receive the MR from MS, and it needs to recover the lost measurement reports. If the lost MR amount is within the allowed range (Allowed MR Number Lost), then recovers the lost MR according to the specific algorithm.
Service

cell: linear algorithm cell: the lowest value defined in GSM specification (-110dBm)

Neighboring

The continuity of measurement report is judged by measurement report number. Each measurement report has a serial number. If the serial numbers of received measurement reports are not consecutive, there must be missing measurement reports, and the system will make them up according to the interpolation algorithm. As shown in the diagram, the network receives measurement reports n and n+4, whose serial numbers are not consecutive, so the system will make up for the missing measurement reports n+1, n+2 and n+3 with a certain algorithm.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-20

MR Filtering
Flow
MR MR MR MR MR

C on

tinu

R us M

MR

Filter----Average several consecutive MRs

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page20

Filtering smooth the instantaneous fading point


Calculate

the average value within the filter window

When the network receives the measurement report, it can not judge the current condition of MS according to just one measurement report due to the signal fluctuation. Therefore, filtering, a more suitable method is applied. Different filters are applied in receiving level, receiving quality and TA of uplink and downlink.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-21

Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page21

[MR Preprocessing] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether the BTS pre-processes the MR.

This parameter determines the location where power control is performed. If this parameter is set to Yes, power control is performed by the BTS. Otherwise, the power control is performed by the BSC. When this parameter is set to No, the MR is processed by the BSC, in which case, both Transfer original MR, Transfer BS/MS power class and Sent Freq of preprocessed MR are invalid. When this parameter is set to Yes, the load over Abis interface and that over the BSC are reduced, thus shortening the response time and improving the network performance.

[Transfer Original MR] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether the original MR is transferred to the BSC after the BTS pre-processes the MR.

When the parameter is set to Yes, the BTS transfers to the BSC both the processed MR and the original MR.

Remarks:In case of 4:1 configuration, this parameter must be set to No if SDCCH/8 is greater than 2.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-22

Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page22

[Transfer BS/MS Power Class] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether the original BS/MS power class is transferred to the BSC. Remarks:When MR pre-processing is enabled, uplink and downlink balance measurement is affected if this parameter is set to No. In addition, power compensation handovers, such as PBGT handovers, load handovers, and Concentric Cell handovers, may become abnormal. [Sent Freq of Preprocessed MR] Value Range: Do not Report, Twice every second, Once every second, Once every two seconds, Once every four seconds Default Value: Twice every second Description: This parameter indicates the frequency that the BTS transfers the preprocessed MR to the BSC. After the MR is preprocessed by BTS, the BTS transfers the preprocessed MR to the BSC. For example, if this parameter is set to Twice every second, the BTS transfers the preprocessed MR to the BSC twice per 0.5 second.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-23

Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page23

[Allowed MR Number Lost] Value Range: 0~31 Default Value: 4 Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs allowed to be lost in succession. When this threshold is not reached, the lost MR is estimated via the linear interpolation basing on the first and the last MRs received. When this threshold is reached, all previous MRs are discarded, and calculations are made again when new MRs are received. Remarks: MRs fail to be decoded correctly when the signal strength in the serving cell is poor. When this threshold is reached, all previous MRs are discarded and handover may fail. Thus, it is advised to assign this parameter with a greater value to enable emergency handover. [Filter Length for TCH Level] Value Range: 1~31 Default Value: 4 Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the TCH signal strength.

This parameter helps to avoid sharp drop of signal levels caused by Raileigh Fading and to ensure correct handover decisions.

Remarks: When this parameter is too large, the impact of sudden changes is reduced, and the response is delayed, thus affecting the network performance. [Filter Length for TCH Qual] Value Range: 1~31 Default Value: 4 Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the TCH signal quality.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-24

Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page24

[Filter Length for SDCCH Level] Value Range: 1~31 Default Value: 2 Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the SDCCH signal strength.

It is recommended that you assign this parameter with a lower value because the SDCCH occupation time is shorter than the TCH occupation time.

[Filter Length for SDCCH Qual] Value Range: 1~31 Default Value: 2 Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the SDCCH signal quality.

It is recommended that you assign this parameter with a lower value because the SDCCH occupation time is shorter than the TCH occupation time.

[Filter Length for Ncell RX_LEV] Value Range: 1~31 Default Value: 4 Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for averaging the signal strength in neighboring cells. This parameter helps to avoid sharp drop of signal levels and to ensure correct handover decisions. Remarks: When this parameter is too large, the impact of sudden changes is reduced, and the response is delayed, thus affecting the network performance. [Filter Length for TA] Value Range: 1~31 Default Value: 4 Description: This parameter indicates the number of MRs used for TA averaging.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-25

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO

Measure and Measurement Result Report

OM Forced HO Direct Retry

MR. Preprocessing

Emergency HO No DL MR HO

Handover Judgment

TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO

Handover Implementation

MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Bad Quality HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page25

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-26

Penalty Processing
Punish on the target cell HO Fails
Emergency (TA&BQ)HO

AMR HO Fails

Punish on the original cell

Penalty
Concentric Cell HO

MS Fast Moving HO Punish on other high priority layer cells

Intra-cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page26

There are several kinds of penalty process


Penalty on target cell when a HO fails. Penalty on source cell when an emergency HO (BQ and TA ) is performed. Penalty on other high priority layer cells after fast moving HO is performed. Penalty for concentric cell HO Penalty for intra-cell HO Penalty for AMR HO

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-27

Penalty for Handover Failure


Punish the target cell when a HO fails. This is to avoid the MS to select this cell again in next HO judgment.

Cell A
BTS

HO Fail
BTS

BSC

Cell B

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page27

When MS fails to handover to a target cell, a penalty will be given on the signal level of this target cell during a so called handover failure penalty time period. That is, when ranking the neighbor cells in the cell list, the corresponding neighbor cell with a failure record within the penalty time will be penalized by cutting certain value on the reported signal level.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-28

Data Configuration of Penalty for Handover Failure

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page28

[Penalty Level after HO Fail] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 30 Description: This parameter indicates the penalty level given to a target cell. A penalty level is given to a target cell to avoid further attempts when a handover fails due to any of the following reasons:

Cell congestion A message indicating internal handover refusal is received. A message indicating Um interface handover failure is received during outgoing BSC handover. A message indicating Um interface handover failure is received during internal handover.

Remarks: This parameter is valid only before the penalty time of handover failure expires.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-29

Data Configuration of Penalty for Handover Failure

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page29

[RscPenaltyTimer] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the length of the penalty timer for handover failure between adjacent cells due to cell congestion. [UmPenaltyTimer] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 10 Description: This parameter indicates the length of the penalty timer for handover failure between adjacent cells due to failed air interface connection. [CfgPenaltyTimer] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 255 Description: This parameter indicates the length of the penalty timer for handover failure between adjacent cells due to incorrect data configuration.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-30

Penalty for Emergency Handover


Punish the original cell when an emergency HO ( due to BQ and TA) occurs.

Cell A

BQ&TA HO

BTS

BSC Cell B

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page30

In case of BQ emergency handover, the original serving cell will be penalized (called signal level penalty by BQ HO ), during BQ HO penalty time, to avoid MS to be handed back to the original serving cell again within certain time. It is the same for TA handover, i.e. the original serving cell is penalized (signal level penalty by TA HO ) during TA HO penalty time.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-31

Data Configuration of Penalty for Emergency Handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page31

[Penalty Level after BQ HO] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 63 Description: This parameter indicates the penalty level given to the original serving cell where emergency handover is performed due to bad quality. After emergency handover is performed due to bad quality, the receive level of the original serving cell is decreased by the penalty level. Thus, other cells are given higher priority and handover to the original serving cell is not allowed. Remarks: This parameter is valid only before the penalty time of handover due to bad quality expires. [Penalty Time after BQ HO (s)] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 15 Description: This parameter indicates the penalty time given to the original serving cell where emergency handover is performed due to bad quality. During the penalty time, the receive level of the original serving cell is decreased by the penalty level. Thus, other cells are given higher priority and handover to the original serving cell is not allowed.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-32

Data Configuration of Penalty for Emergency Handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page32

[Penalty Level after TA HO] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 63 Description: This parameter indicates the penalty level given to the original serving cell where emergency handover is performed due to TA. After emergency handover is performed due to TA, the receive level of the original serving cell is decreased by the penalty level. Thus, other cells are given higher priority and handover to the original serving cell is not allowed. This parameter is valid only before the penalty time of handover due to TA expires. [Penalty Time after TA HO(s)] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value:30 Description: This parameter indicates the penalty time given to the original serving cell where emergency handover is performed due to TA. During the penalty time, the receive level of the original serving cell is decreased by the penalty level. Thus, other cells are given higher priority and handover to the original serving cell is not allowed.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-33

Penalty for MS Fast-moving Handover


Giving penalty on the other three layers(Non-umbrella Layer ) after MS handovers to Umbrella cell by fast-moving-HO.

This is to keep MS staying in the umbrella cell and avoid frequent HO.

Back? No way!

Umbrella

Micro cell
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page33

Purpose of such penalty: When MS crosses continuously several micro cells, it handover to the umbrella cell with lower hierarchical priority level, to avoid too frequent handovers which will affect the communication quality between those cells. At the same time, penalty is started to avoid handover back to original cell again. A possible example is that a fast moving car is running on a highway.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-34

Data Configuration of Penalty for MS Fast-moving Handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page34

[Penalty on MS Fast Moving HO] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value:30 Description: This parameter indicates the penalty given to the level in a neighboring cell when an MS is moving fast. Only the cells in the umbrella layer can give penalty to the cells in other three layers. Remarks: This parameter is valid only before the penalty time of fast moving expires. [Penalty Time on Fast Moving HO] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 40 Description: This parameter indicates the period during which penalty is performed on the neighboring cells of the fast moving MS. During this period, penalty on the neighboring cells (on only the other three layers except the umbrella layer) of fast moving MS is valid.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-35

Penalty for Concentric Cell


A new concentric cell HO is prohibited within a penalty time after a concentric cell HO failure. Do not attempt again after N failed HO(U->O)!

Overlaid Underlaid

Do not attempt again during penalty time after one failed HO(O->U)!

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page35

Huawei concentric cell HO failure means the failure of handover from the Underlaid to the Overlaid, or from the Overlaid to the Underlaid.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-36

Data Configuration of Penalty for Concentric Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page36

[Penalty Time after UtoO HO Fails(s)] Value Range: 10~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 40 Description: After a UL to OL handover fails, no UL to OL handover request is allowed before the penalty time expires. [Penalty Time after OtoU HO Fails(s)] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 10 Description: After an OL to UL handover fails, no OL to UL handover request is allowed before the penalty time expires. [MaxRetry Time after UtoO Fail] Value Range: 0~8 Default Value: 3 Description: This parameter indicates the threshold of UL to OL handover failures. UL to OL handover is not allowed if the number of handover failures reaches this threshold. Remarks: When this parameter is set to 0, not this threshold but the penalty time restricts the permission of handover.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-37

Penalty for Enhanced Concentric Cell


A new UO HO is prohibited within a penalty time after a OU HO is performed successfully.

Overlaid Underlaid Do not attempt back too fast!

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page37

This penalty is valid only for Enhanced Concentric Cell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-38

Data Configuration of Penalty for Enhanced Concentric Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page38

[Penalty Time of UtoO HO(s)] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 10 Description: This parameter indicates the penalty time for forbidding ping-pong handovers. After an OL to UL handover is performed, UL to OL handover is not allowed before the penalty time expires. If this parameter is set to 0, a UL to OL handover is allowed when required. Remarks: This parameter is valid only when Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-39

Penalty for Intra-cell HO


A new intra-cell HO is prohibited if it occurs too frequently.


Intra-cell HO Time
4th. 3rd. 2nd. 1st.

Penalty time
0 3 7 12 32 T (s)

Max. consecutive HO times: 3 Forbidden time after Max. times: 20s Interval for consecutive HO Jud: 6s

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page39

Because of the co-channel interference and other interference, the voice quality of a MS on certain frequency may lower than the handover threshold, now, the voice quality can be satisfied if the MS hands over to another frequency in the same cell. On the other side, the signaling flow of this kind of intra-cell handover is less and handover successful ratio is higher. But under some specific condition (for example: several frequency are all interfered in a cell), then continual intra-cell handover may occurred. So it is necessary to control the frequency of intra-cell handover.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-40

Data Configuration of Penalty for Intra-cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page40

[Max Consecutive HO Times] Value Range:1~20 Default Value: 3 Description: This parameter indicates the maximum number of consecutive intra-cell handovers allowed. If the interval of two continuous intra-cell handovers is less than a specified threshold, the two handovers are regarded as consecutive handovers.Intra-cell handover is forbidden if the number of consecutive handovers exceeds this threshold. [Forbidden Time after Max Times] Value Range: 1~200 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 20 Description: This parameter indicates the timer that starts when the threshold of maximum consecutive intra-cell handovers is reached. Intra-cell handovers is allowed only when the timer expires. [Interval for Consecutive HO Jud.] Value Range: 1~200 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 6 Description: This parameter indicates the period for judging whether two continuous intra-cell handovers are consecutive.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-41

Data Configuration of Penalty for AMR FRHR Handover Failure

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page41

[Penalty Time after AMR TCHF-H HO Fails(s)] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 30 Description: This parameter indicates the penalty time for AMR full rate to half rate (FR-to-HR) handovers. Before the timer expires, no AMR FRto-HR handover request is allowed if the previous full-half handover fails due to channel unavailability or channel mismatch.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-42

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO

Measure and Measurement Result Report

OM Forced HO Direct Retry

MR. Preprocessing

Emergency HO No DL MR HO

Handover Judgment

TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO

Handover Implementation

MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Bad Quality HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page42

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-43

Ranking Processing

Basic ranking

Network feature adjustment

M rule K rule

16 bits ranking

The ranking result: target cell selection of handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page43

Ranking processing of cells are major parts of the HO judgment. The ranking result is used for target cell selection of handover. The ranking processing includes:
Basic

ranking
M K

rule rule (Integrated with 16bits ranking, will be discussed together with 16bits ranking)

Network

feature adjustment
bits ranking

16

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-44

M Rule
Begin
Finish to all neighbor cells?

Yes

End

No No
An BSC external neighboring cell& the current channel is SDCCH ?

Yes

Direct retry?

No[Inter-BSC SDCCH HO Allowed]No


(S) is Yes?

Delete the cell from the cell list?

Yes
the cell overload ?

Yes

Yes

No
RX_LEV_DL(n) < [Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell](n)+ [Min Access Level Offset](s->n)?

Yes

Delete this cell from the cell list

No
RX_LEV_UL(n) < [Min UP Power on HO Candidate Cell](n)+ [Min Access Level Offset](s->n)?

Yes

No

For service cell: Min Access Level Offset=0

M rule will remove the neighbor cells from the candidate cell list according to the flow.
Page44

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

M rule will remove the cells from the candidate cell list according to the following conditions:
the condition of non-direct retry, if Inter-BSC SDCCH HO Allowed is No, and this is an external neighboring cell, and the current channel is SDCCH
Under If

the cell is overload < Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell + Min Access Level Offset < Min UL Power on HO Candidate Cell + Min Access Level Offset

RX_LEV_DL RX_LEV_UL
For

service cell: Min Access Level Offset is 0.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-45

Data Configuration of M Rule

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page45

[Inter-BSC SDCCH HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether an inter-BSC SDCCH handover is allowed. An inter-BSC SDCCH handover is triggered when an MS succeeds in requesting SDCCH but fails to request TCH in a BSC.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-46

Data Configuration of M Rule

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page46

[Min UP Power on HO Candidate Cell] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 10 Description: The M criterion supports the minimum value constraint of uplink received level of the neighbor cell. Expected uplink level of the neighbor cell >= (the minimum uplink power of the candidate cell for handover + the minimum access level offset)The M criterion is satisfied only when the expected downlink level of the neighbor cell >= (the minimum downlink power of the candidate cell for handover + the minimum access level offset).0-63 with 0 indicating -110 dBm and 63 indicating -47 dBm. [Min DL Level on Candidate Cell] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 15 Description: This parameter indicates the lower threshold of downlink receive level when a cell becomes a candidate cell. Remarks: This parameter must be appropriately specified. If it is too high, some desired cells may be excluded from the candidate cells. If it is too low, an unwanted cell may become the target cell, thus leading to handover failures or call drops. A cell can become a candidate cell only when the receive level minus this parameter is greater than the minimum access level offset. [Min Access Level Offset] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 0 Description: This offset is based on the Min DL level on Candidate Cell. For different adjacent cells, different offsets can be defined. Only when the receiving level of an adjacent cell > Min DL Level on Candidate Cell + Min Access Level Offset, then this cell become a candidate cell. Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-47

Network Feature Adjustment


After network feature adjustment, all the candidate cells have their own 16 bits value. The smaller the value is, the higher the handover priority and position of the cell are in the candidate cell list, then it is possible to be the candidate cell.
west The Lo t h ig We

hest The Hig Weight

10 9 12 11 14 13 5 1 6 1

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page47

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-48

Network Feature Adjustment


The 1st~3rd bits


The bit value indicates the priority of downlink receiving level according to the cell signal level and the penalty process taking place beforehand.

The values come from max. 6 candidate cells and 1 serving cell according to the level ranges from 000~110. The value for the cell with the strongest signal level is 000, for the cell with second strongest signal level is 001 and so on.

Actually that is the core of K rule.

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page48

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-49

Network Feature Adjustment


The 4th bit: [Inter-cell HO hysteresis] bit.

Yes

serving cell?

No

Always set to 0

RX_LEV_DL (n) >= RX_LEV_DL (s) + [Inter-cell HO hysteresis] (s->n) ?

Yes

Set to 0

No Set to1

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page49

Service cell: always 0 Neighboring cell: when RX_LEV_DL (n) >= RX_LEV_DL (s) + Inter-cell HO hysteresis, bit 4th is set to 0. Otherwise, set to 1

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-50

Data Configuration of Inter-cell HO Hysteresis

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page50

[Inter-cell HO Hysteresis] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the handover hysteresis between adjacent cells of the same layer. The purpose of setting this parameter is to reduce the "Ping-Pong" handovers. The value of this parameter is invalid if cells are not on the same layer. 4 dB for populous urban areas and 8 dB for suburbs.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-51

Network Feature Adjustment


The 5th~10th bits


The bit value is decided according to their position in Huawei hierarchical network structure.

Huawei cell layers can be divided into 4 layers and each layer can be further divided into 16 different priorities.

So there are 64 different priorities in Huawei hierarchical cell structure.

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page51

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-52

Hierarchical Cell Structure


Umbrella Cell GSM 900 Layer 4 low

GSM 900 GSM900 Cell

GSM 900

Layer 3

GSM1800 GSM1800 Cell

GSM1800

GSM1800

Layer 2

GSM900 Micro Cell GSM1800

GSM900 GSM1800

GSM900 GSM1800

GSM900 GSM1800

Layer 1 high

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page52

The handover algorithm of Huawei divides the whole network into four layers, each of which further divided into 16 levels. The lower the layer is, the higher the handover priority level will be. The Micro Cell layer has the highest priority level.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-53

Data Configuration of Cell Hierarchical Network Structure

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page53

[Cell Layer] Value Range:1~4 (mapping to the PICO layer, the MICRO layer, the MACRO layer, and the UMBRELLA layer) Unit: Layer Default Value: 3 Description: The framework of Huawei network is divided into four layers: Umbrella layer, Macro layer, Micro layer, and Pico layer. Each layer is designed with 16 priorities. The Umbrella layer refers to the GSM900 layer with a large coverage area. It implements the high-layer coverage and the connection of MSs moving at a high speed. The Macro layer carries most traffic on the GSM900 band. The Micro layer carries most traffic on the DCS1800 band. It solves the problem of insufficient resources. The Micro layer is a main cell layer for dual-band MSs in the future. The Pico layer is a microcell layer on the GSM900 and DCS1800 bands. It meets the requirements for the provisioning of traffic at hot spots and dead zones. Remarks: You can set multiple priorities (a maximum of 16 priorities) for each layer. From the aspect of traffic priority, if the layer and level of a cell is low, the priority is high. [Cell Priority] Value Range:1~16 Unit: Level Default Value:1 Description: This parameter controls handover between cells at the same layer. Generally, the cells at the same layer have the same priority. If the cells at the same layer have different priorities, the cell with a smaller value has a higher priority.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-54

Network Feature Adjustment


The 11th bit: The bit value is decided by cell-load-sharing criterion.


This bit is affected by 14th bit.


System load>=[System Flux Threshold for Load HO](s) or [Load HO Allowed](s) =No ? No Yes serving cell? No Yes 11th bit is turned off

No

Cell load >= [Load HO Threshold](s)?

cell load >=[ Load Req. on Candidate Cell](n)?

No

Yes set to 0 set to 1

Yes set to 1 set to 0

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page54

The 11th bit: bit value is decided by cell-load-sharing criterion. And this bit will be turned off when the system load is higher than System Flux Threshold for Load HO or Load HO Allowed is set to NO Service cell: if cell load >= Load HO Threshold, bit 11th is set to 1. Otherwise, set to 0 Neighboring cell: if cell load >= Load Rep. on Candidate Cell, bit 11th is set to 1. Otherwise, set to 0

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-55

Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page55

[Load HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether a traffic load-sharing handover is allowed. Load-sharing helps to reduce cell congestion, improve the success rate of assignment, and balance the traffic load among cells. Load-sharing functions only within the same BSC or in cells of the same layer. It applies to only TCH. If load handover is frequently required, TRX configuration and network planning should be properly adjusted. Remarks: In areas with tight frequency reuse, extra interference may occur if Load HO Allowed is set to Yes.

[System Flux Threshold for Load HO] Value Range: 0~11 Default Value: 10 Description: System Flux Threshold for Load HO is obtained based on message load, CPU load, and so on. The system flow level is the current flow control level of the system.

0~11:It is the system flux control level when the alarm module send out alarms information. Level 11 is the highest and level 0 is the lowest. A load handover is allowed only when the system flow is lower than this threshold. Otherwise, unexpected situations may occur. Therefore, this parameter must be set properly. Flow control threshold for the CPU to start to discard the channel access messages and paging messages: 80% Flow control threshold for the CPU to discard all the channel access messages and paging messages: 100% CPU usage smaller than 80% corresponds to level 0. CPU usage equal to or greater than CPU flow control threshold 80% corresponds to level 2. An increase of 5% means an increase of 2 levels. Level 10 is the highest. The level value can be 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-56

Data Configuration of Cell-load-sharing

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page56

[Load HO Threshold]

Value Range: 0~100(%) Default Value: 85 Description: When the load handover is switched on, it is recommended that the Load HO Threshold is set to 85.The cell load refers to TCH usage. When the cell load exceeds the value of Load HO Threshold, the BSC starts the load handover. That is, the BSC starts the load handover after the TCH in the cell are proportionally occupied. Remarks: Even if the Load HO Allowed is set to Yes, the Load HO Threshold and Load Req. on Candidate Cell affect the queuing of the candidate cell handover. Therefore, when the cell is overloaded, the handovers such as PBGT cannot be performed if this parameter is not properly set.

[Load Req. on Candidate Cell]


Value Range: 0~100(%) Default Value: 75 Description: If the cell load is lower than the value of this parameter, the cell accepts users that are handed over to the cell due to their cell load. If the cell load is not lower than the value of this parameter, the cell refuses the users. Remarks: The same as that of Load HO Threshold

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-57

Network Feature Adjustment


12th bit and 13th bit: Whether share the same BSC or MSC.
Yes serving cell? Yes Yes No

Both 12th and 13th set to 0

Is [Co-BSC/MSC Adj] (s)yes? No No

No

Turn off 12th &13th bit

Co-BSC? Yes

Co-MSC?

12th set to 0 13th set to 0

12th set to 1 13th set to 0

12th set to 1 13th set to 1

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page57

12th bit: if neighbor cell is co-BSC with the serving cell, 12th bit is set to 0. Otherwise, set to 1 13th bit: if neighbor cell is co-MSC with the serving cell, 13th bit is set to 0. Otherwise, set to 1

Service cell: is always set to 0 These two bits will be turned off when Co-BSC/MSC Adj. is set to NO

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-58

Data Configuration of Co-BSC&MSC

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page58

[Co-BSC/MSC Adj] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether the sequence of candidate cells is adjusted. After the sequence is adjusted, the handover within the same BSC/MSC takes priority.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-59

Network Feature Adjustment


The 14th bit: [Inter-layer HO Threshold/Hysteresis] adjustment bit.


Yes No

serving cell?

Yes

RX_LEV_DL >= [Inter-layer HO Threshold](s) [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis](s)?

RX_LEV_DL >= [Inter-layer HO Threshold](n) + [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis](s->n)? Yes No set to 0

No set to 0 Bit 14th set to 1, and bit 5th ~13th are turned off

The 15th/16th bits are reserved


16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page59

The 14th bit: Layer HO threshold adjustment bit Serving cell: RX_LEV_DL >= Inter-layer HO Threshold Inter-layer HO Hysteresis, bit 14th is set to 0 Neighboring cell: RX_LEV_DL >= Inter-layer HO Threshold + Inter-layer HO Hysteresis, bit 14th is set to 0. If the above criterion is not met, then bit 14th is set to 1. At the same time, bit 5th- 13th bits are turned off. The 15th/16th bits are reserved

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-60

Data Configuration of Layer HO Threshold Adjustment

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page60

[Inter-layer HO Threshold] Value Range: 0~63(-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 25 Description: In BSC handover algorithm, the M criterion is used to rank the handover candidate cells. The M criterion includes 16 bits. This parameter is one bit of the 16 bits and it affects the rank of a candidate cell. When the downlink level of a cell is lower than this threshold, the cell takes low priority as far as comprehensive sequence is concerned. Remarks: Make sure that the receive level of the destination cell is higher than this threshold in inter-layer handover or load handover. Otherwise, the MS may be handed from a cell with heavy load and high level (high priority cell) to a cell with light load and low level (low priority cell), thus leading to call drops. [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 3 Description: This parameter indicates the hysteresis of an inter-layer or inter-priority handover. It is used to avoid inter-layer ping-pong handovers. Actual Inter-layer HO Threshold of a serving cell = Inter-layer HO Threshold C Inter-layer HO hysteresis Actual Inter-layer HO Threshold of a neighboring cell = Inter-layer HO Threshold + Inter-layer HO hysteresis

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-61

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO

Measure and Measurement Result Report

OM Forced HO Direct Retry

MR. Preprocessing

Emergency HO No DL MR HO

Handover Judgment

TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO

Handover Implementation

MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Bad Quality HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page61

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-62

No DL MR HO

When the quality of Um interface become worse and worse, it is for the worse uplink quality that MS can not deliver downlink MR, while the downlink quality is not bad enough for MS to receive the downlink message normally.

Bad uplink quality

Serving Cell

Neighboring Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page62

When the quality of Um interface become worse and worse, it is for the worse uplink quality that MS can not deliver downlink MR, while the downlink quality is not bad enough for MS to receive the downlink message normally. Under this kind of urgency condition, in order to save this call, the network send handover command to MS.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-63

Position of No DL MR HO
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode Measure and Measurement Result Report

Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO TA HO Interference HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO

OM Forced HO Direct Retry Emergency HO

MR. Preprocessing

No DL MR HO
3 Handover Judgment

Handover Implementation

Rx_Level_Drop HO
MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Bad Quality HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page63

Attention: After MR. Preprocessing, the No DL MR handover is triggered if trigger condition is satisfied.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-64

No DL MR HO
No Begin No UL_Qua. (after filtering) >=[No Dl Mr.Ul Qual HO Limit](s)? Yes [No Dl Mr. HO Allowed](s) Yes ? Yes No Report 1 DL MR at least? Yes No <=[Cons.No Dl Mr. Ho Allowed Limit](s)? Yes No No Dl Mr. in current Mr.? Yes Yes No serving cell? Yes [Intracell HO Allowed](s)? Yes Within Penalty Time No Trigger No DL Mr. HO signal quality filter length: For TCH:[Filter Length for TCH Qual] For SDCCH:[Filter Length for SDCCH Qual] Page64 Yes Only one cadidate cell? No Select the candidate cell with the highest priority, exluding serving cell No

End

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Triggering condition

No DL information in current MR Stored UL Rx_Qual Value Number >= Filter Length for TCH/SDCCH Qual UL Rx_Qual >= No DL MR HO UL Rx_Qual Threshold Number of Lost DL MR < Cons. No DL MR HO Allowed Limit

Object cell selection


Prefer neighboring cell If choose the service cell, it cannot in the penalty time for intra-cell handover.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-65

Data Configuration of No DL MR HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page65

[No Dl Mr. HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter is used to control the handover algorithm without downlink measurement report. If this parameter is set to 0, the no handover algorithm without downlink measurement report is disabled. Therefore, handover decision without downlink measurement report is not allowed in this cell. If this parameter is set to 1, the no downlink measurement report handover algorithm is enabled. Therefore, handover decision without downlink measurement report is allowed in this cell. [No Dl Mr. Ul Qual HO Limit] Value Range: 0~70 (mapping to RQ (0~7)10) Default Value: 60 Description: This parameter indicates the uplink receive quality threshold of triggering an emergency handover when no measurement result on downlink channels is contained in the MR. The emergency handover is allowed only when the filtered uplink receive quality crossed this threshold. When an emergency handover is triggered, inter-cell handover takes priority. Intra-cell handover, however, is triggered if no candidate cell is available and intra-cell handovers are allowed. [Cons. No Dl Mr. HO Allowed Limit] Value Range: 0~64 Default Value: 8 Description: This parameter indicates the upper threshold of consecutive MRs containing no downlink measurement result for a call. Each call is configured with a global timer, which counts the number of consecutive MRs containing no downlink measurement. When the timer exceeds this threshold, the handover is disabled and the timer is reset.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-66

TA(Time Advance) HO
Handover Triggering

TA(s) Handover Triggering Zone [TA Threshold](s)


or

TA(n) [TA Threshold](n)

Time

Serving Cell

Neighboring Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page66

Because a MS is far away from its serving BTS, the practice TA value is more than TA threshold configured in data configuration, TA handover is triggered.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-67

TA(Time Advance) HO
Begin

No

[TA HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes The actual TA >= [TA Threshold](s)? Yes

Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list Yes

End

No

serving cell? No
[TA Threshold] (n,in the same BTS) <= [TA Threshold](s)

No

Yes

Any neighbour cell exist? Yes

No No Suitable cell exist? Yes Trigger TA handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page67

Triggering condition

The actual TA >= TA Threshold

Object cell selection


The cell must be of the highest priority in the candidate cell sequence and meet the following restrictions.

Restriction

The service cell cannot be the object cell. HO is not allowed when TA Threshold of the neighboring cell with the same BTS is equal or smaller than that of the service cell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-68

Data Configuration of TA HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page68

[TA HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: The parameter indicates whether a Timing Advance (TA) handover is allowed. A TA handover is triggered when the TA is higher than the triggering threshold. TA is calculated based on the distance between the MS and the BTS. The longer the distance is, the greater the TA is. [TA Threshold] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Bit period (A bit period corresponds to 0.55 km.) Default Value: 255 Description: This parameter indicates the TA threshold of triggering emergency handover. Emergency handover is triggered when TA is equal to or greater than this threshold.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-69

Interference Handover
RX_Lev Handover Triggering Zone Lev_Thr

Qual_Thr

Rx_Qual

Interference Origin

Serving Cell

Neighboring Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page69

For a MS or a BTS, when the receiving quality is lower than the interference quality threshold and receiving level is higher than the interference level threshold, it is considered that interference exists in serving cell, so interference handover is triggered.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-70

Interference HO
Begin Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list Yes serving cell? No No [Interference HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes End No UL or DL receiving Quality(s)>=A? Yes No Any neighbour cell exist? Yes None AMR FR: A = RXQUALn, 1<=n<=12 AMR FR: A = RXQUAL1, n=1; A = RXQUALn + RXLEVoff, No
[Intracell HO Allowed](s) yes & cell not punished? Rx_Level(n)>= [Inter-layer HO Threshold](n) + [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis](s->n)?

No

Yes No Any suitable cell exist? Yes Trigger interference handover

Yes

2<=n<=12

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page70

Triggering condition

UL/DL receiving quality>=A None AMR FR


A = RXQUALn, 1<=n<=12

AMR FR

A = RXQUAL1, n=1; A = RXQUALn + RXLEVoff, 2<=n<=12

Object cell selection


The cells must be of the highest priority in the candidate cell sequence and meet the following restrictions.

Restriction

The service cell that is not in the penalty time for intra-cell handover. The neighboring cell with the receiving level higher than the inter layer HO Thrsh + Hysteresis.

For none AMR FR, if one of the following conditions is met, the system will judge that interference occur: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Rx_lev <= 30, and Rx_qual > RXQUAL 1 Rx_lev = 31, and Rx_qual > RXQUAL 2 Rx_lev is within [32,35], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL3 Rx_lev is within [36,38], and Rx_qual >RXQUAL 4 Rx_lev is within [39,41], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL5 Rx_lev is within [42,45], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL6 Rx_lev is within [46,48], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL7 Rx_lev is within [49,52], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL8 Rx_lev is within [53,55], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL9 Rx_lev is within [56,58], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL10 Rx_lev is within [59,62], and Rx_qual > RXQUAL11 Rx_lev >= 63, and Rx_qual > RXQUAL12

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-71

Data Configuration of Interference HO


Default Value Parameter RXQUAL1 RXQUAL2 RXQUAL3 RXQUAL4 RXQUAL5 RXQUAL6 RXQUAL7 RXQUAL8 RXQUAL9 RXQUAL10 RXQUAL11 RXQUAL12 Receiving Level(-110dBm) <=30 =31 32~35 36~38 39~41 42~45 46~48 49~52 53~55 56~58 59~62 >=63 Receiving Quality 70 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page71

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-72

Data Configuration of Interference HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page72

[Interference HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: The parameter indicates whether an interference handover is allowed. An interference handover is triggered when the receive level is higher than the receive threshold, but the transmission quality is lower than the handover triggering threshold. Remarks: Both downlink and uplink interference is judged, and inter-cell handover takes priority. If no target cell is available, intra-cell interference handover can be implemented in the serving cell if intra-cell handovers are allowed. [RXQUAL1] ~ [RXQUAL12] Value Range: 0~70 Description: Quality threshold 1~12 for the interference handover of nonCAMR FR voice services. The value corresponds to (quality level 0~7) x 10.See the next slide [RXLEVOff] Value Range: 0~70 Default Value: 5 Description: The quality level offset of the interface handover of the AMR FR service relative to non-AMR services or the AMR HR service (x 10).

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-73

Rx_Level_Drop HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page73

Rx_Level_Drop HO will be triggered when receiving level drops fast because of barrier such as high building.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-74

Rx_Level_Drop HO
Begin No [Rx_Level_Drop HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes No
Satisfy the Formula& The latest RX_LEV_UL(s) < [Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold](s)?

Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list

End

Yes

serving cell? No

No

Yes No Any neighbour cell exist? Yes

End

Is priority higher than serving cell? Yes Trigger Rx_Level_Drop handover

Formula:

( A1 10)X1 + ( A2 10)X2 + ( A3 10)X3 + ( A4 10)X4 + ( A5 10)X5 + ( A6 10)X6 + ( A7 10)X7 + ( A8 10)X8 < B


Page74

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Triggering condition
The

lastest RX_LEV_UL < Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold

C1nt=(A1-10)X1(A2-10)X2+(A3-10)X3(A8-10)X8<B

Object cell selection


The

neighboring cell with the highest priority and whose priority is higher than that of the service cell in the candidate cell group.

Restriction
The

service cell cannot be the object cell.

Filter Parameter A1A8 and Filter Parameter B work together to decide whether the rapid drop of the receive level must be reflected in one or multiple MRs. The conditions to trigger a rapid level dropping handover are as follows; C1nt=(A1-10)X1(A2-10)X2+(A3-10)X3(A8-10)X8 In the algorithm above, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, and X8 indicate the uplink receive levels of the last eight MRs in the queue. Filter Parameter A1A8 must meet the following conditions: A1+A2+A3+A4+A5+A6+A7+A8=80 For example, if you want to reflect the rapid drop of the cell level in a MR, you can set A3A8 equal to 10, A1 to 0, and A2 to 20.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-75

Data Configuration of Rx_Level_Drop HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page75

[Rx_Level_Drop HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: The parameter indicates whether the emergency handover algorithm is allowed. The emergency handover algorithm is used to prevent call drops when the receive level of the MS drops rapidly. Generally this algorithm is not enabled until the conditions are met. To enable this algorithm, original MR is required for the BSC. [Filter Parameter A1~A8] Value Range: 0~20 Default Value: 10 Description: Filter Parameter A1~A8 and Filter Parameter B work together to decide whether the rapid drop of the receive level must be reflected in one or multiple MRs. The conditions to trigger a rapid level dropping handover are as follows; In the algorithm above, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, and X8 indicate the uplink receive levels of the last eight MRs in the queue. Filter Parameter A1~A8 must meet the following conditions: A1+A2+A3+A4+A5+A6+A7+A8=80. For example, if you want to reflect the rapid drop of the cell level in a MR, you can set A3-A8 to greater than 10, A1 to 0, and A2 to 20. [Filter Parameter B] Value Range: 0~200 Default Value: 0 Description: This is one of the parameters that determine whether a handover is required due to fast dropping levels.This parameter indicates the drop trend of the receive level within a period. The greater the parameter B is, a more rapid level drop is required for triggering a rapid level dropping handover.See Filter Parameter A1-A8. [Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 10

Description: The parameter indicates the uplink receive level threshold of an edge handover. An edge handover will be triggered if the uplink receive level is constantly lower than "Edge HO UL RX_LEV Thrsh." for a period longer than Edge HO Valid Time(s) within Edge HO Watch Time(s). If PBGT handover is enabled, the corresponding edge handover threshold can be lowered. If PBGT handover is disabled, this parameter must be properly specified to avoid overlapping coverage and channel interference. This parameter should be adjusted based on the performance statistics and actual networks to achieve uplink-downlink balance. Remarks: Edge handover uplink/downlink receive level threshold < Uplink/downlink signal strength lower limit of HUAWEI II power control

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-76

BQ(Bad Quality) HO
Begin No Is [BQ HO Allowed] Yes ? Yes No
UL_Rx_Q(s)>=[UL Qual. Threshold](s) or DL_Rx_Q(s) >=[DL Qual. Threshold](s)?

Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list Yes No No

End

serving cell?

Yes No Any neighbour cell exist? Yes

No [Intracell HO Allowed](s) yes & cell not punished? Yes No

RX_LEV_DL (n) > RX_LEV_DL (s) + Inter-cell HO hysteresis(s->n) -BQ HO Margin(s->n) ?

Yes Suitable cell exist? Yes Trigger BQ handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page76

When the receiving level of a MS or a BTS is lower than the quality threshold, bad quality handover will be triggered. Triggering condition

UL receiving quality >= UL Qual. Threshold OR DL receiving quality >= DL Qual. Threshold For AMR call, the quality threshold is DL/UL Qual. Limit AMR FR/HR

Object cell selection


The cells must be of the highest priority in the candidate cell sequence and meet the following restrictions.

Restriction

Prefer neighboring cell. If the number of neighboring cell is more than one, it is required that RX_LEV_DL (n) > RX_LEV_DL (s) + Inter-cell HO hysteresis - BQ HO Zone If there is no neighboring cell, handover can occur to the service cell, and the channel at different frequency band, different MA, different TRX or different channel (from left to right) is preference.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-77

Data Configuration of BQ HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page77

[BQ HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: The parameter indicates whether a Bad Quality (BQ) handover is allowed. BQ handover is triggered when Bit Error Ratio (BER) over uplink/downlink channels is higher than the triggering threshold. If BER rises, or signal strength drops, suspect that the signal power is low or channel interference increases. Remarks: Inter-cell BQ handover is preferentially performed. If no target cell is available, intra-cell BQ handover can be implemented in the serving cell if intra-cell handovers are allowed. [DL Qual. Threshold] Value Range: 0~70 (RQ (0~7) 10) Default Value: 60 Description: This parameter indicates the downlink receive quality threshold of triggering an emergency handover. When the receive quality of the downlink is greater than DL Qual Threshold, an emergency handover is triggered. When frequency hopping or DTX of the cell is enabled, it is recommended that you set this parameter to 70. When an emergency handover is triggered, inter-cell handover takes priority. An intra-cell handover, however, is triggered if no candidate cell is available and intra-cell handovers are allowed. [UL Qual. Threshold] Value Range: 0~70 (RQ (0~7)10) Default Value: 60 Description: This parameter indicates the uplink receive quality threshold of triggering an emergency handover. When the receive quality of the uplink is greater than UL Qual Threshold, an emergency handover is triggered due to bad quality. When frequency hopping or DTX of the cell is enabled, it is recommended that you set this parameter to 70.When an emergency handover is triggered, inter-cell handover takes priority. An intra-cell handover, however, is triggered if no candidate cell is available and intra-cell handovers are allowed.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-78

Data Configuration of BQ HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page78

[DL/UL QuaLimitAMRFR] Value Range: 0~70 Default Value: 65 Description: This parameter indicates the urgent switchover downlink/uplink quality control for the AMR FR service. The values of this parameter match quality levels 0-7 multiplying 10. The urgent switchover is triggered only when the downlink/uplink receiving quality of the MS is greater than the switchover threshold, that is, the receiving quality is poor. [DL/UL QuaLimitAMRHR] Value Range: 0~70 Default Value: 60 Description: This parameter indicates the urgent switchover downlink quality control for the AMR HR service. The values of this parameter match quality levels 0-7 multiplying 10. The urgent switchover is triggered only when the downlink receiving quality of the MS is greater than the switchover threshold, that is, the receiving quality is poor.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-79

Data Configuration of BQ HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page79

[BQ HO Margin] Value Range: 0~127 (-64 dB to +63 dB) Default Value: 69 Description: A Margin in BQ handover algorithm used to judge whether to perform BQ handover. When BQ Handover Allowed is set to Yes and Inter-cell HO Hysteresis > "Inter-cell HO Hysteresis-BQ HO Margin", the Inter-cell HO Hysteresis will act instead of the BQ HO Margin. When "Inter-cell HO Hysteresis-BQ HO Margin" is assigned with a value smaller than 64, MS can hand over to a lower level neighboring cell. 69 for popular urban areas, 72 for suburbs. Remarks: If the data is updated from M900/M1800 BSC to HUAWEI BSC6000,the default value of this parameter is 5.Then it's necessary to modify the value of this parameter to 69,otherwise the BQ HO algorithm will be invalid.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-80

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO

Measure and Measurement Result Report

OM Forced HO Direct Retry

MR. Preprocessing

Emergency HO No DL MR HO

Handover Judgment

TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO

Handover Implementation

MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Bad Quality HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page80

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-81

Enhanced Dual Band HO


Two single band cells which are configured as bi-directional neighbor cell relationship can be configured as enhanced dual band cell to each other. Purpose

During the procedure of channel assignment and handover, the two single band cells can share their resource. Assign the channel with low load in UL to MS preferentially. Make MS handover from the high load cell to the low load cell.

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page81

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-82

Channel Assignment of Enhanced Dual Band


TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in UL)


Begin from UL No
[Assignment Optimization of UL Subcell Allowed or not] (u) ?

Yes

No Assign TCH in UL or direct retry identification or queuing No No

Cell load of UL > [UL Subcell General Overload Threshold(%)](u)?

Yes A Yes Any idle TCH Available in OL? Yes Assign TCH in OL

A:

RX_LEV_OL>= [Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)](o) and RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) >[Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] Attention: RX_LEV (n): RX_LEV of the strongest neighboring cell which has the same frequency band and layer with underlaid subcell, but locates in a different BTS. If there is no such a cell, this value is -110dBm If [ATCBHoSwitch] is [Close], the second condition is turn off.

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page82

TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in underlaid)


If Assignment Optimization of UL Subcell Allowed or not is set to NO, assign TCH in underlaid as the normal assignment procedure If Assignment Optimization of UL Subcell Allowed or not is set to YES, assign TCH in overlaid when the following conditions are met

Cell load of underlaid > UL Subcell General Overload Threshold RX_LEV_OL >= Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) > Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL SubcellsDistance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcell(dB)
RX_LEV (n): RX_LEV of the strongest neighboring cell which has the same frequency band and layer with underlaid subcell, but locates in a different BTS. If there is no such a cell, this value is -110dBm

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-83

Data Configuration of Channel Assignment

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page83

[ATCBHoSwitch] Value Range: Close, Open Default Value: Open Description: The switch of the ATCB handover algorithm. [Assignment Optimization of UL Subcell Allowered Or Not] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether the access request originated in the underlaid subcell is preferably assigned between overlaid subcell cell and underlaid subcell cell according to the Out Cell Low Load Thred. [UL Subcell General OverLoad Threshold(%)] Value Range: 0~100 Unit: % Default Value: 80 Description: If the ratio of underlaid subcell channel occupancy is greater than the value of this parameter, some calls in the underlaid subcell are handed over to the overlaid subcell. Moreover, calls originated in the underlaid subcell are preferably assigned to the channel in overlaid subcell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-84

Data Configuration of Channel Assignment

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page84

[Distance Between boundaries of UL And OL Subcells(dB)] Value Range:0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 10 Description: This parameter indicates the distance between the overlaid subcell and underlaid subcell. The value of this parameter is comparative. The greater the value is, the longer the distance is. The enhanced dual-band network handover algorithm refers to the boundary between underlaid subcell and overlaid subcell based on the comparative value of signal strength of serving cell and neighboring cell. Suppose the signal strength of serving cell is SS(s), and neighboring cell SS(n). If SS(s) is equal to SS(n), the cell is in the underlaid subcell boundary. If the value of SS(s) - SS(n) is larger than the value of Distance Between boundaries of UL And OL Subcells(dB), the cell is in the overlaid subcell. [Incming OL Subcell HO Level Threshold(dB)] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 30 Description: This parameter indicates the lowest threshold of overlaid subcell level of the handover from underlaid subcell to overlaid subcell. When the MS receive level is higher than the value of this parameter, the BSC allows the handover of overlaid subcell cell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-85

Channel Assignment of Enhanced Dual Band


TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in OL)


Begin from OL

No

[Assignment Optimization of OL Subcell Allowed or not ](o) No ?

Yes

Yes Assign TCH in UL

Cell load of UL< [UL Subcell Lower Load Threshold](u)? Yes Assign TCH in OL

No

Any idle TCH Available in OL?

No

Assign TCH in OL or direct retry identification or queuing

No

Any idle TCH Available in UL? Yes Assign TCH in UL

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page85

TCH assignment (SDCCH channel in overlaid)


If Assignment Optimization of OL Subcell Allowed or not is set to NO, assign TCH in overlaid as the normal assignment procedure If Assignment Optimization of OL Subcell Allowed or not is set to YES

Assign TCH in underlaid, if cell load of underlaid < UL Subcell Lower Load Threshold Assign TCH in overlaid, if cell load of underlaid >= UL Subcell Lower Load Threshold

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-86

Data Configuration of Channel Assignment

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page86

[UL Subcell Lower Load Threshold(%)] Value Range: 0~100 Unit: % Default Value: 50 Description: If the underlaid subcell channel occupancy ratio is smaller than the value of this parameter, some calls of the overlaid subcell is handed over to the underlaid subcell. Moreover, the MS that requests for the overlaid subcell channel is preferably assigned to the underlaid subcell channel. [Assignment Optimization of OL Subcell Allowered Or Not] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether the channel request in the overlaid subcell is preferably assigned between overlaid subcell and underlaid subcell according to the Out Cell Low Load Thred.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-87

Enhanced Dual Band HO


Classification of TCH HO in enhanced dual band HO

UL to OL for high load in UL

OL to UL for low load in UL

OL to UL for moving

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page87

There are three kinds of handover for enhanced dual band network: UL to OL for high load in UL OL to UL for moving OL to UL for low load in UL

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-88

Enhanced Dual Band HO(UO )


Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from UL to OL for high load in UL

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page88

The order of handover is from the MS who is near the OL to the MS who is far away from OL.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-89

Enhanced Dual Band HO(UO )


Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from UL to OL for high load in UL


Begin
[Load HO From UL Subcell to OL Subcell Allowed](u) Yes ?

No

End

Yes
Cell load of OL>= [Inner Cell Serious Overload Threshold(%)](o)?

Yes

No
Refresh cell load per second

Yes B-C

Cell load of UL>=[UL Subcell Serious Overload Threshold(%)](u)?

No B

No

Cell load of UL>=[UL Subcell General Overload Threshold(%)](u)?

Yes No
A & Satisfy P/N & not within penalty time?

Adjust HO zone basing on HO step and HO period Any MS in HO zone? Yes Trigger UL to OL No

Yes

A:

RX_LEV_OL >= [Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)] (o)and RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) > [Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] Page89

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

B=[UL Subcell Load Hierarchical HO Period(s)] C=[Modified Step Length of UL Load HO Period(s)] HO step: [Step Length of UL Subcell Load HO(dB)] HO zone: [Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)]~-47dBm HO Period: [UL Subcell Load Hierarchical HO Period(s)]

Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from underlaid to overlaid


Load HO of UL Subcell to OL Subcell Enable is YES Cell load of underlaid > UL Subcell General Overload Threshold RX_LEV_OL >= Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) > Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB) Satisfying P/N rule HO zone is from Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold to -47dBm

Attention:

RX_LEV (n): RX_LEV of the strongest neighboring cell which has the same frequency band and layer with underlaid subcell, but locates in a different BTS. If there is no such a cell, this value is -110dBm

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-90

Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual Band HO(UO )

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page90

[UL Subcell General OverLoad Threshold(%)] Value Range: 0~100 Unit: % Default Value: 80 Description: If the ratio of underlaid subcell channel occupancy is greater than the value of this parameter, some calls in the underlaid subcell are handed over to the overlaid subcell. Moreover, calls originated in the underlaid subcell are preferably assigned to the channel in overlaid subcell. [UL Subcell Serious OverLoad Threshold(%)] Value Range: 0~100 Unit: % Default Value: 90 Description: If the ratio of the underlaid cell channel occupancy is greater than the value of this parameter, the period of handover from underlaid subcell to overlaid subcell is reduced by the value of Out Cell Load HO Modify Step every second based on the value of Out Cell Load Classification HO Period. Thus the handover from underlaid subcell to the overlaid subcell speeds up. [Load HO From UL Subcell to OL Subcell Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: When the ratio of underlaid subcell channel occupancy is high, whether some calls in the overlaid subcell are allowed to be handed over to the overlaid subcell. [Incming OL Subcell HO Level Threshold(dB)] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 30 Description: This parameter indicates the lowest threshold of overlaid subcell level of the handover from underlaid subcell to overlaid subcell. When the MS receive level is higher than the value of this parameter, the BSC allows the handover of overlaid subcell cell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-91

Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual Band HO(UO )

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page91

[UL Subcell Load Hierarchical HO Period(s)] Value Range: 1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the period of the hierarchical handover from underlaid subcell to overlaid subcell. When the ratio of underlaid subcell cell channel occupancy is greater than the value of En Iuo Out Cell General OverLoad Thred, all the calls in the cell request for handover at the same time. The BSC load is sharply increased. Thus the call may drop because the target cell is congested. Therefore the algorithm of hierarchical handover is applied to hand over the calls in the cell hierarchically to the overlaid subcell.This parameter indicates the time duration of every hierarchical handover.

[Step Length of UL Subcell Load HO(dB)] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the level step of the hierarchical handover from underlaid subcell to overlaid subcell.

[Modified Step Lenghth of UL Load HO Period(s)] Value Range: 1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 1 Description: If underlaid subcell load is higher than the value of Out Cell Serious OverLoad Thred, the period of handover from underlaid subcell cell to overlaid subcell cell is shortened by the value of Out Cell Serious OverLoad Thred every second based on the value of the Out Cell Load classification HO Period.

[Total Number of ] Value Range: 1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 5 Description: P/N criterion: In P measurement reports, N measurement results meet handover requirements. Handover is started. This parameter indicates the P in P/N criterion.

[Satisfy Condition Time] Value Range: 1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 4 Description: P/N criterion: In P measurement reports, N measurement results meet handover requirements. Handover is started. This parameter indicates the N in P/N criterion.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-92

Enhanced Dual Band HO(OU )


Triggering condition for TCH HO from OL to UL for moving


Begin Yes A Yes Satisfy P/N? Yes Select Neighbor cell with the highest priority Trigger OL to UL A: RX_LEV_OL <[Outgoing OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)](o) or RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) < [Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] [Distance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] Page92 No No
[Inner Cell Edge HO Enable] (o)Yes ?

No

Yes
RX_LEV_OL < RX_LEV_UL

No End

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Triggering condition for TCH Moving HO from overlaid to underlaid


RX_LEV_OL < Outgoing OL Subcell HO level Threshold OR RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) < Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB) - Distance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB) Satisfying P/N rule

Object cell selection


The cell with highest priority. It could be underlaid subcell or normal neighboring cell

Attention: RX_LEV (n): RX_LEV of the strongest neighboring cell which has the same frequency band and layer with underlaid subcell, but locates in a different BTS. If there is no such a cell, this value is -110dBm

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-93

Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual Band HO(OU )

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page93

[Distance Between boundaries of UL And OL Subcells(dB)] Value Range:0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 10 Description: This parameter indicates the distance between the overlaid subcell and underlaid subcell. The value of this parameter is comparative. The greater the value is, the longer the distance is. The enhanced dual-band network handover algorithm refers to the boundary between underlaid subcell and overlaid subcell based on the comparative value of signal strength of serving cell and neighboring cell. Suppose the signal strength of serving cell is SS(s), and neighboring cell SS(n). If SS(s) is equal to SS(n), the cell is in the underlaid subcell boundary. If the value of SS(s) - SS(n) is larger than the value of Distance Between boundaries of UL And OL Subcells(dB), the cell is in the overlaid subcell. [Distance Hysterisis Between Boundaries of UL And OL Subcell(dB)] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 2 Description: To prevent ping-pong handover, the BSC determines whether the handover of the MS from overlaid subcell cell to underlaid subcell cell based on the value of this parameter. Suppose the signal strength of serving cell is SS(s), and neighboring cell SS(n). If the value of SS(s) - SS(n) is smaller than the value of Distance Between Out And Inn Cell boundary - Distance Hyst Between Out And Inn Cell boundary, the MS handover from overlaid subcell cell to underlaid subcell cell is allowed. [Outgoing OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB)] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 25 Description: This parameter indicates the lowest threshold of overlaid subcell level of the handover from overlaid subcell to underlaid subcell. When the MS receive level is lower than the value of this parameter, the BSC allows the handover from overlaid subcell cell to underlaid subcell. [Total Number of ] Value Range: 1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 5 Description: P/N criterion: In P measurement reports, N measurement results meet handover requirements. Handover is started. This parameter indicates the P in P/N criterion. [Satisfy Condition Time] Value Range: 1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 4 Description: P/N criterion: In P measurement reports, N measurement results meet handover requirements. Handover is started. This parameter indicates the N in P/N criterion.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-94

Enhanced Dual Band HO(OU )


Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from OL to UL for low load in UL

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page94

The order of handover is from the MS who is near the UL to the MS who is far away from UL.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-95

Enhanced Dual Band HO(OU )


Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from OL to UL for low load in UL


Begin No

[Load HO of OL Subcell to UL Subcell Enable](o) Yes ?

End

Yes Refresh cell load per second No


Cell load of UL <[UL Subcell Lower Load Threshold(%)](u)?

Adjust HO zone basing on HO step and HO period Any MS in HO zone? Yes The object cell must be the underlaid subcell and satisfy condition A No

Yes No Satisfy P/N? Yes

Trigger OL to UL

HO zone: [Outgoing OL Subcell HO Level Threshold(dB)](o) ~ -47dBm HO step: [Step Length of OL Subcell Load HO(dB)](o) A: RX_LEV_UL >= Inter-layer HO Threshold(u) + Inter-layer HO Hysteresis(o->u) Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page95

Triggering condition for TCH Load HO from overlaid to underlaid


Load HO of OL Subcell to UL Subcell Enable is YES Cell load of underlaid < UL Subcell Lower Overload Threshold Satisfying P/N rule HO zone is from Outgoing OL Subcell HO level Threshold to -47dBm

Object cell selection


The object cell must be the underlaid subcell RX_LEV_UL >= Inter-layer HO Threshold + Inter-layer HO Hysteresis

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-96

Data Configuration of Enhanced Dual Band HO(OU )

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page96

[Out Cell Low Load Thred] Value Range: 0~100 Unit: % Default Value: 50 Description: If the underlaid subcell channel occupancy ratio is smaller than the value of this parameter, some calls of the overlaid subcell is handed over to the underlaid subcell. Moreover, the MS that requests for the overlaid subcell channel is preferably assigned to the underlaid subcell. [Load HO of OL Subcell to UL Subcell Enable] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether the load handover from overlaid subcell to underlaid subcell is allowed. [OL Subcell Load Diversity HO Period(s)] Value Range: 1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value:10 Description: This parameter indicates the period of the hierarchical handover from underlaid subcell to overlaid subcell.When the ratio of overlaid subcell cell channel occupancy is greater than the value of En Iuo Out Cell General OverLoad Thred, all the calls in the cell request for handover at the same time. The BSC load is sharply increased. Thus the call may drop because the target cell is congested. Therefore the algorithm of hierarchical handover is applied to hand over the calls in the cell hierarchically to the underlaid subcell.This parameter indicates the time duration of every hierarchical handover. [Step Length of OL Subcell Load HO(dB)] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the level step of the load handover from overlaid subcell to underlaid subcell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-97

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO

Measure and Measurement Result Report

OM Forced HO Direct Retry

MR. Preprocessing

Emergency HO No DL MR HO

Handover Judgment

TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO

Handover Implementation

MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Bad Quality HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page97

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-98

Load HO
Handover triggering zone Load of Serving Cell [Load HO Threshold] [Load Req. on Candidate Cell] Load of Neighboring Cell

Time

Normal Cell

Congested Cell

Congested Cell

Congested Cell Normal Cell

Normal Cell

Normal Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page98

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-99

Load HO

As load HO may trigger several HOs, we need to consider the CPU load (system flow level) before triggering it. In addition, load HO is executed step by step, that is, the edge HO thrsh. raises according to certain step and period and will stop when out of the Load HO Zone.

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page99

A handover band is defined in load handover, in the range of edge handover threshold ~ edge handover threshold + load handover bandwidth. The handover band itself is divided into multiple equalized handover step sizes, MS (falling within edge handover threshold + N*handover step sizes) are handover to adjacent cells one by one from low to high. Once load of the serving cell decreases (as lower than the load handover start threshold) or load of the adjacent cell increases to a certain extent (as higher than the load handover received threshold), the handover stops. Load handover is an emergency measure, which mainly applicable to abnormal traffic peak in part of the radio network. It should not be used as the major means to solve the traffic congestion problem. If load handover always occurs to some area of a network, TRX re-configuration and network topology re-design is the right way. Related parameters: Handover - [Load handover table]
System Load Load Load Load Load

flux Thrsh. for load HO

HO Thrsh. HO Req. on candidate cell handover bandwidth (dB) HO step level (dB) HO step period (second)

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-100

Load HO
Normal Cell

Congested Cell

Normal Cell Normal Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page100

The handover bandwidth is gradually wider and wider.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-101

Load HO
Begin No [Load HO Allowed] (s) Yes ? Yes
Current system flux<= [System Flux Threshold for Load HO](s)?

Select the cell with the highest priority in the cadidate cell list serving cell? No Yes No C&D Yes End Yes No Suitable cell exist? Yes C Yes Trigger load handover BSC internal cell? No No Yes

End

No No

Yes
Load of service cell >= [Load HO Threshold](s)?

No
Star timer T

No

Yes Load HO timer T begin? Yes Load HO timer T overflow? A=

B: [Edge HO_DL_RX_LEV Threshod](s)<DL_RX_Lev(s)


< [Edge HO_DL_RX_LEV Threshod](s)+A

A= T ( + 1) Step Period No
B

[Load HO Bandwidth](s) Yes

C: RX_LEV (n)>= [Inter-layer HO Threshold](n) + [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis](s->n) D: load(n)< Load Req. on Candidate Cell(n) Step: [Load HO Step Level](s) Period: [Load HO Step Period](s)
[Load HO Bandwidth] 1) Period Step

Step A [Load HO Bandwidth] 0 T (

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page101

Triggering condition

The CPU load of system <= System Flux Threshold for Load HO The load of service cell >= Load HO Threshold The DL receiving level is in the load HO zones

Object cell selection


The service cell cannot be the object cell If the service cell is a enhanced dual band cell, the other cell in this group cannot be the object cell The load of object cell < Load Req. on Candidate Cell (Only valid for internal neighboring cell)

RX_LEV of object cell >= Inter-layer HO Threshold + Inter-layer HO Hysteresis

Restriction

It is not available with SDCCH.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-102

Data Configuration of Load HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page102

[Load HO Bandwidth] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 25 Description: Together with Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold, this parameter indicates whether a load handover is allowed. Only when the receive level of the serving cell is within the range of (Edge HO RX_LEV Threshold, Edge HO RX_LEV Threshold + Load HO bandwidth), a load handover is allowed. [Load HO Step Period] Value Range:1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 10 Description: This parameter indicates the period required for each level of load handover. When the load of the cell is equal to or greater than the Load HO Thrsh, all connections in the cell may send handover requests simultaneously, thus leading to sudden increase of CPU load and possible call drops when the target cell is congested. Therefore, these requests are divided into steps based on the receive strength. [Load HO Step Level] Value Range: 1~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the bandwidth of each step during level-based load handover. In a layer load handover, starting from the Downlink Edge Handover Threshold, the upper limit of the load handover band of increases by a Layer Load Handover Step every one Layer Load Handover Period. Go on like this, all calls whose receive levels are between Edge HO RX_LEV Threshold and Edge HO RX_LEV Threshold + Load HO bandwidth in the current serving cell are switched out through level by level handover. Remarks: This parameter must be less than Load HO Bandwidth.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-103

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Penalty Processing Ranking Processing Enhanced Dual Band HO Load HO Normal HO Edge HO MS Fast Moving HO Layer HO PBGT HO Concentric Cell HO AMR HO

Measure and Measurement Result Report

OM Forced HO Direct Retry

MR. Preprocessing

Emergency HO No DL MR HO

Handover Judgment

TA HO Interference HO Rx_Level_Drop HO

Handover Implementation

MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Bad Quality HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page103

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-104

Edge Handover
RX_Lev
Handover Triggering

RX_LEV Thr

Time

P/N P: Watch Time N: Valid Time

Serving Cell

Neighboring Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page104

As a MS moves to the edge of a cell, when the receiving level of MS or BTS is lower than the edge handover threshold, handover is triggered in order to look for a better serving cell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-105

Edge HO
Begin No [Fringe HO Allowed](s) Yes ? Yes
UL_Rx_Lev(s) < [Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshod](s)?

Yes Refresh its timer Yes

Select cell(n) whose 16 bit priority is higher than serving cell and whose level satifys P/N rule(n) basing on A No

No
Satisfy P/N rule(s)?

Any neighbor cell? Yes Trigger Edge handover

No
DL_Rx_Lev(s) < [Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshod](s)?

Yes

Refresh its timer

End

No

No
Satisfy P/N rule(s)?

Yes

A: DL_Rx_Lev(n)> DL_Rx_Lev(s)+[Inter-cell HO Hysteresis](s->n)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page105

Triggering condition
The OR

DL receiving level < Edge HO DL RX_LEV Thrsh. The UL receiving level < Edge HO UL RX_LEV Thrsh. P/N rule

Satisfying

Object cell selection


The The

service cell cannot be the object cell neighboring cell with the highest priority and whose priority is higher than that of the service

cell

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-106

Data Configuration of Edge HO

[Edge HO UL/DL RX-LEV Threshold]<[UL/DL RX_LEV Lower Threshold] in HWII/III power control tabel

Should be lower than the[Outgoing OL Subcell HO Level Threshold(dB)] in enhance dual band data table

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page106

[Fringe HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: The parameter indicates whether a fringe handover is allowed. A fringe handover is used to prevent call drops in cell edges and initiated when the downlink level in the serving cell is lower than Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold or the uplink level in the serving cell is lower than Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold. Remarks: To implement fringe handover, the comprehensive sequence of the target cell must be higher than that of the serving cell. [Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value:10 Description: The parameter indicates the uplink receive level threshold of an edge handover. An edge handover will be triggered if the uplink receive level is constantly lower than "Edge HO UL RX_LEV Thrsh." for a period longer than Edge HO Valid Time(s) within Edge HO Watch Time(s). If PBGT handover is enabled, the corresponding edge handover threshold can be lowered. If PBGT handover is disabled, this parameter must be properly specified to avoid overlapping coverage and channel interference. This parameter should be adjusted based on the performance statistics and actual networks to achieve uplink-downlink balance.

25: urban areas without PBGT handover 20: suburbs with a single BTS 20: urban areas with PBGT handover

Remarks: Edge handover uplink/downlink receive level threshold < Uplink/downlink signal strength lower limit of HW-II/III power control [Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 20 Description: The parameter indicates the downlink receive level threshold of an edge handover. An edge handover will be triggered if the downlink receive level is lower than "Edge HO UL RX_LEV Thrsh." for a period longer than Edge HO Valid Time(s) within Edge HO Watch Time(s). If PBGT handover is enabled, the corresponding edge handover threshold can be lowered. If PBGT handover is disabled, this parameter must be properly specified to avoid manual overlapping coverage and channel interference. This parameter should be adjusted based on the performance statistics and actual networks to achieve uplink-downlink balance. Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

30: Urban areas without PBGT handover 25: Suburbs with a single BTS

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-107

Data Configuration of Edge HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page107

[Edge HO Watch Time(s)] Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 3 Description: This parameter indicates the period when uplink/downlink receive levels are measured to determine whether an edge handover is triggered. [Edge HO Valid Time(s)] Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 2 Description: To trigger an edge handover, the receive level of the uplink or downlink should constantly remain lower than their corresponding edge handover thresholds within Edge HO Watch Time(s). This parameter indicates this duration. [Edge HO AdjCell Watch Time(s)] Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 3 Description: This parameter indicates the period when uplink/downlink receive levels are measured to determine whether an edge handover neighbor cell is triggered. [Edge HO AdjCell Valid Time(s)] Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 2 Description: During the edge handover continuance time, the UL/DL receive level should remain higher than the corresponding UL/DL edge handover threshold for a period. This parameter indicates the period.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-108

Data Configuration of Edge HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page108

[Inter-cell HO Hysteresis] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: Levels Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the handover hysteresis between adjacent cells of the same layer. The purpose of setting this parameter is to reduce the "Ping-Pong" handovers. The value of this parameter is invalid if cells are not on the same layer.4 dB populous urban areas and 8 dB for suburbs.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-109

MS Fast-Moving Handover
Time Handover Triggering Time Threshold

Cells Number

P/N
P: Watch Cells N: Valid Cells Umbrella Cell Micro Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page109

The condition of MS Fast-Moving Handover is that a MS is moving fast (for example moving on a highway), and the area is covered by two layers, that is micro cell and macro cell. MS Fast-Moving Handover is mainly used to solve the handover of MS during fastmoving, that is to say, to avoid MS handover to the micro cell to increase handover time and signaling flow, thereby increase service quality MS Fast-moving time ThrshIf the time used by MS to pass this cell is less than this threshold, it means that MS passes the cell quickly. MS Fast-moving watch cells P The total number of cells for judging whether a MS is fast moving or not. MS Fast-moving valid cells N Total N of actual cells that MS fast passes. When N equal to or more than P cells that MS lately passes are fast passing ones, the fast moving handover algorithm will be started.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-110

MS Fast-Moving Handover
Begin No [MS Fast Moving HO Allowed](s) Yes ? Yes Yes the serving cell on layer 4? No Refresh timer(s) No Yes Select the neighbor cell with the highest priority & on the 4th layer & satisfy RX_LEV(n)>= [Inter-layer HO threshold](n) + [Inter-layer HO hysterisis](s->n)

End

Satisfy P / N rule?

No

Any cell satisfy the condition above?

Yes

Trigger MS fastmoving handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page110

Triggering condition
MS moves through P cells (watch cells), and the speed for Q cells (valid cells) among these p cells is fast The

layer of service cell must be less than four

Object cell selection


The The The

service cell cannot be the object cell neighboring cell with the highest priority layer of the object cell must be the 4th layer of the object cell >= Inter-layer HO threshold + Inter-layer HO hysterisis

RX_LEV

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-111

Data Configuration of MS Fast-moving Handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page111

[MS Fast Moving HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether a fast moving handover is allowed. The fast moving handover enables a fast moving MS to hand over rapidly to a macro cell, thus reducing handovers. It is recommended that this algorithm be applied only to special areas, such as highways, to reduce the CPU load.
[MS Fast-moving Watch Cells] Value Range:1~10 Default Value:3 Description: During the moving, the MS passes P micro cells. According to the P/N rule, when the MS fast crosses N ones among the P micro cells, the BSC starts to trigger a fast-moving micro cell handover. Remarks: If this parameter is excessively high, it is difficult to reduce the system load effectively. If this parameter is excessively low, the judgment is inaccurate. [MS Fast-moving Valid Cells]

Value Range: 1~10 Default Value: 2 Description: Suppose that the actual number of the micro cells that the MS fast crosses is N. According to the P/N rule, when the MS fast crosses N ones among the P micro cells, a fast moving handover is triggered by the BSC when this parameter satisfies the required conditions. [MS Fast-moving Time Threshold] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 15 Description: This parameter indicates the threshold for judging whether an MS moves fast across a cell. The threshold is obtained based on the cell radius and specified velocity. If the time for crossing a cell is lower than this threshold, the MS is regarded as moving fast. Remarks: Conditions for triggering of fast-moving handover are as follows: Confidential Information Huawei. No Spreading Without

Permission

The serving cell does not belong to level-4. The optimum target cell does belong to level-4. A neighboring cell has a macro cell

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-112

Layer HO

GSM900 Cell Lay 3

Serving Cell

Neighboring Cell

GSM1800 Cell Lay 2

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page112

The goal of layer handover is to control the destination cell of handover more flexibly, make a MS hand over to the most reasonable cell to reduce the occurrence of latter handover in order to save all kinds of system resources, and also effectively increase handover successful ratio, reduce call drop during handover, improve voice quality and service level.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-113

Layer HO
Begin [Level HO Allowed](s) Yes ? Yes Any neighbor cell exit? Yes 16 bit value(n)< 16 bit value(s)? Yes A & ( layer(n)< layer(s) or level(n)<level(s) )? Yes
Satisfy P/N rule(n)?

No

No

End

No

Identify the next cell

No

No

Yes Trigger layer handover A: RX_LEV(n)>= [nter-layer HO threshold](n) + [Inter-layer HO hysterisis](s->n)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page113

Triggering condition
The

layer or level of object cell is lower than that of the service cell of the object cell >= Inter-layer HO threshold + Inter-layer HO hysteresis

RX_LEV_DL Satisfying

P/N rule

Object cell selection


The The

service cell cannot be the object cell

neighboring cell with the highest priority and whose priority is higher than that of the service cell

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-114

Data Configuration of Layer HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page114

[Level HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: The parameter indicates whether the layer level handover is allowed.An Inter Layer HO is realized by setting different layers and levels for the cells. It is used to guide the traffic to the cell that has a high priority. When this parameter is set to Yes, traffic is routed to a cell with a higher priority. Remarks: The lower the layer is, the higher the priority is. The higher the level is, the lower the priority is. Layer level handover is not implemented when the comprehensive sequence (including basic sequence and network sequence) of the serving cell is the highest or when the level of the target cell is not greater than the Inter-layer HO Threshold.
[Layer HO Watch Time(s)] Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 3 Description: Compare the candidate cells that are better than the current serving cell so as to decide whether to trigger a layer handover. This parameter indicates the duration to make the decision. [Layer HO Valid Time(s)] Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 2 Description: If a cell is ranked 1 of the candidate cells for a whole segment of measurement period, this cell is called the best cell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-115

Data Configuration of Layer HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page115

[Inter-layer HO Threshold] Value Range: 0~63 Default Value: 25 Description: In BSC handover algorithm, the M criterion is used to rank the handover candidate cells. The M criterion includes 16 bits. This parameter is one bit of the 16 bits and it affects the rank of a candidate cell. When the downlink level of a cell is lower than this threshold, the cell takes low priority as far as comprehensive sequence is concerned. Remarks: Make sure that the receive level of the destination cell is higher than this threshold in inter-layer handover or load handover. Otherwise, the MS may be handed from a cell with heavy load and high level (high priority cell) to a cell with light load and low level (low priority cell), thus leading to call drops. [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis] Value Range: 0~63 Default Value: 3 Description: This parameter indicates the hysteresis of an inter-layer or inter-priority handover. It is used to avoid inter-layer ping-pong handovers.

Actual Inter-layer HO Threshold of a serving cell = Inter-layer HO Threshold - Interlayer HO hysteresis Actual Inter-layer HO Threshold of a neighboring cell = Inter-layer HO Threshold + Inter-layer HO hysteresis

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-116

Data Configuration of Layer HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page116

[Inter-layer HO Threshold] Value Range: 0~63 Default Value: 25 Description: In BSC handover algorithm, the M criterion is used to rank the handover candidate cells. The M criterion includes 16 bits. This parameter is one bit of the 16 bits and it affects the rank of a candidate cell. When the downlink level of a cell is lower than this threshold, the cell takes low priority as far as comprehensive sequence is concerned. Remarks: Make sure that the receive level of the destination cell is higher than this threshold in inter-layer handover or load handover. Otherwise, the MS may be handed from a cell with heavy load and high level (high priority cell) to a cell with light load and low level (low priority cell), thus leading to call drops. [Inter-layer HO Hysteresis] Value Range: 0~63 Default Value: 3 Description: This parameter indicates the hysteresis of an inter-layer or inter-priority handover. It is used to avoid inter-layer ping-pong handovers.

Actual Inter-layer HO Threshold of a serving cell = Inter-layer HO Threshold - Interlayer HO hysteresis Actual Inter-layer HO Threshold of a neighboring cell = Inter-layer HO Threshold + Inter-layer HO hysteresis

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-117

PBGT HO
Path Loss (dB) PBGT HO 5 Threshold

Handover Triggering

Time

P/N

P: Watch Time N: Valid Time

126-119=7dB>5dB

126dB

119dB

Serving Cell

Neighboring Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page117

In areas with densely distributed cells, the actual radio coverage range has become far larger than the distance between BTS. If MS keeps the conversation within a cell, it will not be effectively handed over to a nearby cell with low transmission power and that will lead to over shooting, thus increasing the interference of radio environment and complicating network planning and optimization. To solve this problem, Huawei develops PBGT handover algorithm that is based on path loss. PBGT handover algorithm is intended for the handover based on path loss, in real time, it seeks a cell with lower path loss and meeting certain system requirements, and judges whether its necessary to perform handover.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-118

PBGT HO
Begin [PBGT HO Allowed] (s)Yes ? Yes current channel signaling channel? No Search next neighborcell No No layer(n)=layer(s)& level(n)=level(s)? Yes Path loss (s) Path loss (n) >PBGT HO Threshold(s->n) Yes Refresh timer(s)
Satisfy P / N rule?

No

Yes

End

Yes Trigger PBGT HO

No

NOTES: whichever the greater of the [inter-cell HO hysteresis] and [PBGT HO threshold], that value will be used in the PBGT HO.

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page118

Triggering condition
The Path

layer and level of the object cell are the same as those of the service cell. loss (service cell) Path loss (neighbor cell) > PBGT HO Threshold P/N rule

Satisfying

Object cell selection


The The

service cell cannot be the object cell. neighboring cell with the highest priority and whose priority is higher than that of the service

cell.

Restriction
It

is not available with SDCCH.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-119

Data Configuration of PBGT HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page119

[PBGT HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: The parameter indicates whether a POWER BUDGET (PBGT) handover is allowed.Based on path loss, PBGT handover is used to search for a desired cell in real time and to judge whether handover is performed. The cell must provide less path loss and meet other requirements.To avoid ping-pong handovers, PBGT handover applies to only cells of the same level on the same layer and is triggered only over TCH. On a SDCCH, it is not allowed to trigger a PBGT handover.Proper use of PBGT handover helps to reduce over-cell coverage and co-channel interference. [PBGT Watch Time(s)] Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 3 Description: This parameter indicates the period when the path losses of neighboring cells are measured. Thus, operators can determine whether a PBGT handover is triggered. PBGT Valid Time(s) Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 2 Description: This parameter indicates the period that satisfies PBGT handover.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-120

Data Configuration of PBGT HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page120

[PBGT HO Threshold] Value Range: 0~127 (-64 dB to +63 dB) Default Value: 68 Description: A threshold in PBGT handover algorithm used to judge whether to perform PBGT handover. When PBGT Handover Allowed is set to Yes and Inter-cell HO Hysteresis > PBGT HO Thresh., the Inter-cell HO Hysteresis will act instead of the PBGT HO Thresh. When this parameter is assigned with a value smaller than 64, MS can hand over to a lower level neighboring cell. 68 for popular urban areas, 72 for suburbs. Remarks: When PBGT handover is enabled, and Inter-cell HO Hysteresis > PBGT HO Thresh, the Inter-cell HO hysteresis instead of the PBGT HO Thresh works. PBGT HO Thresh must be adjusted as per handover performance statistic result and actual network.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-121

Concentric Cell

Purposes

Maximize coverage area Reduce interference and improve frequency reuse density

Construction methods

Different combiner loss Different propagation loss Modify the transmission power of TRX, the down tilt of antennas, etc. By HO parameters
Overlaid Underlaid

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page121

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-122

Classification and HO Judgment of Concentric Cell

Normal concentric cell

Enhance concentric cell


Receiving level Time advance Quality

Receiving level Time advance Quality ATCB Cell load of underlaid

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page122

There are two kinds of concentric cell handover: Normal concentric cell handover Enhance concentric cell handover The difference of these two handovers is that enhance concentric cell handover takes into account the cell load of underlaid.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-123

Data Configuration of Concentric Cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page123

[Concentric Circles HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: The parameter indicates whether a concentric cell handover is allowed. A concentric cell handover is implemented to achieve mass coverage in the underlaid subcell and tight frequency reuse in the overlaid subcell, thus improving the system capability and service performance. A concentric cell handover consists of inward handover and outward handover. [Enhenced Concentric Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether a enhenced concentric circle handover is allowed.

While the Enhanced Concentric Cell Allowed is set as "Yes", compare the receive level of the MS with O to U HO Receive Level Threshold and U to O HO Receive Level Threshold to decide whether to trigger an O to U HO or a U to O HO. While the Enhanced Concentric Cell Allowed is set as "No", compare the receive level of the MS with RX_LEV Threshold so as to decide whether to trigger an enhanced concentric cell HO. It is required to consider the load of the UL when deciding whether to trigger a U to O HO.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-124

Normal Concentric Cell HO


Division of underlaid and overlaid is decided by MS downlink receive level ,TA value and quality.

underlaid
Receiving Level Threshold Receiving Level Hysteresis Receiving Qaulityl Threshold

overlaid

TA Threshold TA Hysteresis

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page124

An illustration of how to define the border between the underlaid and the overlaid.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-125

Normal Concentric Cell HO

U to O

O to U

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page125

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-126

Normal Concentric Cell HO(OU )


Flow for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid


No

Begin

[OL to UL HO Allowed] Yes ?

Yes

within Penalty Time No

Yes

End

No

[RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Yes? Yes

No

[RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Yes? Yes Rx_Dl_Quality>= [RX_QUAL Treshold]? Yes

[TA for UO HO Allowed] Yes? Yes

No

No

Rx_Dl_Level<=[RX_LEV thshold] -[RX_LEV Hysteresis] Yes

No

No Current TA>=[TA Threshold]+ [TA Hysteresis]? Yes

P/N rule? Yes Trigger OL to UL

No

End

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page126

Criterion for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid:


TA value >= TA Threshold + TA Hysteresis OR RX_LEV <= RX_LEV Threshold RX_LEV Hysteresis OR Quality >= RX_QUAL Threshold Satisfying P/N rule

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-127

Normal Concentric Cell HO(UO )


Criterion for TCH HO from underlaid to overlaid


Begin Yes Yes

[UL to OL HO Allowed] Yes ?

With Penalty Time ? No [RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No [RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No [TA for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No No P/N rule? Yes Trigger UL to OL

End Rx_Dl_Level >= [RX_LEV Threshold] + [RX_LEV Hysteresis] Yes Rx_Dl_Qual<= [RX_QUAL Treshold]? No

No End

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes Current TA<=[TA Threshold]- No [TA Hysteresis]?

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page127

Criterion for TCH HO from underlaid to overlaid:


TA value <= TA Threshold TA Hysteresis AND RX_LEV >= RX_LEV Threshold + RX_LEV Hysteresis AND Qua. <= RX_QUAL Threshold Satisfying P/N rule

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-128

Data Configuration of Normal Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page128

[UL to OL HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether an underlay (UL) to overlay (OL) handover is allowed. [OL to UL HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether an OL to UL handover is allowed. [RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether the downlink receive level is used to determine a Concentric Cell handover. [RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: The default value is generally set to Yes. When the cell is a dual-timeslot cell, the default value is set to No. Description: This parameter indicates whether the downlink receive quality is used to determine a Concentric Cell handover. [TA for UO HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether the TA is used to determine a Concentric Cell handover.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-129

Data Configuration of Normal Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page129

[UO Signal Intensity Difference] Value Range: 0~63 Default Value: 0 Description: This parameter indicates the signal intensity compensation between the overlaid and underlaid subcells. It equals the sum of power difference between overlaid and underlaid power amplifiers, insertion loss difference between combiners, path loss difference caused by antennas, and path loss difference caused by frequencies.The parameter is invalid when Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed. [RX_LEV Threshold] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 35: This parameter is greater than the sum of fringe handover threshold and UO signal intensity difference. 0: The cell is a dual-timeslot extended cell. 40: The cell is a mixed cell. Description: This is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells. It is invalid when Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed.When Enhanced Concentric Cell is not allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_LEV Threshold, RX_LEV Hysteresis, RX_QUAL Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. [RX_LEV Hysteresis] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 5 When the cell is a dual-timeslot cell, the default value is set to 0.DescriptionThis is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells. It is invalid when Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed.When Enhanced Concentric Cell is not allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_LEV Threshold, RX_LEV Hysteresis, RX_QUAL Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. [RX_QUAL Threshold] Value Range: 0~70 (RQ (0-7) 10) Default Value: The default value is 60, but it is 70 when the cell is a dual-timeslot extended cell. Description: This is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells. When Enhanced Concentric Cell is not allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_LEV Threshold, RX_LEV Hysteresis, RX_QUAL Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. When Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_QUAL Threshold, UtoO HO Receive Level Threshold, OtoU HO Receive Level Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-130

Data Configuration of Normal Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page130

[TA Threshold] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Bit period (a bit period denotes 0.55 km) Default Value: 63 Note: TA threshold is not used to distinguish the boundary between overlaid and underlaid subcells. Description: This is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells. When Enhanced Concentric Cell is not allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_LEV Threshold, RX_LEV Hysteresis, RX_QUAL Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis.When Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_QUAL Threshold, UtoO HO Receive Level Threshold, OtoU HO Receive Level Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. Remarks: This parameter must be less than the TA threshold of an emergency handover. When set to 63, this parameter can be used to distinguish the boundary of Underlaid subcell and OverLaid subcell of a dual-slot concentric cell instead of the boundary of a normal concentric cell. [TA Hysteresis] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Bit period (a bit period corresponds to 0.55 km) Default Value: The default value is generally set to 0. When the cell is a dual-timeslot cell, the default value is set to 3. Description: This is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells. When Concentric Circles HO Allowed is set to No, the regions are co-determined by RX_LEV Threshold, RX_LEV Hysteresis, RX_QUAL Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. When Concentric Circles HO Allowed is set to Yes, the regions are co-determined by RX_QUAL Threshold, UtoO HO Receive Level Threshold, OtoU HO Receive Level Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. [UO HO Watch Time] Value Range: 0~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the duration during which the BSC counts the duration when the conditions for an concentric cell handover are met to decide whether to trigger a concentric cell handover. [UO HO Valid Time] Confidential Information Value Range: 0~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 4

of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-131

Enhance Concentric Cell HO


Division of underlaid and overlaid is decided by MS downlink receive level, quality, TA value and cell load of underlaid.

underlaid
U to O HO Receiving Level Threshold O to U HO Receiving Level Hysteresis Receiving Qaulityl Threshold

overlaid

TA Threshold TA Hysteresis

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page131

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-132

Enhance Concentric Cell HO


Classification of TCH HO in enhance concentric cell HO

U to O for high load in U

O to U for moving

O to U for low load in U

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page132

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-133

Enhance Concentric Cell HO(UO )


Flow for TCH HO from underlaid to overlaid for high load in UL


Begin
[UL to OL HO Allowed] Yes ?

Yes

Within Penalty Time ? No [RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No [ATCBHoSwitch] Open? No [RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No [TA for UO HO Allowed] Yes? No

Yes

End

No End

Yes

Rx_Dl_Level>[UtoO HO Received Level Threshold] Yes A Yes No

No

Yes

Yes

Rx_Dl_Qual< [RX_QUAL Treshold]?

No

Yes

Yes Current TA<[TA Threshold]- No [TA Hysteresis]? Yes Yes Go to the user selection flow in the next slide

P/N rule?

A: RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) >[Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] RX_LEV (n): RX_LEV of the strongest neighboring cell which has the same frequency band and layer with underlaid subcell, but locates in a different BTS. If there is no such a cell, this value is -110dBm Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page133

Criterion for TCH HO from underlaid to overlaid


RX_LEV > UtoO HO Received Level Threshold And RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) > Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB) And RX_QUAL < RX_QUAL Threshold And TA < TA Threshold TA Hysteresis Satisfying P/N rule

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-134

Enhance Concentric Cell HO(UO ) (Con.)


User selection flow from UL to OL for high load in UL


Begin
[UtoO Traffice HO Allowed] Yes ?

No

Yes Refresh cell load per second Yes No


Cell load of UL>=[En Iuo Out Cell General OverLoad Thred]? Cell load of UL>=[En Iuo Out Cell Serious OverLoad Thred]?

No B

(B-1)/second Adjust HO zone basing on HO step and HO period No

Yes End

B=[Underlay HO Step Period(s)] HO step: [Underlay HO Step Level] HO period: B-x or B HO zone: begin from -47dBm

Any MS in HO zone? Yes Trigger UL to OL

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page134

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-135

Enhance Concentric Cell HO(OU )


Flow for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid for low load in underlaid

Begin

[[OL to UL HO Allowed] Yes ?

No

End

Yes Refresh cell load per second Adjust HO zone basing on HO step and HO period No

No

Cell load of UL<[En Iuo Out Cell Low Load Thred]?

Any MS in HO zone? Yes Trigger UL to OL

Yes

HO period: [En Iuo in Cell Load Classification HO Period] HO step: [En Iuo in Cell Load Classification HO Step] HO zone: begin from [OtoU HO Received Level Threshold] to -47dBm

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page135

Criterion for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid for underlaid low load

Cell load of underlaid < En Iuo Out Cell Low Load Threshold HO Zone is from OtoU HO Received Level Threshold~-47dBm

Object cell selection


The object cell must be the underlaid subcell

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-136

Enhance Concentric Cell HO(OU )


Flow for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid for moving


No Begin
[OL to UL HO Allowed] Yes ?

Yes

With Penalty Time ? No

Yes

End

No

[RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Yes?

[ATCBHoSwitch] Open?

No No

[RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Yes? Yes Rx_Dl_Qual> [RX_QUAL Treshold]? Yes

[TA for UO HO Allowed] Yes?

No

No

Rx_Dl_Level<[OtoU HO Received Level Threshold] Yes

A Yes

No

Yes No Current TA>[TA Threshold]+ [TA Hysteresis]? Yes

P/N rule? Yes

No

End

Select the underlaid subcell or the neighbour cell with the highst priority in 16 bits list

Trigger OL to UL

A: RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) < [Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] [Distance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB)] Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page136

Criterion for TCH HO from overlaid to underlaid for moving


RX_LEV < OtoU HO Received Level Threshold OR RX_QUAL > RX_QUAL Threshold OR TA > TA Threshold + TA Hysteresis OR RX_LEV_UL RX_LEV (n) < Distance Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB) Distance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of UL and OL Subcells(dB) Satisfying P/N rule

Object cell selection


The cell with highest priority. It could be underlaid subcell or normal neighboring cell

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-137

Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page137

[ATCBHoSwitch] Value Range: Closed Open Unit: None Default Value: Open Description: The switch of the ATCB handover algorithm. [UL to OL HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether an U to O handover is allowed. [OL to UL HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes DescriptionThis parameter indicates whether an OL to UL handover is allowed. [RX_LEV for UO HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether the downlink receive level is used to determine a Concentric Cell handover. [RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: The default value is generally set to Yes. When the cell is a dual-timeslot cell, the default value is set to No. Description: This parameter indicates whether the downlink receive quality is used to determine a Concentric Cell handover. [TA for UO HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether the TA is used to determine a Concentric Cell handover.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-138

Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page138

[RX_QUAL Threshold] Value Range: 0~70 (RQ (0-7) 10) Default Value: The default value is 60, but it is 70 when the cell is a dual-timeslot extended cell. Description: This is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells. When Enhanced Concentric Cell is not allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_LEV Threshold, RX_LEV Hysteresis, RX_QUAL Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. When Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_QUAL Threshold, UtoO HO Receive Level Threshold, OtoU HO Receive Level Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. [TA Threshold] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Bit period (a bit period denotes 0.55 km) Default Value: 63 Note: TA threshold is not used to distinguish the boundary between overlaid and underlaid subcells. Description: This is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells. When Enhanced Concentric Cell is not allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_LEV Threshold, RX_LEV Hysteresis, RX_QUAL Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis.When Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed, the regions are co-determined by RX_QUAL Threshold, UtoO HO Receive Level Threshold, OtoU HO Receive Level Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. Remarks: This parameter must be less than the TA threshold of an emergency handover. When set to 63, this parameter can be used to distinguish the boundary of Underlaid subcell and OverLaid subcell of a dual-slot concentric cell instead of the boundary of a normal concentric cell. [TA Hysteresis] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Bit period (a bit period corresponds to 0.55 km) Default Value: The default value is generally set to 0. When the cell is a dual-timeslot cell, the default value is set to 3. Description: This is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells. When Concentric Circles HO Allowed is set to No, the regions are co-determined by RX_LEV Threshold, RX_LEV Hysteresis, RX_QUAL Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. When Concentric Circles HO Allowed is set to Yes, the regions are co-determined by RX_QUAL Threshold, UtoO HO Receive Level Threshold, OtoU HO Receive Level Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-139

Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page139

[UO HO Watch Time] Value Range: 0~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the duration during which the BSC counts the duration when the conditions for an concentric cell handover are met to decide whether to trigger a concentric cell handover. [UO HO Valid Time] Value Range: 0~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 4 Description: This parameter indicates the duration when the conditions for a concentric cell handover are met within UO HO Watch Time.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-140

Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page140

[OtoU HO Received Level Threshold] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 25 Description: This is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells. When Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed, the regions are codetermined by RX_QUAL Threshold, UtoO HO Receive Level Threshold, OtoU HO Receive Level Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. [UtoO HO Received Level Threshold] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 35 Description: This is one of the parameters that determine the regions of overlaid and underlaid subcells.When Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed, the regions are codetermined by RX_QUAL Threshold, UtoO HO Receive Level Threshold, OtoU HO Receive Level Threshold, TA Threshold, and TA Hysteresis. [UtoO Traffic HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No: dual-timeslot cells Yes: other cells Description: This parameter indicates whether the traffic in the underlaid subcell determines the underlaid to overlaid (UL to OL) handover.When this parameter is set to Yes, the handover is allowed only when the traffic in the underlaid cell is equal to or greater than Traffic Threshold of Underlay.When this parameter is set to No, the traffic is not taken into consideration. Remarks: This parameter is valid only when Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-141

Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page141

[Underlay HO Step Period(s)] Value Range: 1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the interval between two grades of level-based handovers. When multiple UL to OL handover requests are initiated simultaneously, it is possible that calls with low level are handed over. This does not conform to the principle that the call with the best quality should be handed over firstly. Thus, level grade-based handover is used to hand over high-level calls with higher priority. Remarks: This parameter is valid only when Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed. [Underlay HO Step Level] Value Range: 1~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: 5

Description: This parameter indicates the length of a grade in level grade-based UL to OL handover. Thus, highlevel calls are handed over with higher priority.After a step period of UL to OL handover, the handover band is decreased by the length of a grade.This parameter and Underlay HO Step Period control the level band of the step-by-step handover from underlaid subcells to overlaid subcells together. The time for the handover band to step down for Underlay HO Step Level is Underlay HO Step Period. Remarks: This parameter is valid only when Enhanced Concentric Cell is allowed.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-142

Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page142

[En Iuo Out Cell Low Load Thred] Value Range: 0~100 Unit: % Default Value: 20 Description: If the ratio of the underlaid subcell channel occupancy is smaller than the value of this parameter, some calls in the overlaid subcell are handed over to the underlaid subcell. [En Iuo Out Cell General OverLoad Thred] Value Range: 0-100 Unit: % Default Value: 85 Description: If the ratio of the underlaid subcell channel occupancy is greater than the value of this parameter, some calls in the underlaid subcell are handed over to the overlaid subcell. [En Iuo Out Cell Serious OverLoad Thred] Value Range: 0~100 Unit: % Default Value: 90 Description: If the ratio of the underlaid cell channel occupancy is greater than the value of this parameter, the period of hierarchical handover from underlaid subcell to overlaid subcell is shorten. That is, the value of Out Cell Load HO Modify Step is reduced every second based on the value of Out Cell Load Classification HO Period. Thus the handover from underlaid subcell to the overlaid subcell speeds up. Remarks: The value of this parameter must be greater than that of the En Iuo Out Cell General OverLoad Thred. [En Iuo In Cell Load classification HO Period] Value Range: 1~255 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 5 Description: When the ratio of overlaid subcell cell channel occupancy is greater than the value of En Iuo Out Cell General OverLoad Thred, all the calls in the cell request for handover at the same time. The BSC load is sharply increased. Thus the call may drop because the target cell is congested. Therefore the algorithm of hierarchical handover is applied to hand over the calls in the cell hierarchically.This parameter indicates the time duration of every hierarchical handover. [En Iuo In Cell Load classification HO Step] Value Range: 0-63 Unit: Db Default Value: 5 Description: This parameter indicates the level step of the hierarchical handover from underlaid subcell to overlaid subcell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-143

Data Configuration of Enhance Concentric Cell HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page143

[Distance Between Boundaries of UL And OL Subcell(dB)] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 10 Description: This parameter indicates the distance between the overlaid subcell and underlaid subcell. The value of this parameter is comparative. The greater the value is, the longer the distance is.The enhanced dual-band network handover algorithm refers to the boundary between underlaid subcell and overlaid subcell based on the comparative value of signal strength of serving cell and neighboring cell. Suppose the signal strength of serving cell is SS(s), and neighboring cell SS(n). If SS(s) is equal to SS(n), the cell is in the underlaid subcell boundary. If the value of SS(s) - SS(n) is larger than the value of Distance Between Out And Inn Cell boundary, the cell is in the overlaid subcell. [Distance Hysterisis Between Boundaries of UL And OL Subcell] Value Range: 0~63 Unit: dB Default Value: 2 Description:To prevent ping-pong handover, the BSC determines whether the handover of the MS from overlaid subcell cell to underlaid subcell cell based on the value of this parameter. Suppose the signal strength of serving cell is SS(s), and neighboring cell SS(n). If the value of SS(s) - SS(n) is larger than the value of Distance Between Out And Inn Cell boundary - Distance Hyst Between Out And Inn Cell boundary, the MS handover from overlaid subcell cell to underlaid subcell cell is allowed.
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-144

Channel Assignment strategies of Concentric Cell


Channel Assignment Strategies of Concentric Cell

Immediate Assignment

Assignment

Intra-BSC Inter-cell Handover

Incoming Cell Handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page144

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-145

Immediate Assignment

The preferred SDCCH channel in two layers is controlled by parameter TA pref. Of Imme-Assign Allowed

If "No", system prefers the channel in Underlaid subcell If Yes", system prefers the channel according to in Channel Request message
TA bigger TA smaller

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page145

When TA pref. Of Imme-Assign Allowed is set as Yes, if the TA is larger than the TA Threshold of Imme-Assignment Pref., the underlay cell is assigned first. if the TA is smaller than the threshold, the overlay cell is assigned first.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-146

Data Configuration of Immediate Assignment

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page146

[TA Pref of Imme-Assign Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether access_delay is used in the channel request message for immediate assignment. When this parameter is set to No, a channel in the underlaid subcell is assigned. When this parameter is set to Yes, a channel in the overlaid subcell is assigned if access_delay is less than TA Threshold of Imme-Assign Pref. If not, a channel in the underlaid subcell is assigned. [TA Threshold of Imme-Assign Pref] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Bit period (a bit period corresponds to 0.55 km) Default Value: 63: Dual-timeslot extended cells 0: Other cells Description: This parameter indicates the threshold of overlaid cell-based immediate assignment. If TA Pref of Imme-Assign Allowed is set to Yes, the system prefers the channel in overlaid subcell while ACCESS_DELAY is smaller than TA Thrsh. of Imme- Assign pref. Otherwise, the system prefers the channel in Underlaid subcell.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-147

Assignment

Preferred assignment in the overlay or underlay cell Assign the channel of overlay or underlay cell according to the Rx_level and TA in the measurement report

TA smaller and Rx-level higher

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page147

The channel of overlay cell is assigned first only when the Rx level on the SDCCH is equal to or larger than the Assign-optimum-level Threshold and the TA is smaller than the TA Threshold of Assignment Pref.. Otherwise, the channel of underlay cell is assigned first to ensure the successful assignment.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-148

Data Configuration of Assignment

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page148

[Assign Optimum Layer] Value Range: System Optimization, Overlaid Subcell, Underlaid Subcell, No Preference Default Value:

Underlaid Subcell: The cell system is GSM900&DCS1800 and enhanced concentric cell. System Optimization: The cell system is not GSM900&DCS1800.

Description: This parameter indicates the method of TCH assignment a concentric cell.

System Optimization: The system selects the optimum serving layer according to the MR provided through the SDCCH. Underlaid Subcell: Channel assignment in the underlaid subcell has higher priority. Overlaid Subcell: Channel assignment in the overlaid subcell has higher priority. No Preference: No specific instruction is given.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm


[Assign-optimum-level Threshold] Value Range: 0~63 (-110 dBm to -47 dBm) Default Value: When the uplink and the downlink are not balanced, the default value = receive level + balance margin for uplink and downlink When the uplink and the downlink are balanced, the default value can be set to 35, which is the same as RX_LEV Threshold. When the cell is a dual-timeslot cell, the default value is set to 0. When the cell is a hybrid cell, the default value is set to 40. Description: When the optimal layer is selected through system optimization, the current SDCCH level can be estimated (inserted/filtered) based on the uplink measurement result in the previous SDCCH MR. Then, overlaid and underlaid subcells are allocated by comparing this parameter with the receive level of SDCCH, and by comparing TA with the TA threshold of optimum assignment. The MS is allocated with overlaid subcell only when the receive level is greater than level threshold and TA is smaller than the TA threshold. Otherwise, the MS is allocated with the underlaid cell. [TA Threshold of Assignment Pref.] Value Range: 0~255 Unit: Bit period (a bit period corresponds to 0.55 km) Default Value:63 Description: When the optimal layer is selected through system optimization, the current SDCCH level can be estimated (inserted/filtered) based on the uplink measurement result in the previous SDCCH MR. Then, overlaid and underlaid subcells are allocated by comparing this parameter and the receive level of SDCCH, and by comparing TA and the TA threshold of optimum assignment. The MS is allocated with overlaid subcell only when the receive level is greater than level threshold and TA is smaller than the TA threshold. Otherwise, the MS is allocated with the underlaid cell. Remarks: When this parameter is set to 0, the MS is allocated with the underlaid cell.

N-149

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-150

Intra-BSC Inter-Cell Handover


In the case of intra-BSC inter-cell handover, the MS can be handed over to the underlay or overlay cell first.

If System Optimization is selected, the preferred assignment is conducted according to the level value in the measurement report.

overlaid
Overlaid

According to the Rx-level

Underlaid

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page150

If the Rx level is higher than the Rx level threshold, the MS will be handed

over to the overderlay cell. Otherwise, the MS will be handed over to the underlay cell

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-151

Data Configuration of Intra-BSC InterCell Handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page151

[Pref. Subcell in HO of Intra-BSC] Value Range: System Optimization, Overlaid Subcell, Underlaid Subcell, No Preference Default Value: The default value is System Optimization. For a dual-timeslot extended cell or a hybrid cell, the default value is Underlaid Subcell. Description: This parameter indicates the method of channel assignment for intra-BSC handover in a concentric cell.

System Optimization: The BCCH of the target cell is specified in the handover request. Then, the target cell compares only the receive level with RX_LEV Threshold, thus selecting the layer with higher priority. UnderLaid Subcell: Channel assignment in the underlaid subcell has higher priority. OverLaid Subcell: Channel assignment in the overlaid subcell has higher priority. No Preference: Channels are assigned based on routine algorithms.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-152

Inter-BSC Handover

For the inter-BSC Handover, if the target cell is concentric cell , the channel of underlay cell should be assigned first. BSC1 BSC2

Overlaid overlaid Underlaid

Assign underlaid first

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page152

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-153

Data Configuration of Inter-BSC InterCell Handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page153

[Incoming-to-BSC HO Optimum Layer] Value Range: Overlaid Subcell, Underlaid Subcell, No Preference Default Value:

Underlaid Subcell (common networks) Overlaid Subcell (dual-frequency networks) Underlaid Subcell (dual-frequency networks with decreasing success rate of handover)

Description: This parameter indicates the method of selecting an optimum layer for an incoming handover. Remarks: The BCCH carrier must be configured in the underlaid subcell. The SDCCH must be configured in the underlaid subcell. Concentric Cell handover is forbidden if both RX-LEV Threshold and RX-LEV Hysteresis (or both TA Threshold and TA Hysteresis) are set to 63. The data configuration for a dualtimeslot extended cell adopts Concentric Cell techniques.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-154

AMR Handover Flow


Begin No Are [Intracell HO Allowed] & [Intracell F-H HO Allowed Yes ? Yes End No Is current channel TCH & version3? Yes Yes During [Penalty Time after AMR TCHF-H HO Fail(s)]? No current channel is FR No A: Cell load > [AMR TCH/H Prior Cell Load Threshold]

Yes

No

RQI/2 >[F2H HO th] & A Yes No

RQI/2 <[H2F HO th] Yes

No

End

Satisfy P/N rule?

Yes

Trigger internal cell AMR handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page154

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-155

Data Configuration of AMR HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page155

[Intracell HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No

Description: This parameter indicates whether an intra-cell handover is allowed. After an intra-cell handover, the timeslot and TRX that the MS occupies change. Remarks: This parameter does not affect concentric cell handovers and forced handovers. During an AMR handover, an interference handover, and a bad quality handover, an intra-cell handover is unavailable if this parameter is set to No. [Intracell F-H HO Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes

Description: This parameter indicates whether the handover between full-rate channels and half-rate channels in the cell is allowed. Only the value of the Intracell HO Allowed is set Yes, this parameter is valid. Only when this parameter is set to Yes, the BSC makes an AMR handover decision. Otherwise, the BSC makes no decision. [Intracell F-H HO State Time(s)] Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 5

Description: This parameter indicates the time threshold that satisfies full rate to half rate handover. [Intracell F-H HO Last Time] Value Range: 1~16 Unit: Seconds Default Value: 4

Description: This parameter indicates the period that satisfies full rate to half rate handover. [F2H HO th] Value Range: 0~39 Unit: dBm Default Value: 25

Description: This parameter indicates the threshold of a handover from full rate data TCH (TCHF) to half rate data TCH (TCHH). For AMR calls, intra-cell TCHF to TCHH handover is triggered when TCHF is in use and Radio Quality Indication (RQI) is constantly higher than this threshold. [H2F HO th] Value Range: 0~39 Unit: dBm Default Value: 10

Description: This parameter indicates the threshold of TCHH to TCHF handover. For an AMR call, if the current channel is a HR channel and the RQI is constantly lower than H2F HO th within a period, a TCHH to TCHF handover is triggered.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-156

Data Configuration of AMR HO

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page156

[AMR TCH/H Prior Allowed] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: Yes Description: This parameter indicates whether the TCH/H prior function is allowed during the channel assignment. Yesallowed; Noprohibited.

The channel type to be assigned is decided according to the channel types that are allowed by the MSC and the percentage of seized TCHs in the cell. During the channel assignment, the TCHF or TCCH, TCHH Prior channels are required when:

Half rate and full rate channels are allowed to be assigned by the MSC. The AMR TCH/H Prior Allowed is set to Yes. The percentage of seized TCHs in the cell is greater than the value of AMR TCH/H Prior Cell Load Threshold.

In other cases, the TCHF or TCCH, TCHF Prior channels are required.

[AMR TCH/H Prior Cell Load Threshold] Value Range: 0~99 Default Value: 40 Description: The channel type to be assigned is decided according to the channel types that are allowed by the MSC and the percentage of seized TCHs in the cell.

During the channel assignment, the TCHF or TCCH, TCHH Prior channels are required when:

Half rate and full rate channels are allowed to be assigned by the MSC. The AMR TCH/H Prior Allowed is set to Yes. The percentage of seized TCHs in the cell is greater than the value of AMR TCH/H Prior Cell Load Threshold.

In other cases, the TCHF or TCCH, TCHF Prior channels are required.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-157

General HO Process
MS Goes into Dedicated Mode

Measure and Measurement Result Report

Measurement Report Preprocessing

Handover Judgment

Handover Implementation MS Goes into New Dedicated Mode

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page157

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-158

Handover Implementation
Begin

No

[Power boost befor HO enabled or not(s)Yes ?

Yes

BTS(s) keeps current power output

For BTS
BSC send HO Command to MS

BTS(s) uses the max. power output

No power control during handover in order to make sure the handover is successful

HO execute

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page158

[Power boost befor HO enabled or not

Value Range: StartUp,not StartUp,None Default Value: not StartUp Description: When the MS is in a corner, the receive level may decrease swiftly. Handover may be triggered. At this time, the BSC cannot adjust the power of the MS and BTS in time. The MS cannot receive the handover command. Thus call drop occurs. So the power boosting is necessary before HO.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-159

Data Configuration of Handover Implementation(BTS)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page159

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-160

Handover Implementation
Begin

No

[MS Power Prediction after HO(s) Yes ?

Yes

MS uses the highest power to access

For MS
BSC send HO Command to MS

BSC predict power

MS will use this predict power in new cell after finishing this handover

No power control during handover in order to make sure the handover is successful

HO execute

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page160

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-161

Data Configuration of Handover Implementation(MS)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page161

[MS Power Prediction after HO] Value Range: Yes, No Default Value: No Description: This parameter indicates whether the MS uses the optimum transmit power to access a new channel after the handover. Using the optimum transmit power helps to reduce interference and improve the service performance.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-162

Data Configuration of Handover Implementation(MS)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page162

UL Expected Level at HO Access Value Range: 0~63(-110 dBm ~ -47 dBm) Unit: dB Default Value: 30 Description: This parameter indicates the expected uplink receive level on a new channel after an MS is handed over to a new cell.This parameter is consistent with UL RX_LEV Upper Threshold in G-II power control.

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-163

Summary

In this course, we have learned:


Classification of HO HO general procedure HO judgment algorithm HO implementation process HO data configuration

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page163

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission

GSM Handover Algorithm

N-164

Thank you
www.huawei.com

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission