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uhuri / / ' Nativeto Azerbaijan (Baku, Quba, Qrmz Qsb, Ouz) Russia (Derbent, Makhachkala, Nalchik) Spoken by immigrant communities in Israel, United States (New York) (no estimate available) Indo-European Indo-Iranian Iranian Western Iranian Southwestern Iranian [2] Persian Writing system Judo-Tat [1]

Native speakers Language family

Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew Official status

Official languagein no official status Language codes ISO 639-3 jdt

Juhuri, Juwuri or Judo-Tat (uhuri / / ') is the traditional language of the Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Azerbaijan and Dagestan, now mainly spoken in Israel.[3] The language is a form of Persian; it belongs to the southwestern group of the Iranian division of the Indo-European languages. The Tat language, a similar, but still different language is spoken by the Muslim Tats of Azerbaijan, a group to which the Mountain Jews were mistakenly considered to belong during the era of Soviet historiography. The words Juhuri and Juhuro literally translate as "Jewish" and "Jews". Juhuri has Semitic (Hebrew/Aramaic/Arabic) elements on all linguistic levels. Juhuri has the Hebrew sound "ayin" (), whereas no neighbouring languages have it. Juhuri is an endangered language[4] classified as "definitely endangered" by UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.[5]

The language is presently spoken by an estimated 106,000 people: Israel: 70,000 in 1998 Azerbaijan: 24,000 in 1989 Russia: 3,000 in 2002 USA: 5,000[citation needed]


Vowel phonemes of Judeo-Tat
Front Unrounded Rounded Close and near-close Mid Open i a y u o Near-front Central Back

Consonant phonemes of Judeo-Tat

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal Nasal Plosive and affricate voiceless voiced Fricative voiceless voiced Approximant Flap [6] m p b f v n t d s z l j t d k h

In the early 20th century Juhuri used the Hebrew script. In the 1920s the Latin script was adapted for it; later it was written in Cyrillic. Recently, the use of the Hebrew alphabet has enjoyed renewed popularity.
Latin Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Xx Yy Zz

Cyrillic Hebrew

-- '/' '

Influences and etymology

Judo-Tat/Juhuri is a Southwest Iranian language (as is modern Persian) and is much more closely related to modern Persian than most other Iranian languages of the Caucasus e.g. Talysh, Ossetian, and Kurdish.[citation needed] However, it also bears strong influence from other sources: Medieval Persian: Postpositions are used predominantly in lieu of prepositions e.g. modern Persian: => Juhuri: ur-voz "with him/her". Arabic: like in modern Persian, a significant portion of the vocabulary is Arabic in origin. Unlike modern Persian, Juhuri has almost universally retained the original pharyngeal/uvular phonemes of Arabic e.g. /sl/ "honey" (Arab. ), /sb/ "morning" (Arab. ). Hebrew: As other Jewish dialects, the language also has many Hebrew loan words e.g. /ulon/ "table" (Heb. ), /mozol/ "luck" (Heb. ), /oi/ "rich" (Heb. ). Hebrew words are typically pronounced in the tradition of other Mizrahi Jews. Examples: and are pronounced pharyngeally (like Arabic , respectively); is pronounced

Judeo-Tat as a voiced uvular plosive (like Persian /). Classical Hebrew /w/ () and /a/ (kamatz), however, are typically pronounced as /v/ and /o/ respectively (similar to the Persian/Ashkenazi traditions, but unlike the Iraqi tradition, which retains /w/ and /a/) Azeri: Vowel harmony and many loan words Russian: Loan words adopted after the Russian Empire's annexation of Daghestan and Azerbaijan Northeast Caucasian languages: e.g. /tukl/ "small" (probably the same origin as the medieval Caucasian city name "Sera-chuk" mentioned by Ibn Battuta, meaning "little Sera") Other common phonology/morphology changes from classical Persian/Arabic/Hebrew: /a/ => /o/, //, or /u/ e.g. /kitob/ "book" (Arab. ), // "road/path" (Pers. ), /urbu/ "sacrifice" (Arab. or Aramaic /qurban/) /o/ => /u/ e.g. /ovolum/ "Absalom" (Heb. ) /u/ => /y/, especially under the influence of vowel harmony Stress on final syllable words Dropping of the final /n/, e.g. /sot/ "to make" (Pers. )

Being a variety of the Tat language, Judo-Tat itself can be divided into several dialects: Quba dialect (traditionally spoken in Quba and Qrmz Qsb) Derbent dialect (traditionally spoken in the town of Derbent and the surrounding villages), has been used as a standard form of Judo-Tat Kaitag dialect (spoken in the North Caucasus) The dialects of Ouz (formerly Vartashen) and the now extinct Jewish community of Mc have not been studied well and thus cannot be classified.[7]

[1] [2] [3] [4] Judo-Tat reference (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ language/ jdt) at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013) Windfuhr, Gernot. The Iranian Languages. Routledge. 2009. p. 417. Ethnologue report for Judeo-Tat (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_language. asp?code=jdt) Published in: Encyclopedia of the worlds endangered languages. Edited by Christopher Moseley. London & New York: Routledge, 2007. 211280. (http:/ / www. helsinki. fi/ ~tasalmin/ chris. html) [5] UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (http:/ / www. unesco. org/ culture/ ich/ index. php?pg=00206) [6] Phonetics of the Mountain Jewish language (http:/ / www. trilinguis. com/ juhuri/ phonetics. htm) [7] Language of the Mountain Jews of Dagestan (http:/ / www. jewish-heritage. org/ ve13a7r. htm) by E.Nazarova

External links
- ( (, , ) JUHURO.RU - ( population ~70,000 ( Mountain Jews of Nalchik. ( Mountain Jews of the US. C (

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors

Judeo-Tat Source: Contributors: 1523, AlexanderKaras, Altenmann, Amire80, Angr, Avaya1, Avicennasis, Bazonka, Benne, Bilogo conservacionista, Chaim1995, Coroboy, Culturalrevival, Davecrosby uk, DePiep, Drashty, Emardakhaev, Espreon, Freestylefrappe, Golbez, Haspelmath, IZAK, J04n, Jonsafari, JorisvS, Jose77, Juhur, Kingpin13, Kiril Simeonovski, Kwamikagami, Ling.Nut, Magioladitis, Mahmudmasri, Maor X, Mo-Al, N-true, Netan'el, Nick Number, Nymos, Parishan, ParthianShot, Ponyo, Pylambert, Raayen, Richardcavell, Sardanaphalus, Shirulashem, Solar-Wind, Stephen G. Brown, TShilo12, Vyom25, Wbm1058, Wonder al, Woohookitty, Yid613, Zachlipton, Zandweb, 43 anonymous edits

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