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GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE Copyright (c) 2000Harold Hoffman Wehave puttogether a complete library ofbooks ongun work andtool making into onefileona CD. This isthemost complete volume covering information that isnolonger available. H. Hoffman Allrights reserved. Noparts ofthis publication maybereproduced ortransmitted inanyform orbyany means, electronic ormechanical, including photocopy, recording, oranyinformation storage and retrieval system, without thewritten consent ofthepublisher.
Action Books 7174 HoffmanRd. San Angelo , TX. 76905 Phone 325-655-5953 Home Site

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

ABOUT THE AUTHOR HaroldHoffmanhas throughhis 30 plusyears of experience as a Gunsmith , Toolmakerand Custom Knifemaker has passed on to you throughhis booksinformation that soonmay be lostor forgotten . His booksare not intendedfor the personwantingto make a completefirearm , but for learningbasic shop toolmaking . The information foundwithinhis booksis for instructional purposeonly . -- The titlesDO NOT actualcovergun repair on firearms , but how to make needed partsfor firearmswhichis about 40% of all gun repair . Withoutthisinformation you willbe severely limitedin gun repair . He firststartedgun repair when he was 18 years old doingminorrepair for the farmersand localhunters in the Bucklin , Kansasarea. His main interestwas how to make riflebarrels , as he was an avidhunter . Moving intoa biggershophe boughta lathe and proceededto learn how to use it. He wantedto findout how to make riflingbuttonsto riflebarrels , toolmaking , and learn everything about makingbarrels . Overthe years he became an experttoolmakerand how to buildmosteverything that was needed in the shop . The information foundin his bookswillshowyou how to make mostof the equipment and toolsneeded in mostshops . Afteran eye accidenthe quitGunsmithing and startedwritingbookson everything that he knew. He had so muchdifficulty findingany information that he wantedall thisinformation that he had learnedin over 30 years to be available to everyone otherwiseit wouldbe lost . His booksare now aboutthe onlybooksavailable on Gunsmithing /Tool making , as mostpublishers do not publishGun or Gunsmithing booksanymore .

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

INTRODUCTION When I firstinterestedin how barrelswere made, I was a fulltime gunsmith in Bucklin,Kansas.I was doinga lot of barrelwork,suchas chamberingand fittingactions. I startedto researchthe subject in all the differentbooksthat I couldfind.One thingthat I foundout very fast was that there was not any information on the processof buttonrifling. This was in 1956, and all the available information was on cut, or broachrifling.I startedto experiment and about1-1/2 years later, I was able to come up witha fairlydecentbarrel. I had been manufacturing all typesof barrelsfor a few years, and had been keepingnoteson all the differentprocessesand information that I used. I kept thinking that if thisinformation is not passed along to others,it mightsoonbe lost. In 1962 I gatheredall my notesand startedputtingtogethera manualon barrelmaking.I includedevery processthat I used in the shop.At the time, I had a verygood businessmakingbarrelsin Bucklin, Kansas. My main idea in writingthisbook is to givethe readersan idea how gun barrelsare made. This book may seem to be a littlevagueat time, but once the reader startsmakingthe barrel,etc. it all fallsin place. If the reader followsthe instructions , a firstclassbarrelcan be made that willcompetewiththe best. I havemany readerstell me it soundedto simple . Well makingbarrelsis a simpleprocess , muchsimpler than otherbarrelmakerswouldlike it to be Known .

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

MILLING MACHINES
GENERAL TYPES Hand millingmachinesmay be of the columnand knee type or constructed witha table mountedon a fixedbed. This type of machineis intendedfor smallworkonly.The hand feed operatesby means of leversor a hand screwfor worksuchas slotting and cuttinggrooves and key ways. The machineis provided witha horizontal spindlewithspeeds of 75 to 4,000 rpm (4- ranges).The worktablehas longitudinal and vertical feeds also a crossfeed. A machineof thistype can be used for production workif provided withstopsand speciallydesignedfixtures where partscan be rapidly loaded and unloaded. Millingmachinesare designedto holdand rotatea millingcutter,holda workpiece, and feed the work piece to the millingcutterin one of severaldirections. The workpiece may be held directly,or indirectly, on the table of the millingmachine. The table and the workpiece may be movedor adjusted aboutthe rotatingmillingcutter,in three directions, that is vertical, horizontal, parallelto the rotational axisof the spindle,and horizontal, perpendicular to the rotational axisof the spindle.Alongany one of these three directions, feedingmay be accomplished. Movements alongthe othertwo directions then are used for locatingthe cut that includesobtainingthe depthof cut. Adjusting the movements alongthese three directions can be controlled to within0.00 1 inch. Millingmachinesare available in severaldifferenttypes,and can be used for makinga large variety of machining cuts.Millingmachineswitha horizontal spindlefor rotatingthe millingcutterare called horizontal millingmachines.Millingmachineswitha vertical spindleare calledvertical millingmachines that we willbe usinghere. VERTICAL MILLING MACHINES A vertical millingmachinehas the same table movements as a horizontal machine.It is calleda vertical millingmachinebecausethe spindleis locatedvertically and at rightanglesto the top of the table. The head may be swiveled for angularor bevelmillingoperations. Verticalmillingmachinesuse end-milling cuttersof various typesand sizesdependinguponthe kindsof operationsto be performed.These operationsconsistof millinghorizontal surfaces,angularsurfaces, millinggrooves, key ways, T-slots,and dovetails. Verticalmillingmachinescan also be used for drillingand boringoperationswhere it is necessaryto space a numberof holesaccurately.In thistype of operation,dial gages, veneerscales,precision 4

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measuring pins, androds canbeused advantageously forproducing precision holes. Thetable, saddle, andknee portion ofa vertical milling machine isthesame asthat ofa horizontal milling machine. A vertical milling machine isnotsuitable forusing arbor-mounting milling cutters that must bemounted onanarbor. There isnoprovision forsupporting theouter endofanarbor. Compared with a horizontal milling machine, a vertical milling machine canuseshank mounted milling cutters easier. Using a shank-mounted milling cutter ona vertical milling machine, theoperator canmore easily setup thework piece andobserve themachining. Onsome vertical milling machines thehead, that contains thespindle, maybeswiveled about a horizontal axis. Themilling cutter maythen besetat anyangle ina vertical plane parallel tothedirection oftable movement.
UP AND DOWN MILLING All millingmachineshavean electricmotor,housedin the column,to provide power,throughsuitable gearingand a clutch,for rotatingthe spindle.The gearingprovides means for obtainingdifferentspeeds (rpm's) for the spindlefor differentcutterdiametersand machining conditions. Power fromthe electric motor,throughthe gear train,can be used for moving the table, saddle,or knee. This gearingmay be quickly changedto get a variety of desiredmovement velocities. When used duringmachining, thisis calledpowerfeeds. A more rapid movement of the table, saddle,or knee, a rapid traverse is available. This is used when settingup a millingmachine.Accuratepositioning of the table, saddle,and knee duringsetupis set by hand, usingthe hand cranksand micrometer dials. CUTTER TEETH Cutterswithcomparatively few widelyspaced teeth havedistinctadvantages overfine-toothed cutters. A coarse-toothed cutterwithfew widelyspaced teeth can removea maximum amountof metal, without distressing the cutteror overloading the machine.These cuttershavea free cuttingaction,largely becausea smalleramountof cuttingis required to removea givenamountof metal. Other advantages are: The rake and increasedspiralof the teeth givesa shearingaction.Wide spacingdecreasesthe tendencyof the cutterto slide overthe surface. Less friction is created,resulting in coolerteeth and consequently decreasingthe necessityof regrinding operations.There is decreasedpowerconsumption. Increasedproduction is possible.

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

CUTTING SPEEDS FOR MILLS Positive radialrake anglesof 100 to 15are used on high-speedsteel cutters.These anglesservein 6

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machining most materials andgive good cutting ability tothecutter without sacrificing strength ofthe cutter. Inmilling softer materials, a greater rakeangle canbeprovided toimprove cutting ability. Negative rakeangles areprovided oncarbide-tipped cutters forhigh-speed milling operations. Since theangles areboth radial andaxial, tool lifecanbeincreased byincreasing thelipangle. Forsofter steels, a negative rakeangle of5 to10 isprovided onplain milling cutters with teeth ontheperiphery. This angle isincreased when medium-carbon andalloy steels arebeing machined.

Clearance angles arekept onthesmall side toavoid weakening thecutting edge ofthetooth. With a minimum amount ofmaterial behind thetooth, thestrength ofthetooth isdiminished. Clearance angles of3 to5 areused oncutters over ~" indiameter. This isincreased onsmaller diameter cutters to prevent theteeth from a rubbing instead ofa cutting action. Thetype ofmaterial being machined affects clearance angles. Ifcast iron isbeing machined, 4 to7 might beused; nonferrous materials require clearance angles of10 to12. Theland ona cutter canbe from 1/32" to1/ 16" inwidth, with a secondary clearance back oftheland.
ARBOR-MOUNTING MILLING CUTTERS A millingmachinearborhas a shankwitha locatingtaper for locatingit so that it willrotateconcentrically withthe spindle.The arborshankis driven by a key on the spindlenose. It is held to the spindlenose by a draw bar that extends throughthe hollowspindle.Afterscrewingthe draw bar intothe end of the arbor shankfor at least, fourfullthreads.The nut is then tightenedto holdthe arborfirmlyin the taper of the spindlenose. An arbor-mounting millingcutterhas a centralhole that closelyfitsan arbordiameter.A nut at the outer end of the arboris turnedfor tightening all collarsand cutterson the arbor.Runningthe lengthof the accuratecylindrical portionuponthat the millingcuttersare located,millingmachinearborshavea keyway,and thusa key may be used to drivea millingcutter.

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Often with lighter cuts andespecially with hand feeding, a keyisnotused. Ifa milling cutter driven without a keyslips when power feedisbeing used, theamount ofmaterial toberemoved bythenext cutter tooth maybeincreased. This maycause either more slippage orpossible breakage.

PLAIN MILLING CUTTERS Plain millingcuttersare cylindrical withteeth on the peripheryonly.The peripheryof a millingcutteris the imaginarycylindrical surfaceenveloping the outerends of the peripheralteeth and determining the diameterof the cutter.These cuttersare used primarily for millingflat surfaces.They can be combined withcuttersof othertypesto producesurfaceswithvarious forms.The teeth may be eitherstraightor helical,dependinguponthe widthof the cutter.Plain millingcutterswithhelixanglesof 45to 60 and higherare calledhelicalcutters. ANGULAR MILLING CUTTERS Angularmillingcuttersare used for operationssuchas: cuttingV-grooves, notches,dovetails, fluteson millingcutters,and reamer teeth. Single-anglecuttershaveone angularsurfacewhiledouble-angle cuttersare made withV-shapedteeth. These cutters,withequalconicalangleson bothfaces, are made withan includedangle of 45,60,or 90. 8

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PLAIN MILLING CUTTERS Arbor-mounting cuttersare cylindrical in formand provided withcuttingedges of theiroutercylindrical surfaces.There are no cuttingedges on eitherside of a plainmillingcutter.Plain millingcuttersare used normallyfor machining flat surfaces.

Arbor-mounting cutterswithsmallwidths,rangingfroma few thousandths up to 3/16 inch,are called slitting saws. They are used for cuttingoff and narrowslotting operations.Most slitting saws are similar to plainmillingcuttersas they havecuttingedges onlyon theiroutercylindrical surfaces.These slitting saws are groundslightly concave on theirsides to provide side clearanceso that theirsides willnot rub. Some slitting saws, especiallythosewithgreaterwidths,nearer 3/16 inch,are used as side milling cutters. FLY CUTTERS A fly cutterconsistsof one or more single-point toolbits mountedin a bar of some type that can be attachedto the spindleof the millingmachine.Its principlein operationis quitelike that of a boringtool. Setscrewsare used to holdthe toolbit in place;thistype of toolis used for specialapplications. T-SLOT CUTTERS 9

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T-slot cutters area special type ofendmill having either straight ortapered shanks anddesigned for cutting T-slots inmachine tables andsimilar applications. NOTE: Inproducing a T-slot, a groove forthenarrow portion oftheslot isfirst machined with anendmill orside mill andthen finished with theT-slot cutter.

WOODRUFF KEY SEAT CUTTERS These cuttersare of specialdesignfor cuttingkey seats for Woodruffkeys (that havethe shape of a half circle).These are available in all sizesand are of two types,end milland arborcutters.The end millis available in diametersfrom114"to 1 1/2"; the arbortype, in diametersfrom2 1/8"to 3 1/2." SIDE MILLING CUTTERS Cylindrical in form,side-milling cuttershavecuttingedges on one or bothsides also on their outer-cylindrical surface.Side millingcuttersare quitesimilarto plaincutters.They also haveteeth on one or bothsides. In millingoperationswhere two cuttersare placedside by side, they haveteeth on onlyone side. The teeth can be straight,helical,or staggered. Slotsmachinedwithside millingcuttershavesmootherand more accuratesides than thosemachined withplainmillingcutters.Rake angle for the cuttingedges at the sides of a side-milling cutteris called the axialrake angle. It is the angle at the cuttingedge betweenthe toothface and the machinedsurface. METAL-SLITTING SAWS Metal-slitting saws are designedfor cutoffoperationsand for cuttingnarrowslots.The sides are slightly taperedtowardthe hole to prevent binding.Like othermillingcutters,they can be plainor made with side teeth or withstaggeredteeth. HOLDING THE WORK PIECE ON THE TABLE Since more than one cuttingedge of a millingcutteris cutting,the totalcuttingforceof the workpiece can be large. A machinist needs considerable skilland experience to enable him to securelyclamp some typesof workpieces. A workpiece mustbe held securelyso that it cannotshiftduringa cut. A workpiece shouldalso be supportedto prevent any springing due to the cuttingforce,the clamping,or its own weight.A workpiece is usuallyclampedto the table usingthe T slots.Smallerworkpieces can be held in a viseboltedto the table. There are severaltypesof visesthat can be used including the plain vise,swivel vise,and the toolmaker's universal vise. Most millingviseshavetwo keys on theirbases for fittingintoa T slotfor locatingthe viseon the milling machinetable. Standardvisejaws are flat. They can be removed and replacedwithspecialvisejaws, 10

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designed forlocating andholding thework piece. These special vise jaws have locating stops that make possible easy location ofthework pieces. Thespecial jaws convert a vise into a milling fixture.
DOWN MILLING If downmillingis used, all loosenessmustbe eliminatedin the table feed screw,as the motionof the cuttertendsto pullthe workpiece intothe cutter.The machinemustbe designedwithspecialfeatures, adaptingit to downmillingif thistype of millingis to be used. In downmilling,the maximum chipthickness is obtainedcloseto where the toothcontactsthe work piece. No built-uppressureis developed in downmilling,and, therefore,no heavyburr(a protruding, ragged metal edge) formson the surfaceof the metal. Down millingthat is being done dependsuponthe side fromthat the workpiece is fed to the rotating millingcutter.In downmilling,the portionof the toothcontactwiththe workpiece showsa verygood finish.An elementof the finalmilledsurfaceis producedat the end of the toothtravelwhen the built-up edge is completely developed. This couldmean that the finishof the finalsurfacemightbe of poorer quality than producedby up milling. UP MILLING In up milling,the cutterrotatesagainstthe directionof feed as the workpiece advances towardit from the side where the teeth are moving upward.The separatingforcesproducedbetweencutterand work piece opposethe motionof work. In up milling,sincethe cutterteeth come up fromthe bottomof the cut, the chipis verythin.It the beginningwhere the toothfirstcontactsthe workpiece. Gradually,the chipincreasesin thickness, reachingits maximum thickness where the toothleavesthe workpiece. In up milling,the materialremoved by each toothstartswitha minimumthickness and ends witha maximum thickness. The chipshouldformat the center,but due to the resistanceof the materialto penetration, the cutting actionis delayedsomewhatand cuttingstartsslightly ahead of the center.The cutterslidesoverthe workpiece to be machineduntilsufficient pressurehas been builtup to forceit to bite intothe surfaceof the workspaceto producea chip. The startingof the cuttingin up millingis not recommendedas the cuttingedge of a toothrubsalongthe workpiece surfaceat the start,and the beginningof the cuttingis difficult. The oppositecutting condition, or downmilling,is better,sincecuttingedges remainsharplonger,and smoothersurfaces can usuallybe obtained. RPM of the millingcutter= _______________________ 11

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PieX diameter ofthecutter, in. Upmilling ismore commonly used because it issafer. With down milling damage maybecaused tothe milling cutter, work piece, andmilling machine Down milling theresultant force ofthecutter upon the work piece isdirected toward andunder thecutter. This pulls thework piece under thecutter. Itisbetter tohave this resultant force directed intheopposite direction aswith upmilling. Ifthework piece isnotsecurely held, it will bedrawn into thecutter sofast that thecutter teeth areunable tomake thecutandsomething will bedamaged. Ifthework piece isheld properly, damage canstill occur. Theentire milling machine table will bepulled ahead if anythere isanyplay that isknown asbacklash, exists. Thenext cutter tooth will probably have t~much material toremove andthecutter will bechipped orbroken. Since down milling isbetter since it canbedone safely, some milling machines aredesigned forit.Allbacklashes must beeliminated.
SPEED, FEED, AND DEPTH OF CUT Cuttingspeed as appliedto millingcan be definedas circumferential speed of the millingcutter expressed in surfacefeet per minute(sfpm).It is the distancethat the peripheryof a millingcuttertooth travels in one minute. The revolutions (rpm) refer to the numberof revolutions that the cuttermakes in one minute.A small millingcuttermustrotateat a higherrpm to cut at the givencuttingspeed of a largercutter.A small cutteris more efficientbecauseit travels a shorterdistance. Feed is the rate at that a workpiece is movedtowarda rotatingmillingcutter,that removes material fromits surface.Feed is limitedby the depthof the materialthat can be removed by each toothof the millingcutterper revolution. This depthis calledthe feed per tooth,and its unitsare inchesper tooth. Feed for millingmachinesis givenin inchesper minute,becausevarious millingcutterswithdifferent numberof teeth may be employedon a millingmachine.The desiredfeed in inchesper minuteis set by quick-change gears, and the powerfeeds are engaged by controlleversat the frontof the machine. Power feeds are usuallyavailable for moving the table, saddle,and knee. Trip dogs are set to disengagepowerfeeds at the correctpositions. They are especiallyusefulwhen more than one similarworkpiece is to be machined.Ordinarily it is best to use the largestfeed per tooththat can be employedsafely.By doingthisit willreduce,the time required for a millingoperation and increasesthe life of a millingcutterbetweenresharpenings. Millingcutterlife is increased,becausethe numberof cutter-tooth contactswiththe workpiece surfaces is reduced.Alightfeed may haveto be used for a fragileworkpiece or when it is difficult to holda work piece securely.Depth of cut is the normaldistancebetweenthe workpiece surfacesbeforeand after

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milling.
ADJUSTING THE LOCATION OF THE WORK PIECE TO THE CUTTER A surfaceof the workpiece shouldbe locatedby adjustment so that it just contactsthe millingcutter when the latteris rotating.I use a thinpiece of paper, of a knownthickness. It is held on the workpiece surface,whilethe workpiece is carefullymovedtowardthe rotatingcutter.Once thiscontactis made, the workpiece is movedaccuratelya desireddistancefromthisreferenceto removethe desireddepth of material.An edge findercan be used to locatethe surfacewithbetteraccuracy. The depthof materialremoved can be held to within0.001 inch.Toleranceof from0.002 to 0.005 inch is more practicablefor milling.To aligna machinedsurfaceof a workpiece, vise,or millingfixture with the movement of the table, saddle,or knee, a dial indicatoris attachedto the spindleor arbor.This test indicatoris positioned to contactthe machinedsurface. The table, saddle,or knee then is moved,and slightchangesof the machinedsurfacelocationare made, usuallywithlighthammerblows.This is done untilthe readingof the test indicatoreitherdoes not changeor remainswithinthe desiredtolerance. The principlefunction of attachments is to increasethe variety of workthat can be accomplished on millingmachines.These attachments positionand holdthe workpiece to the table. Two otherimportant milling-machine attachments are the rotarytable and the dividing head. These willbe discussedin following paragraphs. ANGLE PLATE If yourmillingmachinehead does not rotate,the adjustable angle plate can be used. It is boltedto the table of the millingmachine,and any angle can be set on it. A visecan then be boltedto it to holdsmall work. ROTARY TABLE A rotarytable is mountedon the table of a millingmachineas an auxiliary table to superimpose a rotary motionuponthe othermovements for the workpiece. This rotarymovement may be used for feedingor for adjustment in locatinga cut. This rotarymovement is abouta vertical axis,and sincethe rotarytable is mountedon the regularmillingmachinetable. A wormgear directlyfastenedto the rotary-table vertical shaftis rotatedby a wormon a horizontal shaft. The horizontal wormshaftmay be turnedby hand. If poweris used, suitableshaftingmay bringthe power,when desired,fromthe millingmachinefeed-powermechanism. The workpiece may be accuratelyrotatedby turningthe wormshaftby hand withthe aid of a micrometer dial, or an indexplate.

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Fractions ofa complete worm-shaft turn areobtained with a micrometer dialorwith anindex plate on theworm shaft. Anindex plate isa disk andhasinitssurface several holes, arranged incircles. The holes within each circle areequally spaced with accuracy. Thecircles ofholes areconcentric with the worm shaft. A spring-loaded pininthecrank handle isadjustable tofitinto holes ofa particular circle to beused. Theindex plate with thecrank andspring loaded pinprovide anaccurate means forobtaining desired fractions ofa complete worm-shaft turn. Onespace between twoadjacent holes ina particular circle mayrepresent several degrees orminutes ofangular movement oftherotary table. A vertical milling machine provided with a rotary table maymachine a complete orpartial cylindrical surface having any desired radius. Internal cylindrical surfaces with radius that istoosmall foravailable endmills maynot becut. Partial cylindrical surfaces maybejoined toflatsurfaces byusing rotary-table feeds with the regular milling machine feeds.
UNIVERSAL DIVIDING HEAD Like a rotarytable, a universal dividing head may be used for rotatinga workpiece throughprecise angles.A dividing head has a spindlethat supports and rotatesthe workpiece. A centermay be mountedin the taperedhole at the frontend of the dividing-head spindlefor holdinga workpiece betweencenters. Other workpiece holdingdevices , suchas a chuck , also may be mountedon the frontend of the dividing -head spindle . The workpiece is mountedso that it willrotateaccuratelyconcentric withthe axis of rotationof the dividing head spindle . The workpiece is rotatedby turningthe indexcrank . Since the gear ratiois 40 to I, it takes, 40 turnsof the crankto rotatethe spindleand workpiece throughone completerevolution . In comparison witha rotarytable, that rotatesonlyabouta vertical axis . A dividing head may rotatea workpiece aboutan axisat any angle, and its indexing abilityis muchgreater . The dividing head spindleaxiscan be positioned at various anglesfrombelowthe horizontal to slightly beyondthe vertical position .

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EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS Intheintroduction, I listed a fewmachines that areneeded, tomake what you need. What isneeded will allow you tomake gun barrels, butI amnotconsidering speed, number ofoperations, ornumber of barrels produced.
LATHE Your lathe shouldhaveat least a 3-footbed. If you are planningto make muzzle loadingbarrels,a 4 ft. bed is preferable.The hole throughthe head stockshouldbe at least 1 1/2 inch,as you willneed to centerthe barrelblankin the head stock. There willneed to be a collaron each end of the head stockso the blankcan be centered.The collars willneed to be tapped for 4 -1/4 inchset screws,whichwillbe used to centerthe blank. The lathe shouldbe able to turnat least 2000 rpm or higher.It shouldhavetaperedbearingsin the head stockspindle. You willhaveto get extragears for yourlathe so you can slowthe feed to giveyou the minimumof .0004 inchof feed per revolution. This willbe needed when you drillbarrelsfor 17-22 caliber.Any higherfeed willcause the deep-holedrillto plugup and possibletwistoff. OIL PAN There shouldbe some type of oil pan underthe ways to catchthe returning cuttingoil, so it can be strainedbeforeit is returnedto the oil reservoir. This tray shouldextendfulllengthof the lathe. For drillingbarrels,you willneed a pumpthat willturnout at least 400 lbs. of oil pressure.This pressure is needed to clear the chips.More on thislater. TOOL POST GRINDER If you are goingto make yourtools,suchas reamers,riflingbuttons,and otherspecialtoolsor cutters,a toolpostgrinderis necessary.With a toolpostgrinderyou can cut yourexpenses downto a verysmall percentof what it wouldbe if you had to buy them or havethem specialmade. You willbe able to grindyourown reamers,deep hole drills,make yourriflingbuttons,make yourown chamberingreamers.In general,be able to make any caliberof barrelwithany desiredchambering. MILLING MACHINE You willneed a millingmachinewithan indexing attachmentfor makingriflingbuttons,and reamers.A 15

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vertical mill would bethebest choice, asyou candoallkinds ofgun work with it.Youwill also need a coolant pump. This canbefrom a airconditioner pump, theevaporative type. This will beneeded when you grind carbide tools such asrifling buttons, anddeep hole drills. The coolant that you should isa water-soluble type that canbefound at anymachine supply house oroilbulk plants. A good small mill canbebought from Wholesale Tools. Seelisting at back ofmanual under suppliers.
DRILL PRESS Most shopshavethese. You willneed a drillpressfor mostof yourfixture making.There willbe quitea few fixtures to be made to drillbarrels,and ream barrels. SHAPER A shaperis not a necessaryitem to havebut it willsavequitea bit of time in makingthe necessary fixtures that willbe needed. Most of the workcan be done on a shapercan be done on a millingmachine.However,some special shapescan best done witha shaper.It is easy to shape a lathe bit to what you want ratherthan to try to reshapea millingcutter. SAWS A good band or cut off saw is necessarywhen you are workingwithbarrelsteel. It gets old real quick cuttingoff a 1 1/4 bar steel witha hacksaw.It willcome in handyalso in the fixtures that you willbe making. WholesaleTool has a good one that worksas a cut off saw or a vertical band saw. HEAT TREAT FURNACE This is necessaryto have.There are many smallfurnacesavailable on the marketthat wouldworkfor what we want. It shouldgo up to at least 2000 degrees,if you are planningworkingwithhigh-speed steel. I havefoundthat an oil hardeningtoolsteel (O1) worksjust aboutas good. You willneed to have good controlto holdprecisetemperatures of the oven. This can be used to draw the temperof the reamersand cuttersalso. The furnacecan be made fairly easy, and a blowerfroma vacuum cleanercan provide the air. More on thislater. MEASURING AND LAYOUT TOOLS 16

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Thefollowing listing includes allthetools andinstruments ofthis category that areessential togood gunsmithing andtool making. Some ofthese precision items area bitontheexpensive side when one hastogooutandbuy them allat once. Considering theyears ofgood service they will render, if properly taken careof,onecanscarcely consider them asbeing costly.
MICROMETER You willneed a micrometer fromzeroto one inch,and one to two inches.They shouldbe of a type so you can read downto ten thousandth of an inch. MICROMETER (DEPTH) Most of these come equipped withthree interchangeable rodsgiving a range of measurementfrom0-3 inchby thousandths of an inch. MICROMETER (INSIDE AND OUTSIDE) These shouldhavea capacityof at least 6"and equipped to givea readingin thousandths. GAUGES Some of the gaugesthat willbe needed are bore gaugesfor measuringthe finishedreamed bore of the riflebarrel.There shouldbe a gauge for each caliberthat you make. Each gauge shouldhavea go and no go gauge on it. They can be turnedout on a lathe. The no go gauge shouldbe .015 largerthan the go gauge. HEAD SPACE GAUGES You willalso need also head space gaugesfor each of the caliber's you chamberfor. ANGLE AND RADIUS GAUGE Anotherof the gaugesthat you willneed willbe angle and radiusgauges.These are not used to often, but they do come in handywhen you need them. You willneed a threadgauge, as in everybarrelyou pullyou willhaveto knowhow many threadsper inchthere is.

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LEVELS You willneed a veryaccuratemachinist level,one that willhavethe adjustable degree base, so correct anglescan be achieved. TOOL STEEL You willneed a good supplyof toolsteel, (oil Hardening)for yourreamers.You can experiment with differentmakes untilyou findwhat willfit yourneeds. In 30 years, I havefoundO1 hard to beat. More on thislater. SILVER SOLDER You willneed a good highstrength,low meltingpointsilver solder.This willbe used to attachthe rifling buttonsto the pullrod, and for attachingthe roundcarbideto shortsteel rodsfor centering. As you can see fromthe abovethat mostshopshaveaboutall the machinesneeded to make rifle barrels,exceptfor a few specialize toolsand machines. There are a few othermachinesthat you willneed. One is a riflingmachine,whichI willshowyou how to make in a later chapter.There is also the deep hole drillingattachment,whichwe willcoverlater. If you do not want to go to the troubleof makingthe deep hole drills,or riflingbuttons,they can be purchasefromvarious suppliers(listedin the back of thismanual). Deep-holedrillsare fairlyexpensive, and makingthem can cut the costby about1/2 of the new cost. Reamers can if you want to made fromwornout hand reamers.All that is necessaryis to regrindthem to the sizeneeded. All sizesand dimensions willbe givenin later chapters,alongwithall other information and sketches. l Imight pointout thatthe drilling of the rifle barrel isone of the simplest operationsof all the processes thatgoes intomaking a gun barrel. It will take about 20 minutes to drill through a 26" steel bar. If you follow the directions carefully, you will be ableto turnout high precision rifle barrels. They will be as accurate and as good as any rifle barrel on the market and much better than the ones thatare turned out on the new computer machines. Inthe big barrel making shops most barrels are mass-produced and inspection isnot as good as it couldbe. You will alsounderstand firearmsbetter when you finish this manual, why some barrels shoot 18

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better than others do. Youwill learn ofsome ofthesales gimmicks that isused tosella supposedly tobebetter andmore accurate barrel. They inturn maynotbeasgood asother leading brands ofbarrels. Youwill also, if you make your own barrels, beabletoselect a possibly better steel tomake your barrels outofasnomatter what issaid tothecontrary. Factories usethetype ofsteel that canbemass-produced with theleast amount ofinspection and rejects, notthesteel that will necessarily give thelongest lifeandgreatest accuracy. Inthefollowing chapters , wewill break down each step oftheoperation that goes into making a rifle barrel .

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CONVERTING THE LATHE Youwill need a lathe with a hole through thehead stock ofat least 1 1/4inch. This issoyou cantakethe 26-inch orlonger barrel blank through thespindle. Youwill also need togeta geartrain soyou can reduce thefeedofthelathe down toat least .0005feedperrevolution. This slow feedisnecessary tobeabletodrill the17 cal.barrels. From the17 calbarrels, thefeedwill bespeeded upasthecal.gets bigger.

Inaddition, if you have plans tomake quite a fewbarrels it would bewise togettheright size pulleys to beabletoincrease thespeed ofthespindle upto3000RPM.Nowyou might say,andsome ofthe people who manufacture thebearings forthelathe, that thebearings will nottakethis kind ofspeed. Mydrilling lathe wasa 10-inch Clausing, 36-inch bed,which I used 8-9hours a day.Sometimes 7 days a week foralmost 5 years before I hadtochange thebearings. TheKeytothis isGOOD OIL AND
PLENTY OF IT. There is littlepressureon the bearingswhen drillingor reaming,just a lightpushor pull on the spindle. Alsoif you haveplansto make quitea few barrelsusingcut rifling,it wouldbe wise to get the rightsize pulleysto be able to increasethe speed of the spindleup to 2000 RPM to handlethe smallercaliber's suchas 30 caliber.My drillinglathe for reboringwas an olderSouthBend witha 60-inchbed, whichI used 8-9 hoursa day. This lathe was excellent for reboringand linermaking,and proved excellent for cut rifling.Sometimes7 days a week for almost5 years beforeI had to changethe bearings. You want everything to be easy to changeso when you go back to reamingor regularlathe workthere won't be any problems. OIL TRAY If yourlathe doesn't havean oil tray or chippan underneath,you willhaveto construct one. The tray needs to extenda few inchespast the head stockspindle.

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Ifit does notit won't betoomuch ofa problem tobuild a cover that will fasten tothelathe ortray tocatch theoilfrom thebarrel andreturn it tothetray.This cover needs tobehigh enough tocover thespindle hole with a piece ofcanvas with a hole init tokeep theoilfrom splattering allover everything.
CHUCK COVER You willneed a coverthat willgo overthe 3 jaw chuck,or collet,as there willbe quitea bit of oil thrown out there. This covercan be made to rise straightup and on the frontthere shouldbe a longslotto clear the drillor reamer tube. You willalso need an oil container,of at least 55 gallons.This can be the oil drumthat the oil comesin.

There willalso need to be a containerof at least 20 gallonsto catchthe oil and chipsbeforeit returnsto the main oil container.You willneed some kindof baffleswhichcan be 1 inchangle ironlaid flat in the tray in the lathe. This is to help separatethe chipsfromthe oil, and help to settlethe fine chips.From there, it goes to a 1-1/2 inchreturnpipe on the tray, downto abouta footoff the bottomof the 20-gallon container.This is done to help separatethe chipsfromthe oil. From thiscontainerthe oil overflows througha 1 1/4 inchpipe to the 55 gallondrum,whichis layingon its side. In frontof the overflow pipe is a large magnet,whichwilltrap the veryfine metal that didn't havetime to settle.This willprolongthe life of yourpump. HYDRAULIC PUMP You willneed a hydraulic pumpthat willturnout at least 500 lbs. of pressure,and a good flowrate. You willneed the highpressurefor drillingto get the required flowto removethe chips.In the reaming operation,you willalso need a large volume of oil to keep the flutesclear. Not enoughoil flowand the flutesof the reamer and ruinthe reamer and barrel.

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COOLANT VISCOSITY Coolantviscosity for drillsizes1/4 to 3/8 inchshouldbe 80/125 SayboltSecondsat 100 degrees. COOLANT VOLUME REQUIREMENTS. If you havean Armyand NavyStore, there you mightbe able to pick up a pumpthere, alongwithother valves, etc. Farm storescarrystockpumpsthat willworkfor some operations.

If you have3-phase electricpower,it wouldbe wise to use a 3-phase motorof at least fivehorsesfor the coolantpump.The pumpdoesn't haveto be a big one as the 500 lbs. of pressureis held througha .062 hole, and as the drillsizeincreases,the pressuregoes down. Afteryou havecompletedthe plumbing, connectedthe electricalswitch,whichshouldbe verycloseand handyto where you willbe standing,and all electricalconnections done. You willthen be ready to make the chipboxstarterbushing.

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These will give you thepressure andViscosity foryour OilCoolant fordifferent types ofmaterials. Do notforget toputtheshield over theendofthebarrel, sowhen you drill through thebarrel theoilwill not besprayed over theentire shop.
STARTER BUSHING This is the mostimportant part of yourconversion, as withoutthisyou wouldnot be able to get the drill started,and if you were able to startthe drill,it wouldeitherdrilla crookedhole, or come out the side.

On the chipboxin front,you willhaveto bore a hole at least 1 1/2 inch.To this,you willneed to bolta self-aligning bearingand flange.To make sure it is on straightwhen you boltit on, you willhaveto chuck a 1-inchbar in the lathe. Turn downthe end of the bar to just slipfit insidethe bearingon the self-aligning flange.Slide the housingup againstthe bearinghousingand mark the holes.Once markedand the holesare drilledand tapped,slide the housingback up againstthe bearingflangeand boltit in place. The chipboxshouldbe made so it can be removed, returned,and stillline up exactly in the same place. On mine, I tookthe tail stockapart and mountedthe chipboxon it. That way I was able to keep perfect alignment.Let me explain the reasonwhy it is so important to havethe starterbushingand bearingin 23

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

exact alignment with thehead stock spindle. Inlater chapters, you will seethedesign ofthedeep hole drill. Itisa single lipdrill ontheendofa long hollow V drill tubing. There isnosupport forthedrill except thestarter bushing. Thestarter bushing ismade from tool steel. It fitsinto theflange bearing, andthestarter bushing will then fitupsnugly upagainst thetrued andsquare endofthebarrel blank. Theclearance between thehole ofthebushing andthedeep hole tipisonly about .0003ofaninch. This istheonly waythat you canstart thedrill with anydegree ofaccuracy, andexpect thedrill tocome out within a 32 ndofaninch orless ontheother endofthebarrel. Thestarter bushing ismade from oilhardening tool steel. Makeit outof1 /18inch stock, theshank should beturned tofittheI.D.oftheflange bearing. Thefitneeds tobea snug hand press fit,orit will rotate while being used, andthus wear ontheoutside. Thehole forthestarter canbedrilled tothenext size smaller than what thedeep hole drill is,finished except heat-treating. Puta barrel blank inthelathe that hastheendsquared andtrued, press theunhardened starter bushing into thebearing. Then very carefully move thechip box with thestarter bushing andbearing upflush with theendofthebarrel. Makesure that thebushing isflush with thebarrel, andnotcanted. Tighten down thechip box; turn onthemachine tomake sure allisrunning true. Ifeverything isrunning true setinthe deep hole drill thesize you aremaking thebushing for,turn ontheoilsetforlowpressure. Thedrill point will just bestarted inthebushing. Turn onthelathe, andslowly feedthedrill tipinto thebushing, andinto thebarrel fora depth ofabout a 1/4inch. Back outwhen this depth isreached, shut offtheoil,andturn offthemachine. This method can beused if a correct size reamer cannot beobtained. This method will notgive you theclosest fit,butif starting thedrill very carefully will usually give you a straight hole.
BUSHING (HEAT TREATING) Afterthe barrelis drilledto sizeit can be stampedfor size,and heat-treated.Bringup the temperaturein the furnaceto propertemperature.Coat the bushingwitha compoundthat willstopscaling,and put in the furnace.I haveused a surface-hardening compoundfor thispurposewithexcellent results.Hard and Tuff is verygood. As soonas the bushinghas reachedthe propertemperature,removeand quenchin a good quenching oil. You willnot need to draw the temperon the bushing,as we need all the hardness we can get. This bushingwilllast for a many barrels,and when it startsto wear, you willknow,as you willstartto get crookedoff centerholes.

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DIMENSIONS FOR THE STARTER BUSHING HOLE Caliber 172 224 244 257 264 270 284 308 303 323 338 350 375 44 457 DrillDiameter .164 .212 .228 .244 .250 .264 .270 .293 .297 .304 .322 .343 .360 .415 .443

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MICROMETERS AND THEIR USE


MICROMETER CALIPER The firstthingthat you shouldknowis how to read measuringtoolssuchas micrometers and calipers. These are the handiestto use and willgiveyou accuratemeasurements of yourwork There are many types, and I preferthe one withthe dial indicators on it. You willneed two sizesof calipersshouldbe provided. One set shouldbe about4"inch,and the otherset 8 inch.They shouldbe of the spring-opening type withscrewadjustment. The quick-opening springnut is a good time saver,as it is possibleto open the nut and make a roughadjustment of the caliperswithouthaving to run the nut slowlyalongthe thread.

MICROMETER DEPTH GAGE A micrometer depthgage is used to measurethe depthof suchworkas holes,slots,recesses,and key ways. The toolconsistsof a hardened,groundand lapped base combinedwitha micrometer head. Measuringrodswithindividual lengthadjustment are insertedthrougha hole in the micrometer screw and broughtto a positive seat by a knurlednut. The screwhas a 1"movement.

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Foraccurate work you will need a good micrometer. These arerather expensive, buta 1 inch size and a 2 inch size will beused often andarewell worth theprice. Togowith these you should have a setof inside micrometers. These come with adjusting rods tomeasure from 2 inches up. Foraccurately measuring holes smaller than 2 inches across, a telescoping gauge should beused. This hasa handle with a telescoping head operated bya spring. Several lengths ofpins fitthesliding part of thehead, andthere isa locking nutat theendofthehandle. Formeasuring thedepth ofholes, a depth gauge isnecessary. Forvery accurate work, a micrometer depth gauge should beused. Theusual runofwork ina home workshop will notrequire theuseofa micrometer depth gauge, soonewith a sliding head isgood enough.

Thesmallest measurement incommon fractions that canbemade with thefixed caliper andsteel rule is 1/64." Tomeasure inthousandths andten-thousandths, you will need a micrometer.
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READING THE MICROMETERS To use these you mustunderstand that the pitchof the screwthreadon the spindleof a micrometer is 1/40"Or 40 threadsper inch.So one completerevolution of the thimbleadvances the spindleface towardor away fromthe anvilface 1/40"or .025." On the longitudinal line on the sleeveit is divided into40 equalpartsby vertical linesthat correspond to the numberof threadscut on the spindle. On the spindleeach vertical line designates1/40"or .025" and everyfourthline designates.100." You willsee that the line marked"1" willrepresents.100,"the line marked"2" willrepresents.200"and so on. The bevelededge of the thimbleis divided into25 equalpartswitheach line representing .001"and everyline numberedconsecutively. By rotatingthe thimbleto the nexthigherline movesthe spindle1/25 of .025"or .001."Twenty-five divisions showsa completerevolution, .025"or 1/40."

What wouldbe the answerif the readingif the edge of the thimbleis betweenthe .125"and the .150" lines,and the line on the thimbleis the coinciding line? The answeris: Micrometerreading= sleeve+ thimbleor .125 + .015 = .140 of an inch.

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Itisvery important tokeep your micrometers clean asdirt between theanvil andspindle will cause the micrometer toreadincorrectly. Ifyou want totesttoseeif themicrometer isaccurate, clean andbring theanvil andspindle together carefully. Ifthezero lineonthethimble andtheaxial (longitudinal) lineon thesleeve failtocoincide, wear hastaken place either inthescrew orcontact surfaces. Micrometers aremade ina wide range ofsizes andinmatched sets. Theratchet onthemicrometer is used torotate thespindle when taking a measurement andinsures consistent, accurate gauging by limiting thespindle pressure onthework piece. There isa locknut that makes it possible tolock themicrometer spindle at anydesired setting. A slight turn oftheknurled locknut ring contracts a split bushing around thespindle andmakes themicrometer a fixed gage. Ifyou want very accurate measurements arerequired, a micrometer that hasanextra scale added tothe sleeve isused, enabling themicrometer tobereadinten-thousandths ofaninch. This scale consists of a series oflines onthesleeve parallel toitsaxis. Tendivisions onthesleeve mark thesame spaces asnine divisions onthebeveled edge ofthethimble. Thedifference between thewidth ofoneofthetenspaces onthesleeve andoneofthenine spaces on thethimble isonetenth ofa division onthethimble. Since thethimble isgraduated toreadin thousandths, 1/10ofa division would be.0001oroneten-thousandth.

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CUTTING TOOLS AND TOOL HOLDERS Because cutting-tool materials areexpensive, it isdesirable touseassmall amounts aspossible. Itis necessary that thecutting tool should besupported ina strong, rigid manner tominimize deflection and possible vibration. Lathe tools aresupported invarious types ofheavy forged tool holders. Thetool bit should beclamped inthetool post with minimum overhang. Ifthere ismuch overhang, tool chatter and poor surface finish mayresult. Most lathe work isdone with high-speed steel, carbide, orceramic tools. Where large tool bits arerequired, theheavy type offorged tool holder isused. Itprovides adequate method ofclamping andsupporting thetool than isprovided byanordinary tool post. Thetools used in such cases have a heavy shank ofTool Steel orhot-rolled barstock inwhich a carbide tipisbrazed. Most allofthelathe operations aredone with simple, single point cutting tools. Onright-hand and left-hand turning andfacing tools, thecutting takes place ontheside ofthetool sothat theside rake angle isimportant sodeep cuts canbemade. Ontheround-nose turning tools, cutoff tools, finishing tools, andsome threading tools, cutting takes place onorneartheendofthetool, sothat theback rake isofimportance, andisfedwith light depths ofcut.
TOOL HOLDERS In mostlathe work,the nose of the toolshouldbe set exactly at the same heightas the axisof rotationof the work.Any settingbelowthe axiscausesthe workto tend to climbup on the tool,and in most operationsyou willneed to set yourtoola few thousandths of an inchabovethe axis,exceptfor cutoff, threading,and some facingoperations. Where there are more than I operationon a lathe are performedrepeatedlyin sequence,the time required for changingand settingtoolsmay make up as muchas 50 per cent of the totaltime. Quick-change toolholdersare being used to reducethe time of toolchanging. The individual tools,presetin theirholders,can be interchanged in the specialtoolpostin a few seconds.With some systems,a secondtoolmay be set in the toolpostwhilea cut is being made with the firsttool,and then be broughtintoproperpositionby rotatingthe post.

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Single point cutting tools forthelathe areground sharpened fortheoncenter settings. Tilting thecutting tool tosome angle other than theangle forwhich it wasground will affect thecutting action. A Single point cutting tool should besetintheposition forwhich it isground. Fora heavy cut, thecutting edge of a cutting tool should bearranged sothat it will deflect under heavy forces away from thework piece surface instead ofinto thework piece surface. Thecutting force maybecome great enough todeflect thecutting tool about thevertical axis ofthetool post. Forlight cuts, thecutting edge maybesetahead ofthetool post inthedirection offeeding.
SHARPENING THE BIT You willneed some type of benchgrinderto sharpenthe toolbits when they get dull.Inmostcases the bit can be sharpenedwithouta gauge, after you get some experience. When sharpening the bits,be sure that you haveenoughclearanceso the tooldoes not rub on the work.

This can be checkedwiththe toolin the holderand the pointon the centerof the workpiece, or it can be set on the centerthat is in the tail stock.

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Thetype offixture forholding andcontrolling themovement ofthecutting tool include thetailstock, carriage, cross slide, andcompound rest. Thecarriage, likethetailstock, ismovable ontheways ofthe bed.Themotion isparallel totherotational axis ofthespindle, andthis motion iscommonly used for producing cylindrical surfaces. A compound rest isused forproducing some tapered surfaces, forhelping inthecutting ofthreads by thread chasing, andforseveral other types ofapplications. Mounted above thecompound rest, thetool post serves toclamp thecutting tool, ortool holder, ina desired position. Atthebase ofthetool, post therocker plate hasa concave spherical surface facing upward.

Usually thecutting tool consists ofa tool holder, which carries a tool bit.Different tool holders are available tohold tool bits at various desired horizontal angles. A rocker formounting thetool holder that hasa mating convex spherical surface fitsabove therocker plate, andthecutting tool isclamped above this rocker. Therocker plate androcker thus permit thecutting edge ofthecutting tool toberaised or lowered. When thecutting tool hasbeen properly positioned, a setscrew istightened toclamp the cutting tool rigidly.
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USE OF FORM TOOLS In lathe work,formtoolsare used for formturning,producing shorttapers,threadchasing,and other applications. If a formtoolis to reproducethe specialcontourof its cuttingedge on the workpiece surface,it is important that the cuttingedge shouldbe adjusted so that it is at the same heightas the rotational axisof the workpiece. This is knownas adjusting the cuttingedge on center.If a formtoolis set aboveor belowcenter,a contourdifferingfromthat of the cuttingedge willbe producedon the surfaceof the workpiece. For the feed, a formtoolis movedintothe workpiece withthe crossslide.

PARTING OR CUTTING OFF Partingis the operationof severing a workpiece froma bar. It is done witha narrowcuttingtool,which cutsonlyat its end. A partingtoolshouldbe adjusted so that its cuttingedge is on centerif it is to cut to the centerof a bar. It shouldalso be set so that no rubbingor cuttingwilloccuralongits sides. GROOVING A groove can be producedwitha partingtoolor witha formtool. KNURLING Makinga raised diamond-shaped patternon the cylindrical surface01 a workpiece is knownas "knurling." Surfacesare oftenknurledso that they may be more easilygrippedwiththe fingersor by hand. A knurling toolhas two serratedhardened-steel rollerswiththe serrations slantedat 4-5 degrees fromthe horizontal. The serrations of the rollerare slantedat 90 degrees fromthoseof the otherroller.Bothrollersare 33

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

mounted ona floating head, which permit therollers toexert equal pressure asthey arepressed against a rotating work piece. Knurling isa mechanical-working process, inwhich themetal onthesurface of thework piece isdeformed rather than removed. Since greater forces areused inknurling, thework piece should bewell supported. Thework piece, although held ina chuck, isgiven extra support bythecenter ofthetailstock. When knurling, theknurling tool isforced toa workable depth into thework piece surface with thecross slide, andthen it isfedforthelength ofthedesired knurl with thecarriage. This isrepeated until final depth anda finished knurl isobtained. Since work pieces with various diameters maybeknurled, thecircumference will seldom beequal toa whole number ofthediamond shaped patterns Thus after thefirst complete revolution; some fraction ofa diamond ordinarily remains. With continued knurling, this fraction ofa diamond distributes itself evenly over thecomplete circumference, sothat it cannot bedetected.
DRILLING WITH A LATHE A drillis held in the taperedhole of the tail stockquill,whichshouldlocateit concentric withthe rotational axisof the spindle.The workpiece to be drilledmustbe positioned so the desiredhole is concentric withthe rotational axisof the spindle.Reamers, counterbores,and othercuttingtoolsmay be held by the tail stockquill.They may be used after drilling.

PRODUCING TAPERS The methodto be used for producing a taper dependsuponthe lengthof the taper, includedangle of the taper, numberof workpieces to be produced,and the available toolingand attachments. A taper may be producedwiththe use of the compoundrest. Since the linermovement of a compoundrest slide is limited,thismethodis suitableonlyfor tapersno longerthan thismovement.

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LESSONS IN TOOL MAKING Turning stock usually makes upthemajority oflathe work. Thework usually isheld between centers orin a chuck, anda right-hand turning tool isused, sothat thecutting forces, resulting from feeding thetool from right toleft, tend toforce thework piece against thehead stock andthus provide better work support.
TEST BAR Beforeyou startthe turningoperation,set the tail stockback to 000 usingan 18-inchbar that is turnedto exactly the same diameteron each end. To make thisbar, get a 1-inchbar 18 incheslong,centerit and set it up betweencenters.

Make alightpass and checkbothends to see if they measurethe same. If not, adjust the tail stockand make anotherpass. Repeat the aboveoperationsuntilthe bar measuresthe same on bothends. This bar, you save,as you willbe usingit again each time you true up the tail stock.Once you havethe bar completed,all that is necessaryis to put it betweencenters.Clamp a dial indicatorto the carriage on the lathe. With the plungerof the indicatoron the bar, startfromthe head stockend (withoutthe lathe being turned on) and movethe carriageto the tail stockend. If there is any differencein size,adjust the tail stockand repeat untilthe dial indicatorreads the same on each end.

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MAKING A KEYWAY CUTTER We willstartout by makinga 3/4 inchkeywaycutter.By doingso, thisproject thougha simpleone will go throughall the operationsthat are normallydone in a machineshop. First,you willneed a piece of toolsteel, usually01, whichcan be purchasedfromaboutany machine shopsupplyhouse.If you do not haveone in yourarea, in the Appendix in the back of the book willgive you the locationof these. WholesaleTool willhavemostall of the toolsand suppliesthat you willneed.

Once you havethe 1-inchtoolsteel, cut off a piece 2 incheslong.You willnextneed to cut centersin bothends for turning.Beforea workpiece can be mountedbetweenlathe centers,a 60centerhole mustbe drilledin each end. This can be done in a drillpressor in a lathe by holdingthe workin a chuck.

A combination centerdrilland countersink is used, takingcare that the centerhole is deep enoughso that it willnot be machinedaway in any facingoperation,and yet is not drilledto the fulldepthof the taperedportionof the centerdrill.To cut the centerin the lathe, chuckup the stockin a three-jaw chuck, or if you are usinga fourjaw chuckcenterthe stockusinga Dial Indicator. Set up a cuttingtoolin the lathe and face off each end of the toolsteel stock.This is necessaryso that when you centerdrillthe stockthe centerdrillwillnot cut off center.Once you havethe stocktrued,place a drillchuckin the tail stockof the lathe (the taper on the chuckwillmatchthe taper of the tall stock center.) Centershaveshankswithself-holding tapers,and they fit accuratelyintothe taperedholesin the spindle and tail stockquill.When inserting a center,boththe taperedshankand hole mustbe clean, because smallchipsor dirtparticleswillcause misalignment. The centersof a lathe mustbe accuratelyconcentric withthe rotational axisof the spindle,if accurate 36

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

cylindrical surfaces aretobeturned. Otherwise, a slight taper will beturned.

Usea small center drill tocutthese centers. Putthecenter drill inthechuck inthetailstock andclamp it tight. Turn thelathe onwith thespeed setonthelowest speed (not inback gear) andmove thetailstock sothat thecenter iswithin 1/2inch ofthestock. Clamp thetailstock, anddrill a center just deep enough sothere isjust about a 3/32-inch bevel ontheedge ofthecenter hole. When you have thecenter cutononeend,turn offthelathe, turn thestock around, andrepeat the process ontheother end.When both centers arecut, you canstart toturn thetool steel toitscorrect shape. A FacePlate cannow beinstalled inplace ofthethree orfour jaw chuck andcenters setinplace. The work andthecenter at thehead stock endrotate together, sonolubricant isneeded inthecenter hole at this end.However, because thecenter inthetailstock quill isdead with respect totherotating work piece, adequate lubrication must beprovided. This usually isaccomplished byputting a mixture ofwhite leadandoil,orwith another type oflubricant inthecenter hole before thedead center istightened inthe hole. Ifyou donotprovide proper lubrication at alltimes, you will result inscoring ofthecenter hole and thecenter, andinaccuracy andserious damage mayoccur tothecenters. A connection must beprovided between thespindle andthework piece tocause it torotate. This is accomplished bya lathe doganda faceplate. Forthis project, you will need a 1-inch, anda 1/2inch lathe dog. Thedogisa forging that fitsover theendofthework piece andisclamped toit bymeans of a setscrew. Thetailofthedogenters a slot inthedogplate, which isrigidly attached tothelathe spindle inthesame manner asa lathe chuck. Ifthedogisattached towork that hasa finished surface, a piece ofsoft metal, such ascopper oraluminum, canbeplaced between thework andthesetscrew toavoid marring.

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Proper tightness must bemaintained between thecenters andthework piece. Thework piece must rotate freely, yetnolooseness should exist. Looseness usually will befirst noticed bychattering ofthe material during cutting.

Tightness ofthecenters should bechecked after cutting hasbeen done fora short time. Theresulting heating andthermal expansion ofthework piece will increase thetightness.
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Live Centers aresometimes used inplace ofthedead center inthetailstock quill. Theendthat fitsinto thework piece ismounted onballorroller bearings sothat it isfreetorotate; thus, nolubrication ofthe center hole isrequired. Inmost cases, they maynotbeasaccurate asthesolid type, sothey often are notused forprecision work. Clamp the1-inch lathe dogtothestock. Itisbest toleave thedogloose around thestock fornow. Put thestock between centers, andadjust thecenters towhere they arejust snug. Nowclamp thelath dog asfarback onthestock asyou can.Thereason forthis isthat you need toturn theshank enddown to .0500inch and2 inches long. Ifyou cannot turn thestock to2 inches long, turn to1-1/2inches inlength. Theother 1/2inch canbeturned later. Ifgood finish andaccurate size areneeded, oneormore roughing cuts usually-are followed byoneor more finish cuts. Roughing cuts maybeasheavy asproper chip thickness, tool life,andlathe capacity permit. Large depths ofcutandsmaller feeds arepreferred tothereverse procedure, because fewer cuts arerequired andless time islost inreversing thecarriage andresetting thetool forthefollowing cut.
CUTTING Cast Steel Bronze Cast Iron MalleableIron Mild Steel Soft Brass Aluminum TURNING THE STOCK Mark on the stockfromthe end (tail stockend) a mark witha file at 2 inches.Set the cuttingtoolfor turningand just touchthe pointon the stock.Movethe carriageback far enoughto clear the workpiece and movethe compoundfeed in .020 of an inch.Inmostcases thiswillremove.040 fromthe stockon each pass. Havingthe lathe runningat the slowestspeed in directbelt drive,engage the feed leverand start removing the stock.When the cuttingtoolreachesthe mark you put on the stock,disengagethe feed. Now, run the carriageback to where it just clearsthe work,set it in another.020 and repeat the process. 39 SPEEDS 50 fpm 70 fpm 70 fpm 100 fpm 100 fpm 200 fpm 300 fpm

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Inturning operations, diameters usually aremeasured with micrometers, although spring calipers may beused tocheck roughing cuts orwhere close accuracy isnotrequired. Themethod ofmaking length measurements ismade byspring, hermaphrodite, veneer, ormicrometer calipers ormicrometer depth gages canbeused. Theshank will befinished to.500or1/2inch, however when you getthestock down towithin .030you need totakea .010pasat a slower feedtoclean upthework, Ifyou have a Tool Post Grinder andplan tofinish thework bygrinding, stop about .010to.015oversize. Ifyou donothave a grinder, you can takea finecutat theslowest feed, finish thework to.003to.005oversize, anduseasis.

Remove theturned part around, remove the1-inch dogandputthe1/2inch dogontheturned end.Set thework piece back between thecenters, adjust thedogandtighten it.Touch thepoint tothestock and move it slightly past thework, andsetit in.020.Engage thefeedandtakethestock down 10.780, then takethefiner feedtofinish it to.015over finish size. Ifyou aregoing tousewithout grinding, takethe stock down toabout .005,or.755. Next, wehave tofinish thewidth to.187forthecutter. Youneed make a groove orrecess ontheshank next tothelarge end.This canbedone with a cutofftool, ora square end-cutting tool. Runtherecess or groove toa depth of.025perside. Usea right hand tool holder andfaceofftheinside ofthelarge end togeta thickness of.190.Anundercut isalso made onboth sides forclearance. Finishing cuts arelight, usually being less than .005inch indepth, with thefeedasfineasnecessary to give theneeded finish. Sometimes a special finishing tool isused, butoften thesame tool isused forboth roughing and
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finishing cuts. Inmost cases, onefinishing cutisallthat isrequired. Where exceptional accuracy isrequired, twofinishing cuts areusually used. Ifthediameter iscontrolled manually, make a short finishing cutabout 1/2inch long andcheck thediameter before completing the cut. Because theprevious micrometer measurements were made ona rougher surface, some readjustment ofthetool setting maybenecessary inorder tohave thefinal measurement, made ona smoother surface, check exactly. Turning isa lathe operation inwhich anexternal cylindrical surface isproduced bycutting action ofthe tools. Thecutting tool isfirst adjusted forthedesired depth ofcut, using thecross slide. Then, asthe work piece rotates, thecutting tool isadvanced slowly ina direction parallel totherotational axis ofthe spindle andthis motion isknown asthefeed. Byadjusting thefeedsothat thehelical path, andif thetool tipoverlaps sufficiently, thecutting tool removes theexcess material andgenerates a cylindrical surface onthework piece. A spindle rpm that gives a desired cutting speed at thecircumference ofthecylindrical surface should heselected. This maybecalculated using thefollowing: 12 X cutting speed, ft/mm Spindle rpm =____________________________ piexwork piece diameter (in.)

Feedismeasured inthousandths ofaninch advance ofthecutting tool perrevolution ofthework piece.


FACING. Facing is the removing of metal on a flat surfaceas the resultof the toolbeing fed acrossthe end of the rotatingworkpiece. The workmay be held in a chuck,a faceplate,or betweencenters.Bothends of the workthat is to be faced mustbe turnedend for end after the firstend is completedand the facing operationrepeated. Becausemostfacingoperationsare performedon surfacesthat are away fromthe head stock,a right-hand toolis used mostfrequently. The spindlespeed shouldbe determinedfromthe largest diameterof the surfaceto be faced. Facing may be done eitherfromthe outsideinwardor fromthe centeroutward.The pointof the toolmustbe set exactly at the heightof the centerof rotation.Because the cuttingforcetendsto pushthe toolaway fromthe work,it usuallyis desirableto clampthe carriage to the lathe bed duringeach facingcut to prevent it frommoving and thusproducing a surfacethat is not flat. 41

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

DEEP HOLE DRILLING Normally inanydeep hole drilling operation, thebarrel turns, andthedrill isstationary. Thereason for this canbeseen easily. Youwill notice that with thesingle lipgun drill that it only cuts ononeedge. Asit drills inthebarrel, it only cuts ononeedge, andasit drills, it drills inthebarrel itsmakes itsown center. Duetothehigh RPMofthebarrel, it makes itsown center asit drills. This isthereason why anaccurate starter bushing issoimportant. Thedrilling ofa rifle barrel isactually thesimplest andmost trouble freeoperation ofall.When thedrill is notstarted straight it will trytopick upthecenter ofrotation, andthehole isonelong curve.

Wenormally turned out100ormore completed rifle barrels perweek, andinthedrilling operation, we could uselowskill help. Allthat wasnecessary wasfortheoperators were tosetupthemachine, turn it on.They hadtowatch sothedrill wouldn't plug upwith chips, shut it offwhen done, andthen reload it andstart again. When you geteverything setupright, you will beabletoturn out3-4completed barrels a daywith noproblem onONElathe. This completed barrel isdrilled, reamed, andrifled.
STEADY REST Now aboutthe last thingthat willbe needed is a special.Steady Rest to supportthe drilltubingas it drills. This willhelp cut downthe vibrations that willsome timesstartin the drill. You CAN NOT allowthese vibrations to start.If it does, it can cause the carbidedrilltip to chip,and if you do not catchit in time, it can cause the drillto plugup and twistthe tip off. Will giveyou a good idea of what a Deep Hole Drilllookslike. I want to pointout that thisdrillingsetupis not limitedto just barrels.It can be used for quitea bit of other industrial operations,where extremely accurateholesare needed. In addition,withcarbidedrilltips, veryhard steel can be drilled.For odd shapeditemswhere you are unableto rotatethe drill,you can set up the operationwhere the drillcan be rotatedusingspecialtooling.

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TOOLS FOR REAMING

Youwill have tomake a fewadditional fixtures forthereaming operation now. This will nothave tobe much ofa job, aseverything that you have done sofarwill work with thereaming operation. About the only thing that will beneeded isa reaming adapter forthechip box housing. When this adapter isdone it will fitinplace where thechip box housing was. Thehigh-pressure oillinethat wasfitted tothedrill driver ontheDeepHole Drill will now befitted tothe reaming adapter. Thereamer rodwill have tobemade. Cutit now tocorrect length. A drill driver will need tobemade tofitthereamer rod. This isthesame size asthedeep hole drill driver.
REAMING FEED With thisdone and in place you willhaveto changethe feed of yourlathe to a fasterfeed, somewherein the range of .015 to .004 inchfeed PER FLUTE PER REVOLUTION. The speed of the lathe willhaveto be changedto the back gear for slowRPM. In reaming,the reamer is pulledthroughthe barrel. REAMER ADAPTER Now for the construction of the reamer adapter.First,you willneed a shortbar of steel 1 1/2 inchin diameterif you are using1 1/8-inchsteel for yourbarrelblanks.This piece when completedshouldbe 7 to 8 incheslong.The end that fitsoverthe barrelblankshouldbe a veryclosefit to the barrel,just a few thousands larger.Nextcut an "O" Ring groove to fit an "O" ring,thisis used to seal the oil fromleaking.

The bore (B) shouldbe bored to .755 to fit the reamer guide (C). This guide shouldbe made out of tool steel. The fit overthe reamer rod shouldbe veryclose,as thisis what seals the oil. I havein the past triedto use "O" ringsto seal the oil but they do not last long.DrillRod size.750 worksverywell, as there is no turningof the outsideto fit the sleeve(A). Anotherway to do thisis to bore (D) to 1/2 inchand make a hardenbushingto fit insideit, so the bushingcan be changedto the differentsizerods.When the bushingwears out, it can be easily changed,withoutthe expenseof the higherpriced3/4 inchTool Steel. The bushingbearing(E) is a very closefit in the bushing.

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Thebushing hasa groove turned ontheO.D.and4, 1/8holes drilled tolettheoilbepumped inside (B). Thesleeve (E)hasa fitting tapped into theoutside sothehigh-pressure hose canbescrewed on. There isalso a retaining sleeve (F)tohold (E)inplace. Thesleeve (E)isfreetorotate when thelathe is turning.

Alloftheparts when completed areheattreated anddrawn at 500degrees. This will just about complete thesetup fordrilling andreaming. Except foroneother item, you will want tomount a high-pressure oilgauge inthelinetotheDrill and Reamer fittings. Have this handy soyou will beabletoseeit always. Oilpressure will tellyou quite a bit what isgoing oninside a barrel. Ifa Drill orReamer isplugging upthepressure will goup.For information oncarbide tips, write theMetallurgical Products Dept, General Electric Co,Detroit, Michigan.

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DEEP HOLE DRILLS Letustalka little about theDeepHole Drill, Sizes, andtheGrinding ofthedrill. What a DeepHole Drill look like, andsome oftheterminology ofthecarbide drill.

I will notgointo thegrinding toomuch oftheDeepHole Bits, asmost will buy thesizes that they need. When you have tobuy the'V' tube, andthedrill tips, andinstall thedrill driver, andtip,it isjust about as cheap tobuy thecompleted drill. Ifyou want togrind your drill tips, thevarious makers if carbide tools will beabletosupply you with theseveral sizes ofCarbide deep hole drill tips that you will need. The grade ofcarbide usually supplied fordeep hole tips is883.

GRINDING THE TIPS To set up for grindingthe deep hole tips,all that is necessaryis to turn2 shortpieces of drillrod, about1 inchlong,centerone end of each piece. The drillrod shouldbe the same sizeas the drilltip that you are planningto grind.Get a smallV way, or a piece of finishangle. Lay the tip and the 2 pieces of drillrod, 45

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

with thecenters outtoeach endofthetip.Getsome lowmelting silver solder andjoin the3 pieces. Usethelowest flame possible tomelt thesilver solder, astomuch heatwill orcancrack thecarbide tip. When done letcool inthefixture. When cool setupbetween centers ofthelathe, settailstock over so you will have a 1 degree included taper perinch from thefront orcutting edge oftiptotheback. After this, grind theprimary land. This will have tobeground toabsolute center. After this isdone, heat thedrill tipupandremove thecentered ends. Grind theremaining silver solder from thecarbide tip,if theholes areplugged, drill them out. I have found that welder's chalk rubbed into theholes ofthetipwill help tokeep thesolder from plugging it.Thedrill cannow bemounted tothedrill tubing.

TheV tubing canbepurchase from High Standard, orDanjon, address isintheback ofthebook under suppliers. I would recommend that you buy thefirst onefrom thesuppliers. This will save you some headaches onyour first barrel. Thedrill will lastforseveral hundred barrels if you have noaccident, and you takecareofthem.

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DRILLING THE RIFLE BARREL Inthis chapter, wewill cover theprocess ofmaking therifle barrel. Bynow you know how thetools are constructed, andhave a basic ideaofhow rifle barrels ismade. I will now tellyou step bystep how togo about making a rifle barrel.

First, I would start with a 1 1/8inch x26-inch long piece of1350orstress proof. This steel will drill, ream, andrifle beautiful, andalmost never gives anytrouble. Thefirst thing todoistoputthis barinthe lathe, faceoffoneend,andcenter drills it.Ontheother end,it isbest tofaceit offalso.

Makesure that theendthat you center drilled isflatandsmooth. After thebarrel isfaced off,leave it extended, from thechuck about 6 inches. Ifthebarrel issticking from theendofthelathe, make a collar, with four setscrews, sothebarrel canbe centered andrigid. Atthehigh speed that thebarrel isdrilled, theendofthebarrel will start torunout andvibrate.

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Thechip box isinstalled with thestarter bushing inplace, andthestarter bushing isvery carefully flushed upagainst thebarrel blank. Connect alltheshields; don't forget about theoneontheendofthelathe that will return theoilwhen you gothrough thebarrel with thedrill. Bolt thedrill driver holder, centering it with thecenter ofthetailstock. Itwould bemore accurate if it would bedone with a shaft chucked inthehead stock, through the opening that holds thedrill driver. Setthedeep hole drill inthedrill driver onthecarriage; connect thehydraulic hose tothefitting. Now very carefully start thedrill tipinto thestarter bushing. Before you turn ontheoiltotestit out, double-check thesetscrews that hold thedrill in.Ifyou turn ontheoilandturn upthepressure, you will blow outthedrill andpossible chip thetip,andgetanoilbath. Turn ontheoil,butbefore you domake sure that thevalve isopen alltheway, sothere isnopressure in theline. Ifeverything isOKyou arepumping theoilback tothetank, with very little oilgoing through the drill. Nowclose thevalve slowly, watching thepressure onthegauge, when it gets upto600to700lbs., which isabout theright pressure for30 caliber barrels. Letit runfora minute orsotocheck forleaks. Look andseehow much oiliscoming outofthetip.There should bequite a bit.This isimportant, aswhen you aredrilling this isonewaythat you watch toseeif your drill isplugged up.Any time theflow slows down, orstops, orpressure goes up,shut down thefeed fast, oryou will ruin thedrill. I will assume that you have already changed thequick-change gears soyou cangeta slower feed. A good starting point would be.0008feedperrevolution. Nowif you areready, have alltheshields up,noleaks, turn onthelathe. Before you dothis, make sure that thedrill tipisnottouching thebarrel. Thelathe should berunning about 4000rpm, butyou canrunit at itsregular speed. Itwill takelonger todrill thebarrel, andthedrill might tend towander a little onthe slower RPM.Nowwith theoilon,feedthedrill into thebarrel blank very slowly byhand. Thedrill and tubing will probably chatter. Unless thedrill tube starts tobuckle, keep feeding it inandafter it goes in 1/8inorsoit will stop chattering. Once it stops chattering, engage thefeed. Itshould start drilling with nochatter. I would recommend that you keep your hand onthedrill tubing fortworeasons. (1)- Ifyour hand isonthetubing, you will beable tofillwhat isgoing oninthebarrel. There isa certain filltothetubing when thedrill iscutting right. (2) Your hand will actasa vibration damper forthedrill. Remember tokeep your hand onthedrill allthetime tofeelthevibrations onthedrill. After a short while you will beabletotellexactly how thedrill isdoing. After a fewbarrels, you will beabletotellwhen the drill isdull, orit ischipped. Under normal conditions, thedrill should besharpened about every two barrels. Tosharpen it isonly necessary tojust touch thecutting surface with thesilicon carbide (green wheel), or diamond wheel, rather than grinding allthesurfaces.

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Theangles onthefaceofthedrill arefairly critical, asthey will change. There maybespots rubbing the drill because lack ofclearance, maycutcurved holes, ormayturn outribbon chips. These problems can beusually betraced toanimproperly sharpened drill. Youshouldn't have anytrouble onthedrilling if you have followed instructions. Bynow, you will have probably noticed that asthepressure oftheoilgoes, sodoes thetemperature. Onsmall calibers thedrill tubing gets very warm. This isnormal. Bynow, you should beabout alltheway through thebarrel. When thedrill comes through theendofthebarrel, your flow ofoilinthechip box will stop abruptly. Open thevalve onthebypass linetodrop theoilpressure. Letthedrill travel about another 1/4inch anddisengage thefeedlever andback outthedrill, when it allthewayoutshut everything down. Wellyou have done it.Youhave drilled your first barrel. Therest should beeasy now. Ifeverything was done right, thebarrel should beperfectly straight. Leave thebarrel inthelathe, asthenext operation will bereaming thedrilled barrel.

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REAMING DRILLED BARRELS Change thefeedonthelathe totheproper feed. Usually start a little slow andincrease it towhere you aregetting a good job andyetnotplugging up.Sometimes if you have toofasta feed, you will have trouble with thereamer plugging up.

Remove thestarter bushing andthechip box. Install thereamer adapter tothebarrel blank, andtighten thesetscrew. Connect theoillinetothefitting onthereamer adapter. Onyour reamer pull rod; unscrew thedriver from theendoftherod. Nowslip therodinto thebarrel, allthewaythrough thebarrel, andout thebushing onthereamer adapter. Screw thedriver back ontherodandslip into thedriver holder onthelathe carriage, andtighten setscrews. Replace theshields ontheendofthelathe. Bevery sure it isongood asthere will bea lotof oilcoming from thebarrel inreaming. Youshould now beready tostart. Thefirst reamer istherough reamer, itspurpose istoremove theexcess metal from thebore, andsmooth andtrue upthebore. Thefinish reamer doesn't remove much; it takes thebore tosize, andgives themirror finish tothebore. Double check toseeif theoilpressure valve isopened alltheway. Double check thehoses tobesure they aretight, andturn ontheoil.Letit runfora fewminutes andturn thepressure uptoabout 300lbs. Thepounds ofpressure arenotimportant astheamount ofoilcoming from theendofthebarrel.

Ithastobeshooting outunder enough pressure togetridofthechips sothey won't plug upthereamer. Ifit plugs upit could ruin thebarrel, andprobably break thereamer. Start upthelath inback gear. Make sure that thepilot ofthereamer isinside thebarrel, andengage thefeedlever. Asthereamer isstarting tofeedinto thebarrel, it maycuta little rough butit should straighten outsoon. Itwill, if sharpened right andstart cutting smooth from thestart, orafter it isinthebarrel about 1 inch.
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Keep your fingers onthereamer rod, asthrough therodyou will beabletoknow if everything iscutting well. Ifit iscutting smooth setback andletit ream.

Itisa wise practice always tokeep your fingers onthereamer rod, astheflute could plug up.Ifthe reamer plugs up,more than likely theoilpressure will goupslightly. Ifforanyreason thereamer plugs uporstarts toactup,disengage thefeedlever andwhile thelathe is still running, back outthereamer. Itiswise tohave something lying across theways ofthelathe. Asthe carriage travels down theways ofthelathe, it will move it along with it.I usea wrench. This wayif you have totakeoutthereamer you will know where tostart thereamer cutting again.
DULL REAMERS When you back out the reamer do not shutoff the lathe;if you do you willleavelongmarksin the barrel. As you back the reamer fromthe barrel,you willbe able to see if it was pluggedor not. If it is not plugged,it is probablygettingdull,and rubbinginsteadof cutting. Rememberwhen lookingfor troublespotson the reamer, get it in a good lightand lookfor brightspots. This willusuallyshowyou where the troublespotsare. If everything is OK, as it shouldbe, you shouldbe aboutthroughby now. As the reamer startsto come out of the barrel,it willstartto chatterslightly, as the pilotis not supporting the reamer any more. This is commonbut do not let the reamer travelso far that it willstickin the bushing. When the pilotleavesthe bore the oil pressurewilldrop and there willbe more oil comingfromthe end of the barrel.When the oil pressuredrops,let it go about1 inchand disengagethe feed. Shut off the oil and slide the reamer back downthe barrelto where it was stickingout. Shut the machineoff now. Disconnectthe driver, or if you want unscrewthe reamer rod fromthe driver, and removethe reamer. Put the finishreamer in the barrel,screwin the driver and repeat the process.When you finishthe final step of reamingshuteverything down.Loosenthe setscrew,fromthe reamer adapter,and removethe reamer. Do not take the chanceof the reamer markingthe barrelby slidingit back downthe barrel. When the last reamingoperationis completed,you willremovethe barrel.Let the oil drainfromit for a few minutes,wipe out, and inspect.Hold the barrelup to a light,a windowis best and checkfor 51

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smoothness. Also, make upa go-no-go gauge tocheck forcorrect size. Ifeverything isOK,you are ready torifle.

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BUILDING A HEAT TREAT FURNACE Building a small heat-treat furnace fortheshop. This furnace ismade from standard firebrick, 2 1/2x4 1/2x8 inches. Firebrick does vary insize, sothesize shown inthedrawing mayhave tobechanged to fity ourneeds. Another style offurnace iswhere themain opening isat thetop,andthepart hangs down ontheinside. This seems togive a uniform heating. A-Gas/Air outlet; B-Furnace opening; C-Side view; D-Opening fortemperature sensor; E-Blower; F-Gas intake; G-Heat sensor pipe; H-Heat sensor opening; <D>

Youwill need eight firebricks tomake this. When completed you will have a furnace with aninside size of4 1/2x3 x8 inches. This size will handle just about anyjob intheshop.

Thefirebrick ismortared together with thecement used infireplaces, andit should notbeanyproblem togetfrom anybusiness that sells fireplaces orwood burning stoves. Thebrick isplaced 2, flatside by side, mortared, andthen onebrick oneach side isstood onedge, (seedrawing) mortared tothetwo laying flat.

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Twomore arethen placed ontopofthefirst two. Tofinish it off,twomore aremortared andsetonedge ononeend,asperdrawing. Letit setfor24 hours before starting anymore work onit" Next you will have togeta cement drill 1 1/2inch, anddrill onehole 1/4inch above thebase inthe center ontheside. This iswhere the1-inch pipe from theblower will beinserted. Youwill need togetyour pipe cutandthreaded tothecorrect length. Connect a 2-inch pipe tothe1-inch pipe; this will gototheblower. Next, you will need tocover thefirebrick ontheoutside. Cut1/8inch metal tofittotheoutside andtop andweld this together, toform a box forthefirebrick. Besure tohave a metal bottom already cutoutto putunder thebrick sothesides canbewelded toit. Youcanwhen building this gowith theopening inthetop,andthen you need notmake a door forthe front. This isthesimplest waytogoandI believe thebest. Youhang thepart down through theopening inthetop.Atthefront, there isa small opening forthetemperature probe. This isa 1/4or3/8inch hole. Ifyou decide tobuild a front-loading furnace, you will need a 2-inch opening inthetopofthefurnace for thegas.Inaddition, you will have tobuild a metal door forthefront andlineit firebrick. Younow will need tofind a used Kirby vacuum cleaner blower, orany other type ofhigh-speed blower toprovide theair forthefurnace.

A shop Vacuum blower also works great. Youwill need tofind anadjustable rheostat tocontrol the speed oftheblower. Thespeed that it runs would make it impossible tolight theoven. Thefinal step is totapinto theairline with a linefrom your gassupply. Thebasic tools forheat-treating arethegastorch. Thetorch isa simple apparatus consisting ofa mixing tube into which fuel gasanda blast ofairareintroduced tobemixed andburned at theendof thetube. Anoldvacuum cleaner canbeused fortheairblast. Thehose used forthevarious attachments forthecleaner canbeused todeliver theblast ofairtothe torch.

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Youwill have tomake a fitting forattaching thehose at thedust-bag outlet andarrange thecleaner so that aircanenter at thesuction end. Atthetorch, a gateofsheet metal isarranged toregulate theamount ofairentering themixing tube. You canalso reduce theairflow byreducing thespeed oftheblower. A simple light dimmer found at any hardware store would dothejob very good if you have a DC blower motor. Thefuel issupplied through a rubber tube ofa size tofitthesupply pipe andthefitting onthetorch. You should have a 1/4inch needle valve toadjust thegastoairmixture. Using Butane orPropane from a 5-gallon bottle works better asthere maynotbeenough pressure from natural gas.Ifyou usebutane, make sure allyour fittings, andhose areforhigh pressure. Ithasrubber ends that will fitonthegasnipples at each end.Any other good rubber tube canbeused, such asa 3/8-inch garden hose. Themixing tube must belong enough sothat thegasandairare thoroughly mixed bythetime it gets totheburner end. Artificial gaswill burn at theendofa plain mixing tube, butfornatural gasthere must bea special tipon theburner endtomaintain theflame, orelsetheairblast will snuff it out. This special tipconsists ofa jacket fitted around theendofthemixing tube with several small holes drilled into themixing tube. This gives a low-velocity supply ofgasandairtothejacket. This will maintain a small circular flame around theendofthemixing tube, which will keep themixture ignited asit comes outoftheendofthemain burner tube. Theairblast tends toblow themain flame sofaraway from theendofthemixing tube that it will mix with somuch outside airthat it will nolonger bea combustible mixture andwill besnuffed out. This annular ring oflowvelocity flame surrounding theoutlet ofthemixing tube will keep themain flame ignited unless sostrong anairblast isused that theentire flame isblown away from theendofthemixing tube. When you start uptheburner, shut offthegasuntil you have theairadjusted, andthen slowly turn onthe gas,while holding a litButane torch over theopening ofthefurnace. Itisbest toreduce theairblast until thegasisignited andthen slowly open it until thedesired flame isobtained. Theflame should burn with a firm blue center cone, andthehottest spot will beat thetipoftheblue cone. A yellow flame isnotas hotandisvery sooty. After thebricks ofthefurnace have become well heated, theairblast maybe opened a little farther, andtheblast will thus beincreased. Theflame from this torch isvery hotandwill heatsteel toa white heatforforging, butit isnothotenough forwelding, however a supply ofoxygen fortheairintake will increase thetemperature. Geta large enough cement drill todrill a hole through thefirebrick about 2 inches from thetop.Theheat sensor will fitinthere. I find a short length ofiron pipe that islarge enough ontheID toallow thesensor tofitinside. This pipe isthen mortared inplace. SeeDrawing.
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A High Temperature gauge canbepurchase from anindustrial supply dealer. Ifyou canfind one,a 2000-degree gauge isbest. Intheairintake pipe, (A)you will need some kind ofmanually controlled valve. Youwill have tobeable toshut theairdown quite a bit.Ifyou tried tousethefull amount ofair,it would blow outtheflame. When you areready tostart thefurnace, hook upthegas,check forleaks with soap, andif OK,you are ready tofireup.
NOTE - It is important to do thingsat firstverycarefullyto prevent an accident.This is the way I havemy furnaceset up, and havehad no problems.I haveno controloverwhat is done by otherpeople,and cannotacceptresponsibility for what some otherpersondoes. If you builda gas furnace,you are on yourown. Check it outsideof the buildingfor safety's sake. Turn on the air, and closedownthe valve untilthere is almostno flowthroughthe pipe. Now take a butanetorchand lightit. Open the main valve on the gas tank. BE SURE THAT THE SMALL ADJUSTING VALVE IS CLOSED ALL THE WAY. Holdingthe lit torchoverthe opening,slowlyturnon the gas. In a few secondsit shouldlight.There probablywontbe muchflame, so slowlyopen the air valve/gas valve untilthe furnacehas a "roar" to it. Don't open the air valve to muchas you need a slowheat. Adjust the fuel so that you get 3 to 4 inchesof flame fromthe top. Let it heat up to dry out, and then it is ready to use. Once it has cooleddown,it can be movedback in the shop.This furnacecan be changedto where it is frontloading,made largeror alteredfor what everis needed. This furnaceis veryfast. Normallyit takes only10 to 15 minutesto get to operatingtemperature.I find that hangingthe knifepartsdownfromthe top willcause evenheating.You can use two bricksto close downthe openingmore to confinethe heat better.When throughheat-treating, closethe top up withthe bricks,and let cooldownto temperingtemperature. This furnaceworksgreat with01 and othertoolsteels.It can be used for forgingsteel as well. COLORS FOR TEMPERING 430 degrees, off tools. 440 degrees, cutters,hollowmills. 450 degrees, Very pale yellow,extrafile hard, dies, millingcutters,cut

LightYellow,file hard, reamers,threadchasers,fly

Pale strawyellow,profilecuttersfor millingmachines, 56

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rolling dies, knurling tools. 460degrees, 470degrees, 480degrees, 490degrees, 500degrees, 510degrees, 520degrees, 530degrees, 540degrees, 550degrees, 560degrees, 570degrees, 620degrees,
HIGH TEMPERATURES BY COLOR 752 degrees, 885 degrees, 975 degrees, 1077 degrees, 1292 degrees, 1472 degrees, Red heat, visible in the dark. Red heat, visible in the twilight. Red heat, visible in the daylight. Red heat, visible in the sunlight. Dark red. Dull cherryred.

Straw yellow, knife hard, swages. Deepstraw yellow. Darkyellow, cutting dies. Yellow brown, extra hard, taps, dies. Brown yellow, thread dies forgeneral work. Spotted redbrown. Brown purple, hard. Light purple. Light purple. Darkpurple. full purple. Darkblue, half hard. Blue gray, spring temper.

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1652degrees, 1832degrees, 2015degrees, 2192degrees, 2372degrees, 2552degrees, 2732degrees, 2912degrees,

Cherry red. Bright cherry red. Orange red. Orange Yellow. Yellow white. White-welding heat. Brilliant white. Dazzling white, bluish white.

Intempering, I lettheoven cool down tothetemperature that I need todraw thetemper forthejob that I need. I then putthepart intheoven, then letit cool down over night.

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RIFLE BARREL STEEL There have been many different types ofsteel used inrifle barrels over theyears. There ismuch claims byindividual barrel makers that there steel that they useinthere barrels isbetter andgive more lifeand accuracy than other makers. Most if notallpeople aregreatly mislead onrifle barrels andthetype of steel that isused inthere manufacture. Youmaybesurprised that thesteel used inthepast isvery similar orarethesame towhat isused today. Most manufactures usesteel that works easily, machines good, onethat gives good tool life,and good barrel life.Most ofthesteels that wasused 70 to80 years will besuitable forthebarrels today. Intheolddays, where leadbullets were being used, almost anybarofiron wassatisfactory fora barrel forblack powder andleadbullets, aslong asit waseasy towork. Black powder gave a breech pressure ofabout 25,000 pounds persquare inch, andtheleadbullets gave little wear. Wearcame from theblack powder andcorrosive primers intheform rusting. They didnothave toworry about pressure, just corrosion. Nowat thepresent, smokeless powder will give pressures more than 70,000 pounds persquare inch, extremely hotgases, andbullet jackets of much harder material than lead. Nowthey need steel that will machine good soa very smooth finish canbeachieved inthebore to eliminate fouling from thejacketed bullets. This requirement iseasy tomeet inthesteels oftoday, and theearly 1900's.
THE REQUIREMENTS ARE It mustbe free machining, stressfree, and a hardnessof 28 to 33 Rc. The barrel for the old Krag Model of 1898 was made of the following, Carbon Manganese Sulfur Phosphorus .45% to 55% 1.00% to 1.30% Not over.05% not over.05%

Springfield Barrels 59

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Carbon Silicon Resulphurized Phosphorus

1.10%to1.35% .25%to.35% to .06% notover .06%

1917 Einfield Barrel made of smokeless barrel steel. Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Garand Barrel made of 4150 Modified Carbon Manganese Chromium Molybdenum Silicon Phosphorus Resulphurize .45% to .60% .60% to .90% .80% to 1.10% .15% to .25% .15 to .35% not over.04% .04% to .09% .45% to .50% 1.10% to 1.35% .20% to .30% under.06% under.06%

M-1 Carbine Material 1350 (Stress Proof)

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GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

Carbon Manganese Silicon Resulphurized Phosphorus

.50%to.60% 1.35%to1.65% .10%to.15% .04%to.09% notover .045%

Youwill notice that most ofthesteels were very similar incomposition, andyou will also notice aswego along that allthesteels that areused inbarrel making isallabout thesame, except thetrade names tacked tothem togive theshooter theideait issomething special. Allsteels today aremanufactured under SAEorWDnumbers. TheSAEnumbers refer tostandard specifications issued bytheSociety of Automotive Engineers andpublish intheSAEHand book. What does this tellyou? Itsimply states that when a barrel maker wants steel forrifle barrels, hepicks upa phone book andorders thetype ofsteel that meets therequirements fora rifle barrel. Ifhebuys standard steel such asStress Proof, 1350,4140,4142,or4150,it won't make much difference, which steel company hebuys it from asit isregulated bytheSAE. Itmight have a different trade name, butit will bethesame astheother steel manufactures. Steels and Irons Tohelp you understand steels better I will usethefollowing information onhow steel isgraded. Steels maybeclassified into five categories, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Carbon, Alloy, High Strength, Low Alloy, Tool Steel

Aswearedealing with rifle barrels, I will cover items 2 and4.

ALLOY STEELS 13xx Indicates Manganesesteel 61

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

14xx 23xx 33xx

" " "

Carbon Steel Nickel Steel Nickel Chromium Steel

Nickel Chromium Steel 40xx 41xx 43xx 46xx 50xx " " " " " Molybdenum Steel Chromium,Molybdenum Steel Nickel,Chrome,Molybdenum Nickel,Molybdenum Steel ChromeSteel 61xx "

Chrome,VanadiumSteel is consideredto be an alloywhen the maximum of the range givenfor the contentof alloyingelementsexceedsone or more of the following limits, Manganese1.65%, Silicon0.60%, Copper 0.60%, or in whicha definiterange or a definiteminimum quantity of any of the following elementsis specifiedor required withinthe limitsof the recognized field of constructional alloysteels, Aluminum, boron,chromium up to 3.99%, cobalt,and so on. Manganese,Contributes to strengthand is major importancein increasinghardeningability. Siliconincreasesthe resiliency of steel for springapplications and raise the criticaltemperaturefor heat treatment. Nickel,Lowersthe criticaltemperatureof steel, and widensthe temperaturerange for successful heat treatment. Nickelis used to promoteresistanceto corrosion. Chromium,Is used in steelsto increasehardness, improve hardenability,and is the essentialelementin stainlessand heat resistingsteels. Molybdenum, In commonwithmanganeseand chromium, has a major effecton increasing harden-ability, and a strongeffectin increasingthe hightemperaturetensilestrength.Vanadium Producesa fine grain.

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GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

STAINLESS STEELS I willnot go intothistype of steel to muchas we findthat barrellife withstainlessis not muchgreater than otherbarrelsteelssuchas 4150. Its valuecomesin withthe overbore cartridges,where barrellife is a littlebetter.Stainlesssteel is also harderto drill,ream, and willgivelotsof troublein rifling. It has a tendencyto gall, when it is buttonrifled.I havenot foundthere is enoughbarrellife gained from its use, exceptfor a personthat insistson it, and is willingto pay the added cost.A barrelmaker can use any kindof steel and call it any name he wants. To state a particular type of steel is Chrome-Moly,chrome-nickel, or similarterm, is more illuminating, becausea trace of the alloyingelementsin the smallestamountscan justify usingthese terms.There are trade names suchas Ryerson,Crucible,and many others,whichdoes not mean anythingexcept that it tellsof the companythat made the steel. Types of Steel, I willgiveyou some of the commonly knownnames of the bettersteelsused in barrelmaking,all of these I haveused. Ryaxor StressProofare commonly designatedas carbonmanganese(1350), and are veryfree machining but at the same time possessthe required physicalrequirements needed for riflebarrels. Rycut40 or Rycut50 is a modified4140 or 4150. Modified4150 containsabout1.65% manganese. This manganesedefinitely increasesthe machineability.For a barrelmaker to say his barrelscost more does not mean he is usingbettersteel than his competitors. Steel costaboutthe same fromall suppliers.The bottomline is that it hardlypays the averageshooter to worryaboutthe steel in his barrel.If a certaintype, or make of barrelis what you want, then get what makes you happy.

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IMPORTANCE OF RIFLING Ina rifle thegrooving isoftheutmost importance; forvelocity without accuracy isuseless. Todetermine thebest kind ofgroove hasbeen, accordingly, theobject ofthemost laborious investigations. The projectile requires aninitial rotary motion sufficient tokeep it spinning uptoitsrange, andisfound to gain accuracy byincreasing this rotary speed. Ifthepitch ofthegrooves betoogreat, theprojectile will refuse tofollow them, butbeing driven across them, strips theleadinthegrooves istorn off,andtheball goes onwithout rotation.

TheEnglish gunsmiths avoided thedilemma bygiving therequisite pitch andmaking theRifling grooves very deep, andeven byhaving wings orlugs cast ontheballtokeep it inthegrooves expedients which increase thefriction inthebarrel andtheresistance oftheairenormously. TheAmerican gun-makers solved theproblem byadopting thegaining twist, inwhich thegrooves start From thebreech clearly parallel totheaxis ofthebarrel, andgradually increase thespiral, until, at the muzzle, it hasthepitch ofonerevolution inthree tofour; the,pitch being greater asthebore isless. This gives, asa result, safety From stripping, anda rapid revolution at theexit, with comparatively little friction andshallow groove marks ontheball, accomplishing what isdemanded ofa rifled barrel, toa degree that noother combination ofgroove andform ofmissile ever has. There isnowayofrifling sosecure asthat inwhich thewalls ofthegrooves areparts ofradius ofthe bore. They should benumerous, that thehold ofthelands, ortheprojection leftbetween thegrooves, maydivide thefriction andresistance asmuch aspossible, andsopermit thegrooves tobeasshallow asmaybe.

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GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

THE AMOUNT OF TWIST IN THE RIFLE BARREL A riflebulletis muchlike a top. It has to be spunat a certainrate of speed in orderto remainstableand pointon. Spin the top too fast and at firstit wobbles,beforeit settlesdownto a smoothspin.Then as its speed of rotationdiminishes, it finallybeginsto wobbleonce more. The forwardvelocity of a bullet, however, diminishes more rapidlythan its rotational speed.

The longerthe bulletand the slowerit leavesthe muzzle, the fasterthe pitchof the riflingmustbe in order to keep the bulletpointon and accurate.Shortbulletslike the 30-30 Win. whichweighs150 grains,can be stabilized in a twisthaving one turnin 12 inches. In otherwords,1-12. The twistsin barrels chamberedfor the old blackpowdercartridges,that used bulletsthat were relatively shortin proportion to theirdiameter,were quiteslow.The standardtwistfor the .45/70, for example,was 1-20. The twistfor the Winchester.50/95 was 1-60 and for the .50/1 10 1-54. Here is a listof finishsizesof the sizing button,the riflingbutton,and the degree of angle to get the twist that is listed. RIFLE BARREL TWIST CALIBER DIA. .30 WCF (30-30) .30 Remington .30 US (30-40) .30-06 .30 Newton MAKE DIA Winchester Remington Springfield Armory Springfield Armory Newton BORE .300 .300 .300 .300 .300 GROOVE TWIST .308 .308 .3085 .308 .309 12" 12" 10" 10" 10"

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.300 Savage .300 H&H .303 British .303 Savage .32-20 WCF .32-40 .32 RF .32 Remington .32 Win. Special .32 Win. S.L. 8mm Mauser .33 Winchester .348 Winchester .35 Winchester .35 Remington .35 Win. S.L. .351 Win. S.L. .35 Whelen .35 Newton .375 H&H .38-40 WCF .38-40 WCF .38-55

Savage Winchester British Savage Winchester Winchester Stevens Remington Winchester Winchester Mauser Winchester Winchester Winchester Remington Winchester Winchester Private Newton Winchester Winchester Remington Winchester

.300 .300 .303 .300 .300 .312 .2985 .312 .315 .312 .312 .330 .340 .350 .349 .344 .345 .350 .350 .368 .395 .395 .370
66

.308 .308 312 .308 .311 .320 .314. .319 .320 .32l .324 .338 .348 .358 .356 .351 .351 .3575 .359 .375 .400 .4-00 .379

12" 10" 10" 12" 20" 16. 25" 14" 16" 10" 10" 16" 12" 16" 16" 12" 16" 14" 12" 12" 36" 20" 36"-20"

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

.38-56 .38-70 WCF .38-72 WCF .38-90 WCF .40-50 Sharps .40-60 Win. .40-65 Win. .40-70 Win. .40-82 Win. .40-90 Sharps .40-110 1n. .400 Whelen .401 Win, S.L. .405 W1n. .44-40 WCF .45-60 Win. .45-70 U.S. .4-5-75 Win. .45-90 Win. .45-125 Win. .45-3 1/2" Sharps .50 Sharps .50-95 Win.

Marlin Winchester Winchester Winchester Winchester Winchester Winchester Winchester Winchester Winchester Winchester Private Winchester Winchester Winchester Winchester Springfield Armory Winchester Winchester Winchester Sharps Sharps Winchester

.370 .370 .370 .370 .397 .397 .397 .397 .397 .397 .397 .400 .400 .405 .4225 .450 ,450 .450 .450 .450 .450 .500 .500
67

.379 .380 .380 .380 .404 .404 .403 .403 .403 .403 .403 .410 .408 .413 .429 .457 .457 .457 .457 .457 .458 .509 .512

20" 24" 22" 26" 18" 40" 20" 20" 28" 18" 28. 14" 14" 14" 36" 20" 22" 20" 32" 36" 18" 36" 60"

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

.50-110 Win. .50-70 U.S. .505 Gibbs

Winchester Springfield Armory British

.500 .500 .495

.512 .515 .505

54" 42" 16"

PISTOL & REVOLVER Caliber Dia. .22 L.R. .22 L.R. .25 ACP (6.35mm) .30 Luger (7.65mm) .30 Mauser (7.63mm) .32 ACP (7.65mm) .32-20 .32-20 .32 S&W .32 Colt .357 Magnum .38 Special .38 Special .38 S&W .38 ACP .380 ACP 9mm Bore Dia. .2175 .2175 .24.95 .300 ,300 .300 .300 .300 .300 .300 .350 .350 .348 .351 .350 .350 .348 Groove Arm .223 .2235 .2515 10 .310 .311 .311 .311 .312 .311 .357 .357 .354 .361 .356 .356 .354 Colt S&W DWM Mauser S-W Colt S&W Colt S&W S&W Colt S&W Colt Colt Luger Twist 14" Left 15" Right 16" either 9.85" Right 8" Right 16" L(Colt) 12" Right 16" Left 183/4" Right 16" Left 183/4."Right 183/4" Right 16" Left 183/4" Right 16" Left 16" Left 10,6" Right

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.38-40 .41 .44-40 .44 Russian .44 Special .45 ACP .45 Colt .455 Webley

.395 .395 .4225 .425 .4225 .445 .445 .450

.40l .40l .427 .427 .427 .451 .452 ..455

Colt Colt Colt S&W s&w Colt Colt Colt

16" Left 16" Left 16" Left 20" Right 20" Right 16" Left 16" Left 16" Left

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MAKING RIFLING BUTTONS Theinvention oftherifling process using a swaging button toimpress therifling into solid metal has been thebiggest boon tothebarrel making industry since theinvention ofgunpowder. Where it normally took hours torifle, a barrel now it will only takeseconds. Button rifling isa cold forming process inwhich a small carbide button orswage, with lands cutinthe button. Itpulled through thegun barrel bore embosses therifling inthebore. Thebutton ismade a few thousands larger than thefinish size that isrequired, since themetal will return .001to.0015thousands. Button rifling isa surface forming process; nometal isremoved intherifling process. With button rifling, barrels canberifled much more efficiently andmuch cheaper than anyother process except possibly with hammer rifling, orforging. Allrifling styles canbeduplicated bythis method.Oddball rifling styles that would bedifficult toattain with anyother type ofcutting orscraping process canbeeasily done with carbide swaging process. Button rifling will give a much smoother, harder, andmore uniform bore than canbeobtained with cut rifling, andinturn give much longer barrel life. Oncutrifling thebarrel hastobeshot several hundreds rounds togetlapped in,orhastobelapped by hand togettopaccuracy. With button rifling, thebarrel will shoot from thevery first, andthere isnowasted shots trying togetit to group good. Theoldwayofrifling that wasdone inthepast hundred orsoyears wasdone with single cutters. They cutouteach groove separately, andrequired several passes toremove therequired ofmetal. Itis anextremely slow process andthefinish soproduced isnotthat good. Themain improvement incutrifling came just about at thestart ofWorld War1. This wasthestart of using broaches. Since farmore metal must beremoved from thegrooves than canbecutoutwith a single broach, a series ofbroaches, each a trifle larger than itspredecessor wasused. This varied in number from 15 to50,andcould bepushed orpulled through thebores. These gang broaches areformed from a single piece oftool steel. Gang broaching, although much either faster than theolder single cutter method orsingle broaching iscostly intools. Gang broaches are difficult andcomplicated tomake, expensive tokeep sharp, resharpen, andeasily damaged. With button rifling, you canrifle thehardest barrel steels, with very little difficulty. Itproduces the smoothest andmost uniform surface yetattained. A single pass issufficient tofinish theentire bore. Thebutton isdifficult tofashion accurately andissensitive tobreakage. Nonetheless simple and normally hasa long life.

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Themachinery required forbutton rifling issimilar tothat required forbroaching, orcutrifling. With the exception that farmore power isrequired foroperation with thebuttoning process. Because ofthehigh speed at which button rifling maybedone, a single machine canturn outmany times themaximum number offinish barrels produced bybanks ofrifling machines. Thenormal time including setting uptorifle a barrel with buttons isabout 3 minutes. There isanother process that isused along with button rifling, andthat isbutton reaming. Most button rifling processes callforbutton reaming, orcold sizing ofthebore surface. Bybutton reaming, you cankeep a precise bore size from onebarrel toanother. This areabecomes the topofthelands. This isthesame astherifling button with theexception that it doesn't have anygrooves cutinto it.Itpurposes istosize thebarrel andtoclose thepores inthemetal. This button isusually made .0015larger than thefinish bore. Themetal will close back about .0015after thebutton passes through it. Thepull method forrifling seems tobemore popular, andmust tohave theleadonthebutton exactly matched totheleadonthehead oftherifling machine doing thepulling. However, there isanother way tomake themachine soyou canusethrust bearings toallow thebutton torotate inthebore. More on this later.

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF RIFLING Doyou want tofind outwhat kind ofrifling your barrel has? Most ofthebarrels manufactured today either arehammered rifled orbutton rifled. Intheolder guns they used various processes torifle. To find thedifferent processes maysound difficult, butit isn't.

Thebutton process leaves a definite indication ofthemanufacturing method clearly visible. Since the original surface ofthebore leftbythefinish reamer isformed into thenewgroove surface, thereamer marks remain continuous. Notonly onthetopofthelands butalso inthebottom ofthegrooves.

These reaming marks encircle thebore onboth land andgrooves. Inthecutting process, where the
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grooves arecutwith a tool, you will seetool marks thefull length ofthebarrel inthegrooves, running length-ways ofthebarrel. Thereamer marks will still bevisible onthetopofthelands. Inmost cases you cansimply remove thebolt andgeta suitable light. Look through thebarrel from the muzzle endandbeabletoseewhat type ofrifling it is. Incutrifling thebarrel isjust reamed, then therifling iscutinto thebore, andthis reamed surface shows tobequite rough when magnified.

Thetopofthelands inconventional rifled barrels iscovered with circular tool marks. These are approximately at right angles tothemotion ofthebullet. They tend towipe offmetal from thebullet andcreate high friction andbarrel fouling. Thesurfaces of thegrooves, having been cutoutbysingle tools orbroaches moving inthesame direction asthebullet will move, have tool marks, which arerough, butwill usually notcreate anywhere nearsomuch friction. Also after it isshot a while will very seldom foul up.

Soknowing this it isobvious that thesmoother theinside ofthebarrel, sofarasfriction andmetal fouling areconcerned, would bethewidest possible grooves, andnarrow lands. There isa trade offon this theory however, asthenarrow land, ismore prone towear excessively, andtoerode at thethroat. Sowehave tomake a compromise andkeep thelands wider toattain good barrel life. Itcantherefore besaid that button rifling andbutton burnishing ofbores leave both land andgrooves farsmoother than anyfinished reamed bore with grooves cutfrom it. Button rifling hasleadtonewdesigns ofrifling. Many shallower grooves mayhave advantages, orsome
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type ofspecial rifling that would have been impossible with theolder cutting process. Some steels give trouble incutrifling, butcanberifled easily andbetter with button rifling. Stainless steel isofthis type, though it cancause trouble with button rifling through galling. There isonebig advantage inbutton rifling, andthat isthat a button reamed andrifled barrel isburnished inboth lands andgrooves, andisWORKED HARDENED.
In severalbarrelsthat we ran test on we foundthat the steel testedout about30 Rc beforeriflingand almost60 Rc after rifling.In addition,where the workhardeningis especiallygreat was where it is need most,on the driving surfacesof the grooves. The reasonfor thisfact is the maximum rearrangement of metal takes place at the leadingcornersand sides of the grooves in coldswagingby the button. Whereas the technicalaspectsof riflingare usuallya guardedsecret.We willgo intosome of the details of riflingand try to make it easy to understand what has been held in secretin the past. Buttons Specifications (burnishing) Buttonsare generallymade of hightensilestrengthtungsten,or carbide, usuallygrade 883 or equivalent. These are groundto sizewithdiamondwheels,on tool-roomgrinders, or on toolpostgrinders.The smoothbuttonsused for burnishing bores,generallyused beforerifling, havea leadingincludedangle of about3 degrees. The flat burnishing surfaceis .125 in width.The trailingangle is 2 degrees,but it is not too important. Dependingon the hardnessof the steel, 30 caliberbuttonsare usuallyleft about.003 larger.Smaller buttonssuchas 17 calibersusuallyare left about.002 larger.This based on the barrelsteel being 30 to 32 Rc. The bore closesin behindthe buttonpreciselypredictabledegree, so we can controlthe tolerance withina few ten thousands of an inch.

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RIFLING BUTTONS Therifling buttons areharder tomake than thereaming orswaging buttons. They aremade thesame except forthegrooves arecutinthebutton (Lands). Forexample a six-groove button, theincluded angle onthediamond wheel forming thegroove must benomore than 60 degrees, sothesides ofthe Impressed groove intherifle barrel arenotundercut. Theplane ofrevolution ofthediamond wheel inthegrinding process must lieprecisely along thehelix of thegroove inthebutton.
BUTTON SIZES The diamondwheelsused for grindingthe carbidebuttonscan be purchasefromAsh and Co, or WholesaleTool. If you havean indexing attachmentfor yourmill,you willbe able to make yourown buttons.If you desire to buy the firstones, they can be purchasefromDanjon Corp. SIZES OF BUTTONS Here is a listof finishsizesof the sizing button,the riflingbutton,and the degree of angle to get the twist that is listed. RIFLING BUTTON SIZES CALIBER SIZING 172 22short 22LR 22WRF 22WCF 22Hornet 218 Bee 221 Fireball 222 Rem .169 .2195 .2195 .2205 .2195 .2195 .2195 .2195 .2195 RIFLING .1735 .2255 .2255 .2285 .226 .226 .226 .226 .2265 TWIST 10 20 16 14 16 16 12 12 14 ANGLE 3deg 10min 2" " 2" 30" 2" 55" 2" 31" 2" 31" 2" 31" 3" 25" 2deg 53min

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223 Rem 222 Mag

.2195 .2195

.2265 .2265 .2265 .2265 .2265 .2265 .2265 .2265 .2285 .246 .246 .246 .246 .260 .260 .260 .260 .260 .260 .260 .260 .266 .266

12 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 12 10 10 9 10 14 10 14 15 10 10 10 12 9 8.5
76

3"25" 2"53" 2"53" 2"53 2"53" 2"53" 2"53" 2"53" 3"50" 4"20" 4"20" 4"46" 4"20" 3"20" 4"33" 3"20" 3"20" 4"33" 4"33" 4"33" 3"49" 5"15" 5"31"

219 Wasp .2195 219 Zipper .2195 224 Wea. 225 Win 22-250 220 Swift .2195 .2195 .2195 .2195

22 Savage .2225 243 Win 244 Rem 6mm .2375 .2375 .2375

6mm284 .2375 25-20 25-35 256 Win .2515 .2515 .2515

250-3000 .2515 257 Roberts .2515 257 Roberts Imp .2515 25-06 .2515

257 Wea. Mag. .2515 6.5 Jap .2575

6.5mm M.S. .2575

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

6.5x55

.2575

.266 .266 .266 .2805 .2805 .287 .287 .287 .287 .287 .287 .311 .311 .311 .311 .311 .311 .311 .311 .311 .311 .311 .311

7.5 9 9 10 12 10 10 10 12 9.5 12 10 16 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
77

6"20 5"15 5"15" 5" 4"12" 5"5 " 5"5 " 5"5 " 4"15" 5"23" 4"15 " 5"30" 3"29" 4"35" 4"35" 4"35" 5"30" 5"30" 5"30" 5"30" 5"30 5"30 5"30"

6.5 Rem Mag. .2575 264 Win Mag. .2575 270 Win .2715

270 Wea Mag. .2715 7mm Mauser .2775 284 Win .2775

280 Rem .2775 7x61 S&H .2775 7mm Rem Mag .2775 7mm Wea Mag .2775 7.5 Swiss .3015 30 Carbine .3015 30-30 Win .3015 300 Sav .3015 308 Win .3015

30-40 Krag .3015 30-06 .3015

30-06 Imp .3015 300 H&H Mag. .3015 308 Norma Mag .3015 300 Win Mag. .3015 300 Wea Mag. .3015

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

7.65mm Mauser .3045 303 British .3045 7.7 Jap .3045

.315 .315 .315 .323 .327 .327 .341 .341 .351 .361 .361 .361 .361 .361 .3785 .3785 .430 .430 .4605 .4605 .4605

9.8 10 9.5 16 9.25 9.25 10 10 12 16 12 16 16 14 12 12 38 38 22 14 16

5"40" 5"43" 5"53" 3"35" 6"7 " 6"7 " 5"30" 5deg 30 min 5"12" 4" 5"22" 4" 4" 4"32" 5"33" 5"33" 2" 2" 3"41" 5"48" 5"8 "

32 Win Spc. .3165 8mm Mauser .3135 8mm-06 .3135 338 Win Mag. .3315 340 Wea Mag. .3315 348 Win 35 Rem. 358 Win .3415 .3515 . .3515

350 Rem Mag. .3515 35 Whelen .3515 358 Norma Mag .3515 375 H&H Mag .3695 378 Wea Mag. .3695 44 Rem Mag .424 444 Marlin .424 45-70 .4515

458 Win Mag. .4515 460 Wea Mag. .4515

PISTOLS AND REVOLVERS CALIBER SIZING RIFLING 78 TWIST ANGLE

GUNSMITHING AND TOOL MAKING BIBLE

22 LR 25 ACP 30 Luger 32 ACP 32-20 32 SW 357 Mag. 38 Spec. 38 SW 38 ACP 380 9mm 38-40 41 44-40 44 Russian 44 Spec. 45 ACP 45 Colt 455 Web.

.2195 .251 .3015 .3015 .3015 .3015 .3515 .3515 .3525 .3515 .3515 .3495 .3965 .3965 .424 .424 .424 .4465 .4465 .4515

2255 .2525 .313 .314 .314 .315 .360 .360 .364 .359 .359 .357 .404 .404 .430 .430 .430 .454 .455 .458

14 16 9 16 16 18 18 18 18 16 16 11 16 16 16 20 20 16 16 16

2deg 52 min 2"49" 6"12" 5"37" 5"37" 5"34" 6"28" 6"28" 6"26" 4" 4" 5"45" 4"30" 4"30" 4"45" 3"52" 3"52" 5"2 " 5"2 " 5"

Thetwists that areused intheabove listing arestandard factory twist. Thefinish groove size given by therifling button will give thecorrect diameter if thesteel that isused falls intherange of30 to32 Rc.If you usea steel of28 to30 Rc,thegroove diameter will beslightly larger, andharder steel will beslightly smaller Diameter.

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Thetwists given arestandard, butthebutton could bemade with anytwist. Youwill find there arefar more accurate combinations than thefactory twist, butthey area good starting point.
TWIST FORMULA The formulafor findingthe correctangle for the twistthat you want for the riflingbuttonis the diameterof the groove, whichis .308 (30 Caliber);308 xpie is 96761054, thisanswerdivided by the twistgivesyou an answerof .080634. Now lookat a sine chartand findthat figure,it willbe 4 degrees and 37 minutes.That is the angle that you want to cut the grooves on the buttonto get a 1 in 12 twist. In a 17 caliberfor exampleyou willfindthat the 1 in 10 twistis fairlywell standard.I havedone quitea bit of experimenting and havefoundthat a 1 in 14 twistfor me has been veryaccurate.It has givenme consistently 1/2 minuteor undergroupsat 100 yards. The main troublein accuracyin 17 calibers seems to be the bullets. I havefoundthat the slightest air pocketin the bullethad a tendencyto throwthe bulletoff in the 1-14 twist.With good bullets,the 1-14 willbe foundsuperiorfor top accuracy. The 1-10 twistwillusuallyshootthe poor made bulletsbetterwithconsiderable accuracyon the average.This is also true of the othercalibers.Take the 30 calibersfor example. The 150-grainbullet willshootlike a houseafire withthe 1-14 twist. One of my mostaccurateand favorite game riflewas a 243 witha 1-14 twist.The riflewas used for long range on coyotes,crow,etc. I used a 75-grainbulletfor the best accuracy. If you want to experiment, you willprobablycome up witha far more accuraterifleby doingthis.You can tailoryourrifleto shootthe bulletsand speed that you want. The main problemyou may haveis with bore tolerance. This willbe withthe steel that you use. Everybarrelmaker is plaguedwiththisproblem. If you havehard spotsin the barrel,you willcome out withtightspotsin the barrel,and if there are soft spots,there willbe loosespots.I havegot suchbad steel that when the barrelpushit a shortways, and then it woulddrop 8 to 10 inchesbeforestopping.What you had is a junk barrel.

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MAKING THE BUTTONS Letusgointo thedesign ofthebutton andhow it ismade. I will assume that you donothave tool-room equipment sowewill usewhat isnormally found ina small shop. Wewill make a 30-caliber button first. Geta fewpieces of5/16-inch grade 883carbide, 1 1/2inch long. Wholesale Tool should beabletosupply you with thecarbide. Inaddition, you will need a piece of 5/16-drill rod, a 1/4diamond-grinding wheel, anda 1/8inch 60 degree diamond wheel. The1/8wheel that is4 inches isforthemilling machine, the1/4x6 inches isforthetool post grinder. Youwill also need some diamond-lapping compound forfinishing thebuttons, coarse, medium, andfine.

Nowcut2 pieces ofthe5/16-drill rod, 1/2inch long, square andtrue theends, center drill oneend.You will need a small V center bar.Laythecarbide piece intheV, andtheshort drill rod, with thecenters to theoutside. Putsome lowmelting silver solder paste ontheends, press them together andheatthem upuntil thesilver solder melts, andletcool. Becareful that you donotover heatthecarbide orheatit up tofast, asit will crack. When soldered good, letit cool intheV ways. Itisnow ready togrind.Youwill need a small lathe dog tohold thedrill rod/carbide tothefaceplate, while it isbetween centers. Youwill need tosetupa canofwater-soluble oiltobeused when you grind thecarbide. This will also be needed forthemilling machine when you grind theland grooves inthebuttons. Itwould bebest if you canusea mist type, asthecarbide must notgethot.
GRINDING THE CARBIDE When grindingthe carbideuse as highan rpm as possible,on the wheels.Keep plentyof coolanton the workpiece, and the wheel to keep the carbidecooland the diamondwheel frompluggingup. The lathe shouldbe in back gear, and the feed slow.

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TAPER PER INCH To get the correcttaper per inch,for the included3 degrees taper per inch.We willuse 1-1/2 degrees, as the 3 degrees is includedangle, or 1-1/2 degrees on bothsides. Now lookat the taper per inch chart.In the left columngo downto the 1 degree and then acrossto 30'. This is 1 1/2 degree, and you willsee a figureof 0.02618. This is taper per inch.

Now to set up the lathe for thistaper, you willneed 2 dial indicators; one willneed to be at least a 1-inch travel.You willneed a piece of toolsteel the exactlengthas the carbideand end pieces. So bothhave to be the exactlength,if not the angle willchange.Make sure the toolsteel is runningtrue and center bothends. It wouldbe wise to heat treat it, and grindit to exactsizeso there willbe no run out. Be sure that is no taper after grinding.Once thisis groundand completed,leaveit betweenthe centers.Set the 1 dial indicatoron the carriage,and set tip on the toolsteel. Set the otherso it willmeasurethe travelof the carriage.Loosenup the setscrewson the tail stock,and turnthe one in that movesthe centertowardsyou. Moveit overa bit, reclampthe tail stock,and reset the center.Now zerobothindicators, and movethe carriagetowardthe head stock. When it has traveled 1 inch,see how many thousands the otherindicatorreads. When you haveset the tail stockoverso it reads .026 in a 1-inchtravel,you haveit set for 1-1/2 degrees,or 3 degrees included angle. Replace the piece of toolsteel for the carbide,and then turnon the lathe. Be sure it is in back gear, turn on the grinderand moveit in so it is just touching the carbideat the tail stockend. DO NOT TRY TO TAKE OFF OVER .005 PER EACH PASS. The feed shouldbe slowor you willwear out the diamondwheel to fast. When you havegroundboth angles,to size,stopand checkthe O.D. of the workpiece. You shouldleaveabout.0005 for final finishing. Now you willhaveto grindthe shankto fit the pullrod. You willgrindthisto the standardNo. 5 taper reamer. No. 5 is the sizethat you want to use for the 30 calibers,and it willgiveyou a diameterof .2409 on the smallend. Reset the angle on the tail stockfor the correcttaper per inchof the taper pin reamer. Grindthe shank 82

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endtothesize shown, butI would recommend leaving thesmall endoftheshank about .005larger than shown, sothebutton won't bottom out. When completed, remove thetool post grinder, andreset thetailstock back to00.Puttheground button back into thelathe, andfinish it tothecorrect size. Turn thelathe back with a fairly high RPM.Usethe diamond files, starting with thecoarse andsmooth thecarbide.

Becareful asyou only have .0005.After smoothing upwith thecoarse grit, usethemedium, then the fine. Finish with thefinetogetthefinal size. Nowwith thevery finediamond compound, geta small tongue stick, andcoat it with light oilanddiamond compound andfinish lapping thebutton. Youneed only beconcerned with theleading edge andthetop. Finish asfineaspossible. Youwill need a different taper pinreamer foreach different size button that you make. These reamers will beused toputthecorrect taper inthepull rodforthebutton. Youwill need a different taper pinreamer foreach different size button that you make. These reamers will beused toputthecorrect taper inthepull rodforthebutton. Thesizing button ismade thesame way. With stress proof, thefinish issogood that I usually didnotusethesizing button. Inaddition, with stress proof, I found that thesizing button worked hardened thebore somuch that it wasdifficult topull the rifling button through thebarrel. Onthe4140-4150 steels, you will need tobutton ream tosize thebore.
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INDEXING HEAD Now that thisis done it is time to cut the land grooves in the button.Set up the indexing fixture on the millingmachine.You willneed some way to set an angle to the indexing head. They havespecialangle platesfor thispurpose.If yourindexing head is set up for collector drillchuck, you can make a shortpiece of drillrod, drill.Then ream for the No. 5 taper pin reamer, and solderthe buttonin place. When coolchuckthe drillrod and button. The angle is set the same way on the millingmachineas it was done on the lathe. Your 30-caliberbutton with1 in 12 twist,the angle is 4 degree and 35 minutes,or referringto the Taper per inchchartit would be .0795. Set thisangle of taper on the indexing head and it is completed. Put yourarborwiththe 1/8-inchwide 60-degree diamondwheel in the colletof the mill.Now thisis tricky. You willhaveto lowerthe grindingwheel to where it just touchesthe large diameterof the button. One half of the buttonis .555; add .062, whichis half of 1/8, whichis .218. Now set up the dial indicator and run downthe diamondwheel to .218. If everything was done right,it willbe on the exactcenter.Turn on the millat the highestspeed it willrun, and the mistcoolant.Bringthe diamondwheel to the edge of the carbideto where it just touches.Set it for a .005 cut, and feed it acrossveryslow. Keep trackof how many thousands that you havefed in on the firstgroove. The onlythingthat you have to do now is to figurehow many landsand grooves you want and how wide the grooves shouldbe. SWEATING BUTTON TO PULL ROD Afterall the grooves are cut, the buttonis ready to sweat to the rod. The rod is .281 in dia. and is drill rod. The drillrod shouldbe chuckedin the lathe, centered,drilledto depthwitha drillslightly largerthan the smallend of the carbide.It is then reamed withthe No. 5 taper reamer. While stillin the lathe, coat the insideof the finishedreamed hole withsilver solderpaste;stickthe buttonin the reamed hole. Put the lathe in back gear and startup. Take the torchand witha coolflame, heat the button,shank,and rod untilthe silver soldermelts. Hold the buttonfor a few secondsso the entireinsidesurfaceis tinned,and turnoff the lathe while pressingthe buttonin hard in the reamed hole. Let it coolslowly. The buttonis now attachedto the pullrod. The nextstep is to cut the rod to the rightlength,turn,and threadthe rod to a 1/4 x20 thread.This willbe attachedto the riflinghead. This end shouldbe hardened and broughtback to a lightblue (700 degrees).If you fail to do this,the threadedend willbreak the first time you use it. 84

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Nowwehave allthenecessary tools made forrifling thebarrel, except therifling machine.

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RIFLING CUTTER Inrifling barrels, a rifling head tohold thecutter isused. This isattached therodortube which draws the cutter through thebarrel. Therifling head isa steel cylinder, three to6 inches inlength, which will just pass through thedrilled andreamed barrel blank. Ontheside a slot iscutlengthwise ofthecylinder, just wide enough toaccept thecutter, which fills the slot from side toside andendtoendclosely enough sothat it hasnomovement. Theslot iscutnearly through thecylinder, seating thecutter asdeeply aspossible. Therifling cutter ismade from a good tool steel, such as01 tool steel. Itisflat-bottomed anditscutting edge isofthehook type, likea filetooth. Thecutting edge hasa rakeoffive tosix degrees, both onthe faceandonthetop.Thetopofthecutting edge isslightly rounded which will fittheradius ordiameter of thebarrel. Thesteel cutter isusually about 1 1/2" long andthecutting edge isslightly back ofcenter. This will leave a space infront ofit large enough tohold thechips that arecutinonepass. When thecutter issetting onthebottom oftheslot thetopofthecutting edge isjust below thesurface of therifling head. Thecutter israised torifling position byplacing very thin brass shims underneath ofit in theslot. Thebrass shims should be.0002" to.0003" inthickness.

After therifling cutter makes a cutineach groove, another shim isplaced beneath thecutter. Another cut isthen made ineach groove until allthegrooves arecuttotheproper depth. A small hole isfirst drilled through therifling head onthebottom ofthecutter slot soa small punch canbeinserted through thehole toremove thecutter outoftheslot intherifling head. Therifling head isa hollow ortubular piece ofhigh-carbon tool steel that ishardened. Thehook-type cutter issetina port within this tube andthehook orcutting edge isabout onefourth ofthelength ofthe cutter from therearend.Therearendofthecutter isbeveled offat a thirty-degree angle onthetopside andtherearendintherifling head isbeveled at this same angle. Thecutter must bebeveled oneach endat thebottom from a point directly beneath thecutting edge. Thebottom bevel isnormally ten degrees. Attherearoftherifling head, a beveled wedge rests beneath thebeveled rearofthecutter.

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Thebevel ofthewedge isthesame asthebevel onthebottom ofthecutter, tendegrees. This beveled wedge ispushed forward bya screw. Therearoftherifling head hasfinethreads andistapped into the rearoftherifling head. Turning this screw forward intherifling head results inpushing thebeveled wedge farther forward under thecutter andraises thecutting edge. A cutismade ineach groove ofthebarrel before moving thewedge farther forward toraise thecutter fora deeper cut. Thefront endofthis hook-type cutter, which isthree-quarters ofthelength ofthecutter. This seats against a steel plunger within thetube that hasa coil-spring infront ofit. Thefront endofthecutter isbeveled back from thetopat about tendegrees. Theendofthe spring-backed plunger isbeveled at tendegrees intheopposite direction, sothat itsincluded angle with itstopsurface is100degrees. Thefront endofthecutter isheld upward against thetopsurface of therifling head. Thecutter isnormally about 2 to2 1/4inches long over allandtherifling head 6 to8 inches long depending onthecaliber. Thetoporcutting edge ofthehook iscutona radius tofitthe bore. Thecutting edge ofa rifling cutter isground andhoned toa template. When it isresharpen orhoned during therifling operation itsform will notbechanged at anypoint. Thecutting edge hastobekept very sharp andvery smooth todoa good job. Thebarrel steel istough andtends totear,rather than cut clean, unless thetool iskept sharp.

Thescrape-type ofrifling head leaves a better finish inthegrooves than does thehook-type hutit is more difficult tokeep sharp andrequires very careful honing todoa good job. Itscuts byscraping rather than a shearing cutandtheshavings arefine.
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Therifling head isa hollow cylinder, andismade ofhigh-carbon steel with a slot forthecutter cut lengthwise, about twoinches long, ononeside. Theport hastobecutvery accurate, asthescrape cutter must fitit closely with nomovement. Thecutter cuts inboth directions while traveling through the barrel. Therifling head isabout 6 to8 inches long andisthreaded internally onboth ends. There isa thread at oneendforattaching thepull tube, which isused tocarry a supply ofoiltothecutter. Ontheother end,a finethread isused fortheadjusting screw toraise thecutter. Inthebottom ofthe rifling head between theport forthecutter, andontheopposite side, thefinethreads fortheadjustment screw, a narrow slot iscutlength-wise ofthehead. This isforthehead ofa screw tosetinwhich is screwed into thebottom oftheadjusting wedge. Thecutter body isfitted very close intheslot intherifling head andthebottom ofthecutter body is ground ona taper ofabout tendegrees from oneendtotheother. Thefront edge ofthis taper isat an exact right-angle fittothesides ofthecutter body. Thecutting edge ofthescraper ontopofthecutter body isnotcutat right angles tothesides ofthecutter body andrifling head. Itextends across thetopof thecutter body at a forty-five degree angle togive asmuch shearing effect tothescrape aspossible. Thescraper isat thecentral point ofthecutter body andthebody ofthecutter iscutaway at each side ofthescraper togive chip space. Theedge that does thescraping hasanincluded angle ofeighty degrees, andthesides sloping down andaway from theedge equally inboth directions tothetopofthe cutter body. This scraping edge also hasthecontour ofthecircle ofthegroove diameter ofthebarrel. Theedge should beground andhoned toa template. Bydoing this itsshape will betrue andwill remain so.Thetemplate iscutfrom thin 01 tool steel. Thewedge, which raises thecutter initsslot intherifling head, isturned with a circular contour onthe bottom tofitthecontour oftheinside oftherifling head. Thetopofthis wedge isalso ground offona ten-degree taper tomatch that onthebottom ofthecutter body. Thethickness ofthewedge hasitsthin endthat extends slightly beyond thethick endofthecutter body. This istoward theendoftherifling head towhich thepull-rod isfastened. Thethin endofthetapered wedge isground square ontheend.Thesquare endthen sets against the square-ended plug, which isbacked bya spring. Thespring isbacked bytheendofthepull-rod inside therifling head. Inthebottom ofthewedge a hole isdrilled andtapped fora small screw. Thehead of which fitstheslot cutinthebottom oftherifling head. Thescrew prevents thewedge from turning andismade from 01 tool steel, should behardened to prevent wear. Theadjusting screw forthewedge hasanunthreaded portion beyond thethreaded part, smaller than thethreads. Theendofthis unthreaded portion isground square andfitsagainst thelarge endoftheadjusting wedge. When theadjusting screw isscrewed forward intherifling head, it moves thetapered wedge forward andupward under thecutter, raising it asnecessary.

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THE TOOL GRINDER Ifyou need todotool making intheshop, you will need a tool post grinder. Itisa simple matter tomake a small grinder forsmall tools. Youwill have todoa little looking around insome appliance shops tofind a motor that will runat a speed of15,000 to20,000 RPM.Youcanalso find newhigh-speed electric motors sold byW.W.Granger. Most large cities have a store, oranappliance store will beabletogive you anaddress ofthenearest store. Most vacuum cleaner motors will runat this speed. Itwill require a bitofwork tocutdown thehousing to beabletomake onework. There areseveral types ofsmall motors that will runat this speed, andthey will mount directly tothe base with very little alternations.

Thebearing housing ismade from a piece ofmild steel shafting, bored andturned asindicated. You might beabletofind a ready built mandrel from some bearing supply business, ora tool supplier. This piece cannot beheld ina chuck while boring, asit projects toofarout. Hold thehead endinthe three-jaw chuck andsupport thetailendinthesteady rest. This means that theends must becentered andtheoutside finished before you bore andfinish theinside. Therecess forthebearings should bea good push fitontheouter races. Thepulleys aremade from mild steel. Since it isdesired tousea flatbelt, they should have a crown
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turned onthefaceunder thebelt. A flatbeltalways tries torunonthehighest place onthepulley; if there isa crown inthecenter, making it thehighest place, thebeltwill] runthere andnotneed theflanges on thesides. These areonly tohelp if thebeltstretches outofshape andoneedge gets longer than the other, inwhich caseit will runtotheside offthecrown. When thebeltstarts todothis, discard it,asit canstart towhip at thehigh speed andcause vibration. Makea pulley forthespindle, anda similar oneforthemotor, butfitted tothemotor shaft. Asthese very small mounted grinding wheels must runvery fast, you mayhave tomake several sets ofpulleys tofind themaximum speed you canrunit.This will belimited bythebeltaction. Because ofthehigh Speed required, it isnotpossible tousea beltofmuch weight, such asa "V" belt. Such a beltwould stand outaway from thepulleys, duetocentrifugal force, andwould notonly dovery little work butwould beapttostart whipping. Thesmall flatrubber belts, made forsome floor polishing machines, work very well at this speed. Since thetotal length ofthebeltisabout 16 inches, you should getonebefore making thebase ofthegrinder.

Then, when thepulley diameters areknown, thedistance between pulley centers canbeworked out. This will govern thelength ofthe7/16-inch slot andtheposition ofthebolt tothe"T" slot ofthecompound slide. Makeuptwocollars with parallel faces togrip thegrinding wheel. After boring andreaming thehole, mount them ona mandrel andfinish both faces at thesame setting. Usevery light cuts sothat thecollars will notslip onthemandrel. Thefaceofthecollar that bears onthegrinding wheel isrelieved sothat pressure onthewheel isconcentrated well outonthewheel. A layer ofonionskin paper should beplaced between wheel andcollar toequalize thepressure. Ifthe collars arenotrelieved, onecollar mayputpressure onthewheel neartheshaft while theother bears
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neartherim.This could puta strain onthewheel anddamage it.

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MAKING REAMERS AND BARREL REAMING This isthemost important part ofmaking therifle barrel. Ifyou don't have a true andsmooth bore, you don't have anything. I will show you how tomake reamers forfinishing thebarrels. Onbarrel reamers, you will need tworeamers. Onea rough reamer forremoving andcleaning upthedrilled bore, andthe finish reamer totakethebore tothecorrect size.
INFORMATION ON REAMERS Reamers are made withbothstraightand helicalflutes.The latterprovided a shearingcut and are especiallyusefulin reamingholeshaving key ways or grooves. These are bridgedoverby the helical flutes,thuspreventing bindingor chattering. Hand reamersare made in bothsolidand expansion forms. SHAPE OF FLUTES Style and shape of the flutedetermineits abilityto carryaway chipsand the relative strengthof the tooth. For manufacturing, a straightshankmay be used. With flutingreamers,the cutteris so set aboutto the centerof the reamer blankso the toothgets a slightnegative rake, the amountis so selectedthat a tangentto the circumference of the reamer at the cuttingpointmakes an angle of about95 degrees with the frontface of the cuttingedge.

When flutingreamers,it is necessaryto break up the flute,whichmeans to space the cuttingedges unevenaroundthe reamer. The differencein spacingshouldbe veryslightand need not to exceed about.004 eitherway. The manner,whichyou use to break up the flutes,is if the reamersare made on a millis to set the cutter anywherefrom.002 to .004 in frontof the centerof the reamer blank,and changingit a .001 or so on each flute.

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Therelief ofthecutting edges should becomparatively slight. They canbeground close onthetool post grinder andstoned flatwith anArkansas stone. Theflatrelief iswhat I have used allalong, because the reamer hasa keener cutting edge.
CHATTER This willbe the one thingin barrelmakingthat willcause you the mosttrouble.Evenif the reamer and reliefare perfect,you can stillget chatter.The firstthingyou need to do when usinga new reamer is to spraythe reamer withlayoutfluid.If the reamer is chattering, when you removethe reamer, be able to see if you haveenoughclearance,etc. Sometimesa too sharpa reamer willchatter,or it may havetoo muchclearance.If the piloton the reamer is not a closeenougha fit, that can cause chatter.Sometimesreducingor increasingthe speed or feed willhelp. I cut all of my reamerson zerorake, and haveverylittletrouble.If you are using commercialreamers,there can be too muchpositive or negative rake, and that can cause chatter. 93

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REAMING SPEEDS In mostof my reamingI findthat a good startingpointis abouttwo-thirds the drillingspeed for a given material.If you ream to slow,it takes too longto ream a barrel,and veryfew barrelscan be turnedout. If too higha feed or speed prematuredulling,chatter,and usuallya roughfinishis the result. REAMING FEEDS In reaming,feeds are usuallymuchhigherthan thoseemployedfor drilling,oftenbeing 200 to 300% greater.To low a feed may resultin excessive reamer wear. Always,the feed mustbe highenoughso that the toolcuts,ratherthan rubs.I findthat to higha feed willcause the hole to be oversize, and rough.I also havethat a good startingpointis somewherebetween.0015 to .004 feed per fluteper revolution. The smallerboressuchas .17- .224 a .001-.003 per revolution is a good start.I can onlyrecommend that you findthe highestfeed that willproducethe required finishand accuracy. STOCK ALLOWANCES This is covered in the chapteron barrelreamingand reamers. LUBRICANTS This is veryan important item in barrelmaking,as the type of lubricant that you use for reamingwill determinethe quality of the reamed bore. The lubricant is used to coolthe reamer, removethe chips fromthe barrel,and to improve the finishof the work.Normallyfor moststeel a sulfurize oil, or a high E.P. valuemineraloil. Contacta businessthat suppliescuttingoil and they willbe able to help you. You willhavetimeswhen you are unableto get a smoothreamed hole. THE MOST COMMON ARE; CHATTERING When the flutesare not evenlystoned,or the flutesare cut back of centerline,stonedwithto great a clearance.Chips clingingto the flutes- causedby to higha revolving velocity. REAMER PLUGGING Reamer pluggingup by not having enoughoil pressureand flowthroughthe flutes,or flutesnot being stonedout, and allowingsaw teeth to formon the cuttingedge. Enlargedholescausedby the reamer being oversized.

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ARKANSAS STONE The cuttingedge of the reamer is kept sharpby honingwithan Arkansasstoneoverthe cuttingedges. The reamer shouldbe touchedup abouteverytwo barrels. SURFACE SPEED The surfacespeed for reamingshouldbe ratherslow,on a regularbarrel-reaming machine;the reamer turns,but on the lathe the barrelturnsand the reamer is stationary. Insteadof usingan open belt and higherspeed, the lathe is set in back gear, and run at the slowestspeed. The feed can be made fasterthan that used for drilling.The barrelreamer is pulledthroughand used for a greaterdepth,withmore cuttingedges in contactwiththe barrel. For the roughing reamer you can use a feed twiceas fast as that for finishing. Afterthe drillsand reamer are made, and kept in good shape, many barrelscan be turnedout withthem. Reamingis a simple operation,and withthisinformation and the toolsto producethe barrels,you willturnout high-grade barrels. BARREL REAMER SIZES Listedbeloware the Caliber,sizeof the roughReamer, and the sizeof the finishreamer. Caliber 172 224 244 257 264 270 284 308 303 .215 .233 .248 .254 .268 .274 .298 .301 RoughReamer FinishReamer .168 .218 .236 .250 .256 .270 .276 .300 .303

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32 358 375 44 457

.309 .348 .365 .419 .448

.311 .350 .367 .422 .450

I will gothrough allthesteps ofmaking reamers, from thestart ofreamer blanks from a piece oftool steel, tothefinish reamer, ready tobeused toream thebarrel. Tostart you will need a vertical milling machine, andanindexing fixture. These twoitems arethetwomain pieces ofequipment necessary to make cutting tools.

I will gothrough with you onmaking a complete setoftools fora 308-barrel. Youwill need twoeach, 5/16-inch (.312)drill rod, and6 inches long. Once you have thetwo- 5/16inch drill rodcut, gotothe lathe. Chuck uponeofthepieces andusing a 1/4inch center drill, center oneendjust deep enough to geta good center. Theother enduses 3/8-inch center, andcenter it totheoutside edge ofthedrill rod. Thereason forthis isthat onthis endyou will attach thepull rodtothereamer. Inmost reamer operations, using thelathe you will note that tubing isused instead ofa solid rod. Thereason that I usea solid rodisthat, (1)it ismuch cheaper, (2)it ismore rigid than tubing andseems toeliminate the chattering that you getfrom time totime. Also if thereamer gets dull orit should plug up,with thetubing, it would wind upthetubing andruin it. With a solid rod, you will bemore abletostop themachine before it ruins thereamer. Ifit should freeze upinthebarrel, theworst that will happen isthat thereamer will pull outofthesweat joint that attaches therodtothereamer.
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Then allthat isnecessary istodrive thereamer from thebarrel, resharpened, andsweat thereamer to thepull rod. Once you have thecenters inthedrill rod, you will need todrill theendofthedrill rodthat you centered with 3/8-inch center drill to1/4inch by3/4inch deep. Youwill need todrill thehole first with a next smaller drill size. Then clean it upwith a 1/4inch drill. Now dothesecond oneandthedrill rodisready forrough turning. Center upthedrill rodbetween centers onthelathe, with thecounter bored endnext tothetailstock, with a small lathe dogholding theother end.The.312drill rodisjust about theright size forthe .308-fluted end,soit will notneed tohave anything done toit.

Theother endwhere thepull rodisattached will have will have tobeturned. Thedrilled hole will measure .293intherifle barrel, soyou will endupwith a .290pilot onthereamer. Turn thepilot (theend where thepull rodisattached) toabout .010larger than thefinish size, andtherecessed areabetween thepilot andwhere thereamer flutes start at about .280. Thepilot areawill beonmost ofthereamers about 1-1/4inches long, therecess will beabout 1/2inch long. Ifyou make thereamers forsmaller calibers, they canbemade shorter.

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The.224calibers theoverall length ofthereamer would be4 inches, thepilot would be1 inch, andthe recess would be3/8inch wide. Therecess should beabout .040smaller than thepull rodwhen completed, after grinding. Therecess isthere togetaneven oilflow totheflutes when reaming.

Once you have thereamer blank completed, gotothemilling machine andsetuptheindexing head. This should have centers also with some waytoattach a small lathe dogtohold thereamer blank solid. Iftheindexing head supports a collet, thestock canbeheld with a collet.
ANGULAR CUTTER Next,chuckup a 60-degree angularcutterin the mill.The diameterof the cuttershouldbe at least 1 1/2 98

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inch. Slow down themill toabout 100to150rpm, asthetool steel tends togethot. Measure thedrill rodontheflute end; inthis case, it hasnotbeen turned soit is.312.Bring down the cutter onthemilling head while it isrunning andjust touch thedrill rodandstop. Halfofthat size is.156;wedonotwant tocuts theflutes half wayasthereamer would probably chatter. Thefirst flute should becut.002infront ofcenter, thenext should becut.004ahead ofcenter, andthe third should becut.006ahead ofcenter. After thethird flute iscut, thefourth should start back at .002,then .004andthefinish cutis.006ahead ofcenter.
THE FLUTE THICKNESS The fluteswall shouldhavea thickness of about.060 to .080. This wouldbe thinneron the smaller reamersand thickeron the largerreamers.You do not want to make flutewallsto thinas they tend to break if the reamer gets to dull,and when thishappensthe barrelwillmore than likelybe ruined.

DEPTH OF FLUTES You want to use an ample supplyof coolantwhen cuttingthe flutes.Dependingon the reamer sizeyou willgo in about3/4 of the depthon the firstcut and then finishedto the correctdepththe secondpass. Watch for bowingas you cut the flutes.If it is bowing,you are eithertakingto big a cut, the cutteris dull, 99

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oryou maybecutting tofast. Whatever thereason you donotwant this tohappen asit isputting a lotofinternal stress inthereamer blank. When heat-treating theblank will probably warp badly. Ifyou fillthere isstress inthereamer blank, I would suggest that when you getready toheat-treat thereamer, that you putthereamer inthefurnace when you turn it on.

Bring thetemperature upto1000degrees, andletit setfor30 to40 minutes. Remove andbury it inlime until cool, orturn offthefurnace andletit cool over night.
HEAT TREATING THE REAMER Bringthe temperatureof the furnaceup to the temperaturethat is recommendedby the maker of the tool steel. Coat the reamer blankwithsome decarbonizing powder,and put the reamer blanksin the furnace and let set for 10 minutes.Removeand quenchin the oil tank, or what otherquenching mediumthe manufacture recommends.

When you quenchthe blankmake sure that you go straightin the quenching tank, if you quenchthe reamer at an angle, you willwarp it. If you do warp a reamer you willhaveto bringthe reamer up to 1500 degrees and let it coolin the oven,then straighten it when cool. When you havebothreamersquenched, lay them downon something where they won't rolloff. They are veryhard and brittle,and if they fell on the cementfloor,they wouldprobablybreak.

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TEMPERING THE REAMERS Turn off the furnace,closeit up, and let it cooldownto 350 degrees.We willthen put the hardened reamersintothe furnaceto draw the hardness,and removeinternalstress.Leavethe blanksin the furnaceuntilthe furnacereaches100 degrees,or betteryet leavethem in overnight.The reamerswill be about61 to 62 Rc in Hardness. GRINDING THE REAMER The reamer blanksare now ready to be groundto size.We willgrindthe flutesfirst.Set up the toolpost grinderon the lathe. Get everything linedup, put the smalllathe dog on the reamer blank,on the pilot end, and grindthe flutesend first. Clean out the centerson the blank,and set betweenthe centers.Coverthe bed of the lathe up to keep the grindingdustoff the ways. Set the lathe in back gear drives; turnon the lathe so it willrun in reverse. Then, turnon the toolpostgrinder,and startingat the tail stockend, just touchthe grinderto the blank. Movethe grinderpast the blank,then set it in about.005, and engage the feed. It willnot clean up completely, but it willstartto clean up any part that is warped.Make one pass and if it is cleanedup enoughso you can get a measurement,checkthe sizeof bothends. There shouldbe about.002 taper fromthe pilotend to the end of the blank. The tail stockend shouldbe the smallerend. This is veryimportant to haveor you willget a roughbore. We are grindingthe roughreamer first,so you want to end up withthe pilotend of the reamer .298. When you get thissize,removethe reamer blankfromthe lathe. While the lathe is set for the .002 taper, we willdo the otherblank.It is done the same way exceptthat the finalsizeshouldbe .3005. We will allowthe .0005 to hone in to size. Now that the secondreamer blankis ground,we willgrindthe leadingedge taper. Set the compoundon the lathe to 1-1/2 degrees.This willbe yourcuttingedge nextto the pilot.Turn the lathe on in reverse and the grinderand startfeedingthe wheel by hand on the cuttingedge of the reamer. Grindthisangle downa few thousands intothe recess.Do the otherreamer also. It willtake severalpasses to do this. Take lightpasses not muchover.005 so you willget a good finish. GRINDING THE PILOT When you havecompletedthison bothreamers,take the blankfromthe lathe. Turn it around,put the dog on the otherend, and put it back in the lathe. Beforedoingthis,make sure you bringthe tail stock back to center. Squarethe grindingwheel up, and where the recessis grindthisdownto about .040 smallerthan the pullrod, whichwillbe .250. When the recessesare completed,it is time to grindthe pilotsto correct size.The roughing reamer whichid .298 diameter,the pilotwillbe groundto .290.

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Donottakeover .003perside, asit will heatthemetal toomuch. Goslow andeasy. Thepilot onthe finish reamer will beground thesame way, andthesize ofthepilot will be.003smaller than theO.D.of therough reamer, which will be.295. When completed with thepilots there isonemore operation todo.This istogrind four flats length ways onthepilot fortheoiltopass. These flats canbeground onthelathe if thelathe isequipped with an indexing head, oryou cangrind them byhand if your careful. Youshould leave about .060oneach corner ofthepilot. This isusually enough togive good oilflow to thereamer. Ifthis should give trouble onchips plugging upthereamer flutes, turn uptheoilpressure to getmore flow. Thefinish reamer will give notrouble if it issharpened well.

GRINDING THE CLEARANCE Now comesthe time to relieveor grindthe clearanceon the back of the flutesfor clearance.If you do not haveindexing on yourlathe, it willhaveto be groundby hand. If you haveindexing on the lathe, the tool postgrinderwillgrindthisclearance.To grindthe reliefby hand you willneed a smallhand grinder.Coat the reamer fluteswitha lay out fluid.

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This will darken themetal soyou canseehow close you aregetting tothecutting edge. Grind therelief just back ofthecutting edge, anduptowithin .005to.010ofthecutting edge. Itwon't takemuch togive thenecessary relief, asallyou need isclearance sothereamer won't rub.
STONING THE CUTTING EDGE Once the face has been honed,it willbe necessaryto hone the flutes.Hone rightup to the edge watchingthe lay out fluidcoating.This willtell when you havegot it honedtight. Start fromthe area where you groundthe relief,and slowlygo up to the cuttingedge. It shouldfeel sharp when completed. ATTACHING THE PULL ROD When you havebothhoned,it is time to sweat the pullrod to the reamer. It is best to use a 1/4 inchdrill rod for thispurpose,as it is smoothand uniform.Clean out the 1/4 inchhole in the reamer withsome rolledup emery cloth,then put some paste solderin the hole. Insertthe drillrod intothe hole, and heat the shankup untilthe soldermelts. When it melts,rotatethe drillrod in the hole to get a good tinningjob. Let cooland job is completed. This is one important reasonfor stressrelieving the reamer whileheatingin the furnace.If the reamer warpsthen it willbe crookedon the pullrod, whichin turnwillcause a roughand oversize bore. Beforeusingthe reamer the firsttime, recoatthe flutesand cuttingedges withthe layoutfluid.The reasonfor thisis that when you use the reamer the firsttime. If it givesyou troublethe lay out fluidwill showup any rub spots,and any place you do not haveenoughclearance. The main problemthat you may experience willbe chatter. A new reamer has more tendenciesto chatterthan one that has been used for some time. Chattermay oftenbe reducedby closerfittingpilotsand guide bushings, or reducingthe speed, also sometimes increasingthe feed willeliminatechatter.If for some reasonthere shouldbe to littleclearance,the reamer willnot cut freely,as the landsor marginwillrub insteadof cut againstthe wallsof the barrel.In mostcases the reamer willeitherlodge or break off a fluteor two, or break off. In the case of a finish reamer, the barrelwillbe ruined.This is why I alwayssoftsolderthe pullrod on, ratherthan fasteningit on solid.

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MAKING THE CHAMBERING REAMER Thechambering reamer isnodifferent ingrinding than thebarrel reamer, except there aremore angles, etc.First look at thefollowing drawings toseehow thetoturn thetool steel blank toshape. Theblank does nothave tohave theangles turned onasshown inthedrawings; this will bedone during the grinding process. Leave alldiameters about .020larger than shown. Thetool steel blank should becut6 1/2to7 inches long. Usethesmallest center drills forcenter drilling theblank. When turning theshoulder canbeleft square, butthere should bea recess cutinfront oftheshoulder, endofneck, etc.forclearance when grinding.
ANGLE CUTTERS FOR MILLING FLUTES The flutesshouldbe milledwitha 60-degree x1 7/8-inchangle cutter.This shouldbe used on all fluting of reamer blanks.The blankshouldbe set up in the indexing attachmenton the mill.

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When cutting theflutes onthebody ofthereamer, becareful that you donotgounder .062,asthis will weaken thereamer. When cutting theflutes ontheneck, you will have togodeeper than thesetting on thebody. Useplenty ofcutting oil,andcutabout a 1/2to3/4inch past where theneck ofthereamer ends.

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When you first start grinding, grind thepilot first. Youwant todecide if you want tohave a throat onthe reamer ornot. Ifyou want a throat, now isthetime togrind it.Thepilot should beground about .001 smaller than thebore diameter.

Allofthese sizes areshown onchamber dimensions. After grinding thepilot tosize, grind theangle shown fortheendoftheneck ofthecartridge, going slightly deeper togive a recess.

Theangle canbesetusing thecompound onthecarriage. From there, grind theneck ofthecase. The
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neck canbeground slightly shorter than shown.

Thereason forthis isthat when you grind theshoulder, theneck then canbesettotheproper length by taking theshoulder back a little at a time. Theshoulder angle isnext, andit IS VERYIMPORTANT TOGETRIGHT, asthis iswhere thehead space istaken from onrimless cases. This canbesetfrom thetaper andangle charts. Ifyou fillthat you cansetit properly from theangle setting setonthecompound ofthelathe doso? Grind now thetaper onthebody ofthecase. This isalso setfrom theangle andtaper charts. This is important tohave this right socartridges will fitinother guns ofthesame caliber. Ifyou aremaking a reamer fora belted cartridge, this will have tobeground next.
GRINDING THE CUTTING EDGES All the edges of the reamer haveto be sharpenedso the reamer willcut freely.This is the throat(if you use one) the startof the neck, the shoulder,the bodyof the case, and the startof the belt (if you are makinga magnum).It is done the same way as shownin the chapteron barrelreamers.Aftermaking one or two reamers,you willunderstand fullyhow to do this.

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RIFLING CUTTER Inrifling barrels, a rifling head tohold thecutter isused. This isattached therodortube which draws the cutter through thebarrel. Therifling head isa steel cylinder, three to6 inches inlength, which will just pass through thedrilled andreamed barrel blank. Ontheside a slot iscutlengthwise ofthecylinder, just wide enough toaccept thecutter, which fills the slot from side toside andendtoendclosely enough sothat it hasnomovement. Theslot iscutnearly through thecylinder, seating thecutter asdeeply aspossible. Therifling cutter ismade from a good tool steel, such as01 tool steel. Itisflat-bottomed anditscutting edge isofthehook type, likea filetooth. Thecutting edge hasa rakeoffive tosix degrees, both onthe faceandonthetop.Thetopofthecutting edge isslightly rounded which will fittheradius ordiameter of thebarrel. Thesteel cutter isusually about 1 1/2" long andthecutting edge isslightly back ofcenter. This will leave a space infront ofit large enough tohold thechips that arecutinonepass. When thecutter issetting onthebottom oftheslot thetopofthecutting edge isjust below thesurface of therifling head. Thecutter israised torifling position byplacing very thin brass shims underneath ofit in theslot. Thebrass shims should be.0002" to.0003" inthickness. After therifling cutter makes a cutineach groove, another shim isplaced beneath thecutter. Another cut isthen made ineach groove until allthegrooves arecuttotheproper depth. A small hole isfirst drilled through therifling head onthebottom ofthecutter slot soa small punch canbeinserted through thehole toremove thecutter outoftheslot intherifling head. Therifling head isa hollow ortubular piece ofhigh-carbon tool steel that ishardened. Thehook-type cutter issetina port within this tube andthehook orcutting edge isabout onefourth ofthelength ofthe cutter from therearend.Therearendofthecutter isbeveled offat a thirty-degree angle onthetopside andtherearendintherifling head isbeveled at this same angle. Thecutter must bebeveled oneach endat thebottom from a point directly beneath thecutting edge. Thebottom bevel isnormally ten degrees. Attherearoftherifling head, a beveled wedge rests beneath thebeveled rearofthecutter. Thebevel ofthewedge isthesame asthebevel onthebottom ofthecutter, tendegrees. This beveled wedge ispushed forward bya screw. Therearoftherifling head hasfinethreads andistapped into the rearoftherifling head. Turning this screw forward intherifling head results inpushing thebeveled wedge farther forward under thecutter andraises thecutting edge. A cutismade ineach groove ofthebarrel before moving thewedge farther forward toraise thecutter fora deeper cut. Thefront endofthis hook-type cutter, which isthree-quarters ofthelength ofthecutter.
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This seats against a steel plunger within thetube that hasa coil-spring infront ofit. Thefront endofthecutter isbeveled back from thetopat about tendegrees. Theendofthe spring-backed plunger isbeveled at tendegrees intheopposite direction, sothat itsincluded angle with itstopsurface is100degrees. Thefront endofthecutter isheld upward against thetopsurface of therifling head. Thecutter isnormally about 2 to2 1/4inches long over allandtherifling head 6 to8 inches long depending onthecaliber. Thetoporcutting edge ofthehook iscutona radius tofitthe bore. Thecutting edge ofa rifling cutter isground andhoned toa template. When it isresharpen orhoned during therifling operation itsform will notbechanged at anypoint. Thecutting edge hastobekept very sharp andvery smooth todoa good job. Thebarrel steel istough andtends totear,rather than cut clean, unless thetool iskept sharp. Thescrape-type ofrifling head leaves a better finish inthegrooves than does thehook-type hutit is more difficult tokeep sharp andrequires very careful honing todoa good job. Itscuts byscraping rather than a shearing cutandtheshavings arefine. Therifling head isa hollow cylinder, andismade ofhigh-carbon steel with a slot forthecutter cut lengthwise, about twoinches long, ononeside. Theport hastobecutvery accurate, asthescrape cutter must fitit closely with nomovement. Thecutter cuts inboth directions while traveling through the barrel. Therifling head isabout 6 to8 inches long andisthreaded internally onboth ends. There isa thread at oneendforattaching thepull tube, which isused tocarry a supply ofoiltothecutter. Ontheother end,a finethread isused fortheadjusting screw toraise thecutter. Inthebottom ofthe rifling head between theport forthecutter, andontheopposite side, thefinethreads fortheadjustment screw, a narrow slot iscutlength-wise ofthehead. This isforthehead ofa screw tosetinwhich is screwed into thebottom oftheadjusting wedge. Thecutter body isfitted very close intheslot intherifling head andthebottom ofthecutter body is ground ona taper ofabout tendegrees from oneendtotheother. Thefront edge ofthis taper isat an exact right-angle fittothesides ofthecutter body. Thecutting edge ofthescraper ontopofthecutter body isnotcutat right angles tothesides ofthecutter body andrifling head. Itextends across thetopof thecutter body at a forty-five degree angle togive asmuch shearing effect tothescrape aspossible. Thescraper isat thecentral point ofthecutter body andthebody ofthecutter iscutaway at each side ofthescraper togive chip space. Theedge that does thescraping hasanincluded angle ofeighty degrees, andthesides sloping down andaway from theedge equally inboth directions tothetopofthe cutter body. This scraping edge also hasthecontour ofthecircle ofthegroove diameter ofthebarrel. Theedge should beground andhoned toa template. Bydoing this itsshape will betrue andwill remain so.Thetemplate iscutfrom thin 01 tool steel. Thewedge, which raises thecutter initsslot intherifling head, isturned with a circular contour onthe bottom tofitthecontour oftheinside oftherifling head. Thetopofthis wedge isalso ground offona ten-degree taper tomatch that onthebottom ofthecutter body. Thethickness ofthewedge hasitsthin
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endthat extends slightly beyond thethick endofthecutter body. This istoward theendoftherifling head towhich thepull-rod isfastened. Thethin endofthetapered wedge isground square ontheend.Thesquare endthen sets against the square-ended plug, which isbacked bya spring. Thespring isbacked bytheendofthepull-rod inside therifling head. Inthebottom ofthewedge a hole isdrilled andtapped fora small screw. Thehead of which fitstheslot cutinthebottom oftherifling head. Thescrew prevents thewedge from turning andismade from 01 tool steel, should behardened to prevent wear. Theadjusting screw forthewedge hasanunthreaded portion beyond thethreaded part, smaller than thethreads. Theendofthis unthreaded portion isground square andfitsagainst thelarge endoftheadjusting wedge. When theadjusting screw isscrewed forward intherifling head, it moves thetapered wedge forward andupward under thecutter, raising it asnecessary.

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HEAT TREATING TOOL STEEL Wewill now cover asmuch aspossible theheat-treatment ofthetools andcutters that you will be making. Toprevent thespoilage oftools during heat-treatment, you must understand thechanges that takeplace inthesteel when it isheated, quenched andtempered. That part ofthis chapter which deals with theheating cycles fortypical tool steels, thequenching or cooling procedure, andtheeffects ofsingle tempering operations onthestructure andproperties ofthe steel. Inmost cases, thelifeoftools if proportional totheir hardness canbedeveloped inplain carbon steel by heat-treatment if thesteel contains over about 0.50% carbon, provided thesection isnotvery large. When tools aremade inlarge sections, plain carbon steel cannot behardened adequately, andit is necessary toaddallowing elements inorder toincrease harden-ability. Theelements usually used forthis purpose arechromium, manganese, andmolybdenum. Steel becomes hard during heattreatment because oftheformation ofa micro structure called martensite. Forsome tool applications, thewear resistance provided bythemartensite structure alone isnotsufficient, andtherefore, tungsten andvanadium aswell aschromium andmolybdenum, are introduced into tool steel. These elements combine with some ofthecarbon inthesteel toform very hard particles ofcarbides. These gives theheat-treated steel much better abrasion resistance than canbedeveloped without the presence ofalloy carbides. When thetool operates at high speed orunder high pressure orisincontact with hotmetal, asin forging, etc.,special tool steels must beused that areresistant tothehigh temperatures encountered. Vanadium, cobalt, andchromium combined with tungsten ormolybdenum give thesteel thenecessary resistance tosoftening at high temperatures. Finally, insome applications, thelifeofthetool ismore dependent ontoughness than onhardness.
TYPICAL TOOL STEELS The compositions of toolsteelsthat we use for toolmakingare as follows. PLAIN CARBON TOOL STEELS, Carbon1.14, Manganese0.22, Silicon0.16 per cent. 112

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OILHARDENING TOOL STEEL, Carbon 0.85,Manganese 1.18,Silicon 0.26,Chromium 0.50,and Tungsten 0.44percent. HIGHCARBON HIGHCHROMIUM TOOL STEEL, Carbon 1.55,Manganese 0.27,Silicon 0.45, Chromium 11.34,Vanadium 0.24,Molybdenum 0.53percent. MOLYBDENUM HIGHSPEED STEEL, Carbon 0.80,Manganese 0.24,Silicon 0.29,Chromium 4.15, Vanadium 1.89,Tungsten 6.64,andMolybdenum 4.94percent. CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM HOTWORK STEEL Carbon 0.38,Manganese 0.40,Molybdenum 1.35, Nickel 0.30percent, Steel ofthefirst analysis listed isusually referred toasplain carbon steel, andis also frequently a water hardening orshallow hardening tool steel. Thenext analysis ischaracteristic ofSteels referred toasOilHardening, anddiffers from thefirst type primarily inharden ability. This isthebasic type oftool steel that I have used forover 30 years. Because ofitsgreater harden-ability, relatively large tools made ofthis steel canbehardened byanoilquench rather than a water quench. Tools made oftheoilhardening tool steels doundergo asmuch size change anddistortion during hardening asthose made from plain carbon steels.
STEELS OF THE THIRD ANALYSIS Is referredto as a highcarbon,highchromium steel or as an air hardeningtoolsteel. The last two steelsare not used in the smallshops,as they requirespecialequipment to processthem. HOW HEATING CHANGES THE STRUCTURE OF TOOL STEEL The firststep in the heat treatmentof steel is the heating.The purposeof the heatingis to formaustenite and to dissolve carbonin the austenite.The solution of the carbonis necessaryso in the secondstep of heat treatment,when the transformation of austenitetakes place, the steel willdevelop the desired hardness. You mustrememberthat althougha large amountof carbonis in the steel, it is not effective in developing hardnessunlessit is firstdissolved in the austenite.The hardnessincreasesrapidlyup to 60 Rc as the carbonincreasesto 0.40 to 0.70%. Aboveabout0.70 % carbon,the hardnessremains practically constant. For maximum hardnessin the steel, therefore,approximately 0.70 % of carbonmustbe dissolved in the austenite.All of the steelsbeing discussedexceptthe chromium molybdenum hot worksteel have sufficient carbonin the analysisto attaina hardnessof 65 Rc.

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GRAIN SIZE AND TOUGHNESS Two otherfactorsare involved in the heatingof toolsteels,besidesthe formation of austeniteand the solution of carbides. These are grainscoarseningand meltingof the steel. In toolsteels,the grainsizeshouldbe as smallas possible,becausea fine-grainedhardenedsteel is inherently tougherthan a coarsegrainedsteel. Usuallythere is littleconcernaboutcoarsegrainin toolsteel becausecoarseningof the steel does not occuruntilthe temperatureis well abovethe usualaustenitizing temperatures. RYERSON TOOL STEEL Overthe years, I haveused RyersonTool Steel in 90% of my toolsand reamerswithgreat satisfaction withlonglife of tools,and overall good results. WATER HARDENING AISI-SAE W2-1.00 Carbon-Vanadium. This is an all-purpose water hardeningCarbon-Vanadium Tool Steel withremarkablehardeningcharacteristics that permita wide variation in treatmentwithuniformly good results.Used for punches,blankingand formingdies shear blades,bendingdies, etc. Effectsof temperingon a 2-inchdisc 5/8 inchthick,water quenched at 1450 degrees. TEMPERING TEMPERATURE ROCKWELL C As Quench 67 67 67 65 62 59 55 100deg 200deg 300deg 400deg 500deg 600deg

Hardening - AISI SAE 02, This is one of the toolsteelsthat I used, alongwith01. This is an oil hardeningtoolsteel, which combineshighhardnessand deep hardnesswithminimumdistortion, freedomfromcrackingand good machine-ability. Used for cams tolls,thread-rolling dies, threadchasers,blankingdies and punches, bushings, etc. WorkingTemperatureForging,1800 to 1925 degrees F., neverbelow1550 degrees F. Hardening, 114

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1400to1475degrees F. Annealing, 1375to1425degrees F.


TEMPERING TEMPERATURE AsQuenched 300deg 64 62.5 400deg 60 500deg 57 600deg 53.5 700deg

51.5

HEAT-TREATMENT OF TOOL STEEL The rate of heatingfor hardeningshouldbe slowerfor alloysteelsthan for plaincarbonsteels.The higherthe alloycontent,the slowerthe heatingrate shouldbe. Much difficulty withwarpingor size changecan be reducedor eliminatedby slowuniformheating. If you havea gas furnacestartthe heat low, and bringup the temperaturein steps.This takes about30 minutes.Alwaysput the toolsin the ovenbeforeit is started.This preheatingis not alwaysnecessaryfor the water hardeningor oil hardeninggroups,but I havefoundthat thisusuallyeliminateswarping.I have foundalso that thispreheatingwillreducethe time in a hardeningfurnacewithoutatmospherecontrol and reducescalingand decarburization. Commercialcompounds can be boughtfor temperatures up to 1550 degrees,to eliminate decarbonizing of the surfaceBrass-brazing flux can be used also, and it worksup to 2200 degrees. The steel mustbe held at a temperaturelongenoughto ensureuniformtemperaturethroughout the entirepiece. Longertime at temperatures is required for the highalloysteels.When heating01 or 02 steel it is best to holda slightly richflame on the gas furnaceto keep fromgettinga softskinon the surfaceafter quenching. QUENCHING MEDIA I haveused quitea variety of liquids to quenchthe toolsin overthe years, here are some that I have used WATER Water as it comesfromthe faucet,but I havenot got to good results,as there seems to be too muchair in the water. If you use water, keep the temperatureat 60 to 80 degrees. BRINE This willproducea more uniformquenchif not over10% salt by weightis added to the water. I have foundthat it willproducea muchcleanerand uniformsurfaceon the tools.As withtap water, temperatures shouldbe held at 60 to 80 degrees.Afterquenching, dip in oil to eliminaterusting. 115

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OIL I normallyuse 5-weightoil for all my quenching, but any mineraloil 5 weightor less willworkfine. The temperatureof the oil shouldbe held 100 to 130 degrees F. LYE CarbonSteels may be quenched in a 5% lye solution withverygood results.I havefoundthat it will eliminatesoftspotsin the steel. It willgivea brightfinish;in addition,it willnot rustthe toolsif they are not dippedin oil. TEMPERING Now comesthe mostimportant part of heat-treating processand that is of temperingof the metal. Harden steel can be temperedor made softerand less brittleby re-heatingit to a predetermined temperature.Dependinguponthe natureof the steel and its intendeduse, and then the cooling. When the temperingis done by the colormethod,the temperis gauged by the colorsformedon the surfaceof the polishedmetal as the heat increases.The colormethodof gaugingtemperatures is not dependable,as the coloris affected,to some extent,by the composition of the metal. Tempilaqis a compoundthat you can buy, in any temperaturerange, to put on the metal. When it meltsyou, havethe metal at the propertemperature.It is betterto havea temperaturegauge to get the correcttemperature.Afteryou haveworkedwitha certaintype of steel for a while,you willbe able to judge the correcttemperatureby the color.It is best to polishthe metal to a brightfinishso the colorcan be seen clearly. COLORS FOR TEMPERING 430 degrees,Very pale yellow,extrafile hard, dies, millingcutters,cut off tools. 440 degrees,LightYellow,file hard, reamers,threadchasers;fly cutters,and hollowmills. 450 degrees,Pale strawyellow,profilecuttersfor millingmachines,rollingdies, knurling tools. 460 degrees,Straw yellow,knifehard, swages. 470 degrees,deep strawyellow. 480 degrees,Dark yellow,cuttingdies.

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490degrees, Yellow brown, extra hard, taps, dies. 500degrees, Brown yellow, thread dies forgeneral work. 510degrees, Spotted redbrown. 520degrees, Brown purple, hard. 530degrees, Light purple. 540degrees, Light purple. 550degrees, Darkpurple. 560degrees, Full purple. 570degrees, Darkblue, half hard. 620degrees, Blue gray, spring temper. HIGHTEMPERATURES BYCOLOR 752degrees, Redheat, visible inthedark. 885degrees, Redheat, visible inthetwilight. 975degrees, Redheat, visible inthedaylight. 1077degrees, Redheat, visible inthesunlight. 1292degrees, Darkred. 1472degrees, Dull cherry red. 1652degrees, Cherry red. 1832degrees, Bright cherry red. 2015degrees, Orange red. 2192degrees, Orange Yellow.
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2372degrees, Yellow white. 2552degrees, White welding heat. 2732degrees, Brilliant white. 2912degrees, Dazzling white, bluish white. Intempering, I lettheoven cool down tothetemperature that I need todraw thetemper forthejob that I need. I then putthepart intheoven, then letit cool down over night.
ANNEALING In some cases, you may need to anneal the toolto do some machining or changing.The annealingof steel consistsin heatingit slightly abovethe criticaltemperaturerange and coolingit slowlyin the oven. The steel is then totallyannealed.The steel is held at thistemperatureusuallynot less than one hourfor each inchof the thickestsectionof the part being annealed. By annealingafter machining thiswillalso removeany stressor hard spotscausedby machining. The temperaturerequired for annealingvariesfor differentsteels.Low carbonsteel may be annealedat about1650 degrees F. The temperatureshouldbe maintainedlongenoughto heat the entirepiece evenlythroughout. Care shouldbe taken not to heat the steel muchabovethe decalescenceor hardeningpoint.When steel is heated abovethistemperature,the grainassumesa definitesizefor that particular temperature, the coarsenessincreasingwithan increaseof temperature. Moreover, if the steel that has been heated abovethe criticalpointis cooledslowly,the coarsenessof the graincorresponds to the coarsenessat the maximum temperature.Hence, the grainof annealed steel is coarser,the higherthe temperatureto whichit is heated abovethe criticalpoint.

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MAKING AN ELECTRIC HEAT-TREAT OVEN Thetools required formaking anelectric oven areusually found inyour shop orgarage. Ata cost of about twenty tothirty dollars andina fewevenings, you canown anoven ofwhich you canbeproud.

Theoven that you canmake iscapable oftemperatures upto1900 and,if equipped with both a pyrometer andpower control, it canmaintain nearconstant temperatures over this range. Once you have established thepower setting that you need fora given temperature, setting upa time/power ratio issimple soyou canduplicate thetemperatures. Thepower ratings forthis oven, isbased ontheavailability ofheating elements, which wewill usethe electric elements fora 1000watt oven. Theheating element used isthetype normally sold inappliance andelectric supply stores. Theheating element forappliances such asthecloths drier coil needs only tobestretched totherequired length forusewith this oven. Itismade ofNichrome wire that offers resistance tocurrent flow, thus producing thenecessary heat.Iftheelement does burn out, replacement issimple anda fraction ofthecost ofa commercial unit. Theoven canbeused asfora heat-treating andtempering oven forsteel tools, enameling andother similar applications. With imagination, you canfind many other applications anduses forthis piece of equipment.

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MATERIALS Galvanized Iron Sheet, 26 Gauge 1 Piece. 7 1/2 X 32 (Top & Sides) 1 Piece. 7 1/2 X 8 1/2 (Door) 1 Piece. 6 1/2 X 12 (Bottom) 1 Piece. 11 X 15 (Back Cover)(LightGauge) 2 Pieces. 2 X 3 1/4 121

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5 Insulating Firebrick, 2300f, 9 X 2 1/2X 4 1/2 24 Round HeadSheet Metal Screws, #6X 3/8 1 Piece.Asbestos Shingle orSheet Asbestos, Approx. 2X6 2 Pieces. FlatSteel, 1/8X 1/2X 6 1 Pint High Temperature Furnace Cement 1 Heating Element, Nichrome, Coiled, 1000Watts at 110Volts 1 Piece.Round Steel, 1 1/4X 18 4 Brass MachineScrews, Round Head, 10-24X 3/4 8 Hex Nuts, Brass, 10-24 1 Piece.Round Metal Stock, Any Material, 1 1/2"x 4 (FortheCounterweight) 1 Heavy Duty Line Cord (Type Used onElectric Irons) 4 Machine Screws, RoundHead, 6-32X 1 1/4 4 Hex Nuts, 6-32 1 Power Control, Type C.r.s., Rated 1000Watts (Minimum) 1 Pyrometer 1 Can,HeatResistant Lacquer orEnamel Youcanbegin construction bycutting thegalvanized sheet, totherequired dimensions given. We should now layouttheindividual pieces forfurther cutting, folding andbending. Youwill note from the drawing details that I have shaded theareas that aretoberemoved. Forneater looking corners, we have drilled 3-inch holes oncenters at theintersections oftheareas toberemoved. These holes permit much easier bending andallow fortheslight miss cutting ofangles. Look at themetal layout details for dimensions andareas toberemoved. Allpieces must bebent to90 asshown byan"x" onthemetal layout detail sketch. Ifyou have a sheet metal shop inyour town, it isbetter that wetakeit totheshop andletthem dothebending. Ifthere isnot a sheet metal shop inyour town, clamping thepieces ina vise wecandothebending between two
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boards that arecuttothelength needed. Bending thepieces with theabove method isslightly more difficult, andthey canachieve a neatbend with a little care.

Thebending sequence should bewell thought outbefore starting ofanybends toavoid interference of onebend with another. This isallthere istothemetal portion oftheoven. Next refer tothesketch titled, Furnace Layout. Twofirebricks areleftwhole, wecuttwobricks to5 2 inches long andwecutonebrick exactly inhalf.Youcanmake allcuts with a thin bladed hacksaw. The twofull-length bricks will bethetopandbottom oftheoven. Thebrick cutinhalf will furnish thetwosides that have theheating element. The5 2 inch bricks will bethedoor andtheback oftheeven.

This type ofinsulating firebrick isvery soft andshould behandled with care; a fingernail hassufficient hardness togouge thebrick.Forthis reason, anditshigh temperature properties, it waschosen for making this furnace. This type ofinsulating brick isnormally used inmany commercially made ovens. Several suppliers make this brick, andit canbebought ina suitable grade towithstand various temperatures. The2300F brick issufficient forthis type offurnace, andshould bespecified asthetype
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you want. Takethetwohalf bricks andlooking at thecoil layout, route thebricks sotheheating elements will fit. Therouted width should beslightly under theoutside diameter oftheNichrome coil andsufficiently deep tocontain thecoil below thesurface ofthebrick.Theheating coil placement inthefurnace isnotcritical, butit should beclose totheplace shown inthedrawings.

THE DOOR The door and back brickmustalso be routedto a depthof 3 inchalongall foursides so part of the brick protrudes intothe ovenopeningsfor betterheat retention. This also can be done on a drillpressusinga flat-endedbit as a routeror by carefullycuttingand scrapingaway the excessmaterialwitha knife. Refer to the brickand coildrawingfor the widthof these cuts. If you havea drillpressor millingmachine,the routingcan be done by simplyusinga drillor routerbit of the required diameter. We can carefullyoutlinethe coillayouton the brickin a softpencil,the drillor routerbit set to the required depth,and the brickpushedintothe revolving bit, following the pencil outline. If you do not havea drillpress,the routingcan be done witha piece of roundsteel stockby pressingthe end of the steel intothe brickand usingdie rod as a scraper. This may seem difficult, but the brickis relatively softand can be cut easily. Settingup the heatingcoilis next. Cut the coilexactly in half, thiscan be done by simplycounting the numberof coil loopsand cuttingit at the midpoint. At bothends of each coilhalf, If the coilmustbe straightened by stretching the coilloopsout, so there is a 4-inchlengthof straightwire. We willfastenthe straightened ends to the terminalscrewsat the back of the oven. About6 to 8 straightened coilsare sufficient to producethe abovelength. The totallengthof the routingshouldnow be determinedand each coilstretchedaboutone inchshortof thislength. Lay a yardstick on a flat tabletop,graspbothends of one coiland stretchthe coilusingthe yardstick as a guide.

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AMOUNT OF COILS The amountto whichthe coilsreturnshouldbe the lengthneeded as determinedabove. Starting3 inch fromthe edge of the routedfirebrick,pressthe coilintoplace. Get some staples2 inchlongwitha radiusof 1/16 inchand pushthese staplesintothe brickalongthe lengthof the Nichromecoil at points to holdthe coil in place in locatingthe staples. Be sure they are pressedbetweenthe individual coilsso as not to shortout any adjacent coils. Once the Nichromewire has been heated, it willtake a permanentset. The use of the staplesis to aid assembly.

ASSEMBLING Assemblethe bottom,top and sides of the brickportionof the oven. Put one fullbrickon a solidflat surface. Then, positionthe two side brickscontaining the heatingelementsflushwiththe frontand side edges of the fullbrickand place the remainingfullbrickon the top of thisassembly. Get some light, 4-inchpieces of stiffc inchdiameterwire, and sharpenedone end of each piece to a point. Drivetwo of these wires,as you woulda nail, througheach fullbrickintoeach side brick,bothtop and bottom. The wiresshouldbe locatedthroughthe fullbrickso they willbe driven intothe middleof the side brick one-inchfromboththe frontand back edges of the assembly. You need the reinforcement of the bricks to holdthem togetherfor the assemblyintothe metal case. Drillpilotholesa littleunderthe diameterof the wire used is drilledintothe fullbrick. This willhelp in driving the wire intothe side brick. When you pre drillthe holes,the wire is less apt to be driven intothe sides at an angle. The firebrickis softenough to acceptthe wireswithoutbreaking,if drivethem in carefully. When ready slip the completedbrickassemblyintothe formedmetal case. Turn the case containing the assembledbricksoverso it restson its top. Next,locateand drilltwo holesthroughthe outsideof the metal case. This shouldbe one inchfromthe frontand back edges of the oven,and is centeredwith relationto the flangeof the bottompiece.

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Weshould putthebottom piece inposition tocheck thelocations where weshould drill theholes.The holes should bethesame size astheoutside diameter ofthesheet metal screws used.Nowplace the bottom piece inposition again andlocate thedrilled holes ontheside flanges ofthebottom piece. When located, remove thebottom piece anddrill theholes theroot diameter ofthescrew where you marked them.Assemble thebottom piece tothecaseusing sheet metal screws.

Sheet metal screws areself-tapping sotofasten twopieces oflight gauge metal.Theouter piece of metal isdrilled totheoutside diameter ofthesheet metal screw andtheinner piece drilled totheroot diameter ofthescrew. Bydrilling theholes this waythesheet metal screw will bring thetwopieces together andhold them tightly.
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Takethetwopieces of2 x3 2-inch sheet metal andbend them into a bracket fortheterminal board. Bend a 2-inch flange oneach 2-inch endinthedirections indicated bytheside view ofthesketch. Drill thefoot oftheflanges forsheet metal screws andthetops totake632machine screws. Locate thefoot holes onthesheet metal ontheback oftheoven sothebracket will just clear theback brick.These brackets andtheterminal board form theclamp tohold thebrick inplace.Fasten the brackets inplace with sheet metal screws.

Cutandprepare theasbestos shingle andattach it tothebrackets using thefour, 6-32machine screws. Theasbestos canbebroken successfully if it isfirst scored deeply with a scratch awl,andthen snapped over a sharp edge.Theasbestos sheet isthetype normally used assiding toprotect wooden structures. Before assembling theasbestos tothebracket pieces, drill four holes into theasbestos to accept thebrass machine screws that will betheelectrical terminal posts forboth theNichrome wire elements andthelinecord.(Seeillustration.) Thebrass machine screws should now beinserted andthehex nuts tightened. Next, remove this assembly, place theback brick into position andreassemble. Becareful soyou donotdisturb the Nichrome wire leads, aseach Nichrome wire leadshould reach oneofthebrass terminal posts. Weshould fillet allthefirebricks ontheinside with high temperature furnace cement; this isdone by spreading a fillet ofcement with thetipofthefinger toform a 3-inch fillet radius. Place themetal door piece facedown onaninsulated surface. Wecanposition andweld the3 inch steel rodorbrassed inthecorrect position. Theendoftherodshould extend three inches beyond the width ofthedoor andshould beflush with thefaceofthedoor.
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Useclamps tohold thedoor piece down against theinsulated surface toprevent warping during welding orbrassing. About 1-inch areaat each edge ofthedoor androdcontact points, areallthat is necessary tohold thedoor securely totherod.Bending therodnow isnotnecessary, butwhen ready thedoor handle canbeeither totheleftortotheright oftheoven. Position theoven between twobricks placed at thetopandbottom oftheoven sotheoven islevel and wehold theback bracket above theworking, surfaces ofa workbench.

Takethefront door firebrick, place it into themetal door piece, andcenter this assembly ontheoven with relation totheoven opening. Nowdrill 3-inch holes into thehinge bracket piece.These hole, should becentered and2 inch from theendofeach piece, andfrom theopposite end,drill three holes on:inch centers toaccept sheet metal screws.

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Setthetwobracket pieces onthepositioned door rodandlocate thethree screw holes onthesides of themetal case.Drill holes inthecasetotheroot diameter ofthesheet metal screws andassemble. Thedoor canbeopened andclosed now tocheck anypoints ofbinding. Ifyou have binding points, they canberelieved byfurther cutting away thefirebrick. Taketwo3 inch retaining collars should beused tokeep thehinge rodfrom sliding back andforth.The retaining collars canbe3 x20 hex nuts drilled toa full 3-inch opening. Takeoneofthehex nutfaces on each nut, drill, andtapthem toaccept a setscrew. Puttheretaining collars ontherod, with oneoneach side ofthehinge bracket, andcenter thedoor, position andtighten thecollars inplace. Usea gastorch with a small flame tobend therod, at a point, 2 inches from thehinge bracket. Heatthe hinge rodtoa cherry redandbend theroduptoward thetopoftheoven at anangle slightly less than 90.This rodalso should bebent back about 35 inrelation tothefront faceoftheoven. Finish thecounterweight bydrilling a 3-inch diameter hole toa depth ofabout 2 inches. The counterweight canbemade ofanyround stock with sufficient weight tohold thedoor tightly closed. The counter weight canbesecured totheendoftherodbyepoxy glue ora setscrew.
FINISHING Now to the back of the oven,attachone Nichromewire lead to each of the fourbrassterminalsscrews. Attachedacrossthe two upperscrews,a piece of heavygauge copperwire that acts as a jumper to givecontinuity to the two heatingelements. On the bottomtwo brassterminals,attachthe heavy-duty line cord. Positionand fastenthe back cover usingthe remainingsheet metal screws. This willcompletethe ovenassemblyexceptfor painting. Use aerosolwrinkledfinishpaintin eitherblackor gray to givethe ovena professional finish.

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Inmounting a pyrometer, thevent holes intheback cover canbeused topass thethermocouples through totheback firebrick andinto theoven chamber. Mount thepyrometer ontoptheoven, anda silicone controlled power rectifier oftheproper wattage canbeused with this oven. Bycontrolling the input ofcurrent, you canachieve aninfinite range ofheatadjustment over therange ofthe1000-watt model. Leftover firebrick pieces canbecutinto slices 2 inch thick andused tosetyour tools on.

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BUILDING A GAS HEAT TREAT FURNACE Building a small heat-treat furnace fortheshop. This furnace ismade from standard firebrick, 2 1/2x4 1/2x8 inches. Firebrick does vary insize, sothesize shown inthedrawing mayhave tobechanged to fityour needs. Another style offurnace iswhere themain opening isat thetop,andthepart hangs down ontheinside. This seems togive a more uniform heating. A-Gas/Air outlet; B-Furnace opening; C-Side view; D-Opening fortemperature sensor; E-Blower; F-Gas intake; G-Heat sensor pipe; H-Heat sensor opening; <D>

Youwill need eight firebricks tomake this. When completed you will have a furnace with aninside size of4 1/2x3 x8 inches. This size will handle just about anyjob intheshop. Thefirebrick ismortared together with thecement used infireplaces, andit should notbeanyproblem togetfrom anybusiness that sells fireplaces orwood burning stoves. Thebrick isplaced 2, flatside by side, mortared, andthen onebrick oneach side isstood onedge, (seedrawing) mortared tothetwo laying flat. Twomore arethen placed ontopofthefirst two. Tofinish it off,twomore aremortared andsetonedge ononeend,asperdrawing. Letit setfor24 hours before starting anymore work onit" Next you will have togeta cement drill 1 1/2inch, anddrill onehole 1/4inch above thebase inthe center ontheside. This iswhere the1-inch pipe from theblower will beinserted. Youwill need togetyour pipe cutandthreaded tothecorrect length. Connect a 2-inch pipe tothe1-inch
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pipe; this will gototheblower.

Next, you will need tocover thefirebrick ontheoutside. Cut1/8inch metal tofittotheoutside andtop andweld this together, toform a box forthefirebrick. Besure tohave a metal bottom already cutoutto putunder thebrick sothesides canbewelded toit. Youcanwhen building this gowith theopening inthetop,andthen you need notmake a door forthe front. This isthesimplest waytogoandI believe thebest. Youhang thepart down through theopening inthetop.Atthefront, there isa small opening forthetemperature probe. This isa 1/4or3/8inch hole.

Ifyou decide tobuild a front-loading furnace, you will need a 2-inch opening inthetopofthefurnace for thegas.Inaddition, you will have tobuild a metal door forthefront andlineit firebrick. Younow will need tofind a used Kirby vacuum cleaner blower, oranyother type ofhigh-speed blower to provide theairforthefurnace. A shop Vacuum blower also works great. Youwill need tofind anadjustable rheostat tocontrol the speed oftheblower. Thespeed that it runs would make it impossible tolight theoven. Thefinal step is
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totapinto theairline with a linefrom your gassupply.

Thebasic tools forheat-treating arethegastorch. Thetorch isa simple apparatus consisting ofa mixing tube into which fuel gasanda blast ofairareintroduced tobemixed andburned at theendof thetube. Anoldvacuum cleaner canbeused fortheairblast. Thehose used forthevarious attachments forthecleaner canbeused todeliver theblast ofairtothe torch. Youwill have tomake a fitting forattaching thehose at thedust-bag outlet andarrange thecleaner sothat aircanenter at thesuction end. Atthetorch, a gateofsheet metal isarranged toregulate theamount ofairentering themixing tube. You canalso reduce theairflow byreducing thespeed oftheblower. A simple light dimmer found at any hardware store would dothejob very well, if you have a DC blower motor. Thefuel issupplied through a rubber tube ofa size tofitthesupply pipe andthefitting onthetorch. You should have a 1/4inch needle valve toadjust thegastoairmixture. Using Butane orPropane from a 5-gallon bottle works better asthere maynotbeenough pressure from natural gas.Ifyou usebutane, make sure allyour fittings, andhose areforhigh pressure. Ithasrubber ends that will fitonthegasnipples at each end.Any other good rubber tube canbeused, such asa 3/8-inch garden hose. Themixing tube must belong enough sothat thegasandairare thoroughly mixed bythetime it gets totheburner end. Artificial gaswill burn at theendofa plain mixing tube, butfornatural gasthere must bea special tipon theburner endtomaintain theflame, orelsetheairblast will snuff it out. This special tipconsists ofa jacket fitted around theendofthemixing tube with several small holes drilled into themixing tube. This gives a low-velocity supply ofgasandairtothejacket. This will maintain a small circular flame around theendofthemixing tube, which will keep themixture ignited asit comes outoftheendofthemain burner tube.
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Theairblast tends toblow themain flame sofaraway from theendofthemixing tube that it will mix with somuch outside airthat it will nolonger bea combustible mixture andwill besnuffed out. This annular ring oflowvelocity flame surrounding theoutlet ofthemixing tube will keep themain flame ignited unless sostrong anairblast isused that theentire flame isblown away from theendofthemixing tube. When you start uptheburner, shut offthegasuntil you have theairadjusted, andthen slowly turn onthe gas,while holding a litButane torch over theopening ofthefurnace. Itisbest toreduce theairblast until thegasisignited andthen slowly open it until thedesired flame isobtained. Theflame should burn with a firm blue center cone, andthehottest spot will beat thetipoftheblue cone. A yellow flame isnotas hotandisvery sooty. After thebricks ofthefurnace have become well heated, theairblast maybe opened a little farther, andtheblast will thus beincreased. Theflame from this torch isvery hotandwill heatsteel toa white heatforforging, butit isnothotenough forwelding, however a supply ofoxygen fortheairintake will increase thetemperature. Getlarge enough cement drill todrill a hole through thefirebrick about 2 inches from thetop.Theheat sensor will fitinthere. I find a short length ofiron pipe that islarge enough ontheID toallow thesensor tofitinside. This pipe isthen mortared inplace. SeeDrawing. A High Temperature gauge canbepurchase from anindustrial supply dealer. Ifyou canfind one,a 2000-degree gauge isbest.

Intheairintake pipe, (A)you will need some kind ofmanually controlled valve. Youwill have tobeable
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toshut theairdown quite a bit.Ifyou tried tousethefull amount ofair,it would blow outtheflame. When you areready tostart thefurnace, hook upthegas,check forleaks with soap, andif OK,you are ready tofireup.
NOTE - It is important to do thingsat firstverycarefullyto prevent an accident.This is the way I havemy furnaceset up, and havehad no problems.I haveno controloverwhat is done by otherpeople,and cannotacceptresponsibility for what some otherpersondoes. If you builda gas furnace,you are on yourown. Check it outsideof the buildingfor safety's sake. Turn on the air, and closedownthe valve untilthere is almostno flowthroughthe pipe. Now take a butanetorchand lightit. Open the main valve on the gas tank. BE SURE THAT THE SMALL ADJUSTING VALVE IS CLOSED ALL THE WAY. Holdingthe lit torchoverthe opening,slowlyturnon the gas. In a few secondsit shouldlight.There probablywontbe muchflame, so slowlyopen the air valve/gas valve untilthe furnacehas a "roar" to it. Don't open the air valve to muchas you need a slowheat. Adjust the fuel so that you get 3 to 4 inchesof flame fromthe top. Let it heat up for a few minutesto dry out, and then it is ready to use. Once it has cooleddown,it can be movedback in the shop.This furnacecan be changedto where it is frontloading,made largeror alteredfor what everis needed. This furnaceis veryfast. Normallyit takes only10 to 15 minutesto get to operatingtemperature.I find that hangingthe knifepartsdownfromthe top willcause evenheating.You can use two bricksto close downthe openingmore to confinethe heat better.When throughheat-treating, closethe top up withthe bricks,and let cooldownto temperingtemperature. This furnaceworksgreat with01 and othertoolsteels.It can be used for forgingsteel as well.

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LATHES
TYPES OF LATHES. Lathesused in manufacturing can be classifiedas speed, engine,and toolroom.Special typesof latheshaveonlya head stock,tail stock,and a simpletoolpostmountedon a lightbed. They ordinarily haveonlythree or fourspeeds and are used primarily for woodturning,polishing, or metal spinning. Spindlespeeds up to about1000 rpm are common.

EngineLathesare the type mostfrequently used in manufacturing. They are heavy-duty machinetools withall the components describedpreviously and havepowerdrivefor all toolmovements excepton the compoundrest. In mostcases the bed is mountedon two pedestallegs. They commonly range in sizefrom12 to 24 inchesswingand from24 to 48 inchescenterdistances,but swingsup to 50 inchesand center distancesup to 12 feet. Most havechippans and a built-incoolantcirculating system.Smallerengine lathes-with swingsusuallynot over13 inchesalso are available in Enginetype, designedfor the bed to be mountedon a benchor cabinet.Tool Room Latheshavesomewhatgreateraccuracyand, usually,a widerrange of speeds and feeds than ordinaryenginelathes.Designedto havegreaterversatility to meet the requirements of tooland die work,they oftenhavea continuously variable spindlespeed range and shorterbeds than ordinaryenginelathesof comparableswing,sincethey are generallyused for machining relatively smallparts.They may be eitherbenchor pedestaltype. PREPARING THE BARREL BLANK You havethe barrelcut to the lengththat you want, plus1 inch,so now chuckthe barrelin the lathe and face off bothends of the barrel.If the bore has run quitea bit off center,you willneed to repeat this 137

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process after a fewpasses ontheO.D. Turning constitutes themajority oflathe work. Thework usually isheld between centers orina chuck, anda right-hand turning tool isused, sothat thecutting forces, resulting from feeding thetool from right toleft, tend toforce thework piece against thehead stock andthus provide better work support.

Ifgood finish andaccurate size aredesired, oneormore roughing cuts usually arefollowed byoneor more finish cuts. Roughing cuts maybeasheavy asproper chip thickness, tool life,andlathe capacity permit. Large depths ofcuts andsmaller feeds arepreferred tothereverse procedure, because fewer cuts arerequired andless time islost inreversing thecarriage andresetting thetool forthefollowing cut. Onwork pieces that have a hard surface, such ascastings orhot-rolled materials containing mill scale, theinitial roughing cutshould bedeep enough topenetrate thehard material. Otherwise, theentire cutting edge operates inhard, abrasive material throughout thecut, andthetool will dull rapidly. Ifthe surface isunusually hard, thecutting speed onthefirst roughing cutshould bereduced accordingly. Finishing cuts arelight, usually being less than .015inch indepth, with thefeedasfineasnecessary to give thedesired finish. Sometimes a special finishing tool isused butoften thesame tool isused for both roughing andfinishing cuts, Inmost cases onefinishing cutisallthat isrequired. However, where exceptional accuracy isrequired, twofinishing cuts maybemade. Ifthediameter is controlled manually, it usually isdesirable tomake a short finishing cutof.005andcheck thediameter before completing thecut. Because theprevious micrometer measurements were made ona rougher surface, some readjustment ofthetool setting maybenecessary inorder tohave thefinal measurement, made ona smoother surface, check exactly.
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Inturning operations, diameters usually aremeasured with micrometer calipers, although spring calipers maybeused tocheck roughing cuts orwhere close accuracy isnotrequired. Themethod of making length measurements iscontrolled, primarily, bytheshape andaccessibility ofthesurfaces over which measurement must bemade. Spring, hermaphrodite, venire, ormicrometer calipers ormicrometer depth gages canbeused. Thereason forthis isthat if theangle ontheendofthebarrel isoff,oneside ofthebarrel will bethicker than theother. Inturning, thebarrel will probably warp. Nowthat thebarrel issquared, putthefaceplate onthelathe. Takea barofsteel that is24 inches long that hascenters ineach endandhasbeen turned true. Youwill need tosetthetailstock toanexact .0000setting sothat there isnotaper intheODoftheliner when finished. Setthedialindicator onthecarriage ofthelathe, setit to000,andsetthetailstock over a bit.Crank thecarriage down towards thehead stock towhere themark isonthebarrel. Check the reading onthedialindicator, andif it isnotright, reset thetailstock andrepeat theprocess until you get 0.0104. Having now completed setting thetailstock to.0000,setthebarrel blank between thecenters, and clamp a lathe dogonthehead stock end. Usea standard faceplate with thecenters tohold thebarrel.
LATHE CHUCKS Lathe chucksare used to supporta widervariety of workpiece shapesand to permitmore operations 139

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tobeperformed than canbeaccomplished when thework isheld between centers; Twobasic types of chucks areused. Thetailstock center, I have found over theyears work better if it iscarbide. Ifyou are careful, you canusethestandard high-speed center. Puta little grease onit that contains MolyKote Z before setting it up.

I have tried touselive centers offandon,butI have found that I gettomuch chatter, andthat will cause stress tobuild inthebarrel, andthus warp thebarrel. Itisvery important tokeep anystress from build upinthebarrel (Live centers, totight centers, dull tool bit,improperly sharpened tool bit,etc.)Nowforthetool bit.I have used carbide most allthetime in turning barrels. I prefer a good grade ofhigh-speed steel asthey aresharper andcutbetter, butrequire sharpening every pass, tokeep a good edge. I hadtousecarbide duetothetime saved.
LATHE TOOLS Most lathe operationsare done withrelatively simple,singlepointcuttingtools.On right-hand and left-handturningand facingtoolsthe cuttingtakes place on the side of the toolso that the side rake angle is of primaryimportanceand deeper cutscan be made. On the round-nose turningtools,cutoff tools,finishing tools,and some threadingtools,cuttingtakes place on or near the end of the tool,so that the back rake is of importance.Such toolsare used withrelatively lightdepthsof cut. Most lathe workis done withhigh-speedsteel, carbide,or ceramictools.For mass-production work,the throwawaytypesof carbideor ceramictips are used, witheitherintegralchipbreakersor the adjustable type.

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STEADY AND FOLLOW RESTS. If one attemptsto turna slenderpiece betweencenters,the radialforceexertedby the cuttingtool,or the weightof the workpiece itself,may cause it to be deflectedout of line. Steady and Followrests provide means for supporting suchworkbetweenthe head stockand the tail stock.The steadyrest is clampedto the lathe ways and has three movable fingersthat are adjusted to contactthe workand align it. Alightcut shouldbe taken beforeadjusting the finger's to provide a smoothcontact-surface area.

A steadyrest also can be used in place of the tail stockas a means of supporting the end of long pieces, having too large an internalhole to permitusinga regulardead center,or workwhere the end mustbe open for boring.In suchcases the head stockend of the workmusthe held in a chuckto prevent it's moving longitudinally, and toolfeed shouldbe towardthe head stock. The followrest is boltedto the lathe carriage.It has two contactfingersthat are adjusted to bear against the workpiece, oppositethe cuttingtool,so as to prevent the workfrombeing deflectedaway fromthe cuttingtoolby the cuttingforces. TOOL HOLDERS Becausecutting-tool materialsare expensive, it is desirableto use as smallamountsas possible.At the same time, it is essentialthat the cuttingtoolbe supportedin a strong,rigidmannerto minimize deflectionand possiblevibration. Lathe toolsare supportedin various typesof heavyforgedtool holders.The toolbit shouldbe clampedin the toolpostwithminimumoverhang. Otherwise,toolchatter and poor surfacefinishmay result.

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Where large tool bits arerequired, thetype offorged tool holder maybeused. Itprovides a more adequate method ofclamping andsupporting thetool than isprovided byanordinary tool post. The tools used insuch cases have a heavy shank offorged orhot-rolled barstock inwhich a carbide tipis brazed, thus reducing theamount ofexpensive tool material required. Where several different operations ona lathe areperformed repeatedly insequence, thetime required forchanging andsetting tools mayconstitute asmuch as50 percent ofthetotal time. Asa consequence, quick-change tool holders arebeing used increasingly. Theindividual tools, preset in their holders, canbeinterchanged inthespecial tool post ina fewseconds. With some systems a second tool maybesetinthetool post while a cutisbeing made with thefirst tool, andthen bebrought into proper position byrotating thepost. Inlathe work thenose ofthetool should besetexactly at thesame height astheaxis ofrotation ofthe work. However, because anysetting below theaxis causes thework totend to"climb" uponthetool, most machinists settheir tools a fewthousandths ofaninch above theaxis, except forcutoff, threading, andsome facing operations, I ground allmytools tothegeneral shape. Onhigh speed bits I used only about .010-nose radius, stoned onbyhand. Setthetool upsoit isabout .010above thetailstock center. IfI have thetime, I usually usea feedof.004,butyou will need toexperiment toseewhich feed works thebest. Usually I donottakeover .020passes pereach side oneach pass. IfI have thetime, I usually usea feedof.004,butyou will need toexperiment toseewhich feedworks thebest. Usually I donottakeover .020passes pereach side oneach pass. What you have towatch foristhat theCutisnotheavy enough that it will cause thebarrel tospring, especially onthebarrel that ishalfway turned down. This springing causes stress. Hereiswhere a good
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steady rest ora follower rest becomes important. With a follower rest, you will beabletocuttheoutside ofthebarrel with notaper, which iscaused byspringing. Thetool must cutclean, forif it drags, orit isslightly dull it will cause thebarrel toheatasit isturned. When thebitissharpened right you will getsome heatbuild up,butnotmuch. Watch thechips, asthey arecoming offthebarrel. Ifthey turn a dark blue, you aretaking toomuch a cut, orthetool isdull.

Setthedialindicator onthecarriage ofthelathe, setit to000,andsetthetailstock over a bit.Crank the carriage down towards thehead stock towhere themark isonthebarrel. Check thereading onthedial indicator, andif it isnotright, reset thetailstock andrepeat theprocess until you get0.0104. Having found thecorrect angle, setthebarrel blank between thecenters, andclamp a lathe dogonthe head stock end.Thetailstock center, I have found over theyears work better if it iscarbide. Ifyou are careful, you canusethestandard high-speed center. Puta little grease onit that contains MolyKote Z before setting it up. What you have towatch foristhat thecutisnotheavy enough that it will cause thebarrel tospring, especially onthebarrel that ishalfway turned down. This springing causes stress. Thetool must cut clean, forif it drags, orit isslightly dull it will cause thebarrel toheatasit isturned. When thebitis sharpened right you will getsome heatbuild up,butnotmuch. Watch thechips, asthey arecoming off thebarrel. Ifthey turn a dark blue, you aretaking toomuch a cut, orthetool isdull. Keep close ofthepressure onthetailstock. Itmust besnug onthebarrel, butnottight. Asthebarrel heats itslengthens, andthetailstock must beloosened. Ifthetailstock center loosens toomuch, the tool bitwill chatter. After thecontour isturned uptowhere theshoulder will end,you will need toremove thebarrel. Youwill then check toseeif thebore isstraight, andstraighten if necessary. Ifyou have kept a sharp tool anda light feed, it should bestraight. Youmust, after ever pass from now onthebarrel should bechecked toseeif it isstraight. Ifthebarrel haswarped, takea lighter pass after it isstraighten. Keep close watch onthepressure onthetailstock. Itmust besnug onthebarrel, butnottight. Asthe barrel heats itslengthens, andthetailstock must beloosened. Ifthetailstock center loosens toomuch,
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thetool bitwill chatter. After thebarrel isturned toabout 3/4finished, you will need toremove thebarrel. Youwill then check toseeif thebore isstraight, andstraighten if necessary. Ifyou have kept a sharp tool anda light feed, it should bestraight. Youmust, after ever pass from now onthebarrel should bechecked toseeif it isstraight. Ifthebarrel haswarped, takea lighter pass after it isstraighten. When you have finish turning thebarrel down towithin a fewthousands ofthefinish size, setthefeedto thelightest feed. Sharpen thetool bit,hone it very good, andmake a finish pass. This should finish the liner, andit will beready forinserting into thebored outbarrel. When you start cutting thecontour oftheshoulder, unless you have a tracer attachment foryour lathe, you will have tocutit byhand. This maysound hard, butwith a little practice you will geta perfect contour. Tothis, asyou getwhere thecontour starts, you will start toback thefeedoutbyhand. With pass puta little more contour totheshoulder. Remember totaketheshoulder back a little farther than where it should bewhen finish, asyou have to turn down theshank ofthebarrel. Ifthebarrel should start tochatter when turning, laya barrel blank on thebarrel behind thecutter andthat will usually stop thechatter. When you have finish turning thebarrel down towithin a fewthousands ofthefinish size, setthefeedto thelightest feed. Sharpen thetool bit,hone it very good, andmake a finish pass.
ACTUAL TURNING Now we willtake the barrelthat you drilled,reamed, and rifledand turnit intoa finishedrifledbarrel.I will try to coverthe processsystematically up to the finish.I willassumethat thisbarrelis a 308 caliber. I willgiveyou instructions for a 24-inchbarrel.The firstthingto do is cut the barrelto 24 1/2 incheslong. You willneed the extra1/4 inchin truingup each end, and the finalfinishing of the barrel. You havethe barrelcut to 24 1/2 inches,so now chuckthe barrelin the lathe and face off bothends of the barrel.If the bore has run quitea bit off center,you willneed to repeat thisprocessafter a few passes on the O.D.

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Thereason forthis isthat if theangle ontheendofthebarrel isoff,oneside ofthebarrel will bethicker than theother. Inturning, thebarrel will probably warp. Nowthat thebarrel issquared, putthefaceplate onthelathe. Takea barofsteel that is24 inches long that hascenters ineach endandhasbeen turned true. Youwill need a trued barrel foreach length ofbarrel you turn. What this isforistogive you a means to duplicate anytaper that you want. Example, if you found that theoldbarrel that you wanted toduplicate, hada taper of.125from themuzzle, to12 inches from themuzzle. Gotothetaper perfoot chart. Inthetaper PerFoot column at thetop,find 1/8.Follow this column down, andwhen you come towhere theleftcolumn says - Length ofTapered Portion, at 1 foot, or12 inches. Where these twomeet, find a figure of0.0104. Nowmark the24-inch barofsteel exactly 12 inches from thetailstock end,toa point inthemiddle ofthebarrel. This isthedistance you will need totravel with thedialindicator. Setthedialindicator onthecarriage ofthelathe, setit to000,andsetthetailstock over a bit.Crank the carriage down towards thehead stock towhere themark isonthebarrel. Check thereading onthedial indicator, andif it isnotright, reset thetailstock andrepeat theprocess until you get0.0104. Itwould bewise tokeep allofthese figures onnotes, orstamp thebarrel with thecorrect figures, for future reference. Having found thecorrect angle, setthebarrel blank between thecenters, andclamp a lathe dogonthe head stock end.Thetailstock center, I have found over theyears work better if it iscarbide.
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Ifyou arecareful, you canusethestandard high-speed center. Puta little grease onit that contains MolyKote Z before setting it up. I have tried touselive centers offandon,butI have found that I gettomuch chatter, andthat will cause stress tobuild inthebarrel, andthus warp thebarrel.

Itisvery important tokeep anystress from build upinthebarrel (Live centers, tootight centers, dull tool bit,improperly sharpened tool bit,etc.)Nowforthetool bit.I have used carbide most allthetime in turning barrels. I prefer a good grade ofhigh-speed steel asthey aresharper andcutbetter, butrequire sharpening every pass, tokeep a good edge. I hadtousecarbide duetothetime saved. I ground allmytools tothegeneral shape. Onhigh-speed bits I used only about .010-nose radius, stoned onbyhand. Setthetool upsoit isabout .010above thetailstock center. IfI have thetime, I usually usea feedof.004,butyou will need toexperiment toseewhich feedworks thebest. Usually I do nottakeover .020passes pereach side oneach pass. What you have towatch foristhat thecutisnotheavy enough that it will cause thebarrel tospring, especially onthebarrel that ishalf wayturned down. This springing causes stress. Thetool must cut clean, forif it drags, orit isslightly dull it will cause thebarrel toheatasit isturned. When thebitis sharpened right you will getsome heatbuild up,butnotmuch. Watch thechips, asthey arecoming off thebarrel. Ifthey turn a dark blue, you aretaking toomuch a cut, orthetool isdull. Keep close watch onthepressure ofthetailstock. Itmust besnug onthebarrel, butnottight. Asthe barrel heats, it lengthens, andthetailstock must beloosened. Ifthetailstock center loosens toomuch, thetool bitwill chatter. After thecontour isturned uptowhere theshoulder will end,you will need to remove thebarrel. Youwill then check toseeif thebore isstraight, andstraighten if necessary.

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Ifyou have kept a sharp tool anda light feed, it should bestraight. Youmust, after ever pass from now onthebarrel should bechecked toseeif it isstraight. Ifthebarrel haswarped, takea lighter pass after it isstraighten. When you start cutting thecontour oftheshoulder, unless you have a tracer attachment foryour lathe, you will have tocutit byhand. This maysound hard, butwith a little practice, you will geta perfect contour. Tothis, asyou getwhere thecontour starts, you will start toback thefeedoutbyhand. With pass puta little more contour totheshoulder. Remember totakeshoulder back a little farther than where it should bewhen finish, asyou have toturn down theshank ofthebarrel. Ifthebarrel should start tochatter when turning, laya barrel blank onthe barrel behind thecutter andthat will usually stop thechatter. When you have finish turning thebarrel down towithin a fewthousands ofthefinish size, setthefeedto thelightest feed. Sharpen thetool bit,hone it very good, andmake a finish pass.

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CHANGING BARRELS To changea Springfield, Enfieldor Mauser type barrelsis usuallya simplematter.To replacethese barrels,you need a sturdybarrelvise,as well as an actionwrench.Alwaysclampthe barrelin the vise and turnthe receiver. Two or three good commercialbarrelvisesare on the market,but I findit is easy and muchcheaperto make yourown, as shownin the drawing.You can use the regularstylerigidbase machinist's benchtype visefor barrelwork.A vise,of the sizeand strengthnecessaryfor barrelremoval and replacementwouldcostat least twiceas muchas a commercialbarrelvise.Do not try to remove Mauser or Enfieldbarrelsin yourregularfouror five-inch benchvise,as they are not stoutenough.

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Thebarrel vise orclamp must bemounted very rigidly, andif you can,incement. A very heavy, solid bench that isbolted tothefloor will work also. Thejaws forthese vises maybeofvery good grooved hardwood that iscovered with powdered rosin before fitting tothebarrel. Better yet,ofleadorBabbitt metal, cast tothecontour ofthebarrel involved. Youhave tohold thebarrel tight enough toprevent it turning when you beardown onthewrench. Jaws should hesmooth forfitting finished barrels without marring them, butcanbeofdrilled steel forremoval ofunusable military barrels, which areusually setinvery tightly. A barrel should beclamped asclose tothereceiver asconveniently possible, tominimize twisting action. When thebarrel just will notunscrew, thewelding torch cansometimes beapplied, thereceiver ring over thethreads andgiven a fastheating toexpand it slightly. Only a little heatisnecessary-not enough to change thecolor ofthemetal, butit should befast, sothereceiver gets thebenefit andnotthebarrel shank. A butane torch canbeused, butit spreads a lotofheataround anddoes notconcentrate it,as
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does theacetylene tip.Keep thereceiver just hotenough sothecolor does notchange, until thebarrel is cool tothetouch. Quickly place thewrench onthereceiver andgive it a sudden, heavy pull-which will usually break it loose.

Ifthis method fails toloosen a stubborn barrel, theonly thing lefttodoiscuta groove at thefront ofthe receiver. A cutofftool canbeused tocuta recess infront ofthereceiver, this being done while the barrel isclamped inthelate,andrunning at slow speed. Nearly allrifle barrels arefitted tothereceiver with a right-hand thread; hutthere isalways theexception, asI once found outwhen removing thebarrel from a 6.5MMNorwegian Krag rifle. Asit happened, I wasabletomove this barrel slightly ina left-hand direction andthen it tightened upandwould move nofarther so,inspite ofdisbelief, I reversed operations andthebarrel unscrewed totheright. Theold,hammer model, Marlin shotgun isalso a left hand thread. Setting newbarrels inbolt-action receivers issimply thereverse ofremoving theoldone,naturally, and asa rule ismuch easier, theprincipal problem iskeeping thebarrel clear ofmarks from theblocks. Hardwood blocks arealmost theonly type, which will notmara finished barrel. Theideal fitistohave thebarrel thread into thereceiver sothat it canbarely bestarted byhand butturned easily bythe
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receiver wrench until within 316to1/8 oflining up.Ifgoing bytheindex marks onthebarrel andthe receiver. Itshould then tighten until themarks lineup.A 30 length ofpipe fora cheater handle canbeused to bring theshoulder ofthebarrel against thereceiver ring tightly. Theshoulder should seatfirmly against thereceiver allthewayaround. This isimportant in.22rim-fire match rifles, oranytarget arm.Itcanbe spotted bypainting theshoulder with layout fluid, orshoe polish andturning inuntil theshoulder bears against thereceiver lightly. Then removed forinspection, thespots showing wear being reduced slightly. Thebarrel shoulders will bemore accurately machined than thefront ofthereceivers, onlarge caliber rifles, soclean thefront oftheaction good before fitting thebarrel.
SHOTGUN BARRELS Shotgunbarrelsusuallyunscreweasier than riflebarrelsdo and, as they are round,the same methodis used as for roundriflebarrels.A hardwoodblockis bored out to fit the shotgunbarrel,and then split. Beforeclampinga barrelin one of these clamps,coat the surfaceof the sleevethat is to be againstthe barrelwithpowderedrosin.This givesit a muchbettergrip and protectsthe surfaceof the barrel,not evenmarringthe bluing.This rosinmay afterwardsbe cleanedfromthe surfaceof a barrelwithhigh-test gasolineor turpentine. Be carefulnot to set the clampup too tightlyon a shotgunbarrelif it is a new barrel,or a barrelyou are goingto use again, as you may crushit. When settingit up on a high-powerriflebarrel,oil the threadson the boltsholdingthe two partsof the clamptogether,and pullthe nutsup tightlywitha long-handled socketwrench. A shotgunbarrelhas a fairlystraighttaper fromthe breech,so the clampcan be fittedback closeto the receiver. Afterthe old barrelhas been removed, clean out the threadsin the receiver withan old toothbrush, dippedin solvent. Also,clean the threadson the new barrelwithbrushand solvent, to removethe heavy oil and any dirtthat may havecollecteduponthem. Oil the threadsof the new barrelwitha lightoil, and screwthe barrelintothe receiver as far as it willgo by hand. Place the shotgunbarrelin the barrelvise and screwthe receiver up to place withthe crescentwrench.If you cannotmake the receiver screwquite up to the mark on the barrel,unscrewit fromthe barreland, usinga large, flat, dead smoothfile or a large Carborundum stone,dressoff the barrel,and, after cleaningit, screwit ontothe barrelagain. Repeat thisprocessuntilyou can screwthe receiver up to its properposition.If the receiver screwsup too far on the new barrel,peen it slightly. The correctprocedureis to place the barrelin the lathe, face-offthe end of the barreland the barrelshoulderfar enoughso that the barrelcan make another completeturn.This is less the amountrequired to make the markson receiver and barrelmeet. Knowinghow many threadsto the inchare on the barrel,it is easy to figurejust how many thousands of an inchthe barrelwillmovein the receiver in makingone completerevolution in the threads.Afterthe barrelis chuckedin the lathe, bringthe facingtoollightlyagainstthe end of the barrel,or againstthe 151

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barrel shoulder, andsetthemicrometer carriage stop against theforward endofthelathe carnage. Next, back offthemicrometer stop therequired number ofthousandths ofaninch foronerevolution of thebarrel, less theamount required tomake themarks onreceiver andbarrel meet. This number of thousandths ofaninch isthen deducted from thenumber ofthousandths ofaninch thebarrel moves ina full revolution. Theanswer istheamount themicrometer stop istobebacked away from thelathe carriage. A thread must bemachined from therearendofthebarrel, onsuch barrels, which have a shank section at therearmachined toa diameter oftheroot diameter ofthethread. Iftherearendofthebarrel isslotted foranextractor, this slot must bedeepened. This isdone while the barrel isstill inthelathe, using a tool post grinder, with a grinding wheel narrow enough toenter the extractor slot, ordone ona milling machine. Itmayalso bedone onthemilling machine. This method ofbringing a barrel toitscorrect place inthereceiver when it screws past theregister mark canonly beused if a chambering reamer isavailable. After shortening thebarrel at thebreech endthe chamber must bedeepened thesame amount. Ifnochambering reamer isavailable, instead ofshortening thebarrel soit canbeseated oneturn deeper inthereceiver. A steel shim must beplaced between thebarrel shoulder andthepart ofthe receiver against which this shoulder bears. When using steel shims, lubricate it either with oilorcolloidal graphite toprevent it tearing under thetwisting pressure.

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THREADING AND FITTING When you have finish turning thebarrel, anddouble-checking it forstraightness, it istime toturn the shank. Setthetailstock back to000,takethelathe dogoff,andputa smaller oneonthemuzzle endof thebarrel. With a shim under thesetscrew tokeep thebarrel from being marked bythesetscrew. Put thebarrel back inthelathe, andturn theshank tothecorrect diameter.

Ona 98 Mauser, which wewill thread to,takeonly a light clean uppass. This isassuming that you made your barrel outof1 1/8inch stock. Itwould bebest if you have anold98 Mauser barrel handy tolook at, while you aredoing this.

Ifyou look at thechart forthreading the98 Mauser, Seechapter onbarrel thread dimensions, TheO.D. oftheshank is1.100.That only leaves less than .020fortheshoulder. This isOKasonthe98 Mauser weseatthebarrel ontheinside ring.

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Turn thethread enddown to1.100now.Using a dialindicator asyou areturning cuta .625long shoulder. When you have thethread shank turned tothecorrect size, takea small square endtool and relieve thethreads onthefront endoftheshoulder, andtheback endofthethread shank. This relief should beabout .060deep perside. Itistime tocutthethreads onthe98 Mauser. The98 has12 threads perinch V type. Setupa V tool bitground right forthreading. This isa 60-degree tool. Setthepoint ofthetool right oncenter, using thecenter onthetailstock. TheCompound should besetat 30 degrees, when you clamp thetool. Set thequick change gears for12 threads perinch, make sure your feeding dialisengaged, andyou are ready tocutthethreads.

Setboth dials towhere thetool isjust touching theshank. Setthedials on000. Setthetool insoyou will takea .005cut.Seechart foramount that you will have toturn intogettheproper depth.Have the lathe inback gear, running it at theslowest speed.When thethreading dialcomes around to0 engage thefeed. Itfeeds fast, sobeready todisengage thefeedandback outthetool inoneoperation. When it hascompleted setthetool in.010andwhen thedialcomes back to0, engage thefeed. Keep repeating theprocess until you have gone .062;make a clean uppass at thelastsetting.Usea good cutting oilwhen cutting threads.Always turn inthecompound dial, leave theother at 0, andback this outeach time.
FITTING THE BARREL TO THE ACTION Take the actionand see if it willscrewon to the barrel. It shouldbut if it doesn't take anotherpass until it does. DO NOT TURN ON THE LATHE OR CHANGE ANYTHING UNTIL THE ACTION WILL SCREW ON. The barrelscrewson to the actionand buttsup againstthe shoulderon the insideof the action.

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Takea depth mike andmeasure thedepth from thefront oftheaction, totheinside ring. Check this against themeasurement of.062that you turned onthethread shank. Thethread shank should be.003 longer than themeasurement from thefaceoftheaction tothering. When you tighten thebarrel upontheaction, you will seethecompression marks onthefaceofthe barrel.When you have this, thebarrel iscompleted except chambering.
CHAMBERING THE BARREL The reamersare easilymade. If you can make barrelreamers,you can make chamberingreamers. What you need now is a 308 Winchesterchambering (finish),and head space gauges (go and no go). You willneed a 7/16 drillbit, unlessyou are planningto use a roughing reamer to removethe extra metal. You willneed now to chuckthe barrelon the shankin frontof the threads. Usinga dial indicator be sure the barrelis runningtrue on bothends.

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Ifit isnotrunning true, you will cutanoutofround chamber. Chuck thedrill inthetailstock chuck, asyou will have todrill outthechamber endabout 1.250.This will remove enough metal sothefinish reamer won't have tocutmuch.

Nowseta small lathe dogonthereamer, andwith a center inthetailstock, move thetailstock upclose enough tothebarrel sothereamer will beinthebarrel next totheshoulder ofthereamer.Have the reamer inthetailstock center.Leave thelathe inback gearsetting that you used forthreading andwith thetailstock fastened down.Slowly feedthereamer into thebarrel, keeping plenty ofcutting oilonthe reamer. Youcanrest thelathe dogonthecompound, while feeding in. Besure that thereamer isonthetail stock center when you feedit inasif it isn't it cangrab andbreak thereamer.ALWAYS HOLD THE
REAMER BACK AGAINST THE TAIL STOCK CENTER. Usuallyat firstyou willbe able to feed in for a depthof about1/8 inch,beforeremoving the reamer and blowingout the chips. As you get downto the shoulderarea, the feed in is less.

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CHECKING THE HEAD SPACE When you get close,you willhaveto use the head space gauge. You willneed to knowwhat the correct head space willbe. Take the actionwiththe boltcockedand closed,measurethe distancefromthe innerring,what the barrelis buttedup against,and the boltface. Take the difference,whichin thiscase is .100. Now knowingthe depthis .100 we can keep feedingthe reamer in untilthe head space gauge willbe the rightdepth. The correctdepthwouldbe .095. Allowing for .003 for compression of the barrelto the action,thiswouldleave.002 on the head space, whichis aboutright. To set the depth,use a depth mike, placingthe depthmike on the end of the head space gauge, and measuringthe depthuntilit read .095. When you get closeit wouldbe best to use a dial indicatorto go the finalfew thousands. This is how the Mauser is chamberedand head space. Other typesof actionsare done the same, witha little variation. FITTING SPRINGFIELDS On some barrelslike Springfields or Enfields,we use the same way of measuringfromthe frontof the actionto the boltface. Becausethe barrelis conned,we haveto measurefromthe cone to the head space gauge. This distanceis subtracted fromthe distancefromthe shoulderon the barrel,to the face of the cone.

POLISHING THE CHAMBER Afterthe barrelis correctly head spaced,the chambershouldbe finelypolished. This is done withthe lathe runningat a highRPM. 157

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Note-The barrel that issticking outtheback ofthelathe should becentered with a collar that hasset screws tohold thebarrel from starting torunoutofcenter with thehigh RPM.Usea finepolishing cloth ontheendofa slotted rod. Donotover polish, asthis will change thedimensions ofthechamber. Youwill beabletoseeallthe scratches, andwill beabletomeasure anypart ofthechamber. Screw thebarrel ontheaction, seatit realtight, remove theextractor, andthecocking piece. Drop a newloaded round into thechamber andclose thebolt.Itshould close anypressure. Remove the loaded round, anddrop theNoGogauge inthechamber. Itshould notallow thebolt toclose. Ifforsome reason it does, remeasure andfacea little offtheface ofthebarrel.
FINISHING THE OUTSIDE OF THE BARREL All that we haveto do now is to polishthe machinemarksfromthe barreland crownthe muzzle. I find that I can chuckthe barrelin the lathe, usinga livecenterand removethe machinemarkswithcoarse gritpaper, then finishpolishing withfinergrit.. This does not take longif you havenot left chattermarkson the outsideof the barrel. If there is chatter on the outside,the barrelwillneed to be filedwhileit is spinning. When the barrelis as smoothas you want it, removethe barrel,turnit around,chuckit up on the muzzle and crownit. The easy way is to face the muzzle off flush,and counterbore it to protectthe bore. You are ready to polishand blue.

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BUTTON RIFLING MACHINE This machine isvery simple inconstruction, easy tobuild, andhasgiven years oftrouble freeservice. Youwill first need togeta fewitems tobuild this machine. Themain item isa good lowvolume hydraulic pump, with at least 1000pounds ofpressure. Inaddition, you will need twohydraulic cylinders, each with a stroke ofat least 30 inches. Also find at an automotive parts house, twoheavy duties thrust bearings, with a 1 1/4:bore. SeeDrawing. Thethrust bearings areused totakecareofthetorque when rifling, anddoes a good job asthemore expensive rifling head. Youcanbuy a 2-way hydraulic control valve, which isused toraise andlower the hydraulic cylinders. Themetal that you usetomake theframe should berather heavy asit takes lots ofpressure torifle a 45-caliber barrel; two-inch material isa good start. Alltheholes, andalignment should bedrilled very carefully, orthecylinders will pull crooked, andbind upinuse.

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Ifyou plan torifle barrels over 30 calibers, I would suggest using a rifling head. Myrifling machine hada variable speed, heavy duty, andgearreduction electric motor. With this, wecould reduce, orincrease therateoftwist inseconds byuseofa speed switch such asused bya light dimmer switch sold at any hardware store. For30 caliber andsmaller thethrust bearings wasallthat wasneeded.

Youwill need at least a three-horse power electric motor todrive thehydraulic pump. Ittakes a lotof power topull therifling button through thebarrel. Thedrawing shows themachine without theguide pipe. Ithasbeen omitted soasnottoconfuse thedrawing. Youwill seea side view ofthedrawing showing therifling machine with theguide pipe. Theguide pipe when inuseshould bewell greased soit will not bind orchatter asit isbeing raised. Thetopbrace that connects thetwohydraulic cylinders should be level andparallel with thebottom support.
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This isvery important aswhen you arerifling a barrel therodispulling straight, instead ofanangle. This isvery important when rifling 22 liners, asthey have a tendency towarp anyway when rifled duetothe extreme swaging operation. When themachine isassembled, make sure alltheairisbled outofthe cylinders andlines. Ifnot, they will pull crooked if airisinthelines.
RIFLING HEAD Aboutthe onlyotheritem that willhaveto be made and installedis the riflinghead. The simplestone is the use of thrustbearings.This head willholdthe riflingor pullrod, and the rod holder. RIFLING ROD HEAD You willneed one for each sizerod or caliber,suchas 1/8"for 17 caliber,.187 for .224-.244-.257, and on up on the sizes.A heavyduty-bearing clamp,withat least 3 3/8"set screwsto holdthe barrelwhen rifling. This is shownas a collarin the drawings.When rifling,the setscrewhas to be VERY TIGHT. There is a tremendous pullon the machinewhen the barrelis rifled,as you are pullingan oversize button througha hardenedpiece of steel. Buttonriflingswagesthe riflingin the steel, ratherthan cutsout the grooves.

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Ifyou plan torifle barrels over 30 calibers, I would suggest using a rifling head. Myrifling machine hada variable speed, heavy duty, andgearreduction electric motor. With this, wecould reduce, orincrease therateoftwist inseconds byuseofa speed switch such asused bya light dimmer switch sold at any hardware store. A small chain, such asa bicycle chain isused todrive therifling head at theproper rotation. Slight changes intheconstruction ofthehead will beneeded toadapt totheRifling Head. The thrust bearings arestill used when using theRifling Head.

RIFLING THE BARREL The riflingof the barrelis the climax of barrelmaking.In the past, thiswas a verytime consuming operation.Not so withbuttonrifling.It shouldnot take overthree minutesto do now what it tookseveral hoursor days in the past. The important part now is to get properlubricant for the riflingoperation. Withoutthis,when you startto riflethe barrelthere willbe a loudcrack,as the rod PULLS in to and ruins the barrel. LUBRICANT I do not knowof any commerciallubricant that willdo the job, so after doingmuchexperimenting and cuttingmany buttonsout of the barrel.I came up withone that servedme well for years. What happensis when the buttonstartsdownthe barrel;it startsto gall then sticks.Therefore,if you decidedto try some lubricant you willprobablyhaveto cut the end off the barrel.You willthen splitthe barrelto get the button out, as the buttonwillbe in the barrelan inchor so. 162

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Thebest lubricant that I have found isMolyKote Z, made byDowCorning Corp, Midland, Mich. This can bepurchase invarious forms, butthepowder isThebest, andiswhat I always used, andwith very good results. Itlooks likegraphite, butdon't letthat fool you inthink that graphite will work because it won't. Itis necessary tomix it with oilandswab thebore. This isa pressure lubricant, andthey sayit takes over 50,000 pounds ofpressure tobreak it down. It works great onlathe centers too.Iftherodtherodever pulls offdonotthink you cangeta rodanda big hammer anddrive it out.

Don't even betempted totry.Ifyou should besolucky todrive thebutton out, it will beshattered. To remove a stuck button stick a short roddown inside thebarrel tofind where thebutton is,mark the outside ofthebarrel, addanother 1 1/2inch andsawit off.Then sawtheback endoffsoyou will have a short piece ofbarrel with thebutton init.Next, getoldhacksaw out, split it length ways onboth side, and remove thebutton. Youwill notice there will bemetal welded onthebutton, which you will have toremove very carefully. When you sawit outbecareful that you don't hitthebutton with theblade, asit will ruin theblade. Allthat isnecessary istoredo therodandresweat thebutton back on.Inbutton reaming, you will notneed any special lubricant, just some heavy oillikeSTP.Ifyou have notleftthebarrel undersize, you should not have anytrouble. Itiswise tocheck each bore with a go-no-go gauge before rifling. After checking thebore, andlubricating thebore, you areready torifle theblank. Setthebarrel inthe center hole intherifling machine. Tighten theclamp around thebarrel tohold it inplace. Makesure the thrust bearing iscentered andinplace. Turn onthemachine, andpull thecontrol lever back and hopefully watch thebarrel being rifled.

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DO NOT STOP ONCE YOU STARTED, AS WHEN YOU START UP AGAIN YOU WILL PROBABLY PULL THE BUTTON INTO. On the smallercaliber's you willsee the barrelrotatingon the thrustbearingsas the riflingbuttonmakes the propertwistin the barrel,but in buttonreamingthey won't move.When throughliftthe barrelfromthe top frame, withoutremoving the clampsunscrewthe buttonand removefromthe machine.Then lower the frame back down.The barrelis throughwithbuttonreaming. If you are using1350 or Stressproof,don't buttonream, onlyon 4150 or 4142 do you need to do this. Lubricatethe bore withMolyKoteZ, put the barrelback in the machine,slide the riflingbuttonback down the bore, and screwit intothe head. Be sure the thrustbearingis centeredunderthe clamp.Pull the leverback, and the barrelwillrotateby itselfas the buttonpasses throughthe bore. If the barreldoesn't rotate,help it. If you havea riflinghead, thiswon't be necessary.The smallercalibersdo not pullthat hard, but on 45's; the motorslowand breathingwillcease untilthe buttoncomesout the barrel. I wouldnot recommendthat you try to rifleany stainlesssteel at first,as on them you willneed to leave the bore slightly oversize. When the buttonhas come out of the barrel,removethe barrel,wipe it out and you shouldhaveas good a barrelas any producedby a manufacture.

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BENCH RIFLING Wewill look at thesimplest type, thehand-rifling machine first. Inthis type, themost intricate fixture isthe rifling guide, andprobably oneofthesimplest guides isanother rifle barrel ofthesame twist asyou wish touse.Itneed nothave thesame number ofgrooves however. A good solid clamp orpreferably a pair ofclamps isbolted toa good solid bench tohold thebarrel. Inlinewith these, andat thesame center height, a third clamp isbolted tohold oneendofthebarrel that istobeused asa guide.

Thefourth clamp isalso used onthebarrel being used fora guide. This must bea different type from the other, forthis clamp must hold a flanged sleeve, which isclamped, tightly totheguide barrel. Inthis sleeve areasmany holes drilled ina linearound itscircumference, asyou desire grooves inthebarrel toberifled. A pinpasses through this lastclamp at a point inlinewith theholes drilled inthesleeve. When theguide barrel isloosened initsclamps, theguide barrel andsleeve canbeturned. This will bring oneofthepinholes inthesleeve inlinewith thepinhole through theclamp inwhich thesleeve operates. This pinmust fittheholes inclamp andsleeve very closely, thesleeve must fitclosely inthe clamp, andit canalso belocked byhaving theclamp split at oneside anda clamp bolt passed through thetwosections. Theflange onthesleeve istoprevent endmotion oftheguide barrel.

A rodortube long enough topass through both thebarrel toberifled andtheguide barrel, with some several inches tospare, isattached totherifling head. This rodortube must have a guide block upon it torideinthegrooves oftheguide barrel tocause therifling cutter toturn. Thesimplest waytomake this istoplace therodinside theguide barrel, packed with waste at a point four orfive inches below the muzzle.

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Fastening thebarrel muzzle-up, heatthebarrel andtherodfrom themuzzle down tothepacking point, with a torch until it ishot. Makesure that therodiscentral inthebore; pour inmelted nickel-Babbitt around theroduntil thebarrel isfull tothemuzzle. After it hascooled, withdraw it partly from thebarrel andshave offtheouter end,where it overflowed themuzzle. Makea punch mark onthemuzzle ofthebarrel at oneofthegrooves andmark theBabbitt slug onthe endopposite this mark onthebarrel. Ifthis guide block isremoved from theguide barrel, you will getit back inthesame position inwhich it wascast. Remove thewaste from thebarrel andclean thebarrel outwell. Reinsert therodandguide block intheguide barrel, andthen attach totherearendoftheroda cross-handle, mounted ontherodonballbearings.

Therod, with theguide inplace intheguide barrel neartheendclosest tothebarrel toberifled. This should belong enough sotherifling cutter clears byaninch ormore theopposite endofthebarrel tobe rifled. With theclamps alllocked andtherifling cutter inposition inthehead, therifling cutter isnow drawn through thebarrel toberifled, making thefirst cut. Thecutter isthen dropped down, or,if it istheshimmed-up type ofhook cutter, it isremoved from the rifling head andthehead ispushed back through thebarrel. Thecutter isreplaced andtheclamps on theguide barrel areloosened. Then theindex piniswithdrawn andtheguide barrel revolved inthe clamps tothenext pinhole, thepinisreplaced. Theclams aretightened andthecutter isagain drawn through thebarrel tomake a cutforthesecond groove. This process isrepeated with thesame cutter setting until onecuthasbeen made ineach groove. The cutter isthen raised anda second cutismade inthefirst groove, andallthis isrepeated until the grooves areallcuttotheproper depth. Theguide barrel must bekept well oiled ontheinside andthe barrel being rifled must have with cutting oil,either lard-oil orblack sulfur oilcompound pumped through it. This cutting oilshould bepumped into thebarrel under pressure sothat it will wash outthechips. Itis better tousea tube fora pull-rod, astheoillinefrom thepump canbeattached totheendofthetube opposite therifling head. Theoilcanbepumped into thebarrel bythis method byhaving oiloutlet holes drilled intherifling head. A pump canbepurchased from a machine shop supplier forthis purpose. As theoilleaves thebarrel it isscreened toremove chips andisreturned tothesump from which it is pumped.

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A steel shaft will work much better. Thesteel shaft hasa groove ontheoutside with spiral grooves and runthrough anindexing fixture held ina clamp. Thebarrel toberifled isclamped ina fixture ontherifling bench, inthesame wayasthebarrel washeld bytheabove method. Thespiral cutshaft isclamped by twoclamps, inlinewith thebarrel toberifled. Oneofthese clamps, which arealso a guide forthespiral shaft, isplain andtheshaft must bea close fit,butmust notbind, asit passes through it with a twisting rotation. Theindexing fixture, which hasasmany pinholes, that isequally spaced around itscircumference, as many asthedesired grooves inthebarrel. A harden steel pinfitstightly inthese holes, andonly onepin being used, allholes being thesame size. This pinpasses through thefixture rimandengages the spiral groove intheshaft. A ball-bearing handle isfastened totheendofthespiral shaft. Ontheopposite endofthespiral shaft from that towhich this handle isfastened, thetube that isconnected totherifling head isscrewed in place. Only onegroove iscutintheguide shaft. Thespiral guide shaft ismade about 2" indiameter, if toosmall indiameter, it will notmove asfreely. A fairly heavy-walled steel tubing maybeused forthis purpose. Thespiral groove canbecutinthe guide shaft with a milling machine, which isequipped with a spiral-cutting setup. Themilling machine must have a table long enough andwith enough travel tocutthis long spiral.
LATHE FOR RIFLING The screw-cutting lathe can be used to riflebarrelsand the setupis not that expensive. Some makersof lathessupplyspiralattachments for theirlathes.These havea set of gears withthem and these gears, in connection withthe gears regularlysuppliedwiththe lathe, willcut almostany required spiral. 168

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Thelathe should have a large hollow spindle, sothebarrel canbepassed through thespindle andheld with theregular barrel chucks mounted oneach endofthespindle. Theoiltube, which isattached tothe rifling head, canbeheld ina clamp fixture mounted upon thetool rest ofthelathe. This isthebest method forrifling barrels andrequires theleast fixtures. Ifthespindle ofthelathe istoo small toallow thebarrel topass through it,therifling head maybedriven bythelathe spindle. Thebarrel canbeheld ina clamp fixture mounted upon thetool rest. Theclamp fixture holding thebarrel should be long andheavy, sothat it maygrip thebarrel at tworather widely separated points. Ifyou usethis method, you need a longer lathe bedthan thefirst method. Thebedmust belong enough toaccommodate thebarrel length, andit must also have sufficient length fortherifling head with enough length oftube orpull rodontherifling head sothat it canpass clear through thebarrel. Lower priced lathes arenotsupplied with spiral attachments bytheir manufacturers. These spiral attachments usually include anindexing attachment. Ifit does nothave thespiral attachment, a simple onemayhadinthebarrel with thespindle locked inthecorrect position each time. Anaccurate protractor mounted onthespindle nose will help you align thebarrel. A spiral attachment maybebuilt forscrew cutting engine lathe ofthequick-change gear-type. The barrels mayberifled upon thelathe, driving it either bypower orbyhand. Tomake this spiral attachment, obtain a stock worm gearandworm, thegearbeing large enough sothat it maybebored outtoslip over thelathe spindle nose with a close fit. Thegearisheld inplace with a barrel chuck screwed tightly upagainst it.A bracket isnow made tofit thelathe bed,asa center rest does, andontheupper part ofthis bracket. This canbeclamped tothe lathe bedwith theclamp plate used with thecenter rest. A shaft isthen mounted, at right angles tothe centerline ofthelathe. Theshaft theworm that mates theworm gearonthespindle nose ismounted sothat it meshes with the worm gear. This worm shaft islong enough sothat it extends tothefront ofthelathe, anda little past thehead stock. Onthis outer endoftheshaft, a standard miter orlevel gearismounted anda second miter orbevel gearmeshes with this andisona shaft extending tothehead endofthelathe. A bracket forthis shaft is
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bolted totheside ofthehead stock.

Atthehead orgearendofthelathe, a gearismounted onthis shaft sothat it meshes with thegeartrain leading from thelathe spindle tothequick-change gearbox. This gearmayhave tobea special gear, if thegears onyour lathe donothappen tobestandard gears, which canbepurchased from some gear manufacture. Youmight have tousetwogears at this point toreach thelathe geartrain. Theratio ofthese gears, and oftheworm andworm gear, must befigured outforyour particular lathe. This isnecessary tobring the spiral produced within reach ofthegearbox gears ofthelathe. Bydoing this allthecommon twists in rifling maybereached bysimply shifting thegears, When you useit,thebeltpulleys ofthelathe aredisconnected from thespindle sothat thespindle turns freely andthedrive isapplied at thetailendoftheleadscrew ofthelathe. A hand crank maybeapplied totheendoftheleadscrew andafter thehalf-nuts ofthelathe carriage areclosed upon theleadscrew, thecarriage ismoved astheleadscrew isturned. Theleadscrew in turning operates thegears at thehead ofthelathe andthrough thespecial shafts added, which turns the spindle with theworm andworm gear. A pulley maybeplaced upon theendoftheleadscrew andanelectric motor used todrive thelead screw. UseV pulleys andV-belts at this point will make thebest drive. A good supply ofcutting oilis supplied under pressure tothebarrel being rifled. Youneed theoiltolengthen thelifeoftherifling cutter, tomake a smoother cutandtokeep thebarrel clean ofchips. When you cutthegrooves, they should notbedeeper than isnecessary togrip thebullet well. Todeep grooves leadtorapid throat erosion andwill sometimes putfins upon thebase ofbullets.

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GUN BARREL STRAIGHTENING Ifyour drill wasproperly sharpened a good starter bushing, andthestarter bushing wasingood alignment, thebore should bestraight. Inmost cases thebarrel will shoot asgood if it isslightly crooked, asit would if it wasstraight, butif it wasvery slightly crooked andturned andfinish that way, it would tend towalk thebullets asthebarrel heated up. Inturning a barrel if you donotgetthecutting tools sharp, taketooheavy a cut, letthebarrel gettoohot, letthecenters gettoohot, oroutofround, thestress will warp thebarrel. Then you will have tostraighten thebarrel. I will trytocover themain points inbarrel straightening, andgive you a guideline aswhat todoandwhat tolook for.Youmust realize that barrel straightening must beself-taught, andtoaccomplish this, it will beadvisable topractice onoldbarrels.

A shotgun barrel isgood topractice on,asit isbig,andsmooth with norifling toconfuse you. Itisnext to impossible tostraighten a barrel with a rough bore. I will also show you herehow tomake barrel-straightening equipment necessary tostraighten thebarrels. Letmepoint outthat a large percentage ofthefactory barrels, tothetrained eyearenotperfectly straight. Any barrel maker will tellyou that a slightly crooked barrel will shoot aswell asa straight one, anda rifle used forhunting a crooked barrel makes little difference. Aslong as,(1)you letthebarrel cool between shots when sighting in,(2)aslong asyou donotshoot more than three consecutive shots, asit will then start towalk.

Noamount ofbedding will stop this. Nowthis book wasoriginal written inthelate50's before the coming ofcomputer machines forturning barrels. Before, thebarrels when turned were checked at ever pass ontheturning lathe, butnow thecomplete blank isturned complete ontapemachines before being removed from themachined. Then it ischecked forstraightness, andif crooked will bestraighten. I have gotten several factory barrels inthelastfewyears that when putbetween centers ofthelathe ran
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outasmuch as1/8inch ontheOD,even though thebore wasstraight. These barrels would walk as much as6 inches at 100yards after five shots.

BARREL WALKING Why does a barrelwalk?If the bore is concentric to the outside,the thickerside willlengthenmore than the thinside and the barrelwillbend. In mostcases there was enoughmetal on the barrelto returnthe barrelto make it even.See the otherfile on Accuracyon the GunsmithBible II on the disk. PREMIUM BARRELS Let me pointout that premiumbarrelsare barrelsthat are straightafter drilling.They haveno looseor tightspotsin the bore due to hard or softspotsin the barrel,and they do get a higherprice.Evenwith good steel, some timesyou findsome bars withmuchstressleft in the bar. This steel willwarp with everypass of the cuttingtool.There is not muchyou can do to stopit, exceptstraighten it on everypass. These if you keep them straightup to the finalpass willshootgood and willnevergiveany problems later. They are just a pain in you knowwhere. On barrelstraightening equipment, the one type that I used is the overhead screwpress.You can see the bore as you are makingcorrections on it. BARREL PRESSES This type of presscan be made quiteeasilyin the shopwithnothingmore than a CUTTING TORCH, ARC WELDER, AND SOME OLD FARMING EQUIPMENT. WHY THE FARMING EQUIPMENT? ALMOST EVERYTHING NEEDED CAN BE FOUND IN USED FARMING EQUIPMENT. Anotheris the type that you use an overhead hydraulic pressto make correctit. This is a good type but I havefoundthat it is betterif you can feel the pressurewhen you straighten the barrel.Bothwilldo a good job, but the overhead screwpressis faster.If you plan to make quitea few barrels,certainlygo to the overhead press.

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Theoldest method employed bytheoldtime barrel makers wastostretch a finewire inside thebarrel. This isstretch from oneendtotheother, andtouching thesides at each end.Oneside ofthebarrel was hammered until thewire touch alltheway. This wasused onbarrels that wassoft, andused leadbullets. Themethods that I will describe inthis chapter will betheoneI have used foryears, andhave found it easy forothers touse.Lets puta barrel totesttoseeif it isstraight.

When you look through a bright finish barrel, theinterior surface appears tobespread outina circular disc asfarfrom theeyetotheother endofthebarrel. Asyou look through thecenter ofthedisk, isa circular (thebore) orifice, andsurrounding it,liketherings ofa target, at equal distances, (ifit is straight). These circles arewell-defined circles around thebore. When you dothis look at theedge ofa door or window, notanopen light. Ifthesecond, third, orfourth rings area perfect circle around theinside ofthe bore, thebarrel isstraight. Itwill beseen that these images arelocated at a certain point inthebore nearest totheeye.Intwo thirds ofthelength ofthebarrel, this isthepart ofthebore that you must direct your attention to.This is where byusing thereflection, which will show you where thebore iscrooked.
LONG BENDS In longbendsyou willworkfrom1/2 to 2/3 of the bore, then turnaroundthe barreland repeat the process.If a distortion of the circleor ringsis noticed,revolve the barrelslowly,and you willsee what side the bend is on. The hardestpart is next. It willtake a littlepracticeand time to tell exactly how far, and at what pointthe bend is. This is done by lookingdownthe barrel,and at the same time touching on the outsideof the barrel.When you thinkyou havethe correctspotwhere the centerof the bend is, movethe barrelso that the centerjaw or hookis in that spot,rotatethe barrelso the big part of the ringsis at the bottom,and applya littlepressure. If you are at the correctplace in the barrel,you willsee as you applythe pressure,the barrelgoes 174

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straight. Therings will form a perfect circle around thebore. Ifthis does nothappen, release the pressure. Rotate ormove thebarrel forward orback andrepeat theprocess. When you gettheperfect circle putmore pressure until when you release thepressure thebarrel will remain straight. Thebarrel islikea spring andit will takequite a bitofpressure. When done theinterior will look liketheabove drawings. When you mount thescrew press, have it facethewindow, soyou will seehalf oftheedge ofthewindow inthebore. With a little practice, you will beabletostraighten thebarrel ina fewminutes. Thesecond method is with theblocks. This method works finebutismore difficult togetthebarrel straight andistime consuming. This method isbest used forfull size barrel blanks, orif you donothave anoverhead press. A large leadhammer canbeused onliners tobend theliner. Find where thebend is,andsettheliner ontheblocks with thebend tothetop.Nowgive thebarrel a good tapwith theleadhammer. Check to seeif you have made anyprogress, if notrepeat theabove with a harder tap. Thesecret ofthis process istohitthebarrel hard enough tostraighten it past itselastic limits. Your skill inusing this process liesinyour ability tojudge bytheeye,theexact location where thebend, itsproper location, andthen slide thebarrel tothat location. Tostraighten thebarrel it must bebent past itselastic limits, sowhen it springs back it will bestraight. If you bend it tofarit will bebent theother way, then you will have torotate thebarrel andstraighten it back. With a little practice, you will beabletostraighten thebarrel ina fewminutes. Thesecond method is with theblocks. This method works finebutismore difficult togetthebarrel straight andistime consuming. This method isbest used forfull size barrel blanks, duetotheir large size.

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THREADING AND FITTING THE BARREL When you have finish turning thebarrel, anddouble-checking it forstraightness, it istime toturn the shank. Setthetailstock back to000,takethelathe dogoff,andputa smaller oneonthemuzzle endof thebarrel. With a shim under thesetscrew tokeep thebarrel from being marked bythesetscrew. Put thebarrel back inthelathe, andturn theshank tothecorrect diameter. Ona 98 Mauser, who wewill thread to,takeonly a light clean uppass. This isassuming that you made your barrel outof1 1/8-inch stock. Itwould bebest if you have anold98 Mauser barrel handy tolook at, while you aredoing this. Ifyou look at thechart forthreading the98 Mauser, Seechapter onbarrel thread dimensions. TheO.D. oftheshank is1.100.That only leaves less than .020fortheshoulder. This isOKasonthe98 Mauser weseatthebarrel ontheinside ring. Turn thethread enddown to1.100now. Using a dialindicator asyou areturning cuta .625long shoulder. When you have thethread shank turned tothecorrect size, takea small square endtool, and relieve thethreads onthefront endoftheshoulder, andtheback endofthethread shank. This relief should beabout .060deep perside. Itistime tocutthethreads onthe98 Mauser. The98 has12 threads perinch V type. Setupa V tool bit ground right forthreading. This isa 60-degree tool. Setthepoint ofthetool right oncenter, using the center onthetailstock. Thecompound should besetat 30 degrees, when you clamp thetool. Setthe quick-change gears for12 threads perinch, make sure your feeding dialisengaged, andyou areready tocutthethreads. Setboth dials towhere thetool isjust touching theshank. Setthedials on000.Setthetool insoyou will takea .005cut. Seethechart foramount that you will have toturn intogettheproper depth. Have the lathe inback gear, running it at theslowest speed. When thethreading dialcomes around to0, engage thefeed. Itfeeds fast, sobeready todisengage thefeedandback outthetool inoneoperation. When it hascompleted setthetool in.010,when thedialcomes back to0, engage thefeed. Keep repeating theprocess until you have gone in.062,make a clean uppass at thelastsetting. Usea good cutting oilwhen cutting threads. Always turn inthecompound dial, leave theother at 0, andback this out each time.
FITTING THE BARREL TO THE ACTION Take the actionand see if it willscrewon to the barrel.It shouldbut if it doesn't take, anotherpass untilit does. DO NOT TURN ON THE LATHE OR CHANGE ANYTHING UNTIL THE ACTION WILL SCREW ON. The barrelscrewson to the actionand buttsup againstthe shoulderon the insideof the action. Take a depthmike and measurethe depthfromthe frontof the action,to the insidering.Check this 177

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against themeasurement of.062that you turned onthethread shank. Thethread shank should be.003 longer than themeasurement from thefaceoftheaction tothering. When you tighten thebarrel upontheaction, you will seethecompression marks onthefaceofthe barrel. When you have this, thebarrel iscompleted except chambering.
CHAMBERING THE BARREL The reamersare easilymade. If you can make barrelreamers,you can make chamberingreamers. What you need now is a 308 Winchesterchambering (finish),and head space gauges (go and no go). You willneed a 7/16 drillbit, unlessyou are planningto use a roughing reamer to removethe extra metal. You willneed now to chuckthe barrelon the shankin frontof the threads.Usinga dial indicator be sure the barrelis runningtrue on bothends. If it is not runningtrue, you willcut an out of roundchamber.Chuckthe drillin the tail stockchuck,as you willhaveto drillout the chamberend about1.250. This willremoveenoughmetal so the finishreamer won't haveto cut much. Now set a smalllathe dog on the reamer, and witha centerin the tail stock,movethe tail stockup close enoughto the barrelso the reamer willbe in the barrelnextto the shoulderof the reamer. Havethe reamer in the tail stockcenter.Leavethe lathe in back gear settingthat you used for threadingand with the tail stockfasteneddown.Slowlyfeed the reamer intothe barrel,keepingplentyof cuttingoil on the reamer.

You can rest the lathe dog on the compound, whilefeedingin. Be sure that the reamer is on the tail stockcenterwhen you feed it in as if it isn't it can grab and break the reamer. ALWAYS HOLD THE REAMER BACK AGAINST THE TAIL STOCK CENTER. Usuallyat first,you willbe able to feed in for a depthof about1/8-inch,beforeremoving the reamer and blowingout the chips.As you get downto the shoulderarea, the feed in is less. 178

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CHECKING THE HEAD SPACE When you get close,you willhaveto use the head space gauge. You willneed to knowwhat the correct head space willbe. Take the actionwiththe boltcockedand closed,measurethe distancefromthe innerring,what the barrelis buttedup against,and the boltface. Take the difference,whichin thiscase is .100.

Now knowingthe depthis .100 we can keep feedingthe reamer in untilthe head space gauge willbe the rightdepth.The correctdepthwouldbe .095. Allowing .003 for compression of the barrelto the action,thiswouldleave.002 on the head space, whichis aboutright.To set the depth,use a depth mike, placingthe depthmike on the end of the head space gauge, and measuringthe depthuntilit read .095. When you get close,it wouldbe best to use a dial indicatorto go the finalfew thousands. This is how the Mauser is chamberedand head space. Other typesof actionsare done the same, witha littlevariation.

FITTING SPRINGFIELDS On some barrelslike Springfields or Enfields,we use the same way of measuringfromthe frontof the actionto the boltface. Becausethe barrelis conned,we haveto measurefromthe cone to the head space gauge. This distanceis subtracted fromthe distancefromthe shoulderon the barrel,to the face of the cone.

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POLISHING THE CHAMBER Afterthe barrelis correctly head spaced,the chambershouldbe finelypolished.This is done withthe lathe runningat a highRPM. Note - The barrelthat is stickingout the back of the lathe shouldbe centeredwitha collarthat has set screwsto holdthe barrelfromstartingto run out of centerwiththe highRPM. Use a fine polishing cloth on the end of a slottedrod. Do not overpolish,as thiswillchangethe dimensions of the chamber.You willbe able to see all the scratches,and willbe able to measureany part of the chamber. Screw the barrelon the action,seat it verytight,removethe extractor, and the cockingpiece. Drop a new loaded roundintothe chamberand closethe bolt.It shouldcloseany pressure.Removethe loaded round,and drop the No Go gauge in the chamber. It shouldnot allowthe boltto close.If for some reasonit does, remeasureand face a littleoff the face of the barrel. FINISHING THE OUTSIDE OF THE BARREL All that we haveto do now is to polishthe machinemarksfromthe barreland crownthe muzzle. I find that I can chuckthe barrelin the lathe, usinga livecenterand removethe machinemarkswithcoarse gritpaper, then finishpolishing withfinergrit.

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outside, thebarrel will need tobefiled while it isspinning.

When thebarrel isassmooth asyou want it,remove thebarrel, turn it around, chuck it uponthemuzzle andcrown it.Theeasy wayistofacethemuzzle offflush, andcounter bore it toprotect thebore. Youare ready topolish andblue.

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THREAD FACTS Thefollowing will give you information onthethreads sothey canbebetter understood. Thread cutting onthelathe isthemost common waytomake screws, etc.intheshop. Just about anytype ofscrew, andthread that isneeded intheshop, canbemade ona lathe. Themajor oroutside diameter (O.D.)ofanexternal thread isthediameter ofthepiece onwhich the thread iscut. LTListhelargest diameter ofthethread. Thedepth ofa thread isthedistance from thetoporcrest ofthethread totheroot measured vertically. Theminor diameter isthesmallest diameter ofthethread ofthescrew. LTLissometimes called the root diameter (R.D.)andcanbefound bysubtracting twice thedepth ofthethread from themajor diameter. Thenumber ofthreads perinch (N)canbecounted byplacing a rule against thethreaded part, and counting thethreads inoneinch. Thefirst thread isnotcounted since, inreality, notthecrests butthe spaces between thecrests arewhat arebeing counted. A second method istousea screw pitch gage. This method ismore suitable forchecking thefiner pitches ofscrew threads. Thepitch (P)ofa thread isthedistance from a point ona screw thread toa corresponding point onthe next thread, measured parallel tothework axis. Thepitch ofa thread ininches canbefound bydividing thewhole number 1 bythenumber ofthreads perinch (N). Ona screw thread, thepitch diameter isthat ofanimaginary cylinder. Theouter surface ofthis cylinder would pass through thethreads at such points astomake equal thewidth ofthethreads andthewidth of thespaces. Ona 60-degree V type thread andonNational form threads, thepitch diameter canbe found bysubtracting thesingle depth ofthethread from themajor diameter ofthethread. Theleadofa thread isthedistance a screw will advance into a nutinonecomplete revolution. Thelead isthesame asthepitch ona single-thread screw. Theformula fortheleadofa single thread screw, then, is: 1 P (ininches) N (perinch) Theleadfora screw with nine threads perinch is.1111,which isthesame asthepitch ininches (.1111). Ona double-thread screw, theleadistwice thepitch. Ona screw with nine threads perinch with a double-thread screw theleadwould bedoubled or.2222.Ona triple-thread screw, theleadisthree
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times thepitch, andsoon. Most screw threads aresingle. Thesingle screw thread hasa single ridge andgroove. Thethread angle istheangle included between thesides ofthethread. Thethread angle oftheUnified National Form is60 degrees. Screw threads aresowidely used toconnect parts that they areofprime importance when produced in themachine shop. Great amounts ofstudy andresearch have been devoted tothestandardization ofscrew thread forms. Thebasic form ofthescrew andnut, with a 60-degree angle ofthread 55.Thecrest ofthethread may beflatorrounded. Theflatcrest ispreferred inAmerican practice, andtherounded crest isgiven preference inBritish practice. Over many years, different screw thread forms andstandards have been adopted intheUnited States. These different forms originated chiefly because ofspecial requirements orbecause they were considered superior toother forms. Inaddition totheAmerican Standard thread, they aretheAcme, Square, andthe29-Degree Worm threads. TheAmerican Standard thread form isused asthestandard locking thread form intheUnited States. This thread form isused onpractically all-mating parts inmodern machine construction. TheUnified thread form isessentially identical totheformer standard, theAmerican National thread form. Thetwo forms areinterchangeable formost diameter-pitch combinations. A 1-64National Coarse thread is interchangeable with a 1-64Unified National Coarse thread. Unified National Coarse (UNC) Unified National Fine(UNF) Unified National Extra-Fine (UNEF) Unified National 8-Pitch (8 UN) Unified National 12-Pitch (12UN): Unified National 16-Pitch (16UN) Inthecoarse, fine, andextra-fine series, thenumber ofthreads perinch increases asthediameters decrease. Thecoarse andfinethreads arewidely employed forgeneral use. Inorder toproduce anAmerican Standard thread ontheengine lathe, theratio oftool feedtowork
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piece speed must beadjusted. Thewidth ofthecrest will correspond with thewidth ofthetool's nose when thethread iscuttoitsfull depth. Thus, theroot andcrest arethesame width.

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THREAD-CUTTING TOOLS Foreach ofthetypes ofthread a tool bittoform that particular thread must beground. Since theform of thread istheendproduct thegrinding ofthetool bitmust takeinto consideration theclearance angle side rakeform andother factors toachieve theresult desired.
CLEARANCE Becauseof the rapid advanceof the cuttingtoolacrossthe workpiece, the clearanceangle is an important factor.Clean, accuratethreadsare impossible unlessbothsides and frontof the toolare givenenoughclearanceto permitthe toolto movefreelyin the groove being formed.When the toolis fed intothe workat an angle, as for formthreads,the toolshouldhave3 to 5 degrees of side clearance.

V threadtoolsare groundflat acrossthe top, withabouta 5-degree side-clearanceangle. If the top of the toolis at an angle, the threadwillbe incorrect. The centergage is a toolused for checkingthe pointsof cutterbits for the Americanstandardscrew threads,whichmustbe groundto an angle of 60 degrees.The 60-degree includedangle on one end of the gage is used when grindingthe toolto the exactangle. This same toolis usefulin checkingthe angle of lathe centers.

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TheV ontheedge ofthegage isused forsetting thetool inthetool post ofthelathe. Thecenterline of theV-point isperpendicular totheaxis ofrotation ofthecylinder tobethreaded. This setting will give the correct thread form. Thetwoopposite sides ofthegage areparallel andhave graduations ontheedges forchecking the number ofthreads perinch. Oneside ofthegage at thepoint isengraved toshow thesizes oftapdrills for60-degree V-threads (internal threads), andtoshow, inthousandths ofaninch, thedouble depth of commonly used threads. The60-degree angle at thepoint isuseful togage thethread after it iscut.

Before thethreading operation isbegun, thework piece needs tobeturned tothemaximum ormajor diameter ofthethread specified ontheblueprint orother specifications. This size isusually given as O.D.(outside diameter) expressed ininches anddecimal parts ofaninch. When cutting V type threads, it isalso good practice, tochamfer orbevel theends oftheshaft tobethreaded. Thechamfer canbeat anyangle from 30 to4-5degrees. Forinstructions onstraight turning, seethesection onthat operation.
SETUP FOR CUTTING AN EXTERNAL (V) THREAD The setupfor external threadingwilldepend largelyuponthe shape and sizeof the workpiece. Threads are oftenturnedon shaftsmountedbetweencentersand revolved by a lathe dog.

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After this setup ismade andthework isturned totheproper outside diameter, thework piece isleft right inthelathe andthethreading operation isperformed. Thejobs arethreaded while held ina three or four jaw chuck inwhich they were mounted tobeturned tosize.

Duetothepressure exerted byanythreading tool, it isnecessary, when threading long, narrow shafts, to usea steady rest.

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THREAD CUTTING IN A LATHE Threads that must beaccurate with some turned part must beturned inthelathe at thesame setting used toturn thework. Forthis work, a proper cutting tool issetupinthetool post, andtheleadscrew is geared tothehead stock spindle togive therequired leadtothethread. Cutting threads ontheengine lathe isusually done when only a fewthreads aretobecutorwhen special forms ofthreads arenecessary. Fortheoperation, theleadscrew isrevolved at a desired ratio with thespindle ofthelathe through a series ofgears. Quick-change gearboxes enable theoperator to produce various pitches ofthreads, using control levers. Inthethread-cutting operation, thelathe should besetat thecorrect ratio offeedtospeed forthe desired thread tobecut.

Next, thecompound isadjusted sothemicrometer dialonitscollar isat zero. Thetool isthen brought into contact with thework piece byadjusting thecross-slide andsetting itsmicrometer dialtozero. All adjustments fordepth ofcutcanbemade from these settings. Itiscommon practice touseboth thecross-slide, andthecompound. Thetool isbacked offthework piece andthecarriage ismoved towhere thetool is,at a point beyond theendofthework piece. The cross-slide isthen advanced until themicrometer dialreads thesame aswhere thetool wastouching thework piece. Next, thecompound isadvanced .002to.003" anda trial cutistaken. Attheendofthecut, the cross-slide isbacked offandthetool returned toitsstarting point.

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Thecross-slide isthen adjusted toitszero reading andthecompound advanced a distance equal tothe next cut. Theoperation isrepeated until theproper depth ofthread isobtained. Thegears touseforeach thread areshown ona plate attached tothelathe bythemaker. Youshould know how togearthelathe without theplate. There isa gearofa known number ofteeth permanently attached tothehead stock spindle. Iftheleadscrew canbemade toadvance thecutting tool onethread-space, orthread-pitch, per revolution ofthework, theresult will bea thread ofthat pitch. Therule forfinding theratio ofteeth inthelead-screw geartotheteeth inthestud gearistomultiply the pitch ofthethread tobecutbytheteeth inthestud gearanddivide bythepitch oftheleadscrew, which will give thenumber ofteeth inthelead-screw gear. A gearwith 40 teeth onthescrew will cuta thread with a pitch of10 threads perinch. Pitch ofleadscrew, multiplied bytheproduct ofallthedriving gears, divided bytheproduct ofallthe driven gears will give thepitch ofthethread tobecut. With lathes equipped with quick-change gears, most common threads canbesetupbymoving the required gears. When it isnecessary tocuta thread ofanoddpitch, thetrain ofgears between thestud gearandthequick change-gear box will have tobechanged. Metric threads canbecutona lathe having a leadscrew with thepitch ininches byusing theratio of50 onthestud to127onthescrew. This isbecause there are127centimeters in50 inches. Thecutting tool isground totheshape required fortheform ofscrew thread being cut. Forcutting 60" V threads, a center gage isused forchecking theangle when grinding thetool toshape. Incutting a right-hand exterior thread, thecompound isturned inthedirection ofthehead stock andset at anangle of29". Thetool issetsoitscenterline isat a right angle totheaxis ofthework piece. This setting canbe obtained bytheuseofthecenter gage asshown. When thetool point fitsuniformly into thevnotch ofthegage, thetool isat a 90" angle.
NOTE: The pointof the toolshouldbe at the same elevation as the centerlineof the workpiece. The compoundslide is set to an angle of 60",and the toolis set squarewiththe work,usingthe "V" notchof the threadgauge to set the tool.The pointof the toolmustbe at the same heightas the lathe centers.The toolis run up to the workwiththe crossfeed, and the cross-feedstopis set to alwaysbring the crossfeed back to the same positionafter backingout the toolto returnfor anothercut.

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Thecompound slide isused tofeedthetool into thework. Byfeeding thetool onthe60" angle towhich thecompound slide isset,thetool cuts ononeside only, andit canbegiven a side raketomake the chip clear thethread groove. Ifthetool isfedinsquare with thework, it will have tocutonboth sides. No side rakecanbeused, andthetwoopposing chips will interfere andjam inthecut. Thecarriage isattached tothefeedscrew byclosing thehalf-nuts. There isa safety interlock between thefriction feedforturning andthehalf-nuts forthread cutting, sothetwocannot beengaged at the same time, which would wreck something. Attheendofeach cut, thehalf-nuts areopened, andthetool iswithdrawn from thecut, sothecarriage canbereturned tothestart foranother cut. Ifthetool were notwithdrawn from thecut, thebacklash ofthe feedgears would leave thetool outoflinewith thethread andif thelathe were reversed, thetool would damage thethread. Ifyour lathe isnotequipped with a thread-cutting dial, you will have toreverse thelathe toreturn thetool tothestart foranother cut. Without thethread dial, thehalf-nuts cannot beopened until thethread is completed, Thethread-cutting dialindicator isa dialgeared totheleadscrew. When thecarriage isstationary, the dialrevolves, butwhen thecarriage iscutting a thread, thedialisstill. There areseveral graduations on thedial, each numbered. Asthedialrevolves, thehalf-nuts areclosed when thecorrect number comes uptotheindex mark. Formost even numbered threads, there areseveral places onthedialthat canbe used toclose thehalf nuts. Forodd-numbered threads, there isonly oneposition, andthehalf-nuts must always beclosed onthesame number used tostart thefirst cut. After making thefirst cutreturn thetool until it nearly touches butdoes notcutandtrytheseveral numbers onthedialtoseewhich ones track thetool inthefirst cut. Then anyofthese canbeused for therest ofthejob. Instarting thefirst cut, close thehalf-nuts onthenumber onelineofthedial, andfeedthetool with the compound until thetool just scratches a fineline, indicating thethread. Shut down thelathe andtestthis linewith thethread-pitch gauge toseethat thelathe iscutting correctly. Thecross feedofthecarriage must always beuptight tothecross-feed stop before moving thetool with thecompound feed. Attheendofthecut, if thethread just fades out, it isnecessary towithdraw thetool while thefeedisstill onsothat thethread will finish with a taper. Todothis requires working at slow speed, andit helps to puta chalk mark onthework sothetool canbebacked outat thesame place each revolution. When thethread finishes close toa shoulder, turn a small groove next totheshoulder asdeep asthe bottom ofthethread sothetool canfinish inthis groove. Leaving a complete thread uptotheshoulder sothenutwill tighten uptight totheshoulder. Itiswise tosetthecarriage stop sothetool cannot runinto theshoulder. Thecutting tool should beground sothepoint will beinthegroove while theside clears the shoulder.

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When it isnotnecessary that thenutrunuptight against a shoulder, thetool cancutitsown finishing groove if you open thehalf nuts at thesame place each time. Tousesuccessfully anyofthese methods offinishing a cut, you must work quickly with both hands, back thetool outwith onehand while you open thehalf-nuts with theother. When you return thetool foranother cut, advance thecompound slide bytheamount ofthechip. Never change thesetting ofthecross-feed stop after you have started tocuta thread oryou will throw thetool outofalignment with previous cuts. Since thetool istraveling onthe60" angle ofthecompound, you must divide half theDD figure bythe sine of60 ", or.866;theresulting figure will betheamount bywhich thetool istobeadvanced onthe compound slide. Since there isalways some springiness orbacklash inboth thecutting tool andthework, you will have totakeseveral finishing cuts with thetool at itsfinal setting, without advancing it anydeeper, soit can work outtheoversize cutting when possible, keep handy a nutoftherequired size that hasanaccurate thread, andusethis totestthenewthread. Ifthework isdriven bya lathe dogwhile oncenters, besure theslot inthedriving plate ismarked sothe dogwill bereplaced inthesame slot each time after removal fortesting. Useplenty ofcutting oilwhen cutting steel. Brass andcast iron canbecutdry, butaluminum tends to stick tothetool andleave a rough surface unless a little oilisused.
THREAD DIAL INDICATOR Most modernlathesare equipped witha threaddial indicator,whichsavestime when cuttinglongscrew threads.The thread-chasing dial is an indicatorwitha revolving dial. It is eitherfastenedto the carriage of the lathe or builtintoit. The dial of the indicatorservesas a guide to the operator.It tellshim when to closethe half-nutin the apronontothe lead screwso he may take successive cutsin the same groove, or to space grooves properlyfor multiplethreads. When thisis done, the lead screwand carriagebear the same relative positions as before.In other words,when the operatorengagesthe half-nutas the propermark on the dial comesintoposition,the threadingtoolmovesintothe same groove made on previous cuts. The face of the dial is numberedto indicatepositions at whichthe half nutsmay be engaged.When the lathe is set up for cuttingscrewthreads,the threaddial indicatesthe relative positionof the lead screw, spindle,and carriageof the lathe. This permitsdisengaging the half nutsfromthe lead screwat the end of the cut, returning the carriage quickly to the startingpointby hand, and re-engagingthe half nutswiththe lead screwat a point,which willassurethat the toolfollowsexactly in the originalcut.

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Theposition at which thehalf nutshould beclosed depends upon thepitch ofthread. Forodd-numbered threads, close half nuts onanynumbered line, such as3 1/2threads perinch, the half-nut must beengaged at anyodd-numbered lineonthedial. Forquarter-threads, such as2 1/4or3 1/4threads perinch, thehalf-nut must beengaged at thesame point onthedialeach time a cutisstarted. Forallnumbered threads, close half nuts upon anylineonthedial. Forthreads involving half threads-any numbered line. Forthreads involving quarter threads-return totheoriginal starting point before closing half nuts. Thedialisengaged totheleadscrew, astheoperator desires, bya feedlever ontheapron. This lever iscalled a half-nut lever. When thelathe isrunning butthehalf-nut lever isnotengaged, thedialrevolves. When thehalf-nut lever isengaged, thecarriage moves butthedialremains motionless. Before you canstart thethread-cutting operation, you must decide, from thenumber ofthreads required perinch, at what point onthedialtoengage thehalf-nut. Forchasing alleven numbers ofthreads per inch, such as4, 6, 8, 10,etc.,thehalf-nut isengaged forthefirst, andforallsuccessive cuts, at anyof theeight graduation marks onthefaceofthedial. Foranoddnumber ofthreads perinch, engage thehalf nutat anyquarter-turn ornumbered lineonthe dial(themain graduation marks),
SETTING THE COMPOUND FOR RIGHT AND LEFT-HAND THREAD To cut right-hand external threadson the lathe the compoundrest is turnedat a 29-degree angle. This prevents tearingof the threadand makes it easier to rechasethe threadif the toolmustbe reset. The carriageis made to travelfromrightto left or, towardthe head stock. Beforeeach successive cut, the toolis fed in withthe compoundrest. To cut a left-handthread,the compoundis turnedat a 29-degree angle towardthe head stock,and the carriageis made to travel fromleft to right. The threadingtoolis mountedin the toolpost.Adjust the cutterpointvertically to the exactcenterof the work.Then place a centergage withits back edge in contactwith,or parallelto, the workor the tail stockspindle. Now adjust the toolhorizontally by fittingthe cutterpointexactly intothe 60-degree angle notchin the frontedge of the centergage.

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Tighten thetool post screw. Besure nottochange theposition oftheholder. Recheck thetool setting after tightening thetool post screw.
CUTTING AN EXTERNAL THREADS Aftersettingthe compoundrest and positioning the threadingtoolproperlyin relationto the work,it is necessaryto selectthe properspeed and feed. Good thread-cutting practicerequires that the back gears be engaged for thisoperation. This reducesthe r.p.m. or speed to a minimum,and is necessaryif best resultsare to be obtained.The correctselectionof feed is determinedby a gearbox on all modernlathes.Directionsare shownon the gearbox regardingthe settingof leversto obtainthe correctfeed, dependinguponthe threadsper inch to be cut. Now the compoundfeed-screwgraduatedcollaris set to zeroand the toolpointis broughtintocontact withthe workby turningthe crossfeed screw.The toolpointshouldcontactthe worklightly.Then run the carriageto the right,usingthe carriagehand wheel, untilthe toolclearsthe end of the work.Noticewhat the settingis on the cross-feedcollar. This adjustment mustbe rememberedso, at the end of each cut, the cross-feedis alwaysbroughtback to the same numberor setting.Feed in on the compound.002"and then startthe machineand take the firsttrialcut. If usingthe threaddial, be sure to engage the half-nutleverat the correctline on the dial, depending uponthe threadsper inchyou are cutting.This causesthe carriageto startin motion. A checkshouldbe made after thisfirsttrialcut to see that the correctpitchof threadis being machined. This is done by usinga thread-pitch gage or a rule. To determinethe totalnumberof thousandths of an inchthat the threadingtoolmustbe fed in by the compoundfeed screw,and in orderto cut the threadto the desireddepth,a simpleformulais used. This formulais: divide the constant.750 by the numberof threadsper inch. If it is required that eightthreadsper inchare to be cut, then divide .750 by 8, whichgivesa resultof .0937"(.094"can be used). This is the totalnumberof thousandths of an inchthe toolis to be fed intothe workto cut eightthreads per inch.However,the compoundfeed is used untilthe toolhas been fed in '090". Then the cross-feed is used to removethe finalfourthousandths of an inchfromthe thread,makingfourcutsand feedingthe toolin .001"on each cut. This willhelp to polishthe rightside of the thread.

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A good grade oflubricant should beused onthetool when threads arebeing cut. Mineral lardoilisa very good lubricant forthreading.
RESETTING THE TOOL If it is necessaryfor any reasonto removethe toolbeforethe threadis finished,reset the toolto the gage regardlessof the part of the threadalreadycut. Havingthe compoundrest at an angle of 29 degrees makes it easy to reset the toolif it needs regrinding. The toolis clampedin the toolpostafter it is reground.Then it can be set withthe centergage as before. In resettingthe tool,proceedas follows: first,reset the toolto the gage; then back the toolaway fromthe workpiece. Start the machineand engage the thread-chasing leveras before.Let the workpiece make two or three turnsand shutoff the powerwiththe threadingleverstillengaged. Adjust the toolintothe threadpreviously cut by moving the compoundand cross-feeduntilthe toolis linedup properlyin the threadgroove. Back the toolout fromthe workpiece slightly and turnon the power.When the toolis alignedproperly,proceedas before. There are three classesof fit designatedby AmericanStandardsnow being used. Classes1A, 2A, and 3A applyto external threadsonly,and class1 B, 2B, and 3B applyto internalthreadsonly.The three classesof fit are: Class 1. Loose Fit Class 2. MediumFit Class 3. Close Fit LOOSE FIT This classpossessesthe largestallowanceand is used where rapid assemblyof partsis required and loosenessis not objectionable. MEDIUM FIT This is used on the bulkof standardscrews,bolts,and nuts.A verysmallamountof loosenessor shake may be presentor if the partsare carefullymade no movement can be noted;yet the nut can he screwedon by hand. CLOSE FIT This is used on fastenerswhere accuracyof fit is highlyimportant, and where no loosenessis permitted. 194

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A wrench orsome other tool must beused toforce thenutonto thebolt. Tighter fitsthan those mentioned require special fabrication, andarecarefully specified forthejob being assembled.

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TAPS AND THREADING Thetapisused tocutinternal threads. There aremany forms oftaps used inmanufacturing work, but thehand tapistheonly oneused ina home workshop. Three taps areused foreach size ofthread. The Taper Tapisused tostart thethread. This hasa long taper ground onthepoint that will enter thedrilled hole andactasa pilot toguide andcenter thetap.Even with this self-guiding feature, you must hold it in linewith thehole orit will start crooked. Thetapered endwill trytogetit back tothecenter ofthehole, andthis will bend thetapandisliable to break it. Duetothelong taper ofthestarting, ortaper, tap,it cannot reach very farinto thehole. A tapwith a shorter taper, called a Plug Tap,isused after thethread hasbeen started with thetaper tap. Itispossible tostart a thread with a plug tapbycarefully guiding it andusing sufficient pressure. Itisnot possible tostart a thread with a bottom tap.Ifyour budget does notpermit thepurchasing ofthethree taps, geta plug tapanda bottom tap. Taps areeasily broken andmust behandled very carefully. Never usea tapwrench toolarge forthetap anddonotforce it asit cuts a chip. After thechip hasformed, turn thetapbackwards until it breaks the chip. With very small taps, it helps toruntheplug tapinasfarasit will stand without breaking. Then back it outandcutwith thebottom tapuntil it reaches itslimit. This way, each tapcuts less metal each time andisless liable tobebroken bytwisting. Ittakes longer, butisworth theextra time bysaving broken taps. Ithelps tohave twosmall tapwrenches sothetwotaps canbeleftsetupinthewrenches. Bending a small tapsideways isoneoftheeasiest ways ofbreaking it.Turn thetapwith thefinger tips ofonehand andusetheother hand tosteady thefirst byresting your wrist onthevise. When tapping a hole where thetapmust lineupwith a clearance hole, place thetwoparts together and tapthethread through theclearance hole, which acts asa guide. Ifthetwoholes arenotinline, thetap will beforced against thetight side oftheclearance hole andwill cutthreads that will allow thescrew to enter thethreaded lower part. These part threads cutintheclearance hole mayprevent thescrew from clamping thetwoparts tight, andit maybenecessary toremove them with a round file. When a thread must beexactly parallel toa drilled hole, it isbest tostart thetapinthedrill press before thework hasbeen released from theclamps used todrill thehole. Insert thetapinthedrill chuck and adjust thechuck sothetapwill slip if it isbiting toohard. Usea short rodthat will fitinto thekeyholes of thechuck toturn it,at thesame time using a little pressure onthedrill press feedtostart thetap.

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Theentire thread canbecutthis way, which israther slow or,after it iswell started, thework canbe removed from thedrill press andthethread finished byhand inthevise. Ifit wasnecessary tomove thedrill-press table toremove thedrill andinsert thetap,make sure it is returned totheexact position used todrill thehole. Adjust thecollar onthecolumn sothetable will not drop down andfix theturn indicator toitsposition, before moving thetable. Ifthere isnoturn indicator, make a chalk mark onthecolumn. This same method ofstarting a tapina drilled hole applies toholes drilled inthelathe. Inthis case, thetapisplaced inthetailstock chuck, and thework isturned byhand, using a wrench onturn with andfeeding with thetailstock. Larger taps, likepipe taps, cannot beheld inthedrill-press chuck. These taps generally have a center reamed inthehead end,anda 60 " stub center canbesetupinthedrill press tolineupthetap.Then thetapisturned with a wrench onitssquare end.This stub center isa piece of1/2inch stock turned toa 60" point. Itdoes notneed tobehardened, although it would lastlonger if it were hard. This stub center isvery useful inlocating a punch mark under thecenter ofthedrill. Setthestub center inthedrill chuck andcenter thework under it before clamping tothetable. Many firms supplying drills have printed cards showing thesize ofhole tobedrilled fortaps andthe clearance holes forthreads. These also show thesize ofdrills andtheir decimal equivalent. Gettwoofthese cards, oneshowing thetapdrills andtheother thedecimal equivalents. Mount them on thewall nearthedrill press. Diesareused tocutexternal threads. Thesmall button dies of1-inch diameter arevery handy for threads upto1 /2 inch, butforthreads over 1/2inch, larger dies arerequired. Even thebutton dieof1 inch for1 /2 inch threads issonarrow that only a fewteeth cancutthethread. This size isvery useful for rerunning a thread that hasbeen damaged. Only onedieofeach size isneeded. Oneside ofthediehasa taper forstarting andisused forcutting thethread. Theother side hasthefull thread clear tothefaceofthedie,andthediecanbeturned this side tothework tofinish thethread uptoa shoulder. Itisdifficult tostart a diesquare with thework. Ifit isnotstarted square, it will trytofollow itsown threads, while at thesame time running off-center tothework, which tries toforce it back tocenter. The result isa very crooked thread. Diestocks have three adjustable fingers onthestarting side. These canbesettobearonthework andguide theDieSquare. Youshould also have a plain diestock tofinish threads inclose quarters where thestock with theguide istoowide touse. When you purchase thedies, getthekind that issplit ononeside sothesize canbeadjusted. There are many ofthese button dies sold at bargain stores that arenottrue tosize. These cancause a lotof trouble bycutting anover sized thread. Getdies made byoneoftherecognized, nationally established firms, soyou will besure ofgetting good ones. Itisoften required tocuta thread a little under size, say,
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fora free-running nut, andtheadjustable diecandothis. Itisalso possible tocutanundersize thread byrerunning thethread with thedieheld at anangle. This makes thediecutsome offtheside ofthepreviously cutthread, butit will notbea true andeven thread. Itistobeused only when anadjustable dieisnotat hand andnever where accurate threads are required. Forcutting threads inthelathe with these button dies, usea dieholder that it's inthetailstock. This has a guide portion onwhich thediecanslide asit feeds onto thework. Thethread isstarted byputting pressure onthediewith thetailstock. After it isstarted, thediewill feeditself. Thelathe canberununder power, using theslowest speed of theback gears. Oncompletion ofthethread, thelathe isreversed andbacked offthedie. When backing offthedie,besure toremove theamount offeedused tostart thedie,orthediewill stop backing offwhen thefreetravel isused upandwill chew upthethreads. Itisbest tounclamp theentire tailstock from thebedasyou start toback off,you canthen besure the diecanwork allthewayoffwithout doing anydamage. A little sulfur-base cutting oilshould beused on both taps anddies. With brass andaluminum, thetaps anddies tend tostick tothemetal unless oilis used.
THREAD DIMENSIONS All of the threadsizesshownhere were taken fromthe workbookthat we made up as we threadednew barrels,and came directlyfromthe old barrel.They may or may not agree withsome of the factory specifications foundin some books.The sizesgivenbelowwere what we cut on the new barrelsand reinstalled back on the old action.

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NOTE - The abovedimensions were taken directlyfromthe barreland not fromfactoryspecifications.

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RELINING BARRELS Many oldguns arearound that have barrels that arerusted out, butotherwise therest ofthegun isin workable condition. Others have bores that arelarger than theindividual would like, andwould liketo change them toa smaller caliber tomake them more serviceable. There isa solution tocorrect theabove problem. This istorebore andreline thebarrel tothecaliber that you want. Itisa simple matter todothis, asallthat isnecessary istopurchase tubing that hasthe correct ID,orslightly smaller. Thebore isthen reamed tothecorrect size, andthen rifled. Inrelining barrels, theoriginal barrel isbored outbya drill with a pilot tofittheoriginal bore. Thedrill being started at thechamber endoftheoldbarrel sothat it will bewell centered. Thebarrel is then reamed with a barrel reamer tobring it tothesize ofthetube tobeinserted init. Once this isdone, theoldbarrel isthen drilled outtothesize oftheODoftheliner tube. Ifyou cannot find thetubing thesize that isrequired, a rifled barrel orblank ismade orpurchased andturned down to theODthat isrequired. Beforewarned that toturn a barrel down toa smaller size does have certain problems such aswarping, butit isstill a simple operation. Sharp tools anda follower steady rest will eliminate much ofthechances ofwarpage.
TUBING FOR RELINING Most of the barrellinersfor reliningare long,and if possibleit is best to get seamlesstubingfor the operation.The tubingcan be purchasedfromany steel supplyhouse,and of many differentmakes of manufactures. SuperiorTubingmanufactures the best tubingthat I havefound,and it has excellent interiorsurfacefinish.The surfacefinishis verygood, and is usuallybetterthan the othertubing manufactures. This is veryimportant as if the ID of the tube is roughand lookinglike an 1800-century washboard.It willbe difficult to ream it and get the interiorfinishthat is needed for the bore. When you buy the tubingyou may haveto buy the tubingwitha smallerID than is desired,and bore it out to the sizethat you want, and then ream it to the correctsize.It is best to use a shortpiece of tubing,and bore and ream it to be sure it willdo a good job and get the desiredinteriorfinish.Most of the tubingwill be 4130, whichis Chrome-Molysteel. This steel willgivegood wear, but it is more difficult to get a good finish.If you are able to get the desiredresults,you can now bore out the old barrelto fit the OD of the tubing. BORING TOOLS The boringtoolthat I mostlyused was the standarddrillbit witha pilotgroundon it that was a closefit to the bore. This was done on the lathe witha Tool Post Grinder.Chuckthe back end of the drillin a collet or three jaws chuck,and use a hardenedfemale centerin the Tail Stock.Grindthe pilotat least 1/2" long,but 3/4"is better.A recessis cut at the shoulderof the pilotto make sharpening the drilleasier. 201

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Thedrill isthen removed from thelathe andtheshoulder isresharpened tothecorrect angle ofthe original drill. Itiswise toselect thedrill size toabout .0025thousands smaller than thefinish size ofthe bore. Thereamer will remove theextra stock, andfinish thebore toa close fitfortheliner.

A shaft close tothesize ofthedrill isnow brassed totheendofthedrill. Theshaft isslightly beveled, andthedrill andshaft islaidina piece ofangle iron. Theshaft hastoberaised slightly tobecentered with thedrill. After allislined upthetwoarebrassed together, andletcooled slowly torelieve anystress. Grind offanyextra brass anddrill isready touse.
BORING THE BARREL Removethe barrelfromthe action,and any otherattachments suchas sight,etc. that may be on the barrel.The barrelis then centeredin the lathe usingthe lath chuckif the spindleis large enoughfor the barrelwillfit insidethe Head stockSpindle.If the spindlehole is too small.The barrelwillhave supportedwitha steadyrest on the chamberend, and the chuckon the muzzle end. Insertthe drillin the tail stockchuck,or in a specialholderon the carriage.The carriageis the best way to reborethe barrel,as the drillhas to be withdrawnabouteveryhalf inchto clean the drill. Start the lathe up, lubricatethe bore witha good grade of cuttingoil, and adjust the speed for the drill sizethat you are using.Start the pilotin the chamberend, and engage the feed on the carriage.Have the feed set for a slowfeed rate, or the drillcan be fed in by hand if so desired.Feed the drillin the barrelfor abouta half an inch,removefrombarrel,and clean the chipsfromthe drill. RELINING THE BARREL The barrelto be relinedis placedon a solderingstand,whilegas burnersheat it alongits fulllength, fromeach side. When it reachesthe properheat it is tinnedall over,insides,witha stiffwire brush.If the brushis used, it is dippedintoand saturatedwithregulartinnerssolderand the barrelis tinnedby runningthe toolor brushthroughthe barrel. The linerhas its ends pluggedwithwoodplugsand is tinnedon the outside.It is insertedin the barrel and workedback and forthso excesssolderis workedout. The surfacesof bothbarreland linerare evenlytinned.The lineris left aboutthree incheslongerthan the barrel,an evenamountbeing allowedto extendfromeach end of the barrel. Stand the barreluprightwhilecooling.Afterit is cold,hang it up witha wire and strikeit witha small hammer.If you havea good solderingjob, it willring.If it does not ring,the linerwillhaveto be removed

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andthesoldering operation repeated until it does ring.

FINISHING THE BARREL Afterthe lineris cut off flushwitheach end of the barreland fittedto the action,the extractor cut is made, the lineris then chamberedfor the cartridgeand the muzzle end is finishedwitha countersink equipped witha pilotfittingthe bore. RIFLING THE LINER Afterriflingthe tube, the riflingcuttersets up a smallburralongthe edges of the grooves and these must be removed by lapping.Inserta grooved lappingrod in the barrelafter wrappingabouttwo of the lower grooves withstring,the rod being insertedfromthe breechend of the barreland stoppedjust a little shortof the muzzle. LAPPING THE BARREL In castinga lap in a relinedbarrelin whichan unrifledtube has been insertedand later rifled,the barrel cannotbe heated as hot as the one-piecebarrel,or the solderholdingthe tube in place willbe melted, thereforekeep temperatures to not muchover250 degrees. The barrelis held uprightin a vise,muzzle-up, and in the case of a new barrel,is heated so that the lead castsa fulllap. If it is heated to just a lightstrawcolor,it willbe sufficient and the heatingis done onlyfor the lengthof the lap at the muzzle, abouttwo inches.The meltedlead is pouredintothe muzzle and is just allowedto come flushwithit. As soonas the lead cools,the lap is pushedout of the muzzle just a shortdistanceand examined to see that it is perfect.Any overflow at the muzzle is trimmedoff witha sharpknife.Be carefulto not allowthe lap to come entirelyout of the barrelat any time untilthe lapping workis finished. Givethe lap a coatingof lightoil and withdrawit to the breechend of the barrel,allowingit to extend slightly fromthisend, so that the stringmay be removed and the lap coatedwitha fine grade of optical emery. While the lap is at the rear end of the barrel,coat the barrelfromthe muzzle end withoil.

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Thelapping rodisequipped with a ballbearing cross-handle at theopposite endfrom thelapsothat it mayeasily begrasped andworked back andforth through thebarrel. Stops areplaced at both the muzzle andbreech endofthebarrel sothelapwill never bepushed orpulled entirely from thebarrel. Lapthebarrel foreight ortenminutes, adding fresh emery, andoilfrequently. Attheendofthis time withdraw thelapfrom thebarrel andwash thebarrel outwith solvent andexamine it toseethat allburrs have been removed, Iffurther lapping isnecessary, anentirely newlapmust be cast ontherodinthebarrel, asbefore, fortheoldlapcannot bereinserted. Ifyou desire anextra high polish, asisoften given totarget barrels, thebarrel canbepolished with rouge andlight oilafter thelapping operation. Leather washers about twoorthree thousandths ofan inch larger than thegroove diameter ofthebarrel isplaced upon a polishing-rod with ballbearing cross handle. Theleather washers being separated from each other with small brass washers andretained in place bya brass nutontheend,which ismade thebore diameter. During thepolishing operation, this nutcanbetightened a little from time totime, toswell theleather washers slightly. Thepolishing operation maybekept upforanhour ormore.

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MAKING 22 RF LINERS Inthis chapter I will show you how tomake 22 RFliners, forrelining shot out22's. I first came upwith the process in1958,andat that time, noonemade anyliners, except anoutfit inEngland. I sold over 5000 liners inthefirst 6 months. Atthat time, I realized there wasa need fora lowprice liner totakecareof thethousands of22 barrels that were shot orrusted out. I setabout trying tocome upwith a suitable method tomass-produce a liner that would befasttomake. Give thedesirable interior finish without any mechanical reaming, anda material andmethod that would give a superior rifled finish.
LINER TUBING I spentquitea bit of time experimenting withvarious methodsof manufacturing, triedmany different typesof steels.Rightoff, I ran intoone big problemwiththe liners.The interiorfinishwas verybad. It seems the manufacture was unableto holdgood I.D. finishor sizeon the tube. Most often,the tubing had chattermarksinsidethe tube, as well as unevenbore. Some of the tubingran as muchas .015 oversize in the bore (In places).They were supposedto be .187 on the I.D., but I foundthat some ran so large that a .219 buttonwouldfall throughthe bore. I just aboutgaveup on the idea. I eventriedto ream the bore to removethe roughness, and did get a verysmoothand shinybore. When I rifledit all of the chattermarksreappeared.The insidelookedlike a washboard.I had been in contactwithvarious tubingmakersacrossthe country,and had several samplesof tubingto try. One was fromSuperiorTubing.When I wiped the grease fromthe bore, it was like a mirror.Boy, these people had theiract together.I cut off a smallpiece, lubricatedit, and rifledit. It was a prefectbarrel.Sizewas perfect,finishwas perfect,and was what I was lookingfor. If you get tubing,you mustspecifythat you want tubingfromSuperiorTubing.I knowof no other manufacture that has theirquality. When you orderyou need 5/16 x.187, plusor minus.003. You should also specifythat the tubingshouldbe free frominteriorchatter. The processI willdescribehere willgiveyou a veryhigh-gradelineras longas you use good tubing.In addition,thisprocessworksgreat for makinglargercalibers.I haveturnedout severalmuzzle-loading barrelsusingthisprocess.The onlydifferencein makingmuzzle-loading barrelsis that you need a longerstrokeon the riflingmachine.You can buy just aboutany sizetubingthat you need. With button reaming,you willbe able to sizemostslightly undersize tubingto the correctsizethe firstpass.

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22 RF BUTTONS The firstthingthat you willneed is the sizing buttonand riflingbutton.Sizesare givenin the chapteron riflingbuttons.When you get the tubing,you willneed to soak them in solvent to get the grease out of the bore. Afterthe tubingis cleanedit willneed to be counterbored,and specialholdersmade. After counterboring,wipe the barrelwitha lightgrade of oil for buttonreaming.The counterbore is 1/4 inch. You need a 1/4 inchpiece of drillrod that is hardenedand about2 incheslong.A sleeveis needed to hold,and clampto the tubing.Set the linerin the riflingmachine,slide the sleeveoverthe tubing,insert the reamingbutton,then the drillrod and tightenthe setscrews,and you are ready to buttonream. After buttonreamingthe bore, swab withMolyKoteZ and riflethe liner. 22 SIZING BUTTON The correctsizefor the swagingbuttonis .216. This is undersize for a 22 barrelbut is necessaryfor liners.When they are rifledthe sizewillbe OK. When you are riflingjust make sure the lineror rod is rotating.

LINER WARPAGE Duringthe swagingprocess,the linerssometimeswarp so these that warp willhaveto be straightened. The riflingbuttoncreatesa lot of stressin the swagingprocess.When you make the riflingbutton,it shouldbe .223. I findthat sixor 8-groove buttonworkswell on accuracy.You can use these linersfor 22 RF or 22 RF mags. The counterbore shouldbe cut off the liner,and it is ready to be chamberedand installed.To install,all that is necessaryis to measurethe liner,get a twistdrillthe same sizeor a few thousands largerthan the liner,and grinda piloton it (.218) and resharpenthe cuttingedge. Then a 1/4 inchpiece of drillrod is brazedto the end of the drill.The old barrelcan be put in the lathe, and reboredto the linersize.Drillfromthe muzzle to the chamber.You willhaveto clean the drillevery 1/2 inchor so, and keep it well oiled.

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INSTALLING THE LINER When done, clean the oil fromthe barrelwithsolvent. You can the linerin the barrelalreadychambered. If you want now put the actionback in the barrel,removethe extractor fromthe bolt.Inserta 22 case in the chamberof the liner.Now coat the insideof the barreland the outsideof the linerwithepoxy.Slip the linerup to 1/8 inchof the bolt,or where the end of the chamberis. Wipe off all the excessepoxyfromthe chamberend, closethe bolt,and pushthe linerup flushagainstthe bolt.Once it is flushon the bolt,open the boltand wipe off any extraepoxy.If you are careful,the case can be removed also. All that is left to do is cut the extractor slot,etc.

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BARREL INSERTS & LINERS Youareouthunting with your shotgun andallyou areusing isNo.6 shot. Upahead you seesome game butthey arealloutofrange foryour shotgun. Youshrug your shoulders andwalk on;wishing you had your high power rifle.

This hashappened tomemany times while hunting birds. Many a time I could have gotmea Fox or Coyote if I hadjust hada rifle. I gotanideaonedaythat I could have a rifle barrel inthedouble barrel, andmuch thesame asa German Drilling. When I gothome, I found anold30 Carbine barrel that would beideal fora barrel insert fora shotgun. I cutthecarbine barrel offright behind thegasport. I then turned thebarrel down towhere thebarrel would just slip into thebarrel onmy20 gauge double barrel.

I then turned theback endofthebarrel down totheshape ofa 20 gauge shot gun shell casing, but
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where it would just slip into thechamber oftheshotgun. I carefully trimmed a little at a time offthefront of therimuntil I could just close thebarrel upwith a 30-carbine casechambered inthechamber. Youcanalso make a chamber liner fora 38 or357cal.This isa chamber insert made likethelong insert; with theexception it isonly 6" long. Usea "0" onthefront tocenter it. Ona high-pressure cartridge thefiring pinhole inthebreech block needs tobebushed, tokeep the primer from flowing back andlocking theaction closed. Also anytime that theprimer flows back, there isalways thechance that theprimer will rupture. Ifthat should happen, high-pressure gasmaywreck the stock andaction. There isalways thechance ofpersonal injury from thehigh-pressure gas.Ifyou are using a cartridge with pressure over that ofthe45-70or38 Special, andalways BUSH THE BREECH
BLOCK.

The best cartridgesfor shotguninsertsare rimmedcases. The lowerpressurecartridgeswillgivegood accuracyup to 100 yardswithplentyof powerfor mostgame. The linerinsertsgivefairlygood accuracyup to 100 yards,and havehad many 5-inchgroupsfroma 0/U shotgun.Some type of sightsneeds to be installedto get thistype of accuracy.For closeshootinggood groupscan be achieved withthe frontbead.

If you use the shotgunregularly,you can installan adjustable rear sight. REVOLVER INSERTS 209

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There isanother type ofinsert that I useinmy357revolvers. Each ofthechambers hasa .177Cal. insert install init.A old"177 pellet rifle will supply you with thenecessary rifled barrel forthis project. There istwoways ofdoing this project. Oneistouseonly theinserts inthechamber, andtheother isto also linethebarrel. Lining thebarrel with a rifled liner gives thebest accuracy, butthechamber method will give satisfactory accuracy upto30 yards. Theshort piece ofbarrel iscentered inthelathe andisshaped just likea 38 or357case. Itismade to just slip full length inside thechamber inthecylinder, with noplay. Theprimer endisdrilled toaccept a large pistol primer. Drill just deep enough that it will beflush. Using a taper reamer, just ream thebarrel infront oftheprimer soa .177pellet will just start inside thebarrel.
22 CAL. BARREL LINERS When you havean old 22 of yourGrand Dads that is in good shape, but the barrelis wornout there is stillhope. Brownells and a few othersuppliershavea 22 RF liner,whichwillwhen installedgivenew barrelaccuracywhen properlyset in the barrel. The linershouldbe carefullychamberedand then the chamberpolishedto removethe reamer marks.It shouldbe chambereddeep enoughso when a cartridgein insertedin the chamberit willbe flushwith the end of the liner.

To install,all that is necessaryis to measurethe liner,get a twistdrillthe same sizeor a few thousands largerthan the liner,and grinda piloton it (.218) and resharpenthe cuttingedge. Then a 1/4 inchpiece of drillrod is brazedto the end of the drill.You willneed some type of "V" groove fixture to holdthe drill and rod in perfectalignmentwhilebrazing. The old barrelcan be put in the lathe, and reboredto the linersize.Drillfromthe muzzle to the chamber. You willhaveto clean the drillevery1/2 inchor so, and keep it well oiled witha good cuttingoil. INSTALLING THE LINER When done, clean the oil fromthe barrelwithsolvent. You can the linerin the barrelalreadychambered. If you want now put the actionback in the barrel,removethe extractor fromthe bolt.Inserta 22 case in the chamberof the liner.Now coat the insideof the barreland the outsideof the linerwithepoxy.Slip the linerup to 1/8 inchof the bolt,or where the end of the chamberis. Wipe off all the excessepoxyfromthe chamberend, closethe bolt,and pushthe linerup flushagainst the bolt.Once it is flushon the bolt,open the boltand wipe off any extraepoxy. 210

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Ifyou arecareful, thecasecanberemoved also. Allthat islefttodoiscuttheextractor slot, andcrown thebarrel. This canbedone byvery carefully filling theliner flush with themuzzle, andthen removing any burrs from theedge ofthebore with a sharp knife.
TURNING LINERS To preparea barrelthat you drilled,reamed, and rifled,for insertion intoa bored barrelit mustbe turned to size. The firstthingto do is cut the barrelto the lengththat you nee plus1 inchfor cleaningup. You willneed the extra1-inchin truingup each end, and the finalfinishing of the barrel. You havethe barrelcut to the correctlength,so now chuckthe barrelin the lathe and face off bothends of the barrel.If the bore has run quitea bit off center,you willneed to repeat thisprocessafter a few passes on the O.D. The reasonfor thisis that if the angle on the end of the barrelis off, one side of the barrelwillbe thicker than the other.In turning,the barrelwillprobablywarp. Now that the barrelis squared,put the faceplate on the lathe. Take a bar of steel that is 20 incheslongthat has centersin each end and has been turned true. You willneed to set the tail stockto an exact0000 settingso that there is no taper in the OD of the liner when finished.Set the dial indicatoron the carriageof the lathe, set it to 000, and set the tail stockover a bit. Crank the carriagedowntowardsthe head stockto where the mark is on the barrel.Check the readingon the dial indicator,and if it is not right,reset the tail stockand repeat the processuntilyou get 0.0104. Havingnow completedsettingthe tail stockto 0000, set the barrelblankbetweenthe centers,and clampa lathe dog on the head stockend. The tail stockcenter,I havefoundoverthe years workbetterif it is carbide.If you are careful,you can use the standardhigh-speedcenter.Put a littlegrease on it that containsMolyKoteZ beforesettingit up. I havetriedto use livecentersoff and on, but I havefoundthat I get to muchchatter,and that willcause 211

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stress tobuild inthebarrel, andthus warp thebarrel. Itisvery important tokeep anystress from build upinthebarrel (Live centers, totight centers, dull tool bit,improperly sharpened tool bit,etc.)Nowforthetool bit.I have used carbide most allthetime in turning barrels. I prefer a good grade ofhigh-speed steel asthey aresharper andcutbetter, butrequire sharpening every pass, tokeep a good edge. I hadtousecarbide duetothetime saved. I grind allmytools tothegeneral shape. Onhigh-speed bits I used only about .010-nose radius, stoned onbyhand. Setthetool upsoit isabout .010above thetailstock center. IfI have thetime, I usually usea feedof.004,butyou will need toexperiment toseewhich feedworks thebest. Usually I donottakeover .020passes pereach side oneach pass. What you have towatch foristhat thecutisnotheavy enough that it will cause thebarrel tospring, especially onthebarrel that ishalf wayturned down. This springing causes stress. Hereiswhere a good steady rest ora follower rest becomes important. With a follower rest, you will beabletocutthe outside ofthebarrel with notaper, which iscaused byspringing. Thetool must cutclean, forif it drags, orit isslightly dull it will cause thebarrel toheatasit isturned. When thebitissharpened right you will getsome heatbuild up,butnotmuch. Watch thechips, asthey arecoming offthebarrel. Ifthey turn a dark blue, you aretaking toomuch a cut, orthetool isdull. Keep close watch onthepressure onthetailstock. Itmust besnug onthebarrel, butnottight. Asthe barrel heats itslengthens, andthetailstock must beloosened. Ifthetailstock center loosens toomuch, thetool bitwill chatter. After thebarrel isturned toabout, 3/4finished; you will need toremove thebarrel. Youwill then check toseeif thebore isstraight, andstraighten if necessary.

Ifyou have kept a sharp tool anda light feed, it should bestraight. Youmust, after ever pass from now onthebarrel should bechecked toseeif it isstraight. Ifthebarrel haswarped, takea lighter pass after it isstraighten.

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When you have finish turning thebarrel down towithin a fewthousands ofthefinish size, setthefeedto thelightest feed. Sharpen thetool bit,hone it very good, andmake a finish pass. This should finish the liner, andit will beready forinserting into thebored outbarrel.

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REPAIRING SHOTGUN BARRELS There aretimes when something gets into theendoftheshotgun barrel that causes anobstruction. When fired there maybea bulge formed, ortheendisblown off. Torepair such a barrel, there arethree choices: 1. 2. 3. Cutoffthebarrel andshoot asis. Install some type ofadjustable choke. Addanextension tothebarrel that hasthechoke init already.

Todothelatter, you will need a barrel that isasbigontheODastheoldbarrel, andonethat hasthe choke that you want. A lathe will benecessary todothis job, with at least a 36" distance between thecenters. Youwill need twocenters that arebigenough tocenter thebore, andonea live center. Cutoffthebarrel right behind thebulge, andtrue uptheendinthelathe. A steady rest will beneeded to hold thebarrel unless thebore ofthelathe islarge enough tohold thebarrel. When thebarrel endis trued, center thebarrel, andsetupthesteady rest about 2 inches from thecutoffendofthebarrel.

Once it issetup,you will bore theinside ofthebarrel 1/2ofit thickness, and3/4" deep into thebore. Measure theID very carefully sowhen you turn a shoulder ontheextension barrel, asit will need tobea very close fit. Theshoulder angle hastobevery accurate, sothefitbetween thetwobarrels will beexact. Thelength
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oftheshank ontheextension barrel hastobeexactly theright length, soit will butupontheshoulder on theinside ofthebarrel aswell asontheoutside. When you have achieved this fit,andhave theextension barrel turned soit will just fitthecounter bore with noplay it canbesoldered. Youcangetpaste, lowmelting temperature silver solder from most gunsmith supply business. Coatthe inside ofthecounter bore, aswell astheoutside oftheshoulder oftheextension. Ifyou have a slightly loose fit,you mayneed tomake a mandrel that will just slip inside ofthebores ofthetwobarrels. This will keep both inlinewhile soldering andcooling. Carefully heatuptheoutside ofthebarrels after they have been combined. Besure tokeep theheat uniform allaround thebarrels, andwhen thesolder melts evenly, letcool. Testthebarrel after it is cleaned outtomake sure you have a good soldering job. Onallofthedifferent lining jobs that arelisted above, beextra careful when first testing. Allofthese methods hasbeen used many times, andhave been proven safe. I cannot however assume any responsibly foraccidents orinjury dotousing improper methods orshortcuts.
SHOTGUN BORE AND CHOKE SIZE 12 GAUGES Bore Diameteris .730 FULL CHOKE .694 AC. .036 MODIFIED CHOKE .712 AC. .018 IMPROVE CYLD. .721 AC. .009 CYLINDER BORE .665 AC. .000 16 GAUGE BORE DIAMETER IS .673 FULL CHOKE .640 AC. .033 MODIFIED CHOKE .656 AC. .017 IMPROVE CYL. .665 AC. .008

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20 GAUGE BORE IS .619 FULL CHOKE .590 AC. .029 MODIFIED CHOKE .604 AC. .015 IMPROVE CYLD. .613 AC. .007 SHOTGUN REAMERS 12 GAUGE Roughreamer Finishreamer 16 GAUGE Roughreamer Finishreamer 20 GAUGE Roughreamer Finishreamer .531 .590 .590 .619 .590 .562 .640 .640 .673 .640 Pilot .656 .694 Body .694 .730 Choke .694

The dimensions I havegivenhere are the ones that I haveused withgood results.These are more or less a happymediumon chokesand bores.For examplea fullchokebrowning has a bore diameterof .730, and a fullchoke,whichis .699. Winchesteris .730-bore diameter,and the fullchokeis .699. Who is to say whichone is best. If you do muchworkon shotgunbarrelsyou willsoonfindthere are no two alike, and I havefoundthat willvaryas muchas .042 frommaximum to minimum.The old German shotguns are usuallytighteryet. What thismeans if you haven't figuredit out yet is that you willprobably haveto make specialtoolsfor each differentbarrel. The old typesof barrelreamersthat were used in the past are usuallyused in the finishing of the choke.I havefoundthat these givea good job, but tookquita bit longerand did not givethe resultsthat I wanted on the bore. With the reamersdescribed,you willusuallynot haveto hone or polishany part of the barrel,exceptthe chokesection.I willshowyou how the reamersare made and the oil tube clampfor 216

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thelathe carriage. I will show you how tomake a full choke barrel, butif you want tomake a modified barrel, this canbemade onthefinish reamer.

There isa lotofarguments from various shooters onchokes, lengths ofbarrels, etc.IntheoldBlack Powder days a long barrel wasneeded forgetting maximum power outofblack powder. I don't know how many times I have been told about a person having a long tom shotgun that would shoot likea rifle, andoutshoot other shotguns.
SHOTGUN CHOKES To the averagesportsman the term " CHOKE BORE"MEANS THAT THE DIAMETER AT THE MUZZLE (BORE) IS LESS THAN THE DIAMETER AT SOME POINT BEHIND THE MUZZLE. ANY SHOTGUN BARREL CONSTRICTED AT THE MUZZLE TO THE EXTENT OF .005 OF AN INCH MAY BE TERMED A CYLINDER BORE. Afterpassinga certainlimitin reduction, the chokealwaysdefeat its main objective by giving erratic patternswithlarge holesin them. The largerthe bore the greaterthe reduction of the bore mustfinish closeto a givenlength,and that shouldbe approximately 1 3/8, or betteras a standardshouldbe about 1 inch. There is also anothergreat misconception on chokes,and that is measuringthe chokewitha dime. How oftenwe see a persontake a dime fromhis pocketto see if it willenter the muzzle? Such a test doesn't tell him much.If you were to measurea dime you'll findthat it measuresabout.705. Evenon some Americangunsit wouldgo intoa fullchoke.If you were measuringa Browning modifiedchoke barrelyou wouldprobablyfindthe dime wouldnot enter the choke,as it measures.701.

If you do verymany patterntestingyou may findthat some modifiedchokeswillshoottighterthan a lot of fullchokes.Once you havethe reamersmade, now get some fairlyheavywall tubing.This shouldbe 1/2 inchfor the 12 gauges.You willneed to threadone end so you can screwa fittingto that end, so the high-pressure oil line can be attached.All you need then is a fixture to mountin the carriagewhere the 217

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tool blocks mounts. This fixture clamps thetube tokeep it from turning. Thereamer you make it canbecounter bored toa depth of3/4inch toaccept the1/2-inch oillinetube. This should besweated together with soft solder. This isdone bycleaning upthe1/2-inch counter bore. Then tinning it andthe1/2tube, heating thetube andreamer shank together, slipping it into thecounter bored hole rotating fta fewtimes andletting the solder coot.

Youwill putthebarrel inthelathe with themuzzle endinthechuck. Thus thereamer will bestarted at the chamber end,andpulled towards themuzzle. Ontheroughing andfinishing thereamer will notcome out allthewayoutofthebarrel. Thefinish reamer will bestopped with thechoke about 1 inch from the muzzle. Youmust hand feedthefinish reamer fora fewthousands outthechoke. When having reached thedesired length, disengage thefeedandwhile themachine isstill running back outthereamer. Inreaming thebarrel thelathe should beintheslowest back gearposition. Youwill have tofind the best-feed rate.Ontheroughing reamer you will have tousetheslowest feedasyou areremoving a greater amount ofmaterial.
WATCH FOR REAMER PLUGGING One thingthat is necessaryis that on all tools,is that they mustbe attachedabsolutely solidand straight to the reamer oil tube. If not thiscan cause you a lot of griefin the formof ringedand roughbarrels. CUTTING THE CHOKE Shotgunbarrelsare made fromsteel tubesand althoughthey may be reamed to sizewitha series of barrelreamers,suchas thoseused on riflebarrels,they are usuallyfinishedbored and chokedwitha long,four-sided,squarereamer of 01 toolsteel, groundto sizeon a surfacegrinder.These reamersare 10"to 12"longand havea taperedlead at the frontend, about1"longon the finishing reamer. The driving rod for these reamersis brazedto the rear end of the reamer, the oppositeend fromthat whichhas the taperedlead, and the reamer is pushedthroughthe bore as the barreltube revolves. A woodpackingstrip,turnedon one side to the contourof the barrelbore, is placedagainstone side of thisreamer, its fulllength.Stripsof paper are placedbetweenthe woodstripand the boringreamer to cause it to cut largerafter each tripthroughthe barrel. 218

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A wood strip ofthesame type isused ononeside ofthefinish orfineboring reamer buttheleading edge oftheopposite side hasa small radius stoned upon it sothat it does nocutting, which isalldone with thetrailing edge ofthis side opposite tothat onwhich thewood strip isplaced. Thechoke boring reamer isused inshotgun barrels tocutthechoke. After thefinish orfineboring reamer isused thechoke boring reamer which hasa tapered Lead aninch long which tapers about .050" inthis distance isused tobore outthechoke portion ofthebarrel which isnotbored outbythe finish boring reamer. A wood packing strip isused, with paper shims onthetapered portion ofthis choke boring reamer andthis reamer cuts ontwoedges. Theshotgun boring reamers arerunat a lowspeed andplenty ofcutting oilissupplied bya low-pressure pump. Inmaking thereamers they arehand honed after being ground toshape bya surface grinder. They must becarefully checked forstraightness. Indoing thegrinding, if much stock is toberemoved, donotgrind a lotoffofoneside andthen offtheopposite side buttakea small amount offofthefirst side, then a likeamount from theopposite side, then takethesame from anadjacent side andthesame from thelastside andrepeat this until thereamer isground tosize, asthis method of grinding will prevent warping thereamer. Choke boring issimilar toquick-boring, except thecutting endoftheroddoes notgoquite through the barrel, being withdrawn andagain inserted with a slip ofpaper placed between theslip ofwood andthe cutter. This isworked notquite sofarastheprevious boring, being withdraws andanother slip ofpaper placed between thewood andthechatter, andthis isworked inasfarasdesired. Caremust betaken that thechoke begradual andeven. A finish canbegiven byfolding a piece offineemery cloth oremery paper around a rod, andbyturning this inthebarrel, equalize anyunevenness that mayoccur. Toenlarge theinterior ofa barrel, boring it choked at both breech andmuzzle, push therodtothe distance from thebreech theenlarging istostart, andthen start boring, leaving offwhere themuzzle choke istostart. Ifthebore ofa barrel istotaper from muzzle tobreech, it will scatter. Ifmade totaper toomuch from breach tomuzzle, it will compress theshot, andcause a very scattered pattern. A very slight variation inthesize ofthebore ofa gun-barrel at oneofitsends often hasa marked effect onitsshooting. Iftheshotgun tends toscatter theshot toomuch, it canusually becorrected byenlarging thebore at thebreech. Choke boring isanother isanother type offinishing thechoke. Youwill have to,ormore than likely need topolish thechoke area.This consists indressing outthe breech with fineemery paper orcloth, wrapped upon a round wooden rod. A little oilshould beused in finishing thedressing, which will notextend above half thelength from thebreech tothemuzzle. Noattention isneeded totheslope ofthechoke, asthesize ofthebore, during this operation, isusually largest at thebreech. Todothis geta break cylinder hone will work very good with thefinest grit stones you canget.Itisusually necessary tohone theslope ofthechoke area,asthereamer will usually notdo that well there. This iswhere theoldstyle square shotgun reamers work well asthey will doa better finish job there. Youwill need tobraze a 1/4-inch rodtothehone soit canreach down thebarrel tothe choke area.Then finish with a finelapping compound. With thehone you will beabletodoquite a bitof alterations onthechoke area.Becareful that you donotchange theshape ofthecone areaasthis will
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throw offthepattern. Thefinal polish inthebore should bea mirror likefinish, instead ofthefinish, weseeinthebore of almost allguns completed with thefinishing tools andnever lapped. Youshould lapthebarrel with 800 or900carbide powder. A barrel highly finish will beknown bytheremarkable closeness ofitspattern. Theonly waytoachieve this iswith a leadlap.Along leadlapcoated with finecarbide flower, and paraffin oilasa lubricant. This process isalso done inthelathe, orit canbedone with anelectric drill. If used inthelathe, thelapshould beheld inthesame holder asthereamer coolant tube, andisdirectly in linewith thebore.
DIFFERENT SIZES OF SHOTGUN REAMERS You willalso be able to add shortextensions to a shotgunbarrelto replacethe damage end that has a bulgeor burstin it. There are a lot of chokeadaptorsmade todaythat willmountto the finishedreamed barrel,and makingand testinga chokeis eliminated.This willcut many hoursfrommakingthe finish barrel,and I wouldrecommendgoingthisroute. BARRELS ON DOUBLE BARRELS You willneed to make quitea few differentfinishing reamers,as just abouteverybarrelis different.Due to the simplicity of makingthe reamers,you shouldbe able to make severaldifferentsizesat a time. You willneed to make sizesstartingfrom.008 overthe sizeswe recommendedfor the finishreamer, and downto .O30 underthe finishreamer, in .002 steps.

SOLDERING THE BARRELS TOGETHER You willbe able to installnew barrelson old double-barrels, just aboutthe same way. Cut off the old barrels,firstremoving the ribs,in frontof the hinge.Then you haveto reborethe chamberends to fit the new barrels.In some cases thisis the way they were assembled,and they can be heated and the old barrelscan be removed. Lot of the old shotguns was made thisway at the factory. Take the finishbarreland turnthe chamberend to the sizeneeded to just slipin the old chambersection of the doublebarrel,or singleshot.I mightpointout that the fit has to be veryclose,or you may get a bulgedchamber.You can use a good low meltingpointSILVER 220

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SOLDER OR HARD SOLDER TO SOLDER THE NEW BARREL IN PLACE. ONCE SOLDERED IN PLACE THE RIBS/SIGHTS CAN BE INSTALLED BACK IN PLACE. It is best to chamberthe shotgunbarrelsto at 95 percentcompletedbeforeinstalling, and finishafter installing. If you are carefulthe chamberends can be completedand the head space finishbefore installing as the shoulderwillregulatehow far the linercan be inserted.In installing a specialfixture shouldbe made to holdthe shotgunbarrelend solidwhileinserting the new barrel/s.They are heated witha gas burnersuchas is foundon gas stoves, or hot water tanksand when hot, all the surfacesare well tinnedand all are assembled. With all settingup workdone, the rib is positioned againstthe barrelsby means of "C" clampsplaced aboutsixinchesapart alongthe lengthof the entirerib. A steel rod about1/2"in diameter,and as long as the entirerib, shouldbe placedbetweenthe clampand the rib itself. In thisway the radiusof the rod willbear more evenlyon the convex surfaceof the rib than wouldthe flat end of a "C" clamp.A squareshaft3/8"squareis placedon the top rib the same lengthas the rib. Now begin to carefullyheat the work,commencing at the breech,and when sufficiently hot, don't heat too fast nor too hot, applysolder,usingthe muriaticacid, zinc,or a good past solderas a flux, to the joining of the ribs and barrels.Tightenup the clampsuntilthe rib is positively againstthe barrelsand properlyin the center;then witha Butaneburnerapplythe heat, but no more than is necessaryto make the solderflowfreelyfor solderthat is overheated tendsto become grainywhen it hardens. If the solderis hammeredthinit willmelt quickly by the heat of the barrels,and willbe suckedis untilthe space betweenthe differentpieces is completely filled.Do thisuntilthe entirelengthof the barrelsis gone over.At the muzzle fit and inserta smallpiece to fillthe space betweenthe barrelsand the top rib. Work frombreechtowardsmuzzle overa lengthof sixinchesat a time. As the soldermeltsand begins to flowfreelythe solderwillseep out betweenrib and barrels,and the appropriateclampscrewshould be tighteneduntilthe rib is fullyagainstthe barrel.Any excesssolderwhichflowsout frombetweenthe joint shouldbe wiped off witha clothbeforeit has a chanceto hardenand set on a portionof eitherthe barrelsor rib where it is not wanted.Repeat thissame operationall alongthe rib untilthe entireloose unitis fullyand positively joined to the barrels. Look at the muzzle of the barrelsand see if any solderis needed at that point.If there is an opening betweenthe top and bottomribs.It is necessarythat all the space betweenthe top rib and the barrels be completely filledwithsolder,or rustwillformthere, whichwillcause problemslater to the barrels,and in time workunderthe ribs,causingthe ribs to come loosefromthe barrels.This openingshouldbe filledin by flowingmeltedsolderintothe openingand then trimming off the excesswitha piece of emery clothlaid againsta flat stickor file. Allowfor normalcoolingby the surrounding air and do not pourwater on the barrelsto inducerapid coolingas it mightseep intosome minutecrackexisting betweenthe rib and barrelsand forma steam pocket.Removethe clamps,and witha verynarrowchiselscrapeaway all tracesof solderthat show 221

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between thejoined surfaces, being careful nottoscratch thebarrels. When thework issoldered andiscool, wash it well with warm water, using a stiff brush toremove dirt andalltrace oftheacid flux that mayremain onthework. With a chisel orscraper remove allsurplus solder andbrighten thework with emery cloth ofdifferent grades. Begin with thecoarser andfinishing with thefineorwith flour andemery. When thework issoldered andiscool, wash it well with warm water, using a stiff brush toremove dirt andalltrace oftheacid flux that mayremain onthework. With a chisel orscraper remove allsurplus solder andbrighten thework with emery cloth ofdifferent grades. Begin with thecoarser andfinishing with thefineorwith flour andemery. Tostop anypossible rusting that might occur asa result ofusing thesolder orflux, thebarrels should be cleaned with some good detergent, dried off,andcoated with light oil.Theinsides ofthebarrels should beswabbed anda light oilapplied.
REPAIRING SHOTGUN BARRELS There are timeswhen something gets intothe end of the shotgunbarrel.When firedthere may be a bulgeformed,or the end is blownoff. To repair sucha barrel,there are three choices: 1. 2. 3. Cut off the barreland shootas is. Installsome type of adjustable choke. Add an extension to the barrelthat has the chokein it already.

To do the latter,you willneed a barrelthat is as big on the 00 as the old barrel,and one that has the chokethat you want. A lathe willbe necessaryto do thisjob, withat least a 36 distancebetweenthe centers.You willneed two centersthat are big enoughto centerthe bore, and one a livecenter. CUTTING THE BARREL OFF Cut off the barrelrightbehindthe bulge,and true up the end in the lathe. A steadyrest willbe needed to holdthe barrelunlessthe bore of the lathe is large enoughto holdthe barrel.When the barrelend is truedup, centerthe barreland set up the steadyrest about2 inchesfromthe cut off end of the barrel. Once it is set up, you willbore the insideof the barrel1/2 of it thickness, and 3/4deep intothe bore. 222

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Measure theID very carefully sowhen you turn a shoulder ontheextension barrel it will bea very close fit.
SHOULDER ANGLE The shoulderangle has to be veryaccurate,so the fit betweenthe two barrelswillbe exact.The length of the shankon the extension barrelhas to be exactly the rightlength,so it willbut up on the shoulderon the insideof the barrelas well as on the outside.

When you haveachieved thisfit, and havethe extension barrelturnedso it willjust fit the counterbore withno play, it can be soldered. You can get paste, low meltingtemperaturesilver solderfrommostgunsmith supplybusiness.Coat the insideof the counterbore, as well as the outsideof the shoulderof the extension. If you havea slightly loosefit, you may need to make a mandrelthat willjust slipinsidethe boresof the two barrels.This willkeep bothin line whilesolderingand cooling. Carefullyheat up the outsideof the barrelsafter they havebeen combined.Be sure to keep the heat uniformall aroundthe barrels,and when the soldermeltsevenly,let cool.Test the barrelafter it is cleanedout to make sure you havea good solderingjob. On all the differentliningjobs that are listedabove,be extracarefulwhen firsttesting.All of these 223

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methods have been used many times, andhave been proven safe. I cannothowever assume any responsibly foraccidents orinjuries duetousing improper methods orshortcuts.

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CASE HARDENING Oneoftheoldest known heat-treating processes iscarburizing. History tells usthat sword blades and primitive tools were made bythecarbonization oflow-carbon wrought iron. When you aremaking a firearm, casehardening isa good waytofinish many oftheparts. Color casehardening will give a very attractive finish. Thefollowing carburizing processes arecommonly used inindustrial applications: (1)pack carburizing, (2)gascarburizing, and(3)liquid carburizing. Most mild steels donotcome with enough carbon toenable them tobehardened byheating and quenching, asarethehigher-carbon-content tool steels. However, if carbon isadded tothesteel, it can bemade toharden upon quenching. There aremany methods ofadding carbon. Intheprocesses, the heated steel absorbs thecarbon from theoutside. Theinterior ofthemetal does notabsorb theadded carbon andsoremains soft after quenching. A hard carbonous surface, orcase, isformed onthemetal.

Case-hardening isaccomplished byimpregnating thesurface ofsteel with carbon, byheating it at high temperatures while packed inaniron orsteel box with proper carburizing materials, orbyheating the steel inpotassium cyanide inaniron pot, Theonly practical method forthehome shop isoneofthecyanide processes. Melted sodium cyanide is a very good carbonizing agent, butit isalso very dangerous touse. There areseveral patented compounds onthemarket, such asKasenit, Hard andTuff, which give the same results andaresafer touse.Thesteel isheated toa cherry red,then covered with thehardening compound andallowed tosoak init.

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This will form a paper-thin casethat will beglass-hard when quenched. Thecasewill notbethick enough forgrinding. Toform a casethat canbeground, thesteel must be heated several times andletsoak inthemelted compound until cool after each heating. Inshops that do a lotofcasehardening, thearticle issurrounded with thecarbonizing agent-bone charcoal, molten sodium cyanide, ora nitrogen atmosphere, andheld ina furnace at thecarbonizing temperature until a caseofthedesired thickness hasformed upon it. Thevarious parts ofgun parts such asguards, metal butt plates, etc.,andthedifferent parts oflocks, such ashammers, tumblers, triggers andplates, that theGunsmith hastomake will need some type of hardening. Many gunsmiths, particularly those inthecountry, finish theparts with a fileandthen hand polish. These parts canthen befinished through thenormal heat-treating, orcasehardening.

Triggers, sears andvarious other small parts canbefinish inthis manner. Asthese parts arealmost always made ofsoft iron, they would soon wear andhave toberepaired if nothardened. Thegunsmith will thoroughly case-harden theparts when they arefitted andfinished, andwill turn outa good piece ofwork that will wear aswell ashardened steel. Some gunsmiths, when such work is finished, heatit redhot, smear it with a good casehardening compound such asHard-tuff, andwhile hot, plunge it into cold water, letting it chill. This produces a superficially hardness surface that isnot" skin deep," andassoon asthis surface becomes worn through useit will wear away rapidly. Ifthecasehardening oftheexperience Gunsmith, you will seethat thesurface ofsuch work hasa fine grayish appearance, andinmany places mottled with colored tints that arepleasing andbeautiful tothe eye.Onthese parts thehardness isofsuch depth that it will wear fora long time. Infactit will wear better than hardened tool steel. Thecondition ofthecasehardened part isthat ofa hardened steel surface stretched over andshrunk upon theiron body ofthework. Itisstronger andtougher than steel, forit has thetenacity ofiron foritsinterior. Ithastheadvantage ofsteel, inasmuch asit maybebent when cold toa limited degree, andcasehardened it will notbreak asreadily assteel. Theeasiest andPerhaps thebest waytocaseharden gun work istohave a number ofshort pieces of common gaspipe, such aswill beadapted tothesize orquantity ofthework, andhave oneendof these pieces securely plugged orcapped. A best wayistohave a thread onthepipe andthen screw on
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a plug, such asareused toclose ends ofgaspipe. Inthepack carburizing process, theoperation iscarried outbypacking thesteel insuitable containers such assteel boxes orpots, with a carbonaceous material. Thesubstances used aregenerally commercial solid carburizers that vary incomposition; They generally consist ofa hardwood charcoal towhich anenergizer, such asbarium carbonate, hasbeen bound bymolasses oroiltar. Mixtures ofcoke andcharred leather, bone, andcharcoal arealso used. Theenergizer usually represents about 20% ofthemixture. Toincrease therateofheattransfer through thecompound, an additional 20% ismade ofcoke. Since thecompound decomposes with use,it iscommon practice to add12% to30% newmaterial toused compounds fora newoperation. Inthis process, thebox, which ismade ofheat-resistant alloys, ispacked andsealed tightly, then placed inthefurnace andheated tobetween 1500 and1750R Within this range a transformation takes place inthesteel forming austenite which hasthecapacity todissolve large amounts ofcarbon. Thebest case-hardening isdone bythepack-hardening method, that is,packing thearticles tobe hardened iniron boxes inwhich thearticle issurrounded bypowdered charcoal, coke, leather orbone andheated at a rather lowheatover a long period oftime. This method gives a deeper hardening and thetemperature ismore easily controlled. Thetime required varies with thesize ofthepieces. Temperatures maybeheld at 1550degrees Fahrenheit. Green bone should never beused asa carburizing material, asit contains phosphorus. Pack thework with thepowder, thesame asbone dust. Bone black maybeused thesame as bone-dust, butit isnotasgood, andwill notgive asgood a results. Itisalso dirty touseandtohave around a shop. Gun guards, straps andlong pieces ofwork will become shorter after case-hardening, andit isbest not tofitsuch pieces into thestock until after they arehardening. Case-hardening byheating thearticles inliquid potassium-cyanide toa temperature of1562degrees Fahrenheit gives a quick andvery even case, butit issuperficial andwon't stand anyfurther finishing after being case-hardened asthehardening will becutthrough. Cyanide salts areviolent poisons if allowed tocome incontact with wounds orscratches andarefatal if taken internally. Poisonous fumes aregenerated when cyanides arebrought into contact with acids. Asthecyanide gives offdeadly poisonous fumes, this type ofcasehardening should bedone inan open pot,under a hood attached toa flue with a good draft, andtheoperator should stand back from the pot. Cyaniding isa process that involves thecasehardening ofmachined steel parts byheating incontact with molten cyanide salt, followed byquenching ina saltbath, water, ormineral oil,depending upon the type ofsteel. Thesaltbath consists ofa mixture of30% sodium cyanide, 4-0%sodium carbonate, and
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30% sodium chloride. Thecyaniding temperature isabove thelower critical temperature ofthesteel, usually from 1400 to 1600F. Direct quenching isemployed. This process iscapable ofhigh production, asimmersion periods require only 15 minutes to2 hours. Itrequires about 30 minutes tocaseharden a part from 0.003" to0.005". Themaximum casedepth israrely more than about 0.020". Avery thin surface case canbeobtained bydipping ina powdered cyanide mixture, followed byquenching.
CAUTION: A methodof venting gases is a mustduringthe operationand moltencyanideshouldnever be allowedto come in contactwithsodiumor potassiumnitrates,used in temperingoperations,as the mixtures are explosive, extremecare is necessaryat all timeswhen usingthe material If you want to havean area of the workleft softand the otherpartshardened,securelycoverthe places to be left soft,witha coatingof moistclay, and thiswillprevent the hardeningmaterialfromcomingin contact.It may also be observed that articlesthat are case hardenedwillnot rustso readilyas thosenot so treated. If the partsare quitethin,there may be a chanceof there crackingby suddenchilling. To prevent thisthe water may be warmeda little,or a filmof oil may be spread on the water, whichwilltend to prevent to fast coolingof the articles.If you want to havethe workshowthe colorsor mottledtintsas seen on some kindsof case hardenedgun work,the surfaceof the workbeforebeing put in the pipes containing the burntleather,mustbe highlypolishedand then buffed.The higherthe finishthe more brilliant willbe the colors. In usinga commercialcompoundto case harden,the workheated and dippedin, or if the workis large the compoundmustbe spread overit. The workmustbe hot enoughto fuse the compound, and if it become coldby removing fromthe fire it mustbe reheated,removed quickly fromthe fire and quenched is coldwater. Collectsucharticlescow's horns,or hoofsof eithercowsor horses,leathertrimmings fromaboutthe localshoe shops,old bootsor shoes,and burnthem untilsufficiently charredto admitof being easily poundedintoa powder.Then finishedup the partsto be hardened,and ready for the finalpolish,place them in an ironbox,and surround it completely on all sides by a packingof the powder.Pour intothe box,untilthe powderis moist,a solution of commonsalt. Then closethe boxand seal it untilairtight,with wet and well-worked clay, then put it intothe furnaceand heat the furnaceup graduallyuntilit becomesa cherryred.

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BLACKING FIREARMS Youwill find asyou getexperience that over polishing isthemain problem ofmost blue jobs, asmost newinexperience craftsman beardown, andspend tomuch time with theparts against thewheels to shine everything upandround offcorners, dish outscrew holes, andingeneral change theappearance ofthefirearm. Guns must beentirely taken apart todoa good job ofbluing aswhen a gun isleftpartly assembled, bluing salts remains increvices andafter thebluing solution hasbeen applied this salts will keep bleeding from thegun fora long period oftime. After thegun hasbeen completely taken apart, wash allparts insolvent, using a stiff brush togetinto all corners andif necessary usea small screwdriver toscrape away heavy grease anddirt. Youcannow seeallscratches andcuts, which must bepolished orfiled outbefore thebluing isapplied if thegun is tolook well afterwards. Remember that after thegun ispolished andblued, alldips, scratches, etc.will show upwhere you thought there were none. Polishing barrels ismore difficult than other parts, asthey areusually polished incorrectly, even when barrel shape andlines areokay. Barrels, andpractically allother gun parts aswell, especially receivers andtrigger guards, should bepolished lengthwise, notcrosswise. Preliminary cleaning upcanbedone intheeasiest method, butfinal polishing andbuffing should beinlinewith thebore. Running a barrel back andforth parallel totheturning wheel isnotsoeasy. Finishing thehand working over with crocus cloth helps a lot. A lathe cansave much time andbea great help togood bluing, asbarrels canbecleaned upbyjig or draw filing orhand scraping. Indraw filing, a fileofthevixen type canbeused forthepreliminary work, andshort sections ofcoarse mill fileforfinishing. Filing ofcourse isonly, necessary toclear offtool marks, rust pits andbulges. Many times if thebarrel wasrough ontheoutside, I setit upinthelathe and starting with thecoarsest emery cloth removed theworst scratches, rust, etc.Ifyou usethelathe, usea live center inthetailstock sothebore orrifling isnotdamage. After using thecoarse, usefiner grits to polish thebarrel, andonthefinal pass usecrocus cloth topolish it. A flexible shaft tool, a flexible shaft attachment forandelectric motor, with chuck inthefreeendof1/2" capacity, isvery useful forpolishing hard togettoplaces. Small felthobs andwheels, mounted ona 1/4" andeven 3/8" shafts canbepurchase from Brownell andother suppliers. They canbecharged with polishing compounds asthelarge wheels are,(Hobs aresmall cylinders andballs offeltwith built in mandrels.) These wheels area necessity forpolishing inside trigger guards, inthesmall radius curves onreceivers andrevolver cylinders. They save much time, anddoa quicker andmuch better job than thelarger wheels.

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HAND POLISHING Polishinga gun for bluingor rebluingcan be done by hand withoutas muchtime and laboras a person wouldthink.A hand polishedfirearmlooksbetterthan a powerpolishedone, sincecornersand angles can be maintained,withno lossof outline.A higherpolishby wheelsis required for the same finished blue appearancethan for the same appearancewhen done by hand. All the equipment necessaryto do a hand polishjob is yourset of files,fivefeet of I"or 11/2"grit abrasive cloth,sixfeet each of #240 and 320 stripand a coupleof sheetsof crocuscloth. Use fine filesto removescratchesand cuts,then polishthe file marksout withCarborundum cloth, startingwithcoarseand finishing withfine grades,polishing lengthwise of the barreland action,as crosspolishing showsup badlyafter the bluingis finished.For powerpolishing, the metal partsmustbe free of oil beforestartingthe job. Solvent combineswiththe free gritor clothto forma sticky,mess. A good soap shouldbe used to clean the handsand workwhen they become fouledup withthe oil and residue. There are a few places,as insidetriggerguardloops,in the smallcurved depressions in boltsleeves, etc., where the powerdriven felt hobswilldo a betterjob than hand work.Bolt-action triggerguards proper,tangsand floorplates,are veryeasy to hand polishand shouldbe so treated. DEGREASING Nearly all finishing processesrequirethat the metal be absolutely free o any trace of oil or grease. Howeversome of the blackingsystemsare so causticthey cut smallamountsof oil and so are not criticalon thispoint,however the oil or grease willsooncause the blackeningsolution to become contaminated.

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Byfarthebest hotwater cleaner isOakite, made byOakite Products, Inc.This isoneoftheoldest detergents, orgrease cutting cleaning compounds, wehave. Itemulsifies orabsorbs grease andwill not hurt hands orclothing, asit does notcontain lye.Thehousehold variety issold ingrocery, andhardware stores. Four ounces should beused toeach gallon ofwater. There arespecial industrial varieties of Oakite, which arecheap inquantity, andgofurther inuse.
BLUING TANKS Altitudeincreaseswater boilsat a lowertemperature,and as its sea-levelboilingtemperatureof 212 degrees is none to higha heat for good resultsin bluing,when you are workingat altitudesof 3000 feet and more the water temperatureis hardlysufficient for a good job of bluing. All the blackingprocessescall for immersionof the metal partsin the actualbluingsolution or in the neutralization of chemicalagentsused in the process. Stainlesssteel is the best tank material.These shouldbe weldedup, of fairlyheavygage sheet, about .050"thickand one of them willbe needed. The degreasingtank can be of mildironor steel. Tanks can also be made of blackironstrip,called"hot rolled," to a sizemosteconomicalfor yourshop. Insidemeasurements for the minimummostusefulsizeare 38"long,8"wide and 5,' deep. Remember, the biggerthe tank, the more solution you willneed. Smallertanks,15"by 7"by 5"shouldbe made for pistoland smallpartsbluing.It is a waste of solution and heat to use the large tank for smallparts.Three tanksof each sizeshouldbe made up. The purposeof three tanksis, one for boilingof partsin the degreasingsolution, a secondfor the blackingsolution, and the thirdto holdthe clean water used for rinsing. Some type of handlesshouldbe attachedto each end of the tank, and smallbars or rodsof metal weldedor wedged acrossthe tank on the insidecloseto the bottom,to prevent the metal partsto be bluedfromcontacting the tank bottom. Gas is the mostcommonheat used, and burnersfor bluingare easilyarranged.Longburnersare available commercially for the specificpurpose;you can make them of pipe, or salvagea few old ordinaryroundburnersfromscrappedstoves, hookthem in a line and supportin an angle-ironstandor on a metal table. Propanegases are available in mostareas, and the bluingsetupcan be operated froma propanetank, suchas is used on yourbarbecue.A woodentable witha metal top can be used as well or better.If you make up one, the burneraperturesand flame adjustments are not the same for all gases. The bottledgas uses smalleraperturesand burnswitha shorterand hotterflame than natural gas. Use two parallelburners,each made of a 38"lengthof 3/4"pipe withholesdrilled3/8"apart in a straightline for the individual gas flames,preferablywiththe gas enteringeach pipe burnerat the center. This is for one tank only,withthe two pipe burnersspaced about2 112"apart. The tank is centeredover the two. 232

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Three such burner units should beenough fortheordinary shop, andcanbearranged with regard tothe space available inthebluing room. Ifsufficient space allows theburners andtheir tanks tobeplaced end-to-end, this isthemost easily managed setup. Ifspace islimited, oneburner maybeplaced behind another. Place theburners between 30" and35" from thefloor, andwhen making thetanks install iron faucets in onendofthetank. This makes emptying oftanks easier, andalmost allthecontents canbedrained without lifting thetank at all.Andeep fatthermometer callbeused tocheck temperatures ofhotliquids, butit isbetter tobuy oneofBrownell's thermometers, asthey canbeused tosetthetemperature closer. Thebluing orblacking tank should becleaned andneutralized (byacid wash) when a solution is changed. Ifthesame formula ormixture istobeused, washing with plain water isOK.Covers should be provided forthetanks, forkeeping dust anddirt out.
BLACKING SOLUTIONS The following is a formulathat I haveused for 20 years to blue or blackenfirearms.This blacking solution is probablythe mostpracticalof all blackingprocesses,and I havefoundthat it is almost foolproof in operation.The ingredients can be obtainedat low costin mostany ruralareas. I havefound the finishis more durablethan mostI haveseen. In appearanceand wear resistanceit resemblesthe finishused by Germanyon militarysmallarms. Lye Ammonium Nitrate Water see below White Ammonium NitrateFertilizer, the 33% type used by farmers The household lye or sodiumhydroxide (ordinaryLye is approximately 94%, Sodiumhydroxide) you can get at any grocerystore.The ammoniumnitrateyou get at seed and farmersCO-OP stores,it is used by gardenersand farmers. Solution:5 poundslye 2 1/2 poundsammoniumnitrate, Per gallonof water I havefoundthat the best workingtemperatureis between285 and 295 degrees F. The solution lasts almostindefinitely. Add a poundof lye every10 or 15 jobs, or when you havetroublegettingthe temperatureup, and water as necessary. 233 2 parts I part

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When adding lye,donotjust dump it in,butscatter it over slowly over thewhole length ofthetank. What happens isthat if you dump it allinonespot, it will cause it toboil over thetank. From 15 to40 minutes inthebath isrequired, depending upon theamount ofparts that arebeing processed. Themost unpleasant part ofusing this formula isthat inmixing intheammonium nitrate, a large amount ofammonia isgiven off,sohave good ventilation inthefinishing room. When adding more ammonia nitrate toa hottank, takea good breath, pour it inandgetoutoftheroom. Theammonia fumes will put you down if you arenotcareful. Vent outtheroom andyou canstart bluing. Lyeisnoproblem tohandle. Inthis formula, isnottoaidincoloring themetal buttoraise theboiling point ofthesolution andthereby prevent excessive loss byboiling away oftheother ingredients. Inthis mixture theammonium nitrate stays inthetank, adonly water anda little lyearelost through boiling, Theblack produced bythis ammonium-nitrate-lye process isvery durable, andI have some guns that have been inuseforclose to20 years. Tousethis solution, themetal parts aredegreased either byOakite solution andplaced inthetank. After blacking, they arerinsed inwater, either cold orwarm, anddried andoiled intheregular manner. Alloftheblacking processes that uselyeattack leadanddestroy soft solders, andcannotbeleftinthe solution forover 15 minutes, soremember this when bluing rifle barrels with sweated onramp front sights. Theprocesses does notattack aluminum alloys, they devour them! Under nocircumstances place a part made ofaluminum ina steel blacking solution. Itwill bedissolved quickly. Silver, copper andbrass arenotaffected at allbytheblacking solution.

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BUFFING AND POLISHING


POLISHING AND BUFFING WHEELS Polishingwheelsin generaluse are constructed of muslin,canvas,felt, and leather.By changesin construction, offerto the operatorwheelsof varying flexibility that best suitthe particular object to be finishedand the condition of its surface. Polishingwheelsin widestuse are made of wovencottonfabrics,the hardestwheel of thistype being made of individual discsof canvascementedtogether.The softestbeing composedof discsof muslin sewn togetherbetweenthese extremes is the mostpopularwheelsare composedof sewed sectionsof muslindiscsfastenedtogetherby adhesives. For economy,these sewed sectionsare oftenmade of balancedpieces of muslinratherthan fulldiscs of cloth.As a class,cottonfabricwheels,becauseof theirversatility and theirrelatively moderatecost, are the mostcommonly used mediumfor generalall-aroundpolishing. Pressed felt wheels,available in densitiesfromrockhard to extrasoft,are indicatedwhere the face of the wheel mustbe kept true and be absolutely uniformin densityoverits entiresurface.The face of a felt wheel can be easilycontoured to fit irregularly shapedarticles.Becauseof theirhigherinitialcost,they are generallyrestrictedto the finerabrasive gritsizes. Solid leatherwheelsof walrusand bullneck leatherare toughbut resilient,witha springyopen grain, and are favored for the fine polishing required in cutleryand gun work.Wood wheelscovered with leatherbeltingare popularfor flat surfaceswhere a minimumof flexibility is desired.Wheels made of sheepskindiscsare used where great flexibility and less densityare needed. In the hardersheepskin wheels,the individual discsare cementedtogetherwhilein the softertypesthe discsare held together onlyby hand sewing. Practically all the materialsmentionedabovewhichare used in disc formfor the production of polishing wheelscan be used in a differentmannerin the production of the so-calledcompresswheel. In this wheel, smallpieces of leatheror wovenfabricare placedin a rigidcentersectionso theiredges are perpendicular to the side of the wheel. Accordingly, there are no seams following the directionof rotationand more precisepolishing can be done than withany othertype of a built-upwheel. Variousgrades of flexibility are available for each type of materialused and, withthe stifferdensity wovenfabriccompresswheel in particular. A degree of fine polishing can be obtainedthat cannotbe duplicatedwithwheelsof differentconstruction.

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NITRIC ACID STRIPPING.

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Ifthepart you aregoing tobuff hasbeen plated, you will need todeplate it.Thefollowing istwomethods that I have used.

A method that I have used tostrip nickel-plating istoimmerse thedesired parts ina glass container that isfilled with Nitric acid. When using this chemical make sure that theparts arecompletely covered by acid, takeextra carethat thebore andchambers areplugged. Since this solution will dissolve a 0.001" thick nickel plate in15 to20 minutes, you must watch thestripping operation constantly andremove the parts assoon asthey arestripped. When theparts aretaken from thefuming nitric acid they must be dipped into a chromic acid solution fora minute andthen very thoroughly rinsed inwater. Donotputthe part when you remove it from theNitric Acid directly into water, asthewater will cause thenitric acid adhering tothesurface toetch thesteel. Like hydrochloric acid, nitric acid gives offfumes that settle onandrust everything within several feetof thecontainer. Nitric acid should bestored, poured, andused either outdoors orinanunused room where there isnothing that will rust.
ELECTRO DEPLATING This is anotherdeplatingsetupthat I used in my gun shop.Most of the platedgunsare pistolsand revolvers, so that you can get by on a smalltank. When you havegunsthat come intothe shopfor bluing, you willbe able to stripoff the old platingfromthese guns.Plated gunsthat are to be refinishedin blue or blackmusthaveall the old platingremoved, and polishing on the buffingwillnot do this.The deplating tank also willremovegrease, old bluing,dirt,rust,and the like. An automobilebatterywillprovide the electriccurrentfor deplating,but I prefera batterycharger.The wiresshouldbe insulatedcables,withcopperrodsor heavywiresto contactcathodeand anode in the 237

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tank. A glass container ofaround twoorthree gallons capacity isneeded tohold thechemicals. Theacid to useisonegallon ofcommercial sulfuric acid with onequart ofdistilled water. Theacid isalways poured into thetank first, andthewater added slowly. A sheet ofplumbers leadorweight, ofsurface areato equal orgreater than that ofthegun parts, isused asthecathode, andareconnected totheminus battery post orcable ona battery charger. Theanode isthemetal tobedeplated, andthegun parts are wired tightly totheanode, connected totheplus battery post. They areusually hung onthecopper wires that arewound about them well enough tomake good contact, andthese wires connected totheanode. Stripping time isusually from five totenminutes. Sulfuric acid ishygroscopic, andthat means that it absorbs water from theatmosphere andyour solution will actually increase inquantity. A deep tank, will give a considerable increase involume, but asthesolution isweakened bytheextra water taken in,more sulfuric acid must beadded. This solution will deplate most plated items including nickel, chrome, andcadmium.
RAPID METAL REMOVAL A need for rapid metal removal or where there are no contours and a flat surfaceis to be maintained. Conversely, the softertypesof polishing wheelsare used where there are irregularities in the surface and the fast removal of metal is not the primerequisite. To removepits,scratchesand scale, and put a highfinishon the surfaceof a barrel,receiver, part, or tool,various wheelsmustbe used. For practicalpurposesthe main wheelsthat the gunsmith needs are: 2 canvaswheels 2 2 " " " 8"dia. X I"wide " 6"dia. X 1/2"wide 6"dia. X I "wide 10"dia. X 3/8"wide or 1/2"wide " 10"dia. X 2"wide 10"dia. X 2"wide 8"dia. X 1/2"wide

1 felt wheel 2 clothbuffs(sewed) 2 2 (Loose muslin)

ADHESIVES:

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Most widely accepted adhesives forfastening ofabrasive grains tothesurface ofa polishing wheel are manufactured adhesives orcement compounds. They arereplacing hide glues which, uptoseveral years ago,were considered theideal adhesives forpreparing polishing wheels inallgrit sizes. Polishing wheel cements arenow formulated togive a wide range ofviscosity's andflexibility, andcan beused with a wide range ofabrasives andgrit sizes.

Ifhide glue istobeused, it should bea high-grade material selected forjelly strength, melting point, viscosity, andflexibility.

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Itshould befreefrom excess bacteria content, which will decrease itsstrength. Melted glue should be made uponly forthedays needs andnotinadvance, tominimize thebacteria that will bepicked up from theair.
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Overheating andprolonged heating, even at lowtemperatures, quickly looses glue strength. Itis advisable tohave theglue potthermostatically controlled tominimize thetime that theglue iskept inthe melted condition. Attheendofthedaytheglue potandbrush should besterilized sobacteria arenot carried over tocontaminate thenext day's batch. Thecorrect proportion ofglue andwater will vary with thestrength ofthedryglue andthesize oftheabrasive particles tobeheld. When thetype ofhide glue hasbeen selected from a reputable supplier, exact proportions ofglue andwater should bedecided upon forthesize abrasive tobeused. This proportion rigidly adhered tomeasuring theglue andwater byweight rather than byguesswork. Thefollowing condensed table gives approximate proportion, which will help indetermining thefinal figures after thebrand ofglue hasbeen selected. When glue stirring isrequired, a preliminary coat should beapplied bya bristle brush andallowed todry before putting onthecoating that istohold theabrasive. Newwheels should berinsed onboth theface andsides.

Toprevent chilling theglue, thewheel andtheabrasive should first beheated toapproximately 1200 Fahrenheit. Thecoating forthefirst head should then bebrushed onandthewheel immediately rolled in a trough oftheproper abrasive. After allowing toairdrywell foronetotwohours, thesecond coating if required isapplied ina similar manner. Inorder nottocontaminate thewheels with wild abrasive grains, separate brushes and separate glue pots should beprovided foreach size abrasive. After thefinal coatings, thewheels aredried ina well-ventilated room at about 200(Fahrenheit, with a relative humidity ofabout 50%.Wheels should bedried for24 hours foreach abrasive head applied. After drying, thewheel isbalanced andthesurface broken uptoprovide resilience andfreecutting by hitting with a round bardiagonally across thefaceofthewheel.
GRIT SIZES GRIT SIZE 241 % by weight

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OFABRASIVE #30 #36 #46 #0 #80 #100 #150 #220

DryGlue 50 45 40 35 33 30 25 20

Toprepare used polishing wheels forrecoating; anabrasive stick isoften used forreviving theold heads, which leaves thewheel trued upproperly forreheading. Although theglue andabrasive canbe removed byrotating thewheel ona pairofwetrolls, this method should berestricted tothose wheels that will notbeharmed bywater soaking. Ifa polishing wheel lubricant isused, this grease must be removed before reheading andit isnecessary insome cases touseorganic solvents toeffect this removal.

Proprietary manufactured adhesives andcements, which have made great inroads inrecent years into thefield once held exclusively bypolishing wheel glues, offer many distinct advantages. They canbe
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used at ordinary room temperature, asreceived from themanufacturer, thus eliminating special equipment, precautions, andpreparations required forefficient useofhide glues.
LEA POLISHING COMPOUND Some of the compositions used withthese wheelsare abrasive powders,Lea PolishingCompound, and, glue to bindthe abrasive powder. All polishing wheels,no matterwhat methodof setupis used on them, shouldbe brokenup. This is done by strikinga blowto the face of the wheel witha roundbar at a 45"angle to the side of the wheel. By strikinga blowevery1/2"completely aroundthe peripheryat thisangle, and then by strikinganother bloweveryinchat 90 degrees to the firstblow,a diamondpatternwillbe formed,whichis the ideal patternfor good polishing. Breakingup of a polishing wheel, after it has dried and just priorto its use, also servesto localize any tendencythe bondedabrasive mighthaveto rip off if a sharpcornerof the piece being workedis thrust againstit too quickly. The cake lime, whichcomesmoldedin containers, is excellent for puttinga highpolishon rubberbutt plates,fore-endcaps, plastics,and non-ferrous metals. Emery paste is used as a lubricant and cuttingagent on wheelscoatedwithabrasive. Emery paste comesin a moldedpaper containerand is made in gritsizesfrom90 to 180 inclusive.

Lea Compound,is one of the finestcompounds that I haveused. It is a greaselesscomposition that comesin a roundsolidbar about10"longand 2"in diameter,and enclosedin a hermetically sealed metal foilcontainer.In addition,althoughit comesin various gritsand grades,the grade "C" (200 grit)is best for all aroundpolishing on gunsand gun parts. Where appliedto a revolving wheel, the frictional heat causesthe compoundto melt at the pointof contactwiththe wheel and to transfer.It immediately sets up and dries on the wheel, forminga dry, grease-free,abrasive-coated wheel. Aftera gun has been Lea-buffed,it need not be cleanedwitha 243

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solvent, forLeadoes notleave a greasy film onthemetal surface. Another advantage ofLea Compound istheeasewith which it cuts. With Lea,it isnotnecessary toapply much pressure tothe work onthewheel. Theartificial abrasives init have sharp, fastcutting qualities andlittle orno lubrication todrag against thework. LeaCompound canbeused directly after thepart tobeblued hasbeen deoxidized or,if deep pits are present, after they have been ground outbya canvas abrasive wheel. After thegunsmith hasused Lea Compound, a fewtimes hewill nodoubt appreciate what a useful addition it istohispolishing equipment. Inaddition toitsusefulness forpre-bluing work, it also does well asa deburring abrasive onsmall parts andsprings that resist filing.
FOR MORE INFORMATION ON LEA COMPOUND CONTACT Lea Mfg. 237 E AuroraSt. Waterburym,CT. 06720 The directions that come withLea Compoundmustbe followedto the letter,for when exposed to air it hardensto the pointwhere it "ill not flowontothe buffingwheel. Here are the directions for usingLea Compoundas recommendedby the manufacturer: USING LEA COMPOUND 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. produced. 6. 7. 8. Use a knifeto cut the containercloseto the taperedend. Removethe end. Tear away a narrowstripof the container,exposing about1/2"of Compound. Do not removeentirecontainer. Hold the Compoundagainstthe revolving wheel untila uniformcoatingis

Allowto dry a few seconds,after whichpolishing may be commenced. Use mildpressureof gun partsagainstthe wheel whilepolishing. Place Humidcap overexposed end of the tube immediately after using.Never 244

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leave theCompound exposed totheair,asit will become dryandhard. 9. Onhotdays place sealed bars incold water fora fewminutes before using.

10.Inaddition, store unopened bars ofCompound ina cool place toprevent softening and deterioration. Cement bonded wheels will withstand higher temperatures both indrying anduse,canbedried more rapidly, andwithstand thegreat frictional heatcaused byhigh polishing speeds. Although most cements areformulated forfast, tough, coarse polishing, they have been used successfully forfinepolishing. More recently cements arebeing formulated which have some ofthedesired flexibility found inhide glues. Assuch cements andadhesives are,inthemain, proprietary mixtures, it isbest tofollow the manufactures recommendation ineach caserather than attempt tosetgeneral rules tocover allif them.
ABRASIVES: The abrasive mostwidelyused in polishing metalsis fusedaluminumoxide.The grainis normallyheat treatedto giveit good capillarity and in additionmany typesare etchedor coatedto improve the adhesionto the bondused. Fused aluminumoxideis sharp,hard, fast cuttingand longwearing. Anotherabrasive used is siliconcarbide,whichfractureswhen dullto presentnew sharpcuttingedges, and for thisreasonis selectedin certainspecialized operations.Siliconcarbidegrain,however, is more difficult to bondfirmlyto the wheel;its scope is limited.Beforethe adventof the electricfurnace abrasives, Turkishemery, a naturalcompoundof the ironoxides, was the standardpolishing grain.The edges of Turkishemery tend to wear smoothwithoutfracturing, and althoughthispropertydecreases the spread of cut. It is sometimesdesirablefor fine polishing operations,particularly in the cutleryfield. LUBRICATION: Lubrication of the cuttingface of a polishing wheel, withoil or grease, is desirablein a numberof cases to prevent gougingwhen a fine polishedsurfaceis required. It is also used to minimize frictional heat when polishing some of the softermetals,particularly aluminum.The mostpopularmethodof lubricating is by a tallowgrease mixture appliedby friction froma bar to the rotatingpolishing wheel. Special bar lubricants are now available, whichhavethe uniquefeatureof freeingabraded metals, particularly the softernonferrous type, and prevent them fromloadingat the face of the polishing wheel. Where polishing wheelscan be lubricatedautomatically, spray-ableliquid lubricants are now available in formulations, whichare easier to clean. SPEEDS:

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Speeds fortheefficient operation ofpolishing wheels generally fallbetween thelimits of6,000to8,000 surface feetperminute when glue istheadhesive used. Athigher speeds, because ofoverheating, the glue tends tobreak down although polishing wheels setupwith cement cansafely withstand this heatup to9,000surface feetperminute. With toolowa speed, theabrading operation isslowed down and,inaddition, there isa tendency for theabrasive toberipped outofthewheel. Oncertain metals susceptible tophysical changes because ofoverheating, theability oftheadhesive towithstand heatisnotthelimiting factor butrather theheat tolerance ofthemetal.
POST WHEELS AND FLEXIBLE POLISHING: In the polishing coatings,describedabove,dry abrasive grainis fastenedontothe coatingof adhesive covering the polishing medium.Although the adhesive covers the lowerpart of the individual abrasive particleto grip it properly,a large proportion of the area of thisabrasive grainis exposed free and uncoated. This open featureon the polishing face is highlydesirablein many instances,particularly where fast cuttingis desirable.However,in a numberof fine polishing operations,it is more desirableto havea closedsurfacethat is obtainedby having intimatemixtures of the abrasive gain and the adhesive. Paste wheels,where the meltedglue is thoroughly mixedwithabrasive and the mixture then troweled ontothe face of the polishing wheel in multiplecoatings.These havelongbeen used in the cutlery industry particularly for doubleheader polishing on steel knifeblades.Silicatecementshavealso been mixedwithabrasives for similarpurposes.Special techniques havebeen developed so wheelsof this type can be builtup by frictional transferof greaselesscompoundappliedto the polishing wheel as it revolves on the spindleof the polishing arbor. APPLYING THE ABRASIVE Flexible polishing wheelsof thistype are headed up by the following procedure: A glue-basesizing materialin bar formis broughtto the revolving wheel, pressureis applied,and the poweris shutoff. Duringdecelerationthe sizing coat is meltedand flowedontothe surfaceof the wheel. The motoris then turnedon and off to startdryingat less than fullspeed. It is finallyrun at fullspeed for abouttwo minutesor untilthe sizing coat is no longerstickyto the touch. The bar of greaselesscompound, also glue-base,is appliedin the same mannerwithpressurewhen the poweris shutoff. Duringdecelerationthe heavycoatingof greaselesscompoundis meltedand transferred to the wheel withsufficient frictional heat, so the layer of greaselesscompoundis firmly bondedto the sizing coat. This coatingis dried in the same manneras mentionedfor the sizing coat and for approximately the

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same time. A second coating ofgreaseless compound canbeapplied inlikemanner without additional sizing and inthis manner, heads canbebuilt upto3/16" inthickness. Intheformation offlexible polishing wheels of this type, it isessential that thestop andstart technique befollowed closely. Ifthelathe were allowed torunat full speed andthecompound applied at thenecessary pressure, centrifugal force would throw most ofthematerial oft.During deceleration, however, thegreaseless compound isflowed evenly onto thefaceofthewheel. With this procedure, true polishing wheels #80 grit andfiner canbeproduced andreproduced, ready foruseinless than tenminutes without the necessity ofever removing thewheel from thespindle. Byselecting thecloth polishing wheel ofproper resiliency, flexible polishing wheels canbemade upwith greaseless compound that have many advantages over broken-down conventional polishing wheels which have long been used forcertain finepolishing operations.
TYPES OF WHEELS TO USE For removing pitsFor over-all polishingSIZE OF WHEELS TO USE 6"diameterat 3,450 r.p.m. 10"diameterat 1,750 r.p.m. These wheelscan be producedin the propersurfacecondition when wanted,ratherthan wait for preliminary polishing operationsto break downthe abrasive surfaceintothe desiredstate. The technique in producing a flexible polishing wheel withgreaselesscompoundis suchthat muchsofter clothwheelscan be employedthan can be used by the conventional polishing wheel setupprocedure. Such wheelscan call uponthe resiliency of the clothto cushionthe cuttingactionof the abrasive grain, whereaswiththe conventional polishing wheel thiseffectcan onlybe obtainedby the use of excessive lubrication. Advanced alkalinecleaningrecommendations call for two completecleaningcycleseach withrinses and acid dips when greased wheelsare used. One completecleaningcycleis safelybringeliminatedin many shopswhen flexible polishing withgreaselesscompoundis substituted for the finalgrease conventional polishing wheel procedure.Flexible polishing wheelsoperatemostefficiently at 5,000 to 6,000 surfacefeet per minute. Felt wheelsor stitchedbuffs Loose muslinbuffs

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BUFFING Buffing,as the operationfollowing polishing, can be divided intofouroperations,each of whichcan be an end in itselfdependinguponthe finishrequired. These are Satin Finishingfor producing satin, brushedor butlerfinishes,Cut downBuffingfor producing a preliminary smoothness, Cut and Color buffingfor producing an intermediateluster;and Colorbuffingfor the production of a highglossor mirror finish. GRINDING AND POLISHING EQUIPMENT Irrespective of what type bluingis used, the polishing and buffingremainsessentially the same, for a bluingjob can neverlookany betterthan the surfaceto whichit is applied.In fact, the coloringof the metal has a tendencyto showup in a more pronounced mannerany scratches,wavesor pits that are presenton the metal's surface.A blemish-free surfacemustbe producedbeforethe gun or part is blued. To achievea good finishon metal, certainbasic equipment and skillis necessary.Withoutthe proper equipment, it is almostimpossible to acquirethe necessaryskill,for skillcomesfromconstantpractice of the rightkindwitha good polishing head or polishing lathe and suitablewheelsand polishing compounds. POLISHING HEAD A good polishing head can eitherbe made or bought.In eithercase, it mustmeet certainbasic specifications. In the firstplace, the shaftshouldbe at least 1/2"in diameterand threadedfor a lengthof 2 1/2"at each end. The shaftshouldbe set in a heavyironor steel unitequipped withrollerbearings. Tapered rollerbearingsare the mosteconomicaland efficient,for a buffingmotor. The motorshouldbe at least one-halfhorsepowerand equipped witha two-placestep cone pulleyto matcha similarpulleyaffixed to the shaft.The pulleyshouldbe placedin sucha way as to achievea 1 to 1 and 2 to 1 ratio,thusgiving a shaftspeed of approximately 1,750 and 3,500 r.p.m. When turnedby a motorhaving a speed of 1,750 r.p.m. The low speed is for grindingoperationsand the highspeed for buffingand polishing work.This provides an all-purpose setupsuitablefor all phasesof gun work. The shaftunitand motormustbe boltedto a verysturdyand heavystand,whichin turnshouldbe bolted to the floor.The heightof the polishing head is important, whichwillhaveto be determinedby the gunsmith, as all are the same height,nor do all chooseto workat the same level.Generallyideal height, however, is when the shaftis at the same levelas the operator's waistline. A good arrangementfor the motorswitchis one so wiredthat it can be controlled eitherby hand or foot. This is especiallyhandywhen polishing rifleor shotgunbarrelsthat requiretwo handsto hold.In an emergency,the footcan be actuatedto shutoff the motor. Metal guardsplacedaroundthe ends of the shaftwhere the wheel rotates,and hookedup to a suction 248

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blower arrangement. Exhaust blowers aregood, because they prevent theabrasive andlint ofthewheel from settling ontools andmachines intheshop.
USING POLISHING WHEELS The mostimportant thingto rememberwhen workingwithabrasive dressedwheelsis that these wheels cut, and in cuttingremovemetal. Unlikehard-stonegrindingwheels,the soft-backdressedwheelsdo not giveoff a great volume of sparks,whichoftenfoolsthe polisherintobelieving that practically no metal is being removed. Many a novice has almostruinhis firstfew gunsto be bluedby grindinghollows intothe surfaceof a barrelthinking that there was metal being removed. PRACTICING ON AN OLD GUN. Unlessthe gunsmith has had some experience workingwiththistype of wheel, it wouldbe wise to do a bit of experimenting on an old gun. Select an old gun or receiver that is lyingin the shopjunk pile preferablyone withdeep pits and go to workon it. If the firstjob is a failure,then the gunsmith willnot haveto tell the customerwhy his favorite shotgunis not quitewhat it used to be. Aftergrindingthe old gun, polishit and blue it. Bluing,as mentionedearlier,willserveto showup any hollows,deep scratches,and roundcornerscausedby the grindingand polishing operations. A good ego deflatorfor self-satisfaction alongthese linesis to comparethe finishon the experimental gun alongsideof the finishon a highquality firearm.Note the sharpcornerson a factory-finished weapon;also note that the flatsare free of waves,ripples,and surfaceirregularities. The beginnercannotexpectto turnout as good a job as the experience polishersdo but he can learn, and learning,as far as gun polishing and buffingis concerned,consistsmainlyof practice. PRACTICING ON STEEL STOCK. If you do havean old gun, the beginnercan practiceon a steel bar. The bar is a piece of flat coldrolled steel about4"long,2"wide and 1"thickand usingvarious sizesand gritsof dressedcanvaswheelsto grindthe pieces. Afterthey are groundto the satisfaction of the individual doingthe job, the pieces shouldthen be buffed,cleaned,and reblued.The same sortof exercise can be carriedout on round, square,and octagon-shaped pieces untilthe beginnerhas gottenthe feel of the wheels,so to speak. When the gunsmith knowshow each type canvas,felt, cloth,etc. of wheel willcut when dressedwithany of the various abrasives, in differentgrades.He has prettywell masteredthe basicsof grindingor polishing, if you are usingthe veryfine compounds withso-calleddressedwheel. CORRECT GRIT Usingtoo coarsea wheel to grindpits froma surfaceis poor practicebecausedeep scratchesare made whichmustin turnbe obliteratedby successively usingfinergritwheels.On the otherhand, using too fine a wheel makes for a slowjob in whichthe metal gets veryhot and breaksdownthe glue, which 249

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tends toclog thenormal space between theabrasive grains. Thegunsmith should remember toalways usethewidest wheel possible forthejob being done. With a wide wheel, thechances ofwaves ona flatsurface aregreatly minimized andthejob canbedone faster. Unless a barrel isbadly pitted there isreally noneed touseanything except a muslin buff dressed with a finegrit abrasive. Ifthebarrel isnotpitted at allandthere arenodeep scratches ortool marks init that must beremoved. A buffing wheel headed with Leacompound will cutaway allthemetal that is necessary toproduce a surface ready forhigh speed buffing. While barrels canbeground lengthwise ona formed wheel, made bycutting a concave radius ina canvas wheel inthelathe, andthen dressing it.I donotbelieve lengthwise grinding isnecessary on anything buta setofdouble barrels ora single barrel that hasa full-length ribonit. Standard single barrels canbeground andpolished around their periphery, andthen given a high speed buffing inanydirection that will eliminate thecross grain grinding marks. Satin finishing operations areperformed bygreaseless compounds combining fast-cutting abrasives with a glue base binder. Numerous grades areavailable, employing abrasive from #50 andfiner, for varying degrees ofdullness offinish onallbase metals andelectro deposits. Inthemost popular all-around grades, artificial aluminum oxide andsilicon carbide abrasives areused ingrit sizes from #180 to#220. Silicon carbide grades arewidely used forfinishing aluminum andstainless steel andthe aluminum oxide grades arefavored forbrass andother nonferrous metals, aswell asforcarbon steel prior toplating. Forfiner effects onbrass andelectro deposits, finer sizes ofAmerican emery andhard silica areemployed. Forbutler finishes onsilver plate andsterling, finebuffing powders ofunfused aluminum oxide andsoft silica areused. Bright butler finishes that challenge theluster produced bygrease base coloring bars canbeobtained onsilver byextremely finegreaseless compositions made with a specially lubricated binder.
GREASELESS COMPOUNDS Greaselesscompounds are used at speeds of between5,000 and 6,000 surfacefeet per minute. Higherspeeds waste the composition withouta proportionate increasein production rate. Greaselesscompositions do not penetratethe buffas does grease base compositions but lie on the surface,whichfavors bufflife. The buffshouldbe allowedto run for 20 to 30 secondsafter greaselesscompoundHas been applied beforethe workis broughtto the wheel, so there willhe no back-transfer of compound. When used correctly the workwillleavethe greaselesscompoundwheel clean, dry and in propercondition for 250

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inspection andfinishing. Certain metals, such asaluminum, aresusceptible todragging bydryabrading, buta light tipdressing ofa lowfree-grease content buffing barwill sufficiently lubricate thesurface andproduce aneven finish. Inthis case, careshould beused sothelubricant does notpenetrate thelayer ofgreaseless compound andsaturate thecloth, which will prevent theproper adhesion ofsubsequent additions ofgreaseless compound. Binders forgrease base buffing compositions arecomposed offatsandwaxes ofanimal, vegetable, andmineral origin. Some ofthemore commonly used arestearic acid, hydrogenated fatty acids, tallow, hydrogenated glyceride, andpetrolatum. Thefatty acids under conditions ofbuffing seem tohave, inaddition totheir physical properties, a beneficial chemical effect intheformation ofmetallic stearates. Cut-down buffing bars combine fastcutting buffing powders ina grease base binder formulated togive a great amount ofgrip todrag between thewheel andthemetal surface. Powder tobinder proportions varies with thetype ofwork, thecondition under which it must bedone, andtheoilabsorption ofthe buffing powder. Careful study oftheindividual buffing operation isnecessary todecide onformulation. Themetal being buffed ina cut-down operation determines which buffing powder touse.Cutdown compositions for non-ferrous metals most frequently contain once ground Tripoli. ItPerforms very efficiently andis relatively inexpensive. Cut-down buffing bars forcarbon andstainless steels aregenerally based upon fused andunfused aluminum oxide. Such compositions aresometimes recommended foruseonsome ofthealuminum alloys, particularly parts made bycasting orextrusion. Under certain conditions, a cut-and-color buffing operation isused inplace ofthecut-down andthehighest coloring operations. Since fastcutisnota prime requisite, thecut-and-color compound binder isofthesame general type asabove, butwith less drag. Moderately cutting abrasive powders areselected togive some brilliance with moderate cut, thus sacrificing both cutting andcoloring properties toproduce a general-purpose composition. Cut-and-color compositions fornonferrous metals contain white silica powders, ora blend ofthese powders with Tripoli. Similar compositions fortheferrous metals contain coarse unfused aluminum oxide powders ora combination offused andunfused aluminum oxide powders. Oncertain nonferrous articles, cut-and-color buffing isdone with a crocus barcontaining a coarse graded iron oxide powder. Producing a color, luster, ormirror finish onmetals requires theuseof compositions composed ofthefinest abrasive powders soa minimum ofscratches will show inthefinal finish. Fastcutting isnotrequired insuch operations, andhinders areformulated primarily tohold theselected
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abrasive powder tothewheel, allowing it tocolor orburnish outthescratch marks leftbyprevious buffing operations. Bars containing powdered lime astheabrasive areused forcoloring nickel plate and,insome cases, forcoloring brass. Compositions with fineunfused aluminum oxide powders areused incoloring stainless steel, nickel andchromium plate, andsometimes brass andaluminum. However, brass andaluminum aregenerally colored with bars containing soft whit silica powders inthe finer sizes positions composed ofthefinest abrasive powders soa minimum ofscratches will show in thefinal finish. Fastcutting isnotrequired insuch operations, andbinders areformulated primarily tohold theselected abrasive powder tothewheel, allowing it tocolor orburnish outthescratch marks leftbyprevious buffing operations. Bars containing powdered lime astheabrasive areused forcoloring nickel plate and,insome cases, forcoloring brass. Compositions with fineunfused aluminum oxide powders areused incoloring stainless steel, nickel and chromium plate, andsometimes brass andaluminum. However, brass andaluminum aregenerally colored with bars containing soft white silica powder inthefiner sizes. Finechromium oxide powder isused incompositions forcoloring stainless steel andchromium. Rouge compositions, containing thefinest rediron oxide powders, arewidely used incoloring gold andsilver. Thefineredoxide powder hasunique burnishing qualities tobring outtherequired high luster onthe soft precious metals. Although thespeeds forbuffing with grease-bars will vary greatly from job-to-job andoperator-to-operator, thefollowing figures insurface feetperminute will serve asa starting point for hand buffing operations. Buffing speeds mayvary, asthecontact ofthework tothewheel canbemore definitely fixed without depending upon thephysical ability ofthehand buffer tomaintain theproper position andpressure.

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FINISHING GUN STOCKS ByHarold Hoffman Thefinishing ofgun stocks whether it's a newstock ora oldstock isnotdifficult. Very little equipment is needed toredo anoldornewstock. Ifyou're working with anoldstock that hasfinished onit theold finish must first beremoved. Usually this isdone with sandpaper, andvery seldom with a paint remover. Before wedointo theactual types offinish processes, I will gotothebasics ofrefinishing a stock. Whether it isanoldstock that hasfinish onit ora newstock theprocess will bethesame. 1. Ifyou have anoldstock with a lacquer finish orsome other type ofthin finish you will need toremove this finish. Youcanusea varnish remover which will speed uptheprocess ofremoving theoldfinish. A good paint orvarnish remover will eliminate a lotofsanding if you trytoremove it wassandpaper. 2. Ifthestock hasa lotofnicks anddents init,start with a medium grit flint orgarnet paper.Goover the entire stock with medium grit until you have clean wood with nofinish onit. 3. THISIS VERYIMPORTANT -- when you sand uptoa sharp edge such asthebarrel channel, pistol grip, butt plate, oranyother areas where there isa sharp edge, never letthesandpaper roll over that edge.Ifyou doyou will round offthesharp surface, which you need toretain. When you come tothe sharp edge very carefully sand uptothevery edge, butdonotgoover. I usually hold thesandpaper on myfinger where I can't control it better. A sanding block might work outokay if you arecareful. Itwould bewise toleave thebutt plate, andpistol grip capinplace when you sand this area. This inthearea where you will most likely round theedges, aswell asthebarrel channel. 4. After going over thecomplete stock with themedium grit paper, switch toa finegrit paper.Repeat theabove process until you have thecomplete stock sanded. 5. Next, you want totakea damp ragandgoover thecomplete stock, wetting toit thoroughly. The reason forthis istoallow thegrain torise.Setthestock back andletit drythoroughly. After it dries go over thecomplete stock again with finesandpaper. Ifyou have dents inthestock, seebelow information onhow toremove these dents. 6. After thestock isthoroughly sanded with finesandpaper you cannow buta finish onit. Thebest finish that I have found ina oilfinish isTung oil. I have used Tung oilformany years, andhadfound that it isa very good finish that lasts good.I have guns that have been finish with Tung oil40 years agothat still looks likenew. 7. TouseTung oilyou need togetsome rubber gloves. Thereason forthis isthat some individuals may beallergic toTung oil. ThewayI apply Tung oilistoeither usemyfingers ora ragandrubtheoilinto thewood thoroughly. Donottaketoomuch time doing this astheTung oilwill dryrather quickly andget sticky. Assoon asyou getthecomplete stock coated with Tung oil,letit setfora fewminutes sotheoil soak in. Then takea ragandwipe offalloftheTung oil. Setthestock back andlettheoildrythoroughly
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before applying anymore. Repeat theabove process five orsix times togeta good finish. After the third application ofTung oilgoover thecomplete stock with triple 0 steel wool.Polishes stock down good toremove allthesurface oil. This will leave theoilinthegrain ofthewood. 8. Applied three ormore coats ofTung oil,andsteel wool lightly between applications. When you apply thefinal coats you'll geta light gloss finish that you canleave asisorpolish with thetriple 0 steel wool. 9. Tofinish offthestock I usea good taste floor wax that will protect thewood even further. About every yearI apply another coat ofwax.There areother finish that you canusethat aredescribed below. Use theabove process from onetosix togetthestock ready tofinish. Then you canapply anytype offinish that you like.
FLINT PAPER Flintpaper is the lowestprice of all the sandpaper,but it losesits cuttingqualities veryquickly. However,for certaintypesof worklike sand paperingto removean old finish,I woulduse Flintpaper as it willdo a good job.The reasonfor usingFlintpaper is that the old finishwillclogthe coatingvery quickly anyway. Therefore,the cheapestpaper is the mosteconomical. Flintpaper are available as bothcabinetpapers and finishing papers. The cabinetpapers range fromverycourseto find. The finishing papers range fromfine to extrafine. You willneed mostlymediumgritfor removing the finish and fine for finishing out the stock. However,othergritsmay be used dependinguponthe type of standingbeing done GARNET PAPERS There are many decidedadvantages bothin lastingqualities and in cuttingqualities of garnetpapers. Coated papers havegained muchin popularity duringthe recentyears. The garnetpaper gets his name fromthe mineralthat is use as a the abrasive coating. You can easilyrecognized in by its color,a tawnyred cast. This mineralis notedfor it's hard, sharptexture.It is one of the best available abrasive for fast cuttingon eithera raw woodsurfaceor a finishsurface. Bothcabinetpapers and finishing papers are available withthismineralcoating. The craftsmanwillfind that the large choicein gritmakes it suitablefor any type of standingwork. The gritsrange fromNo. 2 (verycourse)to No. 7/0 (veryfine). This paper is durable,strong,and economicalto use. If you have been accustomedto usingFlintpaper for all yourstanding,try garnetpaper insteadand you'll discover its advantages for yourself. ALUMINUM OXIDE PAPER Aluminum oxidepaper is greatlyreplacinggarnetpaper heads and abrasive in woodfinishing.This paper is coatedelectrically witha metallicoxide. It has a grayishcolor,and as a finishing paper, it is superiorto the othersbecauseof its fast cuttingactionand long-lasting qualities.It can be used when standingJuly,barns,or otherlacquerservices.The gritsor coarsenessrangesfromveryfine (320A) to mediumcourse(100). No. 200 is recommendedfor finishing standing.

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WET-OR-DRY SILICONE CARBIDE PAPER This is a synthetic abrasive new grainsare verysharpand irregular,thusassuringa veryfast cutting action. The grainsare crystalsare coatedon the paper electrically, therebymakingthe abrasive waterproof. This is ratherimportant fromthe finishers pointof view,sincehe now has a paper that can be soaked in water beforebeing used. Soakingthe paper and water or in a solvent suchas benzene makes it cutsquicker and easier. Siliconecarbidepaper is use essentially for fine standing. It is use where an extrafine smoothsurfaceis required on raw woodor in sandingor rubbingthe finishcoats. The grainsrange fromveryfine (No. 400) to fine (No. 200). HOW TO USE SANDPAPER You willfindafter finishing woodfor a whilethat there is an art in sanding. Although it is considereda verytediousjob, it can be done whale and easilyFAQs simplerulesare followed. You mustremember at the outsetthat assessof yourfinishing job whale began largelyuponthe care you exercise in sanding. Tear a 9 by 11 inchsheet of sandpaperintoquarters 4 1/2 by 5 and 1/2 inchsizes. This sizemakes the sandpapereasier to handlebothwhen sandingwitha blockand when sandingwiththe palm of your hand. Limberup the sandpaperby rollingthe paper side of the paper overthe edge of yourbenchor chair. This step softensthe paper, and makes it more pliablewhichhelpsprevent it fromtearingwhen being used. When standinga flat surface,provide yourselfwitha blocklarge enoughto fit the palm of yourhand. However,when finishing gun stocksthere willbe veryfew flat areas on the stockto sand. You can buy rubberstandinglocksat mosthardwarestoresor Wal-Mart. The rubbersandingblockhas enoughflexibility that it willbetteryet slightly curved areas of the stock. FLAT SURFACES Assuming that you haveselectedthe correctpaper for the sandingoperation,you can now if startto sandpaperto surfacein straightevenstrokesfollowing the grains. You shouldneverunderany conditions sandpaperacrossthe grains. Continuethe operationusinga mediumgrituntileverytrace of imperfection has been removed. When you come to the end of the woodbe verycarefulthat you don't let the sandpaperrollover and roundthe end of the wood. Occasionally checkyoursandpaperand blockto make sure that no chipshaveembeddedthemselves in the paper or betweenthe blockand paper. If any chipsremaining,they willproducedeep scratcheson the surfaceas yoursanding. From time to time for a the sandpaperbest fromthe sandpaperby hittingthe blockagainstthe edge of yourbench, whichyou willfindby doingis it willincreasethe cuttingactionof the sandpaper. Turn the paper aroundthe blockfromtime to time to share or evenwearingof the paper. Applyenough pressureto yourblockto obtainbid cutting,but neverso muchthat assessthe friction and he results. Avoid tearingthe paper whilesanding. This oftenhappenswhen yoursandpapertouchesthe sharp edges of yourwork. They slowlyevenstrokewillprevent thisunnecessary waste of paper. CURVED SURFACES 255

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You'll have todealwith this most ofthetime with gun stocks. When theirregular shapes oruneven surfaces aretobesanded, sanding procedure would differ somewhat. When special curved areas are involved shape thesandpaper soit matches thecontour that you will besanding. Youcanhold its shaped with your fingers andsandpaper thecurved areabeing very careful, make sure that you donot alter theshape while your sanding.
REMOVING DENTS On gun stocksyou willhaveusuallymany dentsas well as scratches. When you haveto deal withthe dents,and beforethe dentscan be removed, the finishOverland mustbe removed.Care you willuse a high-quality paintor varnish remover, scrapeoff muchof the finish,whiteand sandpaper. In sanding downpass the dentswillusuallyremoved to muchwood,so the dance mustbe raised untillevelwithhis surroundings surfaceof the stock. A dent on the raw woodsurfacecan usuallybe removed easilywithouthaving to scrapeor sandpaper the area affected. Wood is composedof microscopic cells,and in a dent, the cellshad been crushed out of shape. If the fibersof the woodand not been cut or damage, the problemsis merelyto restorethe shape of these crushedcells. The processis verysimple. You can do thisby wettingthe surfacearea witha few dropsa water and in permitting thiswater to soak intothe wood. As the woodthisor the water, the sales expandand take theiroriginalshape. You now allowthisarea to dry thoroughly and in sandpaperwithfine finishing paper to removeany unusualswellingleft by the water. Sometimesit's procedurewouldnot producethe desiredresults,eitherbecauseof the hard surfaceof the woodor the depthsof the dent area in suchcases place a few dropsa water on the dent area then touchthe water withthe hot pointof the knifeor some otherheated bar. This actionwillproducea small pocketof steam aroundthe affectedarea. The moist,hot steam willpenetratethe poresof the wood more readilyand cause the affectedcellsto absorbthishot moistureand then expand. Repeat this operationseveraltimesuntilareas expanded sufficiently for you to sandpaperit flushto the adjacent area. Sometimeseventhisdoes not workand it willthen become necessaryto filla damage area withone of severaltypesof fillerspreparedfor that purpose.In selectingthe correctmaterialsfor fillingholes, bruisesand dents,you mustuse these that willadhere to the wood,and not shrankwhen dry as well as take stainedwell if he plannedto applya stained. If the hole is to be filled,firstclean out the gouge,removing all dirtand loosefibers.Next,collecta spoonful of sawdustfromthe stockyou are workingon and mixwithepoxyglue untilthe mixture takes on the appearanceof putty.Press the fillerintothe hole to overflowing. Be certainthe mixture is pressed firmlyto expelany air trappedin the dent, and add a littleextrato allowfor shrinkage. Allowto dry, then sand the mounddownevenwiththe surfaceof the stock.The stockis ready to refinish. If the dent is deep, the hole willhaveto be patched.A commonpatchis a diamondpatchof woodor plastic,whichcan be purchasedfrommany gunsmith supplyhouses.Do not be concernedif the patch is not the same coloras the woodof the stock.Contrasting colorsadd decorationto the stock.To insert the patch,lay it overthe dent, mark the patchoutline,and cut out the gougeto the shape of the diamond 256

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about 1/8" deep. Clue inthediamond shaped patch with epoxy glue. After drying, sand thepatch until it iseven with thesurface ofthestock. There areseveral types offillers that canbeused topatch a stock, which are.
STEAMING OUT A DENT A softpiece of flannelclothalso can be used to removea dent by the steam method.The warming metal can be an electricsolderingiron,or you can make a suitablesubstitute.One way is to put a handleon a 12"piece of 1/2"copper tubing.Drivethe tubingup intoa commonhandle, bend it slightly, and hammerthe expected end untilflat. In removing the dent, heat the electricsolderingironor metal rod untilonlyslightly hot. The metal shouldbe about as hot as a clothesiron,hot enoughto ironclothes, but not so hot it willscorchthem. The amountyou warm the metal is extremely important, becauseyou willscorchthe wood of yourstockif you get it too hot. You then wet the cottonflanneland lay it directly overthe dent. Then touchthe heated metal to the blotteror clothat the pointwhere the woodis dented. The water willbe turnedto steam, whichwillpenetratethe bent fibersof woodand willcause them to swellup. As they swell,they willreturnto theiroriginalshape, and the dent willbe gone. If you can't removeit altogetherthe firsttime, repeat the processtwo or more timesuntilthe bent woodfibersare levelwiththe rest of the wood.If the woodfibersare broken,they willnot returnto theiroriginalposition, or if they do, they willlookand feel rough becausea clear abrasionremains.If thisis the case, use the abovemethodto patchit. Make certainthat everytrace of excessputtyis sandedoff the surface,for tracesof puttynot essential willmar the surfacenot affectedby the dents.Incidentally, thiswater putt,whichhas a lightcream color when mixedwithwater, can be changedin shade by addingdry powderedcolorsto the mixture. These colorsare available in many shadesand can be gottenfromyourlocalpaintdealer. REFINISHING WITH LACQUER Refinishing withlacqueris usuallymore difficult than varnishrefinishing. Many inexpensive gun stocks are finishedwith sprayedon lacquer,whichdoes not penetratethe woodand willchipand flake off in large chunks,leaving bare wood underneath. Therefore,unlessthe lacquerneeds onlya littleretouching,the totalfinishmustbe removed beforethe new one is applied.The stepsin lacquerrefinishing are. 1. Removeold finishwithlacquerremover. Brushon, let soak, scrapeoff witha knife,wipe dry. 2. Sand entirewoodsurface,endingwith#320 or #400 gritpaper. TYPES OF WOOD LACQUERS The large variety of lacquers available makes it possibleto performpractically any type of lacquer finishing. A description of each follows:

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CLEAR GLOSS FURNITURE LACQUER This is a transparent amber coloredlacquerthat dries hard witha veryhighgloss.It dries dustproofin a matterof minutesbut shouldnot be sandedfor at least an hourafter application. This lacquer,evenif scratchedor dented,willnot chalkor scratchwhite.The lacquerwillnot be seriously damaged. The finalcoat may be rubbedwithany of the common rubbingagentsto a highgloss.It may be used successfully for any finishing job regardlessof purpose.It may be used to finishall typesof furniture, woodproducts, and surfaces that are subjected to moistureand heat. It is considereda generalall roundfinishing material. FURNITURE LACQUER SEALER This is a specialpurposelacquerthat, becauseof its composition, is used exclusively for sealingthe surfaceof the wood.It is not as clear and transparent as the clear lacquers,becauseof the solids added to it. However,when appliedto the surface,it does not affectthe colorof the finish.It can be sandedsmoothveryeasily,and the lacquerremainingseals the surfacein preparationof the next operation.When severalcoatsare sprayedon an open grainwood,the sealer acts as a fillerand fills the open pores of the woodas well. Lacquersealer shouldbe appliedto the surfaceafter the stain or fillerhas dried. The succeedingcoatsof clear, glossylacqueris applieddirectlyoverthe sealer coat. LACQUER THINNERS Thinneris the liquid that dilutesthe lacquerand makes it suitablefor sprayingor brushing. As has alreadybeen noted,these thinnersare a combination of many chemicals.Each manufacturer of lacquer has his own peculiarformulafor his thinners.So, best resultsare assuredwhen the thinnerused is made by the manufacturer of the lacquer.If anotherbrandof thinneris used, it may not dilutethe lacquer as required, withthe consequent effectthat the finishwillnot act properlyon the surface.Good flowing, spreading,and covering qualities may be sacrificedwhen the correctthinnersare not used. Lacquer thinneris water whitein color,and it shouldbe used to dilutewhatever type of lacqueryou may be using.Some lacquers, like sealersand undercoats, requiremore thinner than the transparent glossyor flat lacquers. Under normal conditions, about30% of thinnershouldbe added to a lacquerto get the correctsprayingmixture. Of course,experience willdictatethe correctproportion to APPLYING LACQUER WITH A SPRAY GUN The best lacquering resultsare gottenwhen the lacqueris sprayedto the surface.Primarily,lacqueris a sprayingmaterial.Its fast dryingqualities make the sprayerindispensable for obtaininggood results. Beforethe actualsprayingtechnique is described,let us describebrieflythe equipment and conditions necessaryfor adequatespraying. A sprayingoutfitis an excellent piece of equipment to own, especiallyif you havethe appropriatespace and the appropriateventilating system. With eithertype of spraying,you can get pinholesby sprayingtoo soonwiththe secondcoat, so the 258

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previous coat isstill emitting vapors. These cause, first, bubbles, then pinholes when thebubbles burst.
SAGS Sprayingtoo heavily causessags and runs.You may be spared the vision of an entirefinishsoftening and slidingoff the woodbecauseyou sprayedtoo many coatstoo soon,and they softenedand sagged at once. BLEEDING Rosewood,particularly, but also mahoganyand some otherwoodscontainpigmentsthat are solublein the solvents of lacquer.Also,some stainsare softenedand broughtintosolution by these solvents. To complicatethingsfurther,certainfillersand sealersare softenedby lacquer. These are the reasonsyou shouldalwaysuse a lacquercompatiblesystemthroughout. Commercial finishing involves lacquerbase fillersand sealer. You cannotbuy these materialsat typicalpaintstores, however. So, the best practicesinvolving easilyprocurablematerialsare as follows. 1. Use water or NGR stains.If you findit necessaryto use a pigmentedwipingstain,giveit at least forty-eight hoursto dry. Otherwise,the lacquerthinnersmay act in the mannerof paintand varnish removers. 2. Giveany standardpaste fillerforty-eight hoursto set up hard, for the same reason. 3. A safeguardis the use of thinnedshellacas a sealer after stainsor filleror both. 4. Use a lacquertype sandersealer fillerunlessthe woodis of suchopen grainthat paste fillersare required. 5. Let everything dry thoroughly, beforelacquering, especiallyany oil resinor petroleumderivative materials. 6. When you plan to use lacqueroverrosewoodor dark mahogany,use a thinshellacwash coat as a sealer and do not sand it. The shellacwillseal the pigment,keepingit frombleeding,and you mightcut throughit if you sand, thusbreakingthe seal. Lacquerrubsand buffsto a higherpolishthan you can get withvarnish, whichis one reasonit is so often used for small,elegantprojects that lookbest witha highfinish.The good rubbingquality also accounts for speedydryingfor the popularity of lacqueron mostcommercialfurniture. Wheneveryou want to keep the maximum naturalwoodcolorthat is, withoutany of the darkeningoil finishesproducedon't forgetthat lacqueritselfis the whitestand the least darkeningof all. On top of that is the magicaleffectof lacquerlighteners, whichleavethe woodalmostidenticalin colorto its raw hue.

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Ifthewood hasanopen grain, apply wood filler especially made forstocks andtogounder lacquer. Itis important that thecorrect type offiller beused. Onemade forvarnish will bedissolved bylacquer. After filler isapplied, repolish stock with very finegrit sandpaper. Inapplying filler, rubit inboth with andacross thegrain. Letit drypartially andcontinue rubbing until it takes ona light sheen. Apply more filler if necessary, tobecertain allwood pores andcracks arefilled. Wipe offexcess only across thegrain. Ifyou wipe with thegrain, you will remove thefiller. Letdry thoroughly. Apply a thin coating oflacquer especially made forgun stocks. A spray canora paintbrush maybe used. After drying, polish with #400 finegrit paper. Apply another coat oflacquer. Some workers prefer three ormore coats, sanding inbetween. Useyour own judgment about thenumber ofcoats. Toomany ortoothick applications arelikely tocrack andpeel, sobecertain thecoats arethin andwell polished inbetween.
TIPS ON USING LACQUER Since mostpeople havehad muchmore experience withvarnish that withlacquer,the best way to explain the tricksof lacquerapplication is to contrastthem withvarnish. 1. Insteadof layingthe materialon, then smoothing it, you shouldtry to flowlacqueron in a good wet coat withouttoo muchbrushback. Movefast, usinglongstrokes.Keep a wet edge by workingin small areas. Usuallya relatively longand narrowarea is easiestto handle.To keep the actionfast, use a widerbrushthan you mightlike for varnish. Neverapplylacquerwitha tinybrushunlessthe project itself is tiny.Widthratherthan fullnessis the mark of a good lacquerbrush,whichneed not havebristlesas longas are consideredbest for varnish. 2. Insteadof usinglacqueras thickas you can brushit comfortably, as you do withvarnish, keep it thin enoughto flowout well. This may mean some thinner,evenin a materialsuchas Satin lac, whichis cannedat a brushableconsistency as it is. Be sure to buy a good thinner.There are many chemicals that willreducethe consistency of lacquer,but not all of them producegood results.Thin all coats,if necessary. 3. Sandingbetweencoatsis not necessarywithlacquerto provide adhesion.Each coat tendsto soften the precedingone minutely,bondingto it. Thus, scarifying for mechanicalbond,as withvarnish, doesn't help. However,you may want to scuffsand enoughto knockoff highspotsand the few dustspecksyou'll you willbe boundto get, evenwithlacquer. If you are workingtowarda highrubbedfinish,you willalwayssand to plane the surface,if application is rough.Do not use, water on betweencoat sandingwithlacquer.Be sure to givelacquerat least four hoursto dry beforesandingand re coating.Givethe finalcoat overnight, beforeyou do the last stages of rubbingwithpumice.

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When using lacquer, you mayencounter anyoneofseveral difficulties, which canbehandled if you know how.
THE PENETRATING RESIN FINISHES These are manufactured by dozens of paintcompaniesand soldat everypaintstore,havegained a place amongthe mostpopularclear finishes.There is a remarkablelistof reasonswhy:They are by far the easiestof all finishesto apply. They are amongthe mostdurable,so toughthat they rank at the top in floorfinishes.They havearrived withtop designersin modernfurniture; amongthem the more naturala woodcan lookthe better. They givethe wooda fire and colorunlikethat producedby any otherfinish.Wood hues are intensified made more vivid, and there is no obscuring of the grainor woodtexture. They are so foolproof and quickto use that they rank well at the top as finishesfor large area surfacessuchas woodpaneling. Penetratingresinfinishesare like varnish, but insteadof lyingon the surface,they sinkin. The resins hardenbetweenthe fibersof the wood,in the air cellsand othervoids. When they are dry, the wood itselfis measurablyharder,and it is impervious to all ordinarydamage. In a sense they impregnatethe woodwitha plasticlike substancethat turnsthe woodintoplastic.However,there is no lookof plastic. WHERE TO USE PENETRATING FINISHES Some penetrating resinfinishesare intendedprimarily for floors,and these particularly ruggedbrands are superiorfor furniture, too. Penetratingresinfinishesare not meant for outdooruse, but workfine for gun stocks. HOW TO APPLY A PENETRATING FINISH Flow penetrating resinon the woodthickly.Don't worryaboutfancybrushwork.Many finishers don't evenuse a brush.They mop the materialon withrags or pourit on, then spread it. You can evenuse yourhands,if you want, rubbingthe finishin as you spread it. Some experts use a pad of veryfine steel woolto spread the puddlesof finishand workit intothe wood.This is one of the best techniques of all. Keep the surfacewet for abouthalf an hour.Read the label, becausesome manufacturers ask for a full hourof penetration. If you see dullspotsappear, indicating that all the materialhas soaked in, apply more to keep the surfacewet. Afterthe woodhas soaked up all the liquid it willtake, use plentyof rags to wipe all the surfaceliquid off. Wipe it clean. Do not leavea trace of the finishon the surface,for if you do, it willdry to an unpleasantsortof sheen. Shouldthishappenand you catchit the nextday, you can usuallycut the dried materialby brushing on 261

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more finish, then wiping it ina fewminutes. Thepenetrating finish continues tosoak inandpermeate thepores andspaces inthewood after you wipe it.Forthat reason, a second application isusually a good idea, especially if thewood isporous. Donotwait until thefirst coat hasdried andhardened completely. Three hours orsoislong enough towait. Brush orswab onthesecond coat. Keep it wetforhalf anhour orlonger andwipe it alloffAgain. When this well wiped application isdry, thejob isdone. Youcanwax thewood if you want to,butthis tends toclog thepores andsteal some ofthenatural, textural beauty ofthefinish.
THE COLORS OF PENETRATING FINISHES The naturallookof the penetrating finishesis at its best on open pored woodssuchas oak, walnut, mahogany,pecan, chestnut,etc. It leavestheirtexture unfilled,and makes them looklike wood.Maple, birch,cherry,and otherclosegrainedwoodstake the finish,of course,but are not so spectacular as the coarsertextured species. Darker coloredwalnutreachesits usualdark browncolor.Rosewood's brownsgo almostblack. This degree of darkeningis consideredideal for each species. Stain is not usuallyrequired. If you want a penetrating finishthat is lighterin color,use a woodbleachto lightenthe naturalcolora shade or two. Of course,no filleris used witha penetrating resinfinish. Although the colorgivenwoodsby a penetrating resinfinishalone is usuallyappreciatedby most people in the darkerwoods,you may want to stainsome of the lighterspecies.If you use a pigmented wipingstain,then followit witha penetrating finish.The finishwillnot changethe colorof the stained wood,otherthan to intensify it slightly. The reasonfor thisis that mostpigmentedwipingstainsare mixedin a vehicle that is muchlike a penetrating finish. If you use water or a non-grainraisingstain,however, you mustexpecta considerable intensification of the color,a shiftin hue towardthe reds, and some darkening. HOW TO BUY PENETRATING FINISHES There are two kinds,one is formulated on the phenolicresins,the otheron alkyds.The phenolicstend to penetratedeeper. Look for the wordpenetrating and the wordresin.Look for instructions that tell you to brushit on and wipe it off. Everymajor paintmanufacturer has a penetrating resinfinish. There are materialsthat are similarin application based on oils,not resins.In situations where protection is not important, they can be used, althoughthey offerno advantages in service or application

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ease. Itispractically impervious towater andwill stand much use,andeven abuse, without cracking or peeling. Itcomes ineither a high gloss ora soft orsatin finish. Itmaybeused asa wood sealer, and/or asa filler, orforthefinal finish aswell. Nowood filler isrequired, since it isitsown filler if several coats areapplied, with excess rubbed and polished offbetween coats. Iftheresin finish istobeused asa wood filler aswell asa sealer, apply asabove instructions. Ifyou allow theresin todry, it issohard that subsequent coats will notstick toit.Ifyou areusing a final finish of something other than resin, allow thefiller coat todrya full 24 hours before polishing it back down tothe base wood with steel wool. This should leave every wood pore filled completely sotheregular, final finish canbeapplied.
APPLYING AN OIL FINISH TO THE STOCK An oil finishis consideredby many gun ownersto be the mosthandsomeof all, especiallyif the woodof the stockis especiallyfine. The reasonan oil finishis not usuallyappliedby commercialgun makersis that it is a time consuming process.However,the individual gun ownerwillget muchpleasureout of refinishing his stock,and havea beautifulproductas a result.While time consuming, the processis quitesimple.The following suggestions shouldprovehelpful. Use a regulargun stockoil or Tung Oil ratherthan boiledlinseedoil. LinseedOil, Trueoil,Tung Oil, and GenuineOil are three of the betterknownbrands.They are much easier and fasterto use than linseedoil, and leavea handsomefinish. See Sandingstocksat the startof thisarticle. When the stockhas been filledwithoil, hang it outdoorsin the sun and windand let it dry completely. Applya secondand thirdheavycoat of oil, dryingcompletely outdoorsbetweencoats.Allowthe third coat to dry for a fulltwelvehoursat least. FINISHING THE STOCK STEEL WOOL AND OIL - The steel woolpad is soaked withany lightoil like machineor crudeoil, and then used to rub the surfacein the same manneras in the dry rubbingmethod.The surfacemustbe dried clean of oil and grimeafter the rubbingoperationhas been completed.No otherpolishing device is necessarysincethe oil remainingon the surfaceservesas the polishing agent, The widthof the scratchproducedby the abrasive determinesthe amountof lusterresulting on the surface.Thus, if a series of verywide scratchesis made on the surface,a verydullappearancewill result,and if a series of veryfine scratchesis made, a glosssurfacewillresult.No scratchat all should 263

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produce a mirror likesurface. RUBBING TIPSANDSHORTCUTS Thefastest andeasiest method ofsanding thefinish smooth iswith No.400waterproof paper, such as WetorDry. Itisalso thecheapest, despite thehigher cost ofthepaper, since it doesn't clog when it isused with water, andit wears a long time. Thebest sort ofa block tousewith wetsandpaper isrubber. Paint stores sellrubber blocks that area nuisance touse.However, you cancutthem down sothey area plain block ofrubber, andthey work well. Another waytogeta rubber-sanding block istousecontact cement tofasten a piece ofinner tube toa wooden block. Sprinkle water onthesurface andsand. Keep a piece ofpaper insaucer ofwater, sothebacking will soften, androtate thepaper asitsedges andbacking dry. Many workers prefer todipthepaper inthe saucer ofwater, letting it drain, thus washing theaccumulation ofvarnish powder offthepaper. Nowandthen you hearrecommendations tousesoapy water, butthis does nogood, andactually slows thejob down. Plain water gives you thefastest andcleanest cut. Depending onhow finewaterproof sandpaper you canbuy, you maybeabletodoanentire rubbed finish without using pumice orrotten stone. Theequivalent torotten stone iscrocus cloth.
CARVINGS. Most finishers don't try to rub carvedand coped surfacesas carefullyas they do flat or mildlycurved surfaces.For one thing,sucha highfinishis not necessary,becausecarvedsurfacescarrytheirown decorative weight. Wet sandpaper,in fact any sandpaperis uselesson carvings, althoughit can be used on some simple moldings.Try steel woolfor early coats. Then, towardthe end of the finishing, use a smallscrubbrushto applypumiceand oil. Take special painsto clean the pumiceout of smallcracksand crevices. Any that you leavewilldry whiteand givethe carvings a scurvy look. FINISHING THE OILED STOCK Polishthe stockwithsteel wool,rubbinguntilall the oil is removed and you are downto the bare wood again. The poresof the wood,however, remaincompletely filledwiththe surfacesmooth.If there are thin spotsin the skin,repeat one or two more coatsand cut the finishback to the woodagain. Neverstart

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thefinal finish until allthepores isfilled. Apply thefinal coat very lightly, using thefingertips, rubbing inandsmoothing asyou goalong. Togeta finefinish, smooth outeach drop ofoilover asbroad a surface aspossible. Rubeach drop in completely until it starts topull asyou rubyour finger over it.Cover each areaofthestock turn, going on tothenext without going back over a section already done. Makecertain allthestock iscovered completely. Allow this coat todryinthesun andwind. Apply a thin second coat asyou didthefirst, andhang the stock uptodryagain. Repeat this process until thestock takes ona sheen. Usually about five coats are required togeta good finish. Youmight have toapply more coats onmore porous woods. Ifyou prefer a high gloss, wipe thestock clean with a special stock rubbing compound, andapply one final coat ofstock oil. Ifyou prefer a rubbed finish, rubtheentire stock very lightly with pumice, rubbing just enough toremove some ofthegloss butleaving a satin glow look tothefinish. Whether you prefer thehigh gloss orrubbed look, thefinal step istowax thestock completely with good quality paste wax, rubbing until hard. I find that a good paste floor wax ishard tobeat. Finish offby wiping with a soft flannel cloth.
ABRASIVES Some of the abrasives we need are sandpaper,and steel wool. Sandpaperis a sheet abrasive and shouldincludepapers in grades from1, 00, 220, 400, and 600. Steel woolto me is anothervery important to do for finishing.You shouldhavesteel woolin grades from1, 00, and 0000. Alsoyou in the maskingtape and clean rags for cleaningup the finish. SANDING THE WOOD Afteryou haveappliedthe fillerand sealer, the surfacewillbe roughunderyourfingertips.The grainwill haverisenagain and there willstillbe tracesof the fillerthat you did not remove. When you sand, the sandingknocksdownthe highpointsof the range and smoothit out. If you are sandingby hand witha rubberor woodenblock,startwith150-grade sandpaper. Remember,alwayssand withthe grain,and neveracrossit. Aftersandingthoroughly withthe 150-grade sandpaper,switchto 280 or 300 grade paper and then go overthe workagain. Aftercompleting use a 400 or finergrade of wet or dry paper. The finalsandingmustbe done by hand. When you sand, wet the paper oftento clear it. Havea bucket or containerof water and get the paper in it beforestarting,then shake it once or twiceand sand gently untilthe paper is almostdry then rinsethe paper again and movedto a new area. Aftergoingoverthe completesurface,the surfacewillbe as smoothas glassevenbeforeyou havewipe it was a tack cloth. 265

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Nowthat thesurface iscomplete, theactual refinishing canstart.


FILLING THE WOOD If you decide that the woodneed to be filled,now is the time to do it. Put some on a rag and rub it over the entiresurface,spreadingit and usinga lot of pressureto forceit intothe poresof the wood. If you can get burlapthisis a good clothto use in applyingthe filler. The open mesh we willstoreas well as release the fillerwhen it is rubbedacrossthe surface. Do not get intoa hurryand applythe fillerovertoo large and area at one time. It willdry beforeyou can rub it in. The sizeof the area that you want to applythe woodfillershouldnot be overeightor ten inch squarearea. Afterrubbingit in, wipe witha clean burlap,and then starton a new area. By applyingit thisway it willsaveyou a lot of sandinglater on. Aftercompleting the filling,you need to let the work standfor severalhours,and betteryet overnight, to allowthe fillerto dry. Afterdrying,put on the sealer coat and let it dry an houror so beforestartingthe finalsanding. Applywhiteshellacthat is thinnedwith alcohol,and brushit on the filledsurface. The sealer willsinkdeep intothe raw woodand thereforecut downon a lot of sanding. If you plan on staining,it willallowthe surfaceto exceptthe stainingmore evenly. GOUGES AND DENTS If you make mistakesor the woodhas dentsor gougesand it is alwaysbetterto pads these areas with real wood,then withwoodputty. Be aware however that woodputtydoesn't take stainas well as wood does. Wood puttyis made witha woodflower,whichis a veryfine sawdust,and some type of finishthat willcure and stickto the woodparticles. You can make woodputty's frommixtures of sawdustand glue, usuallyquiteglue or epoxy.Since neitherof these finishescan absorbstain. It is impossible to make it wouldputtythat willstainhas naturallyas wood. The following woodputtyis appliedin a similarmanner. Take a littleof the puttyout of the containerwith a puttyknifeor if the hole is smalluse a flat screwdriver. Now, we shouldpressthe downin the hole or the gouge,and smoothoff the top by pullingthe puttyacrossthe surfacetowardyou. You want the putty to forma veryslightmoundso that it willleavethe depressionwhen it shrinksas it dries. On the depressions, it is best to applyseveralcoatsto builda puttylevelwiththe surface. Afterthe puttyis thoroughly dry, sandedlevelwiththe surrounding wood. You can also get tintingcolors, whichis available that mostpaintor art supplystores. They are used to colorany type of putty, commercialor homemade. You want to matchthe colorof the woodafter it is stainedand finish. This may take some experimentation on scrapwoodto arriveat thiscolorwhilethe puttyis stilldamp, judge the color. When at thisstage you willget a fairlygood idea of how the puttywilllookafter it is finishes. Be aware that the colorof the stainor puttyafter it drives willnot be accurate.

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MAKING A GUNSTOCK Years agowhen I first start making stocks forrifles andshotguns wedidhave a choice ofusing blanks orsemi inletted stocks. There were many stock making firms around such asBishop, Fagen, and Herters even made stocks forquite a fewyears. None ofthestock makers arenow inbusiness, asmost stocks that you getnowadays areeither plastic orsome other type ofplastic material. Ifyou want tomake your own stock you will need a blank ofhardwood tolength that you'll need foryour stock, andabout three inches thick. After acquiring thenecessary material thefirst thing istomake a profile stock blank. Takea piece ofcardboard orthin plywood andmake a template ofthesize that you want. Youcangetthepattern bylaying a finished stock ona piece ofplywood orcardboard andtracing it outleaving at least 1/32-inch oversize onallsides. When you mark outthepistol grip leave it a little sharper anddeeper than thefinal proportions, forif you accidentally dent orchip thewood you will have a little extra towork with. Youwill need toplane theblank orplank smooth ononeside preferably istheright before you start profiling. Youwant tomake assmooth aswell assquare although you donotneed togetit totally smooth. This iswhy wewant toleave at least 1/32-inch leeway around theactual stock profile. After you have made thestock template carefully check allyour dimensions tobesure they areright, then place it onyour blank wood, sothat you cantakeadvantage ofthegrain structure andpattern as well asstrain through thepistol grip, andthefigure inthebusofthestock. Check both sides oftheblank orplank forthegrain pattern. Wetting down thewood with water will show you thepattern ofthewood andwhere you want toputthetemplate onit.With a carpenter's pencil draw around your pattern and then sawtheblank outalong thelines I would recommend a table sawforthestraight upanadvance sawforthecurved orpistol grip's. Ifyou don't have a table sawtheband sawcanbeused forthewhole job butit will notbeassmooth aswhat isdone with a table saworstraight blade. Ifyou aremaking a plain straight stock, without a raised cheek piece oroffset then theblank canbe made from a twoinch thick which will allow anoutline ofthecheek piece. Overall, I would suggest not having a blank less than 2 1/4inches thick andnotover 2 1/2inches, asthicker blanks will mean more work shaping then down later.
LAYING OUT THE STOCK Now you are ready to mark out the stockfor the barreland action.Mark a centerlinefor the barreland actionwitha pencilon top of the profileblank,fromthe pistolgrip to the end of the stock.Be sure to make thisline parallelto the squareside of the blankbut not necessarily in the centerof the blank.You can also checkwhere the line willbe by makinga templateout of cardboardto lengthand widthof the receiver of a riflethat is being use, less the lengthof the tang by placingit on top of the blankyou can then moveit towardsthe left side and checkthe amountwoodyou mustleavefor the left side wall of the bodyof the stock.Then lay out yourcenterlinefor the barrelreceiver usinga smalltemplate.Make this line to the end of the forend.Make thisline back overand aroundaboutstock,you can use a chalkline if you haveeverything linedup rightbeforemarkingit. The nextthingthat you want to do is set youroffset fromyourworkingcenterlineby measuringto the rightof the line downacrossthe end of the of the rifle 267

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stock plank. Youwill find anoffset ofabout 5/16inch isalmost always possible andusually you canget more.

This offset orwhat they callwere cast oninthecaseoftheleft-handed shooter istaken intheopposite direction andmade theconstant forlefthanded shooters, andI have found hismost comfortable forthe average shooter. When you have everything marked you now have a continuous lineonwhich tobase your layout fortheleading ofthestock. Thefirst thing that you would doisestablished thelocation ofthe front guards grew whole which iseasy because you cancheck theaction against herstock profile template andthen geta measurement from either thefront forback oftheblank. When you have the whole marked you canthen drill thehole at right angles tothetopoftheblank inboth directions. Ifyou have it a drill press it would bethebest waytodrill theholes, butbesure todrill land that right angles to thetopoftheblank inboth directions. Ifyou have they angle vise anda drill press you candrill theholes almost perfect. Usea 9/32-inch drill bitif you areusing a Mauser action oranyother parallel guard action they canalso bedrilled at this time. Depending onthetype oftheaction you will have tovary the size ofyour drill bitbusbesure theholder holes flow arelocated onthecenterline oftheblank. When you have theholes drilled currently blank over andthen lettherearguard first. Youmight need to make another template oftheband thin metal orfiber sothat you canhave theoutline oftherearguard andmark it onthestock inrelation toyour holes that you have drilled. After thetemplate iscutoutmark around it soyou will have thesize onthestock. Inmost trigger guards that have anintegral magazine box onthem, thefirst thing that you need todoistooutline thedimensions ofthebox onthebottom of thestock. This will bedone oninside oftherearguard outline that you have drawn were traced onthe wood. Next, you canthen remove this would either with a chisel ordrilling down thealong theedges to remove theexcessive wood. Ifyou have it,you canusefairly small metal cutting bits inyour drill press to drill outthemagazine opening following theoutline ofthebox closely toleave a minimum ofchiseling andfiling toshape it upthe. Ifyou usetheabove thewood should come outafter cutting ina block, andallyou need todoisto smooth it upwith a chisel andrough files enough toadmit themagazine box hallway. I always have a
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little space around themagazine box andbearing points onthewood at allpoints. Ifyou areinmaking this stock fora rifle with a heavy recoil therearofthemagazine box canbefitted closely tobearagainst thewood, however besure toleave a lease 1/32-inch clearance at thecorners ofthebox onallsides. You'll find that rasps andfiles doboth ofthework ininletting thebox aswell asother parts ofthestock. After you have everything shaped, andmagazine box will drop inplace with theguard setting against the bottom ofthestock, then check itsoutline against theoutline you have drawn with thetemplate. Now, check theguards screws holes tobesure that it lined upwith a hole intheblank ofthestock. Nowyou would need flatchisels tocuttheoutline across theparks at theendandalso at thecorners of themagazine. Remove thewood tothedepth ofabout 3/16inch, andthen usethecurve chisel tocut andfinish thefull outline forthemagazine. After you getthewood inletted you canapply wipe ona little oiltothebottom ofthemagazine andpress into theplace. This oilwill show you byleaving a mark on thewood what you dohave toremove. This also applies toalloftherest oftheinletting ofthebarrel and action. Without this oilthat iswiped onit would beextremely difficult toknow where toremove wood and were nottoremove wood.
INLETTING THE RECEIVER When you get ready to inletthe receiver you'll need to headlesscrewsthat can be threadedintothe guardsscrewstapped holes.I havefoundthat the screwsneed not be muchoverthree incheslong,and you can eithermake the screwsor by them fromany gunsmith supplyhouse.The inletting of the receiver and barrelis basicallythe same as the inletting of the triggerguards.With the screwsin place you can then mark out on the woodwhere you willneed to removethe woodfor the receiver and barrel.Afteryou haveremovethe woodfor yourreceiver part of the inletting the receiver shouldthen now drop intothe stockof approximately 5/16 of an inch.Once the receiver dropsintoplace you can then draw the outline of the barrelchannelcantingthe pencilinwardwhiledrawingit alongsideof the barrelto ensurea smallerthan the normaldimensions of the barrel. INLETTING THE BARREL As you startinletting the barrelit willbe necessaryto keep cuttingthischanneldeeper as the receiver sinksintothe blank,but however make sure to keep the receiver goingstraightdown.You willhaveto continuecleaningout the woodfor yourreceiver as the barrelsgo deeper intothe stock.Most of the workin inletting willbe done withonlystraightchisels,however the barrelchannelis finishedwitha roundrasp or curvechisel. Afteryou havethe barreland receiver inlettedto almostcorrectdepthyou'll need to get a barrelinletting raspsor scraperto smoothout the chiselmarksthat you havemade in the woodand to make the channelperfectlyround.Rememberto wide oil on the receiver and barrelas you inletso you know where the woodwillbe touching and has to be removed. Alwaysworkwiththe grainif you can however you may haveto changedirections sometimeseveryfew inchesas a grainchangesin directions. When you haveinlettedthe barreland receiver, and the rear tang is almostbelowthe surfaceof the wood,and barreltouching edges of channelso you can get a shortrest now has the easy workis aboutover.

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FINISHING THE RECEIVER AND BARREL Now, wipe off all of the sawdustfromthe receiver and barreland then wipe on a thinfilmof oil overthe entiresurface.Place the barrelactioncarefullyintothe stockand tappingit lightlyon the receiver so that it willleavea mark on the woodwere you'll haveto removea littleextrawood.Now removethe barrel actionand the coatedsteel has mark the woodyou then use the chiselsto clear the woodaway with verylightshavings. The recoilshoulderhas probablyalreadybottomedout on the receiver and the stock and has a slightrecesscut for it. The recoilshoulderhas to be fittedverycloselyor the stockmay split. Anymorewhen the stockis fittedcloselyit is usuallyfinishedup witha glass-bedding compound. Glass beddingwillgiveyou a perfectfit of the actionand barrel. MPORTANT--if you are goingto glassbed the barrelactionto the stockbe sure to haveeverything coatedwiththe release agent that comeswiththe glass-bedding compound. If you leaveone part of the receiver uncoatedyou may possiblyglue the actionintothe stock.If that happensit is almostimpossible to removethe actionwithoutdestroying the stock. The instructions for glassbeddingwillbe in the box.Followit wordfor word. This completesthe inletting of the stock.The outsideshape of the stockis removed mostlywithwood raspsbothfine and course.This takes quitea bit of time to shape up the outsideof the stockthe way you want it. Don't get in a hurry,take yourtime.

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FITTING RECOIL PADS Inthegun shop oneofthemost common stock alterations isadding a recoil padtoa shotgun or high-power rifle.Inmost cases, very fewgunsmiths turned outa good-looking job. When a gun owner brings ina good-looking weapon tohave a recoil pads installed, heexpects that installing therecoil pad should notmarthegeneral appearance ofhisgun.Inallthefitting ofa recoil pad,they should fitflush against thebutt ofthestock at allcontacting points. They should blend inwith general lines ofthestock itself, andabove alltheoldfinish should notbedamaged while installing thepad.
SELECTING THE PROPER RECOIL PAD When the customerbringsin a gun to havea recoilpad installed,the gunsmiths shouldfirstfindout from the customerjust what make of pad he wouldlike to haveinstalled. In mostcases, the shooterdoes havea definitepreferenceas to what make of pad they want and it is advisable to satisfyhim in using the pad of his choice. Sometimes,the customerbringsin a particular recoilpad to be fitted,but before he leaves,make certainthat the recoilpad is large enough,bothin lengthand widthto fit the gun. When you buy a recoilpad, there willbe three sizes,whichare small,medium,and large. The pad that you selectshouldconformhas nearlyto the finishbuttsizeas possible. By selectingthe pad that willfit closelyto the buttof the stock,a good deal of unnecessary cuttingof the pad willsavemuchtime. THE STOCK LENGTH Once you haveselectedthe correctsizeof the recoilpad, findout fromthe customerthe lengthof the stockthat he wantsto end up withon his gun. Find out if the stockas it is now is too shortor too longfor the tide of shootingthat he does. If the stockis too longnow, then a 1/4 of an inchmay haveto be removed fromthe stockto bringit downto propersizeafter the recoilpad is mounted. If it is too short, all that needs to be done is too squareup the end of the stockbeforeaddinga recoilpad. Two major up the stockcarefullymeasurefromfrontto back of the recoatpad (at its middlessection) and markedthisdistancecallsfromthe end of the buttplate on bothsides of the stock. You also need to measurethe distancefromthe triggerto the buttstocktoe, as thismustbe taken intoaccountfor the properpitchto be achieved. Afterthe centerlineand pitch-line distanceshavebeen taken and markedoff, a line shouldbe scribed aroundthe stockto showwhere the sawingoff of the stockis to be done. By doingthis,the original pitchand generalmeasurements of the stockwillbe the same after the recoilpad is on the gun. PITCH The pitchis important stanceit can affectthe shootingqualities of a gun. Pay individual who is the customto one particular pitchon his shotgunmay findthat the shotgunshootsdifferentafter the recoil pad is put on. Therefore,it is wise to not changethe pitchof the stockverymuch.

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Another problem that you will faceisthat therubber butt plates onmany models ofshotgun arecurved outat thebutt toeandmaybevery helpful tosome shooters. Where weruninto a problem istheback ofmost recoil pads areabsolutely flat, andthestock intowhich they arefitted tomust also beflat.On these types ofstocks, quite a bitofwood isremoved andthepitch isaltered. Sonow being thepitch distance isdifferent this should betaken into account before anycutting orshaping isdone. Sometimes a customer might desire tohave thepitch change hasbeen made toward improving his shooting. Ifthis isso,thegunsmiths should bearinmind that thegreater thepitch, thegreater the tendency tounder shoot. Ifa gun haslittle ornopitch, this will cause a gun toovershoot.
SAWING OFF THE STOCK BUTT Wins sawingoff the buttof the stock,alwaysuse a verynarrowbladed hacksawand alwayskeep at least 1/16 of an inchto the buttside of the line. The reasonfor thisis if the woodchips,whichusually occurs,it willnot affectthe finishon the remainingportionof the stock. Use a hacksawor saw blade having aboutfourteenteeth per inch. Howeverusinga hacksawwillproducean unevenface on the wood,whichwillrequirea lot of flattening out. A betterchoiceto cut off the stockis to use a wide set crosscut handsaw,whichwillgiveyou a straightcut. The troublein usingthe commonand crosscut saw blade is that it oftencausesa longsplinterto rip off. When thishappens,the entirestockmustbe refinished. Afterall of my years in Gunsmithing and mounting recoilpads I believethe best set up for sawingoff a piece of finishgun stockis a miterboxand backsaw. The reasonfor thisis that the findpitchof the teeth on a backsawgivesless chanceof woodsplintering and the guide in a miterboxkeeps the saw in line. The big problemis that the gunstock is not flat, and not parallelto the miterboxbase. To use a miterboxit is necessaryto buildup underthe narrowin of the stockso that the saw willcut at 90 degrees to the end throughout the entirewidthof the buttstock. I findthat thismethodis verydesirablewhen a gunsmith does a great deal of worldworkon may already finishstock. You mightevenbe able to mountsome tide of adjusting screwto the miterboxto elevate the narrowend of the gun stockto obtaina 90 degree saw cut. It made properlya gunstock of any size or shape couldbe easilyset up for cuttingoff.

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FINISHING OUT THE SAWED OFF BUTT STOCK When you havefinishedsawingoff the buttstockit willbe necessaryto sand the buttend of the stock after sawing,and beforeinstalling the recoilpad. You haveto make sure that the recoilpad willfit perfectlytrue so that there is no space or unevenin line betweenthe woodand the pad. You can mount a piece of sandpaperon a flat woodblock, but you haveto be especiallycarefulthat the blockdoes not rollover on each end of the stock. You can place the stockvertically betweenthe padded jaws of a vise. Then, true the buttend withone thickness of sandpapertackedto a flat board. I usuallyuse a piece of hardwoodabouteightincheslongand two incheswide for sandingthe butt. You can attachthe abrasive paper withcontactcementto holdit in place. You had to be especiallycarefulto be sure you do not roundoff the tow and heel of the buttduringthe smoothing up operations. CUTTING THE RECOIL PAD TO THE PROPER SIZE When you haveselectedthe propersizeof the recoilpad, place it againstthe buttstockwiththe heel of the pad as near as possiblein line withthe heel of the buttstock,and be carefulthat the entirepad is centeredon the gunstock. When you havethe pad centered,puncha centermark throughthe top screw hole where a hole is drilledto take a screw. Now take a screw,lubricateit witha fine oil, and tightenit in place. Now withthe pad partlyin place, get a sharpscribeto mark the buttstockoutlinedon the hard rubberportionof the recoilpad. When that is done unscrewthe pad fromthe stockand witha belt sanderor some othertype of grinder,grindall of the excessmaterialfromthe pad. Be extracarefulto shape the toe of the pad at an angle that willblendin withthe stocklineswhen the pad is mountedin place. Afteryou havefinishedgrindingthe pad downto the scribeline, screwthe pad to the stockand realignit intothe properposition. At thispoint,the toe hole shouldbe drilledintothe stockand a screwtightened in place. Sometimesit is necessaryto scribea new line on the recoilpad sincethe earliermark that you had scribedontothe pad willbe slightly off when you havescrewedin the secondscrew. You must be carefulhere and exerta littleextracare in grindingsincethe positionon the stockis now determined and you probablywillnot haveverylittleroomfor correcting mistakes. FINAL SHAPING OF THE PAD Afteryou havethe pad screwedin place, I usuallyapplya stripof maskingtape aroundthe stocknextto the recoilpad. What thisdoes it is to keep you frommakinga mistakeand put sandingmarkson the finishof the stock. Use finergritof sandpaperwhen you sand downthe pad to the maskingtape. Go aroundthe buttplate withthe sandpaperof about120 grit. Keep sandinguntilyou are just touching the maskingtape. If you are careful,you can use a sandingdesk in a drillor a drillpress. Take the pad downuntilit is flushedwiththe maskingtape. What everyou do, nevershape the recoilpad whileit is on the stockto finishit. There are veryfew, if any gunsmiths who can grinda recoilpad downwhileit is attachedto the stockwithoutscratching or marringthe stockin some way. A scratchstockis certainlyno indication of the gunsmith's skill. Afteryou havethe recoilpad finished, rub a bit of linseedoil overthe buttend beforefinallyputtingon the recoilpad. This willdarkenthe edges of the woodslightly to help matchthe buttplate. Neveruse any type of glue to help fastenthe butt 273

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plate tothestock.

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FIRST AID FOR WOOD Many times finished wood that hassimply been neglected orhasbeen instorage will takeona drab, unattractive look that seems toindicate a need forrefinishing. Sometimes thefurniture hasbeen exposed toa damp, humid atmosphere andit mayhave acquired light-colored streaks. Extremely hot, dryatmosphere, orexposed toheatfrom a nearby stove orfireplace, andeven direct sunlight. Thefinish mayhave formed checks togive thepedals affect. Thetable ordesk surfaces mayhave suffered from thestains andeven have a white ring from a hotcoffee mug ora glass ofteahasrested. Many times these conditions canbecured rather quickly, without either spot orpartial refinishing. When you usea quick cure andit doesn't work, you will have togotothefull refinishing ofthesurface. Give the fastcure a tryfirst. A piece offurniture that hascumulative several layers ofdust andgrime from setting inthebackground cansometimes berevived just bya good washing. Todothis, usea soft ragand warm water inwhich a teaspoon ofshavings from a mild barofsoap that hasbeen dissolved. Donot usea detergent. Geta soft raganddipit inthesoapy water, wring it outlightly, just enough tokeep it from dripping. Now with gentle pressure, wash thepiece, anddryat once. Look at it closely andif it isnotcleaned uplike you want you mayneed torewash toremove allthedirt. Ifit isOK,then apply some good furniture wax andrubbed well. Sometimes you mayfind a finish that hasdeeply embedded layers ofdirt, along with different types of stains. Totrytoclean this upsubstitute medicinal soft so,USPXVI,forthetoilet so.This medicinal soap isusually called "green soap." Ifyou donotknow what this is,it iswhat doctor's usewhen scrubbing for anoperation. Youcanfind it andmost drugstores. Touseit,soak a soft, lintless, clean cloth inlukewarm water, andwring it outgently. Puta teaspoonful ofthesoap onthecloth andfold it into a hand size pad. Next, wash thefurniture with a rotating motion until it iscovered with lather. Nowtakea clean cloth, and dipit into warm water. Wring gently, andwash offthelather, andthen drywith a fresh cloth. Ifit looks OK, apply a good coat offurniture wax andwork it into thegrain ofthewood. Now, wearegetting desperate, sonext heata quart ofwater inanolddouble boiler. Thewater must be quite hot, donotboil. Adda tablespoon ofturpentine andtwotablespoons oflinseed oiltothewater and stir well. Whatever you do,don't putthepancontaining this mixture over a direct heatasit mayignite. If you don't have thedouble boiler, you canuseanoldsaucepan inside a larger panthat isfilled towithin twoinches oftherim.Next, you need todipa clean cloth into thelukewarm mixture andwring it outto where it's almost dry. Now, wash with thegrain ofthewood, andwhen through dryat once byrubbing the wood with a clean, dry, lintless rag.Ifit looks OK,wax it wasa good furniture wax. Warning. Any oftheforegoing methods used ona veneered piece, useonly lukewarm water, andwring thewashing clothe almost dry. Toomuch moisture andheatwill probably cause theveneer tothelift. Work very fastinremoving thewash water.

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FADING You probablyknowby now that finishesof everytype may fade withage. They may also become cloudy or milkyand havestreaksor spots.You can frequently revive them. On varnish surfacesthat havefaded or has streaks,use raw linseedoil and turpentine in equalparts.Rub thismixture on witha clothor a pad of 0000 steel wool.Afterdoingthis,applya coat a thinvarnish after wipingthe surfacedry. Lacquered that has a foggedsurfacecan sometimesbe curedby rubbingwitha polishcloththat is it intoa mixture made by addingtwo tablespoons of whitevinegar to a quartof water. Then dry and then applya freshcoat of thinlacquer. If you havea whiteringor spotsthere are severalmixtures, whichcan be used to removethem. All of them all worksome of the time, however, none of them or workall the time. I wouldsuggeststartingwith the mildesttreatmentand workedup to the toughest,and hope that you willfindsomething that willwork to removethe spots.To try to removethe spotsbegin witha teaspoonful of butterand a tablespoonfull of cigar or cigaretteashes, neverpipe ashes. Pipe ashes containcoarsedottle.Mixthe butterin ashes togetherand rub the mixture overthe spotsor ringwitha softclothalwaysrubbedwiththe grainof the woodnot roundand roundthe ring.Tobaccoashes are an abrasive evenmilderthan rottenstone,and the butteris a betterlubricant for them than oil or wax. Afteryou clean and wiped the finishand a butter/ashes mixture failsto removethe wring,movedup the abrasive scale to rottenstonelubricatedwithlightoil. The best oil that I havefoundis sewingmachine oil or automotive break-inoil. Do not followthe patternof the stainor ringswhen you rub, alwayswork withthe grainof the wood. If the abovedid not get results,we willget tough.Try a paste of F F F-grade pumasstoneand raw linseedoil. Use the same procedureaboveon the rubbingstyleusingabrasive mixtures. Usingthis paste, you can't keep trackof the progressyou're makingunlessyou clean the surfaceeverynow and then. For cleaning,wipe away the paste witha clothdampenedwitha few dropsof turpentine. If you findthat none of the abovemixtures workto get the rings,etc., you'll haveto stripthe surfaceand refinishit. If any of the aboveprocesseswere successful, clean the refreshedsurfacewitha turpentine-dampen rag; followup by wipingwitha dry rag, and repolish. If you havewhitemarkson a varnish surfaceit willsometimesyieldto a rag moistenedwithlemonoil or spiritsof camphor.Afterthe spotshas been removed, wipe witha soapycloth,then wipe witha cloth that is soaked in plainwater, and followup witha dry clothbeforerepolish. Stainscausedby the ink scales,a magic markeris, and similardye loaded liquids are usuallynot removable. Some of the dyes foundtodaystriketo the finishand intothe wood,and the onlyway to removethem is the strip,bleach,and refinish. If you havea woodfinishthat is alligatorered, or eventhe entiresurfacethat has gottenpebble-rough throughaging or exposure to heat, they may also requirestripping and refinishing. It mightbe wortha try 276

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tocure this condition bywiping very slowly, with a cloth saturated with acetone ormethyl alcohol along with a bitoflinseed oilorTung oil.Wipe very gently following thewood grain. Donotwipe thewood surface, letthesurface drynaturally, andwhen itsdrywipe it with a soapy cloth followed bya cloth dampened inclear water. Rubdrybefore flowing ona thin coat a varnish. Refinish thewood if this doesn't remove thealligatoring. Stripping andrefinishing istheonly answer.
STRIPPING WOOD Sometimes,when everything else failsyou willbe faced withthe job of stripping and refinishing. The piece that you want to strip,take outdoors,or if you want to workinside,opened all the windows,doors, in yourworkroom. Next,spread a drop clothor a thicklayer of old newspaperson the floor,and get ready for two or three days of work. When you get ready to stripa piece, try to arrangeyourworksset up so that you can turnthe piece you're workingon so to be able to applythe remover to horizontal surfaces.When you startto stripyou shouldfinishusingthe remover on one surfacebeforeturningthe piece and startingwithanother. Alwaysprotectthe alreadystripedsurfaceswitha few sheetsof newspaperheld in place withmasking tape, if you don't and the remover tricklesor splashesontotheirwoodit can call is additionalstains. More than likelyyou willhaveto do the legs of chairsand tableswiththe workin a vertical position.If the legs haveroundsor turnedareas on them, workon the first.Alwaysuse paper held withmaskingtape to protectthe areas belowwhere you're workingfromany trickles.Use one of the sponge-rubber spreadersto spread and evencoat of remover on the surface.Now let it standfor a while.Don't try to scrapeas soonas yourfinishspreadingthe remover on. Most removers need at least ten minutesto penetrateand liftthe old finishand othersmay need at two or three timesthat long.You can watchthe spread surface,and if you see spotsbeginningto dry out, then applya bit of freshremover overthe use. Afterthe old finishbeginsto break up and swell,bubblingup like mud in a swamp,startscrapingwith yourwoodenpaddle. Treat it like you wouldpay smallshovel, and make longpasses overthe surfaceto let off the sludgethe remover has formed.You need to havean emptycontainerhandyin whichto drop the goo mess that you pick the. Tap the paddle on its edge of the containerto get it to drop off, and then wipe the scraper clean beforebeginninga freshtasks.Strip the surfacethat you havecovered withremover, then go back to the firstsurfaceyou workedon an applymore remover to spotsthat didn't come clean when you scrapethem the firsttime. Alwayskeep in mindto keep the remover off bare woodto avoidstains.After applyingthe remover a secondtime the finishwillgiveway in a few minutes.Do thiswitheach surface. You willfindthere willbe areas where the old finishhas penetratedthe woodso deeplythat the remover won't let it. If after applyingto applications of remover and you findthat it won't clean these areas, you can assume that anymorewon't do it either.

On the spotsthey willhaveto be scraped,the beforeyou scrape,make sure and washedall the area 277

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where remover hasbeen usesoit will beneutralize andprevent anyadditional staining. Tomake a neutralizer you have 8 oz. oftrisodium phosphate, which isoften called TSPintwoquarts of very hotwater. Now, addfour ounces oflaundry detergent such asOxydol, Dash, orCheer. Cool the solution byadding three quarts ofcold water. Setthis solution back anddonotwork within until it's completely cool. Ifyou useanywarm liquids where thesurface hasjust been gone over with a paint or varnish remover, it will cause thealready softened wood grain toriseandfeather. This will give you real problems when you begin tosmooth it forthefinal finish. Rinse thesurface with a neutralizer, andthen rinse again. Useclean water supply with a cloth that is barely moist. Next, wipe thesurface that once with a dryclothe andisback fortwoorthree hours tolet thewood dry. Thewood iswetfora fraction ofaninch below thesurface, andnow you cansetup another piece tostrip. Itisbest toletthepiece dryovernight tobesure that it iscompletely dry. Nowyou will need toscrape thewood. Usea cabinet scraper, which isa tool that isused bymost professionals. This isa handy tool anditsown waywill domost ofthework foryou. Usevery little pressure onhard drywoods astoomuch pressure will cause theCabinet scraper toskid andthere will beleda series ofsmalls parallel scratches that you will have a hard time toremove. Always usethe scraper with thegrain ofthewood, andnever against oracross thegrain. Useit with a straight long smooth strokes until you've gone over theentire surface. Youneed toremember why you're doing isa really scraping, butshaving. Thescraper will remove thepatches offuzz onthesurface ofthewood. Youmight encounter long stubborn streaks, andif you doswitch from a straight scraper toonewith a curved edge. Ifyou're working ona curved surface such asat theseeofa wooden chair, usea strong neck scraper tomake thejob gofaster. Turn this scraper towrite angles, andyou canmatch almost any inside curved ona piece offurniture. Onmolding lines, grooves, turnings, andcarvings, oneofthelittle nooker's described isinvaluable. Youcangetinto some ofthese quite well with theMerit flex-0-sand tool used inyour electric drill. I would avoid using thetool onintricate carvings hasanysanding done on a carving isgoing toremove some ofthesurface asit gets into thenicks andcranny. Asyou work, wipe away thescrape-off grit occasionally, forit will contain small glass-like needle-sharp bits ofoldvarnish orlacquer that hadescaped theremover andispractically invisible. Also if you donot wipe them offthey will putsmall lines onthesurface that you might notnotice into you begin toapply the stains orvarnish? Becareful andwatch forwhat woodworkers call"crazy grain", which arelittle flaws in thewood, which arenobody's fault. They arecaused byanaccident ofnature asthetreegrew. Youmay need togoover thework onthespots with 000four 0000steel wool moistened with mineral spirits, and then goover it began with thescraper until it disappears.

PAINT AND VARNISH REMOVERS You willprobablyuse a paintor varnish remover that you willbe doinga completerefinishing jobs. 278

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However, you maywant tousea paint orvarnish remover tostrips offthefinish from a table legorback ofa chair. When you gotoa hardware orpaint store, you'll seea lotofgood paint andvarnish removers there, and most ofthem areslightly different. Besure toreadthelabels onthem assound arehazardous touse unless you takeprecautions toventilation andfirehazardous. You'll find that none ofthem will really removers thefinish. They will soften thefinish foryou toremove with very little effort. Besure toreadthecaution labels that arenow required onproducts that are flammable ortoxic, orproduce toxic fumes. Ifyou usea paint orvarnish remover that haseither a high flammability ora high toxicity rating, useit only outdoors andavoid breathing thefumes asmuch as possible. A good saferule istonever useanyremover ina badly ventilated areaoranareawhere it vapors could beignited byanopen flame such asthepilot burner ofa hotwater tank orfurnace. Many ofthedayorgel-like removers hasa wax orparaffin init togive them thebody, which makes them sodesirable touseonvertical surfaces. Thepaint orvarnish remover that you should getwill bebased onmethylene chloride, methyl ethyl keyton, oroneoftheother chemicals that hasboth a lowtoxicity and a lowflammability quotient. Tobeonthesafeside, usethese outdoors if possible, orina well-ventilated room away from anopen flame.
BLEACHES AND FILLERS Wind stripping, the methodof stripping and the type of remover you havechosen,you may need oxalic acid to bleachcertainspotswhichare remover has turnedgray. Or, a stainor paintfroman earlierfinish that has penetratedtoo deeply.Anotherbleachingagent is ammonia,so all are a numberof powdered household cleanerssuchas Gold Dust and Ajax, and liquids suchas Clorox or Purex. To neutralize, use vinegar as a neutralizing agent following the use of bleach.One or more of the above you may need to try, dependingon the successof yourstripping workand type of job that you're doing. If the woodsthat you're workingwithhavean open grain,you need to get a filler.Most woodsuchas oak, softMahogany,ash, Chestnut,and Hickorywillrequirea filler.Some of the otheropen pored woodsare Elm and Sycamore,whichare seldomused todayin furniture making.When you get these fillers,use a thickfillerfor all of the abovewoods.Then fillersshouldbe use on softstraightgrainMaple, Walnut,Beach, and a veryfine grainMahogany's. On veryclosegrainwoodslike curledgrainmaple, Birch,Cherry,and Gum you do not need to use a filler.Fillerscome in various colorsto matchthe tone of all the differentfurniture woods,and the colorscan be adjusted withpigmentsif you like.

STAINING THE WOOD If you plan to use staining,they haveseveralfunctions.They willhighslightimperfections in wood,bring out the grainbeauty,and producean exactcolorthat willmatchotherpieces of furniture or contrastwith them. When you buy a stain,all of them are made by dissolving a coloringagent, powder,paste, or 279

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liquid insome type ofcarrier orbase that allows thehewofthestaining tobeadjusted from light todark. Paste andliquid pigments areusually suspended inanoilorgrease base, andinmost cases must be thinned ina compatible carrier. Carriers canbethinned varnish orpure turpentine, ormineral spirits. Powder staining canbedissolved ineither oilora water base carrier. They canalso bemixed in alcohol, lacquer, orwater, andalso inturpentine ormineral spirits. Ifyou want tousepowder stains they arevery handy if you want todeepen ordarkened anyready mix stains. Thestains mayhave either anoil,lacquer, alkali resin, latex, orwater base.Alcohol stains or water base stains will penetrate quite deeply into rawwood.Oiloralkali, orresin base stains tend to sink into thewood surfaces only very shallow. Thealcohol orwater base stains areusually labeled as "penetrating stains" sotheuser will know itscharacteristics. Youmust work carefully andswiftly with the stains toavoid overlap which results ina streak finish. Spirit stains, which arealcohol orwater base, will strike indeeply andvery quickly, andthis will make brush application very tricky. Probably, you candoa better job if you wipe thestains onwith a cloth instead ofrushing them on. Thetype ofstaining tousewill depend onthekind offinish that you're trying toachieve if you want a very slick appearance ofa lacquer finish, it would bebest tousea water base staining toprevent thelacquer from dissolving thestain andcausing it tobleed into thefinish. When you apply lacquer over anytype other than a water base staining it will absorb some ofthecolor that isreleased bythebleeding, therefore your finish will notbeperfect. I have found that varnish canbeuseover just about anytype ofstains, andthevarnish stains combine twojobs into onebygiving you a stain andthetopcoat ofvarnish inoneapplication. Many asthestains have a tung oilbase anddoanexcellence onecoat job. Ifyou want thebest finish you canget,you will probably have tousethree coats.After sanding andwiping with a tack cloth, apply a sealed coat ofthin varnish orshellac tokeep thestains from penetrating todeeply. Usevarnish andturpentine inequal parts, oralcohol andmyshellac inequal parts.This type ofsealer will dryimmediately, andfillthetiniest wood pores that theseller mayhave missed. Itwill also give you a more even stained job. Youcould usea brush, then rubthesealer coat with feltandwipe with thetack cloth, apply staining, andthen rubbed with felt.They endwipe with a tack cloth when thestain dries.Applying a coat ofrubbed on Tung oilvarnish will finish thejob. After theTung oilvarnish dries give thework a final rubbing with felt andthen wipe with a tack cloth. Usea thin coat ofvarnish tofinish it off. Youcanalso brush thestains on,orrubbed it on,unless you're using a water base arealcohol base stains. Water base oralcohol base stains arenotrecommended forthehome worker. Seldom, will you need toapply more than onecoat ofstain, andif you work both fastandcarefully inapplying that coat, all that will beneeded before going tothefinish coat istoorubbed down thesurface with felttogetit a final polish. Youcanbuy feltrubbing pads inmost hardware stores, andalways polish thework completely asthat iswhat give you thebest finish.

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REFINISHING WOOD There arebasically three types ofrefinishing that you might do.Youmaywant tocompletely refinish the wood items, which will begin bystripping thewood down tothebarewood. While this does isto prepare thewood sothat you canputa newfinish onit. Thesecond wayoffinishing wood isa partial refinishing. Itstops short ofstripping allthefinish offofthe wood, thegenerally you will need toremove oldvarnish orshellac. Then, buff thesurface, butleave the oldstain alone except forminor touch ups. Thethird refinishing methods arewhen you trytoblend a repaired orpatch areatomatch theexisting finish. Complete refinishing isnormally theeasiest, especially forthenewcomer that hasdone very little refinishing work. Oncomplete refinishing callyou need todohisstain, Barnes, orapply lacquer. You don't have thetask ofmatching what somebody elsehasdone. Inpartial refinishing you'll find that plans cangowrong. Youmayenduptaking offthestain orcreate patchy spots init.Ifyou arenotcareful you canalso loosened glue joints. When doing a complete refinishing job this isn't a problem because you'll have barewood towork with. Youwill find that themost difficult ofthethree kinds ofrefinishing work isspot refinishing. Here, hemust getanexact match andstaining, andusethefinishing materials that areeither identical with these use inthepiece when it wasfirst finish. Ifyou usematerials that were liketheoriginal there will beno mismatch noticeable.
THE TOOLS YOU WILL NEED FOR REFINISHING The refinishing tools,as well as good sandpaper,are verysimpleand you usuallyhavethese already.A scraperfor flat surfaces,that is were used for crevices and cornersas well. Many people make the mistakeof usingglassfor scraping.The glassedges are nevertotallysmoothunlessthe glasshas been smoothon a specialemery belt machine. If you use a steel scraper,I get a good one. This is one of the best investments that you can spendyour dollaron. STRIPPING If you use a big scraperwithjagged edges thiscan make a lot of workfor you. You can findveryuseful and suitablescrapersby goingto a variety storeand selectingwoodand kitchenutensilsthat would includea pot scraperthat has a smoothtaperededge. Normallythese scraperswilllast throughthree or fourrefinishing jobs, and the mostimportant is they won't scratchthe surfacethe woodsoftenedby paint and varnish removers. When gettingintocorners,Constantine has a handylittletoolthey call a "grooves 281

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andcranny nooker", which will getinto tight spots. Along with this mayhave another scraper with interchangeable blades that hasoutside andinside curves, aswell asdifferent points togetinto very finecarved areas. Youcanalso make wood groove scrapers from different size dowels sawed andfiled totheexact shape that you need. These work extremely well, butthey taketime tomake up.Youwill find they arenice touseforthefinal cleanup, as they won't marwood surfaces a dealthat oneofthen skid oreven usetoomuch pressure.
SANDING AND SANDING BLOCKS When you go to a hardwarestorethere are many good sandingblocksmade of metal or rubber.I have foundit workas well usinga scratchpiece of 1 x3 lumber.The sandingblocksare easy to use; especiallythe rubberwas, as they willfollowthe curves of the wood.When you come to grooves and edges, and otherodd spotsA-Actomakes a set of differentshapessandersthat are veryeasy to use. When you need new paper on these, you'll findthat won't take longto do. When you finishout table legs or chairlegs and any othercontoured surfaces,the Merit Sand-O-Flexis a real-timeand energySaver. Don't use drill-operated sandersthat you use tinymetal fingers.The tinymetal fingerswillcut grooves intothe woodsurface.The Sand-0-Flexis available in two sizes,whichis standardand smallmodels.It uses thinstripsof sandpaper,and also has brushesto keep yourworkarea clean. You'll findit willdo a good job on any irregularsurface,and evensmallcarvings and decorations. BRUSHES When you buy, brushesby the best that you can get. I havefoundthat many skilledrefinishers use only brushes,whichare two-inchvarnish brushthat they keep scrupulously clean. Many otherwoodfinishers preferto keep a brushfor staining,and anotherfor varnishing or shalllacking.They followclean proceduresveryrigidlyto keep theirbrushesin good order.Alwaysby the best quality brushyou can get, and one witha chiseltip of naturalblackbristlesset in rubber.You need to keep it clean by washing it withmineralspiritsor turpentine after you finisheach job. Alwayskeep the brushesin a closecontainer,suspended,and wash it well just beforeyou use it as well as after the job that you are doingis completed. A good tack clothis also a necessarytie them that willlast as longas the brush.Tack clothsare used to clean raw woodsurfacesbeforestaining.You use a tack clothon stainedsurfacesbeforevarnishing, and a partlyfinishsurfacebetweenvarnish coats.Most hardwarestoreshavetack clothsor you can evenmake yourown. If you want to make yourown, startwithan 18 to 20 inchsquareof cottonor wool cloths.Do not use synthetics! The cottonor woolclothsshouldhavebeen washedenoughtimesto take out all the lintand loosefuzz. Now, moistenedthe clothswithturpentine, and in a containeradd a few dropsof clear varnish on it. You want to put enoughon it to make the fabricveryslightly sticky. Then, squeeze the clothsand wringout excessive liquid. Get an old fruitjar or otherplasticcontainerthat 282

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hastight covers andstore it inthere. 1. Usewater orNGRstains. Ifyou find it necessary tousea pigmented wiping stain, give it at least forty-eight hours todry. Otherwise, thelacquer thinners mayactinthemanner ofpaint andvarnish removers. 2. Give anystandard paste filler forty-eight hours tosetuphard, forthesame reason. 3. A safeguard istheuseofthinned shellac asa sealer after stains orfiller orboth. 4. Usea lacquer type sander sealer filler unless thewood isofsuch open grain that paste fillers are required. 5. Leteverything drythoroughly, before lacquering, especially anyoilresin orpetroleum derivative materials. 6. When you plan touselacquer over rosewood ordark mahogany, usea thin shellac wash coat asa sealer anddonotsand it.Theshellac will sealthepigment, keeping it from bleeding, andyou might cut through it if you sand, thus breaking theseal. Lacquer rubs andbuffs toa higher polish than you cangetwith varnish, which isonereason it issooften used forsmall, elegant projects that look best with a high finish. Thegood rubbing quality also accounts forspeedy drying forthepopularity oflacquer onmost commercial furniture. Whenever you want tokeep themaximum natural wood color that is,without anyofthedarkening oil finishes produce don't forget that lacquer itself isthewhitest andtheleast darkening ofall.Ontopofthat isthemagical effect oflacquer lighteners, which leave thewood almost identical incolor toitsrawhue. Ifthewood hasanopen grain, apply wood filler especially made forstocks andtogounder lacquer. Itis important that thecorrect type offiller beused. Onemade forvarnish will bedissolved bylacquer. After filler isapplied, repolish stock with very finegrit sandpaper. Inapplying filler, rubit inboth with andacross thegrain. Letit drypartially andcontinue rubbing until it takes ona light sheen. Apply more filler if necessary, tobecertain allwood pores andcracks arefilled. Wipe offexcess only across thegrain. Ifyou wipe with thegrain, you will remove thefiller. Letdry thoroughly. Apply a thin coating oflacquer especially made forgun stocks. A spray canora paintbrush maybe used. After drying, polish with #400 finegrit paper. Apply another coat oflacquer. Some workers prefer three ormore coats, sanding inbetween.
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Useyour own judgment about thenumber ofcoats. Toomany ortoothick applications arelikely tocrack andpeel, sobecertain thecoats arethin andwell polished inbetween.
TIPS ON USING LACQUER Since mostpeople havehad muchmore experience withvarnish that withlacquer,the best way to explain the tricksof lacquerapplication is to contrastthem withvarnish. 1. Insteadof layingthe materialon, then smoothing it, you shouldtry to flowlacqueron in a good wet coat withouttoo muchbrushback. Movefast, usinglongstrokes.Keep a wet edge by workingin small areas. Usuallya relatively longand narrowarea is easiestto handle.To keep the actionfast, use a widerbrushthan you mightlike for varnish. Neverapplylacquerwitha tinybrushunlessthe project itself is tiny.Widthratherthan fullnessis the mark of a good lacquerbrush,whichneed not havebristlesas longas are consideredbest for varnish. 2. Insteadof usinglacqueras thickas you can brushit comfortably, as you do withvarnish, keep it thin enoughto flowout well. This may mean some thinner,evenin a materialsuchas Satin lac, whichis cannedat a brushableconsistency as it is. Be sure to buy a good thinner.There are many chemicals that willreducethe consistency of lacquer,but not all of them producegood results.Thin all coats,if necessary. 3. Sandingbetweencoatsis not necessarywithlacquerto provide adhesion.Each coat tendsto soften the precedingone minutely,bondingto it. Thus, scarifying for mechanicalbond,as withvarnish, doesn't help. However,you may want to scuffsand enoughto knockoff highspotsand the few dustspecksyou'll you willbe boundto get, evenwithlacquer. If you are workingtowarda highrubbedfinish,you willalwayssand to plane the surface,if application is rough.Do not use, water on betweencoat sandingwithlacquer.Be sure to givelacquerat least four hoursto dry beforesandingand re coating.Givethe finalcoat overnight, beforeyou do the last stages of rubbingwithpumice. When usinglacquer,you may encounterany one of severaldifficulties, whichcan be handledif you know how. THE PENETRATING RESIN FINISHES These are manufactured by dozens of paintcompaniesand soldat everypaintstore,havegained a place amongthe mostpopularclear finishes.There is a remarkablelistof reasonswhy:They are by far the easiestof all finishesto apply.

They are amongthe mostdurable,so toughthat they rank at the top in floorfinishes.They havearrived 284

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with topdesigners inmodern furniture; among them themore natural a wood canlook thebetter. They give thewood a fireandcolor unlike that produced byanyother finish. Wood hues areintensified made more vivid, andthere isnoobscuring ofthegrain orwood texture. They aresofoolproof and quick tousethat they rank well at thetopasfinishes forlarge areasurfaces such aswood paneling. Penetrating resin finishes arelikevarnish, butinstead oflying onthesurface, they sink in.Theresins harden between thefibers ofthewood, intheaircells andother voids. When they aredry, thewood itself ismeasurably harder, andit isimpervious toallordinary damage. Ina sense they impregnate the wood with a plastic likesubstance that turns thewood into plastic. However, there isnolook ofplastic.
WHERE TO USE PENETRATING FINISHES Some penetrating resinfinishesare intendedprimarily for floors,and these particularly ruggedbrands are superiorfor furniture, too. Penetratingresinfinishesare not meant for outdooruse, but workfine for gun stocks. HOW TO APPLY A PENETRATING FINISH Flow penetrating resinon the woodthickly.Don't worryaboutfancybrushwork.Many finishers don't evenuse a brush.They mop the materialon withrags or pourit on, then spread it. You can evenuse yourhands,if you want, rubbingthe finishin as you spread it. Some experts use a pad of veryfine steel woolto spread the puddlesof finishand workit intothe wood.This is one of the best techniques of all. Keep the surfacewet for abouthalf an hour.Read the label, becausesome manufacturers ask for a full hourof penetration. If you see dullspotsappear, indicating that all the materialhas soaked in, apply more to keep the surfacewet. Afterthe woodhas soaked up all the liquid it willtake, use plentyof rags to wipe all the surfaceliquid off. Wipe it clean. Do not leavea trace of the finishon the surface,for if you do, it willdry to an unpleasantsortof sheen. Shouldthishappenand you catchit the nextday, you can usuallycut the dried materialby brushing on more finish,then wipingit in a few minutes. The penetrating finishcontinues to soak in and permeatethe poresand spaces in the woodafter you wipe it. For that reason,a secondapplication is usuallya good idea, especiallyif the woodis porous. Do not wait untilthe firstcoat has dried and hardenedcompletely. Three hoursor so is longenoughto wait. Brushor swab on the secondcoat. Keep it wet for half an hour or longerand wipe it all off Again. When thiswell wiped application is dry, the job is done. You can waxthe woodif you want to, but this tendsto clogthe poresand steal some of the natural,textural beautyof the finish. 285

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THE COLORS OF PENETRATING FINISHES The naturallookof the penetrating finishesis at its best on open pored woodssuchas oak, walnut, mahogany,pecan, chestnut,etc. It leavestheirtexture unfilled,and makes them looklike wood.Maple, birch,cherry,and otherclosegrainedwoodstake the finish,of course,but are not so spectacular as the coarsertextured species. Darker coloredwalnutreachesits usualdark browncolor.Rosewood's brownsgo almostblack. This degree of darkeningis consideredideal for each species. Stain is not usuallyrequired. If you want a penetrating finishthat is lighterin color,use a woodbleachto lightenthe naturalcolora shade or two. Of course,no filleris used witha penetrating resinfinish. Although the colorgivenwoodsby a penetrating resinfinishalone is usuallyappreciatedby most people in the darkerwoods,you may want to stainsome of the lighterspecies.If you use a pigmented wipingstain,then followit witha penetrating finish.The finishwillnot changethe colorof the stained wood,otherthan to intensify it slightly. The reasonfor thisis that mostpigmentedwipingstainsare mixedin a vehicle that is muchlike a penetrating finish. If you use water or a non-grainraisingstain,however, you mustexpecta considerable intensification of the color,a shiftin hue towardthe reds, and some darkening. HOW TO BUY PENETRATING FINISHES There are two kinds,one is formulated on the phenolicresins,the otheron alkyds.The phenolicstend to penetratedeeper. Look for the wordpenetrating and the wordresin.Look for instructions that tell you to brushit on and wipe it off. Everymajor paintmanufacturer has a penetrating resinfinish. There are materialsthat are similarin application based on oils,not resins.In situations where protection is not important, they can be used, althoughthey offerno advantages in service or application ease. It is practically impervious to water and willstandmuchuse, and evenabuse, withoutcrackingor peeling.It comesin eithera highglossor a softor satinfinish.It may be used as a woodsealer, and/or as a filler,or for the finalfinishas well. No woodfilleris required, sinceit is its own fillerif severalcoatsare applied,withexcessrubbedand polishedoff betweencoats. If the resinfinishis to be used as a woodfilleras well as a sealer, applyas aboveinstructions. If you allowthe resinto dry, it is so hard that subsequent coatswillnot stickto it. If you are usinga finalfinishof something otherthan resin,allowthe fillercoat to dry a full24 hoursbeforepolishing it back downto the 286

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base wood with steel wool. This should leave every wood pore filled completely sotheregular, final finish canbeapplied.
APPLYING AN OIL FINISH TO THE STOCK An oil finishis consideredby many gun ownersto be the mosthandsomeof all, especiallyif the woodof the stockis especiallyfine. The reasonan oil finishis not usuallyappliedby commercialgun makersis that it is a time consuming process.However,the individual gun ownerwillget muchpleasureout of refinishing his stock,and havea beautifulproductas a result.While time consuming, the processis quitesimple.The following suggestions shouldprovehelpful. Use a regulargun stockoil or Tung Oil ratherthan boiledlinseedoil. LinseedOil, Trueoil,Tung Oil, and GenuineOil are three of the betterknownbrands.They are much easier and fasterto use than linseedoil, and leavea handsomefinish. See Sandingstocksat the startof thisarticle. When the stockhas been filledwithoil, hang it outdoorsin the sun and windand let it dry completely. Applya secondand thirdheavycoat of oil, dryingcompletely outdoorsbetweencoats.Allowthe third coat to dry for a fulltwelvehoursat least. FINISHING THE STOCK STEEL WOOL AND OIL - The steel woolpad is soaked withany lightoil like machineor crudeoil, and then used to rub the surfacein the same manneras in the dry rubbingmethod.The surfacemustbe dried clean of oil and grimeafter the rubbingoperationhas been completed.No otherpolishing device is necessarysincethe oil remainingon the surfaceservesas the polishing agent, The widthof the scratchproducedby the abrasive determinesthe amountof lusterresulting on the surface.Thus, if a series of verywide scratchesis made on the surface,a verydullappearancewill result,and if a series of veryfine scratchesis made, a glosssurfacewillresult.No scratchat all should producea mirrorlike surface.

RUBBING TIPS AND SHORTCUTS The fastestand easiestmethodof sandingthe finishsmoothis withNo. 400 waterproof paper, suchas Wet or Dry. It is also the cheapest,despitethe highercostof the paper, sinceit doesn't clogwhen it is used with water, and it wears a longtime.

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Thebest sort ofa block tousewith wetsandpaper isrubber. Paint stores sellrubber blocks that area nuisance touse.However, you cancutthem down sothey area plain block ofrubber, andthey work well. Another waytogeta rubber-sanding block istousecontact cement tofasten a piece ofinner tube toa wooden block. Sprinkle water onthesurface andsand. Keep a piece ofpaper insaucer ofwater, sothebacking will soften, androtate thepaper asitsedges andbacking dry. Many workers prefer todipthepaper inthe saucer ofwater, letting it drain, thus washing theaccumulation ofvarnish powder offthepaper. Nowandthen you hearrecommendations tousesoapy water, butthis does nogood, andactually slows thejob down. Plain water gives you thefastest andcleanest cut. Depending onhow finewaterproof sandpaper you canbuy, you maybeabletodoanentire rubbed finish without using pumice orrotten stone. Theequivalent torotten stone iscrocus cloth.
CARVINGS. Most finishers don't try to rub carvedand coped surfacesas carefullyas they do flat or mildlycurved surfaces.For one thing,sucha highfinishis not necessary,becausecarvedsurfacescarrytheirown decorative weight. Wet sandpaper,in fact any sandpaperis uselesson carvings, althoughit can be used on some simple moldings.Try steel woolfor early coats. Then, towardthe end of the finishing, use a smallscrubbrushto applypumiceand oil. Take special painsto clean the pumiceout of smallcracksand crevices. Any that you leavewilldry whiteand givethe carvings a scurvy look. FINISHING THE OILED STOCK Polishthe stockwithsteel wool,rubbinguntilall the oil is removed and you are downto the bare wood again. The poresof the wood,however, remaincompletely filledwiththe surfacesmooth.If there are thin spotsin the skin,repeat one or two more coatsand cut the finishback to the woodagain. Neverstart the finalfinishuntilall the poresis filled. Applythe finalcoat verylightly,usingthe fingertips, rubbingin and smoothing as you go along.To get a fine finish,smoothout each drop of oil overas broad a surfaceas possible.Rub each drop in completely untilit startsto pullas you rub yourfingeroverit. Covereach area of the stockturn,goingon to the nextwithoutgoingback overa sectionalreadydone. Make certainall the stockis covered completely. Allowthiscoat to dry in the sun and wind.Applya thinsecondcoat as you did the first,and hang the stockup to dry again. Repeat thisprocessuntilthe stocktakes on a sheen. Usuallyaboutfivecoatsare 288

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required togeta good finish. Youmight have toapply more coats onmore porous woods. Ifyou prefer a high gloss, wipe thestock clean with a special stock rubbing compound, andapply one final coat ofstock oil. Ifyou prefer a rubbed finish, rubtheentire stock very lightly with pumice, rubbing just enough toremove some ofthegloss butleaving a satin glow look tothefinish. Whether you prefer thehigh gloss orrubbed look, thefinal step istowax thestock completely with good quality paste wax, rubbing until hard. I find that a good paste floor wax ishard tobeat. Finish offby wiping with a soft flannel cloth.
Safety First.

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ADDRESSES Chapman Mfg.Co. POBox 250Rt.17 at Sawmill Rd. Durham,Ct.,06422 Chicago Wheel & Mfg. 1101W Monroe St. Chicago,Il.,60607 Chopie Mfg. 200Copeland Av. LaCrosse,Wi.,54603 Classic Arms Corp. POBox 8 Palo Alto,Ca.,94302 Clymer Mfg. 1645W Hamlin Rd. Rochester Hills,Mi.,48063 Danjon Manufacturing Corp. 1075S. Main St. Cheshire, Conn. 06410 Dem-Bart Hand Checkers 6807Hiway #2 Snohomish,Wa.,98290 Dremel Mfg. 4915-21st St. Racine,Wi.,53406 E F Houghton Co. 303W Lehigh Ave. Philadelphia,Pa.,19133 Electro GloCo. 621S Kolmar Ave. Chicago, Ill.60624 Emco-Lux 2050Fairwood Av. POBox 07861, Columbus,Oh.,43207

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Forster Products 82E Lanark Av. Lanark,Il.,61046 GRS Corp PO Box748, 900 Overland St. Emporia,Ks.,66801 Heatbath Corp Springfield Mass.,01101 Henriksen Tool Co. PO Box 668 Phoenix,Or.,97535 International Nickel Co. 1 New York Plaza New York, NY10004

JGS Tool Mfg. 1141 S.Summer Rd. Coos Bay,Or.,97420 Jeffredo Gunsight 1629 Via Monserate Fallbrook,Ca.,92028 Kasenit Co. PO Box 726 Mahwah,NJ.,07430 Ken Jantz Supply 222 E Main Davis,Ok.,73030 Lea Mfg. 237 E Aurora St. Waterbury,Ct.,06720 LSStarrett 121 Crescent St Athol,Ma.,01331 Mcintry Tools PO Box 491/State Rd. #1144
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Troy,NC.,27371 Michaels OfOregon PO Box 13010 Portland,Or.,97213 Norton Co. 6120 Howe St Troy,NY.,12181 Norton Chemical 130 East Ave. Tallmage,Oh.,44309 Olympic Arms 624 Old Pacific Hwy SE Olympia,Wa.,98503 Palmgren Steel Producs 8383 South Chicago Ave. Chicago,Il.,60617 Roto Carve 6509 Indian Hills Rd. Minneapolis,MN.,55435

Sandoz Inc. Route 10 Hanover, NJ 07936 Sanford ProcessCorp. 61North Ave. Natick,Mass.,01760 Schaffner Mfg Co. Emsworth Pittsburg,Pa.,15202 Scionics Corp 8910 Winnetka Ave. Northridge,Ca.,91324 Sanfax Metal Processig 5001 Peach Tree Industrial Rd. Alanta,Ga.,30341

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Terry KKopp Highway 13South Lexington,Mo.,64067 Texas Platers Supply 2453 WFive Mile Parkway Dallas,Tx.,75233 The Carborundum Co. Buffalo Av. atPortage Rd. Nigara Falls,NY,14302 Timmey Mfg. 3106 WThomas Rd. Phoenix,Az.,85017
Tools and supplies WholesaleTool1 1212 Adamo Drive Tampa,Fla. 33619 United Mineral/Chemicl 129 HudsonSt. New York,NY,10013

W.E. BrownellCheckers 3356 Moraga Place San Diego,Ca.,92117 WilliamsGun Sight 7389 Lapeer Rd. Davison,Mi.,48423 WholesaleTool 9909 E. 55th. Place Tulsa, Ok. 74146 WholesaleTool 8758 Clay Road, Bldg. 410 Houston,Texas77080 WholesaleTool 1234 WashingtonSt. Box481 Stoughton,Mass. 02072

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Wholesale Tool 4200 Barringer Drive, Box 240965 Charlotte, NC 28210 These arethemain suppliers that I used.A complete listcanbefound intheGun Digest, intheback of the book under suppliers.

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