wavelet based fault diagnosis review

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Survey of Wavelet Fault Diagnosis

wavelet based fault diagnosis review

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Electrical Engineering

(IREE)

Contents

Impact of Poles Number and Windings on the Performance of Linear Induction Motors by S. Meo, A. Ometto, N. Rotondale Influence of Closed-Loop Control Operations on Detecting Induction Machine Stator Faults by S. Meo, A. Ometto, N. Rotondale Characterization of an 6/4 Double Rotor Switched Reluctance Machine Using Fourier Series Approach by Aravind CV., M. Norhisam, M. R. Zare, I. Aris, M. H. Marhaban, M. Nirei Performance Improvement of Induction Motor Drive Using Feedback Linearization and Fuzzy Torque Compensator with RTDS Implementation by Kanungo Barada Mohanty, Madhu Singh Broken Rotor Bar Fault Detection of 3-Phase Induction Motor Using Online Adaptive Continuous Wavelet Transform and Fuzzy Logic by A. Saghafinia, S. Kahourzade, A. Mahmoudi, W. P. Hew, M. Nasir Uddin

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

PART

4374

4383

A Strategy of Dead-Time Compensation to DFIG by Xueguang Zhang, Dakun Duan, Hui Jing, Dianguo Xu Sensorless Control of Induction Motor Using Modified MRAS by P. Brandstetter PM Machine Optimization in Variable Speed EMB Application by B. Abdi, H. Bahrami, M. I. Ghiasi, R. Ghasemi Efficiency Optimized Indirect Field Oriented Control of Induction Motor Impacting Iron Loss by E. E. El-Kholy, A. Alwadie, Hossam Youssef, A. A. Abouelfadl Effects of Distributed Air-Gaps in the Iron-Core of Shunt Reactors on Inductance Components and Losses by A. Donuk, H. F. Bilgin, M. Ermis Survey of Wavelet Fault Diagnosis and Tolerant of Induction Machines with Case Study by Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo Fault Diagnosis of Broken Bars in Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors Using Duffing Oscillators by V. Rashtchi, M. Nourazar, R. Aghmasheh Calculation of Conducted EMI Generated by Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter by K. Mostefaoui-Kasri, Y. Azzouz, M. E. H. Benbouzid, A. Louis, B. Mazari, P. Eudeline A High Frequency Inverter with Active Regenerative Snubber by P. Radika, Subhransu Sekhar Dash A Novel Hybrid Recurrent Wavelet Neural Network Control for a PMSM Drive Electric Scooter Using Rotor Flux Estimator by Chih-Hong Lin Implementation of a Battery Management System Incorporating with Dual-Balancing Technique for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs by C.-H. Lin, C.-M. Wang, M.-H. Hung, H.-Y. Chao

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(continued on Part B)

International Review of Electrical Engineering (I.R.E.E.), Vol. 7, N. 3 ISSN 1827- 6660 May - June 2012

Survey of Wavelet Fault Diagnosis and Tolerant of Induction Machines with Case Study

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid1, Hew Wooi Ping1, Mustafa Khalid Masood1, Lorand Szabo2

Abstract The present contribution presents a review of the research on the use of wavelets as a medium of fault detection and fault tolerant control of induction machines. Modeling of induction motor in the stator short winding and stator open winding faults has been illustrated. The authors provide comprehensive information about the wavelet application to fault diagnosis, including a summary of wavelet types (continuous and discrete), faults, methods and their validation in the diagnosis and frequency characteristics components of healthy and faulty induction motors. Inverter faults and artificial intelligence methods used for fault diagnosis are reviewed in this paper. Case studies using stator current sensing, DC voltage sensor and the gate drive signal for fault detection of an induction motor are also presented. Finally, a case study of inverter fault detection is illustrated experimentally using an induction motor drive controlled by the Texas Instrument TMS 320F28335 DSP. Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved. Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Fault Tolerant Control, Induction Motor, Inverter Fault, Stator

Faults, Wavelet

Nomenclature

ANN ANFIS CW CART CFC DWT DLPF E EMD FOC FPGA FAM FFT HPSO KPCA MCSA MLP MWA P PCA PDD PWM RBF RMS S SOM SVM T TMCSA Artificial Neural Network Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Continuous Wavelet Classification and Cegression Cree Characteristics frequency Component Discrete Wavelet Transform Digital Low-Pass Filtering Energy Eigen Empirical Mode Decomposition Field Oriented Control Field-programmable Gate Array Fuzzy ARTMAP Fast Fourier Transform Hybrid particle swarm optimization. Kernal principal component analysis Motor current signature analysis Multi level perceptron Multi resolution wavelet analysis Pole pair Principal Component analysis Power detail density Pulse width modulation Radial Basis Function Root mean square Slip Self organized map Support vector machine Eigen vector Time motor current signature analysis

TSFE V/F VSI WEKA WNN WPD WT MRA a b f (t) f fs m n (t) (w) *

Time stepping finite element Voltage /frequency Voltage source inverter Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis Wavelet neural network Wavelet packet decomposition Wavelet transforms Multi resolution analysis Scale parameter Time parameter Waveform signal Supply frequency Sampling frequency Wavelet dilation Wavelet translation Wavelet function Fourier transform Complex conjugate

I.

Introduction

Induction motor is crucial in the industry for many reasons, such as simple construction, low maintenance requirements, rigidity and high reliability. It finds use in compressors, pumps, and fans. The induction motor current contains harmonics which are used as indicators of a variety of faults. Squirrel cage motors are most important as they work under fault conditions without the fault becoming visible until it becomes high [1]. An improvement in service continuity of power supply in the

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

system could be achieved through a fast fault location [2]. Many different techniques for detection of faults concentrate on the stator fault due to noninvasive properties. In industrial systems, the faults can occur in the following six possible subsystems or components: 1) Induction machine 2) Inverter 3) Current sensors 4) Speed encoder 5) Control and estimation platform 6) Connectors and wires. Fig. 1 shows the main induction motor faults according to the IEEE standard.

motor under stator winding short and open circuits. Different types of component failures in induction motor drives are studied. An inverter fault survey with short switch has been taken as case study to illustrate the algorithm. Faults in the stator current sensor and DC voltage sensor are also examined. This paper is organized as follows: Section II describes transformation types of wavelet. Signal processing techniques of induction motor faults are presented in section III. Section IV studies artificial intelligence techniques. Inverter fault detection is described in section V. Fault tolerant control is presented in section VI. Design methodologies are presented in section VII. Inverter fault detection case study is presented in section VIII. Finally, concluding remarks are given in section IX.

II.

The mathematical equations used to separate a given continuous-time signal into several scale components is called wavelet. The wavelet techniques are new in the field of fault diagnosis due to their ability to extract all information in time and frequency domains as well as providing a more sensitive means to diagnosing the faults than other signal processing methods like Fourier Transform. Andrew K.S. Jardine et al presented a review for the diagnosis of machines using condition-based maintenance approach [3]. The fault diagnosis has two main levels: A traditional control level and a knowledge based fault diagnosis level. One of the most important analysis tools in both frequency and time domain is the wavelet, with its multi resolution analysis and good time localization. Fault diagnosis techniques use the wavelet for modules of feature extraction, feature cluster and fault decision. The negative sequence current and impedance are often chosen as fault indicators. Parks vector and motor current signature analysis (MCSA) are used to diagnose the stator short circuit fault. Signal processing techniques like FFT are based on the assumption of constant stator fundamental frequency, load, motor speed and that the load is sufficient. A combination of the Discrete Wavelet transform, statistics and energy were used to detect electrical and mechanical failure diagnosis in an induction machine [4]. New application of wavelet transform was used in the photovoltaic cells and PV system design, to get better reliability against the faults [5]. The contribution of this paper is to introduce a review of fault tolerant control methodologies with the wavelet transform. It also examines modeling of the induction

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

Wavelets are literally small waves or ripples with short time durations. The properties of the wavelet have been shown to make them superior to other signal processing techniques. Wavelets can be either orthogonal or non orthogonal, so the choice of the wavelet transform should be based on two important characteristics: 1) Orthogonality principle, which means there is no redundancy in the wavelet decomposition. 2) Adequate cancellation ability against the signals lower order component should be performed. The wavelet can be divided into five types: 1. FIR filter-based orthogonal wavelets: The scaling filter is used to construct these wavelets. Examples are Symlets, Daubechies, Coiflets and Haar wavelets. 2. FIR filter-based bi-orthogonal wavelets: The reconstruction scaling filter wr and the decomposition scaling filter wd are used to construct these wavelets. A prominent example is the Bior Splines wavelet family. 3. Scale function-based orthogonal wavelets: The wavelet function and the scaling function are used to construct these wavelets. They do not contain an FIR filter. An example is the Meyer wavelet family. 4. Wavelets without scale function: The wavelet function is used in the construction of these wavelets. Important examples are the Morlet and Mexican hat. 5. Complex wavelets with neither FIR filter nor scale function: These also use the wavelet function for their construction. The Complex Gaussian and Shannon are key examples. The wavelet can be expressed as a continuous wavelet transform, which can be either real or complex, or the discrete wavelet transform. The CWT can be written as follows:

( m,n ) =

f ( t ) m,n ( t ) dt

*

(1) (2)

m,n ( t ) = 21/ 2 2 m t n

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

beta

(t / , ) = ( 1) dp (t / , ) / dt

n/2 ( 1 / 2 n ) t 2

Her.

(t ) = ( 2 n )

n

C H (t / 2 ) e

n n

2 2

Mex.hat Shannon

(t ) = ( 2 / 3

1/ 4

)(1 t / ) e

( t

/ 2

( t ) = 2 sin c ( 2t ) sin c ( t )

TABLE II DISCRETE WAVE TRANSFORMS Fig. 2. db10 WD into HP and LPF with transfer modulus

Name Coiflet Cohen Daubechies Daubechies Binomial quadrature mirror filter (QMF)

Equation

B = ( 1) C

k

N 1 k

Two key properties of wavelets are the admissibility and regularity conditions. The square integral function which satisfies the above property is illustrated in (4):

B = ( 1) C

k

N 1 k

B = ( 1) C

k

N 2 2

| ( ) |2 | |

d < +

(4)

N 1 k

h(n) =

r = 0

X (n)

r r

The Fourier transform of the wavelet function is used to investigate the signals and then to reconstruct them without losing any information, which means it approaches to zero as shown in (5)

Haar wavelet

n ,k ( t ) = ( 2 t k )

H ( ) = e

v jv / 2

ce ( / 2, q )

v

( ) = 0

(5)

Mathieu wavelet

ce ( 0, q )

v

Legendre wavelet

H v ( ) = 1 / 2

h ke

k z

jk

( ) = 1

2

(6)

Wavelet dilation and translation is used to transform the original signal to a new one with smaller scales according to the high frequency components. This relation is valid for the orthogonal basis of wavelet transform (a=2 and b=1) in the following continuous wavelet transform:

In the signal processing and control community, the fault diagnosis and isolation (FDI) problem has attracted a lot of attention because of the many industry applications and their technical challenges [9]. An important reason for the interest in wavelets is its ability of timefrequency analysis as can be seen in [10] - [137]. Fault diagnosis techniques include a wavelet feature extraction module, feature cluster module and a fault decision module. Multi resolution analysis and good time localization are particularly useful characteristics of wavelets in the context of fault diagnosis. The main faults that occur in induction motor drives and their validity are presented in Table III and an examination of these faults follows in the subsequent section. A summary of the properties of fault diagnosis methods is given in Table IV. III.1. Air Gap Eccentricity This fault is related to a condition of unequal air gap that exists between the stator and rotor.

a,b ( t ) = a

1/ 2

t b a

(3)

The scaling function determined by the LBF so that is associated with the approximations of the wavelet decomposition, the wavelet function determined by the HBF so that is associated with the details of the wavelet decomposition as can be seen in Fig. 2. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is a good analysis tool because it allows the time-frequency and time-scale properties of the signals like current, voltage, frequency, active and reactive powers to be extracted with all the details [6]. In the DWT, the mother wavelet is scaled to the power of 2 [7]. The issue with the DWT is of critical sub-sampling that leads to resolution problems. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was developed as an alternative approach that does not

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

TABLE III INDUCTION MOTOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS METHODS VALIDITY Faults Bearing sensors Air gap Stator Wind. Method eccent. MCSA Vibration analysis Axial flux Partial discharge M.B FDD Ok Ok Not Not Not sure Not Not Not Not Not Ok Ok Ok Not Not sure Partial Not Partial Ok Ok

Mechanical faults happen due to many reasons such as machine manufacturing, assembly, unbalance load, bent shaft and bearing wear. Tsoumas et al. used the wavelet of current space vector to detect the broken rotor bar and air gap eccentricity faults, the frequency of which is expressed in the following equations [11]:

load torque or voltage were studied individually [15]. Antonino et al. presented many cases for fault diagnosis (mixed eccentricity, broken rotor, inter-turn and inter-coil stator short-circuits) using DWT at start up current of induction machines according to parallel branches of the stator winding [16]. They later presented the detection of mixed eccentricities fault in the induction motor using Hilbert Huang Transform with DWT [17]. Zhongming et al. used WPD to detect both air gap eccentricity and broken rotor bar after giving brief details about the wavelet and feature extraction [18]. DWT analysis of the stator startup current in order to detect the presence of axial static eccentricity in an induction motor was shown by [19]. The magnitude change of some harmonics with variation of mixed air gap eccentricity was investigated by [20]. III.2. Gear Box and Bearing Faults The causes for these faults can be one of the following: 1. Corrosion, 2. Unsuitable lubrication 3. Bad bearing installations. The bearing faults affect the friction coefficient in the motor model and as a consequence, the rotor currents and mechanical velocity are affected [21]. Yixiang et al. used lean model to assess the machine performance using DWT for the vibration and bearing induction motor faults [22]. Bin Lu et al. used the wavelet to detect the broken rotor bar, eccentricity and bearing due to current, voltage and instantaneous power. The signal to noise ratio of the spectral components was examined under varying load conditions of the single phase active one cycle in [23]. Rafiee presented a study of how the mother wavelet is chosen among 324 using four statistical features [24]. Jafar et al. used the Meyer wavelet in the WP structure to detect the bearing defect using the SCA with energy comparison as the fault index [25]. Jawad et al. presented a review of the most important indices in the different types of eccentricity faults in the induction motors as well as the consequences and effects [26]. Qiao Hu et al. presented fault diagnosis of rolling bearings, and testing results show that the support vector machines can separate different fault conditions and identify the severity of incipient faults, besides giving better classification performance compared to the single SVM [27]. Serhat et al. presented feature extraction using wavelet technique to detect the bearing fault of motors [28]-[29]. G.K. Singh et al. presented detection of bearing faults of induction motor to treat and analyze a number of signals (three line to line voltages, three currents ,two vibration signals, four temperatures and one speed signal) obtained from the monitoring using wavelet transform[30]. Chinmaya et al. studied a multi-stage transmission gearbox in order to use the MCSA instead of conventional vibration monitoring with DWT and FFT to investigate the sideband frequencies [31]. Abbasion et al.

1 s fecc = f s 1 k p

(7)

fbrk = f s (1 2ks )

(8)

Cusido et al. presented wavelet detection using MCSA method, which does not need more than a single line current [12]. According to the position of side band frequencies around 50 Hz, they classified the faults using the following equations [13]:

1 s f ecc = f1 1 m p

(9)

n fecc = f1 (1 s ) k p

(10)

The broken rotor bar fault can be detected according to the fault frequency as in (11):

1 s fbrb = f1 m s p / 2

(11)

f airgap =| f1 mfi, o |

(12)

Hamidi et al. presented detection of mixed eccentricity fault using wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) which is done by the modified winding function [14]. Antonino et al. presented the detection and diagnosis of mixed eccentricities and rotor asymmetries with different sizes and conditions and the effective oscillations due to the

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

introduced SVM as a classifier to compute optimum wavelet decomposition to diagnose the rolling element bearings fault in the induction motor [32]. Cusido et al. presented a new method, which combines wavelet and power spectral density techniques to detect the bearing defect using the PDD as a fault factor [33]. Zhou et al. used the wavelet for vibration signal based mechanical equipment fault diagnosis. The algorithm was implemented in the Weka platform [34]. Teotrakool et al. presented application of MCSA using WPD to detect bearing faults in adjustable speed drives [35]. Temperature monitoring, which is to measure the component and operational temperatures, is another trend that can be used for diagnosis of induction motor particularly in gears. A hybrid method for detecting motor bearing fault conditions via discrete wavelet packet decomposition (DWPD) of induction motor current with spectral post processing was presented in [36]. III.3. Stator Faults Resulting from Opening or Shorting These faults are usually related to insulation failure. In common parlance, they are generally known as phase-toground or phase-to-phase faults. It is believed that these faults start as undetected turn-to-turn faults that finally grow and culminate into major ones [37]. Tong Liu et al. presented an Eigen vector as a fault indicator of stator inter turn short circuit as follows:

MCSA was used to detect faults with wavelet, with the stator teeth harmonic variation using dq0 components instead of Iabc. [42]. Niu et al. employed Bayesian belief fusion and multi agent fusion as classifier tool to detect different faulty collected data using the signal processing techniques for smoothing followed by the DWT to decompose the signals into different ranges of frequency as can be seen in Fig. 4 for 20kHz sampling frequency[43].

E E1 T = 0 , ,....,E2 M 1 / E E E

(13)

2M 1 2 E = j =0 abs ( E ) 0.5

Riera-Guasp et al. presented detection and diagnosis for rotor asymmetries in induction motor based on the analysis of the stator startup current. The authors extracted the harmonic component introduced by this fault, the left sideband component from the stator startup current. DLPF and DWT were used in this technique [44]. Combastel et al. presented a comparison between model-based and signal-based approaches in the fault detection of the induction motor. The electrical variables were described according to the Park transformation model, with broken rotor and stator winding failures investigated. Also, the parameter variations due to heating were considered [45]. Radhika et al presented fault diagnostics of induction motor using MCSA, with WT extracted features classified using SVM [46]. Chen et al. presented fault detection in vector controlled induction motors to compute a fault index for the faults of stator winding [47]. III.4. Shorted Rotor Field Winding

(14)

Mohammed et al. presented two papers discussing the finite element modeling of the induction motor internal faults and solving the equation by time stepping approach of broken bar and stator shorted turns using db10 wavelet for sinusoidal and non sinusoidal cases [39]-[40]. Software diagnosis of short inter turn and open circuit of the stator winding as an incipient fault was done by[41] to avoid hardware cost and difficulty using wavelet decomposition (Fig. 3) for different stator resistances (Rs =0.001 ,0.1,0.7,1,4,8) .

Fig. 3. Two level Simulink signal decomposition through sub band filters

This fault may be occurring due to following reasons: Thermal sensitivity Unbalance magnetic forces Increasing the motor load beyond its capacity Motor operation in a high temperature area Khan et al. presented two DWT to detect and classify the faults. The continuous wavelet is used to detect faults especially when the overlap between the frequency supply signal and the adjacent signal cannot be recognized. In [48], six accelerometers to measure vibration data were put in independent places around the motor detect the bearing damage. Saleh et al. presented a new technique for detecting and diagnosing faults in both stator and rotor windings using wound rotor induction motor. The technique was based on a WTMRA [49]. Cusido et al. presented both continuous and discrete wavelet to detect many mechanical and electrical induction motor faults using MCSA [50]. 1. 2. 3. 4.

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

III.5. Broken Rotor Bar and Crack End Ring There are many reasons for these faults such as vibration and electromagnetic distortion caused by magnetic effects, mechanical effects such as fatigue in some parts and thermal effects. Slotting, skewing and linear MMF rise across the rotor and stator slots are considered in the model of induction motor that may be considered as reasons for the broken rotor bar [51]. Wen et al. used the EMD which deals with nonlinear systems to detect the broken rotor bar using WDT [52]. Zhitong et al. used the multi resolution wavelet analysis method to detect the broken rotor bars according to their analysis of stator current. According to his work, the signal is first filtered then differentiated and after that entered into the wavelet (Daubechies with 5 levels) [53]. Faiz et al. presented a novel criterion to detect the broken rotor bar using TSFE to model the broken bar faults in the induction motor [54]. The criterion function to detect the fault is:

combination of fused FFT and wavelet [62]. Antonino et al. presented new techniques for detection of broken bar using high order discrete wavelets (db40) and compared it with classical methods such as Fourier transform with two conditions [63]:

nd n f + 2

where nf is the level of detail:

(18)

nd n f + 2

(19)

Yang et al. presented a novel method to detect the rotor broken bar using the Ridge wavelet. They extracted the characteristic frequency components of broken bar using only one phase of stator current [55]. Pons-Llinares et al. presented a new method to detect the broken bar in the transient region using TMCSA via frequency BSplines. The mother wavelet equation that he used was:

Cusido et al., addressing the shortcomings of the FFT, introduced the spectral density on wavelet to detect many faults in the induction motor using the equations just presented. The faults with different load conditions (7% and 10%) has been used when changing slip [64]. MCSA method is used for fault detection but it has disadvantages especially when the load torque is varied. To remedy this, Cusido et al. presented an online system for fault detection using many wavelets like Mexican Hat, Morlet and Agnsis mother wavelet to detect broken bar faults [65]- [66]. The drawback of using FFT has been investigated by many authors for detection of broken rotor bars with db40 as the mother function to avoid low level overlapping with adjacent bands. The decomposition levels are tested according to the following formula:

ns = log ( fs / f ) log ( 2 ) +1

(20)

( t ) = Cm,nf sin c m

fbt j 2 fct e m

(16)

Here, m =2 [56]. Pineda-Sanchez et al. used fractional Fourier transform for spectral analysis with the TMCSA to detect a rotor broken bar [57]. Eren et al. presented the WPT decomposition of the stator current of a 1 Hp induction motor through the test of RMS for both healthy and faulty bearings to detect bearing faults [58]-[59]. The single mean square of discrete wavelet function computation measures the status of the broken rotor bar of induction motor using FPGA, whether healthy or faulty. A novelty in their weighting function is shown in Equation (16) [60]:

According to the following equation, Hamidi [14] got a (0.1) Hz resolution to detect the faults in the induction motor using a combination of wavelet and power spectral density:

Ns

=

fs / R

(21)

k1

k2

(17)

Zadeh et al. presented a novel approach to detect the broken bar fault in squirrel cage induction motor. Two 3 hp induction motors with cast aluminum rotor bars were employed for this experiment [61]. Cabal et al. used FPGA to detect many faults in squirrel cage such as unbalance, faulty bearing and broken bars using parallel

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

where R is resolution and Ns is the number of samples. Douglas et al. presented fault detection in the transient region for the broken rotor bar using the instantaneous power FFT as a medium fault detection and wavelet to decompose the residual stator current after filtering the noise using Notch filter [67]-[ 68]. Supangat et al. presented a wavelet indicator to detect the broken rotor bars by calculating the absolute values of the summed coefficients in the third pattern, normalized against the summation of the wavelet coefficient [69]- [70]. Samsi [71] used V/f control method to detect the broken rotor bar in the induction motor. The diagnosis decision is made according to the probability distribution of different operation states of healthy and faulty motors. The difference in entropy is used as a measure:

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

M (k ) =

i =| p k |

i =1

pk log 2 i1 p i

(22)

pk is the distribution corresponding to the kth run . Riera et al used DWT to detect the broken rotor bar in the transient region using slip dependant fault component according to energy ratio of the current signal to the wavelet signal as in the following relationship [72]:

Ns i2 j j = Nb ( in db ) = 10 log Ns 2 n j ( ) j = Nb

(23)

Braham et al. presented a new approach to detect the broken rotor bar in induction motors using spectrum density estimation and SVM for different load percentages [73]. Kia et al. presented a DWT for broken bar detection and diagnosis faults in induction machines in which energy test of bandwidth with time domain analysis was the first step, after which it was applied to the stator current space vector to obtain the different broken bar fault severities and load levels [74]-[75]. Souad et al. presented indirect vector control fault diagnosis to detect both stator winding shorts and broken rotor bar using spectral analysis of electrical quantities such as current and voltage[76]. Good frequency separation using DWPD of induction motor current is essential for accurate detection for broken rotor bars [77].

IV.

Artificial intelligence has played an important role in the wavelet fault diagnosis and detection of induction motors, with techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANN), fuzzy logic, neuro-fuzzy controllers and genetic algorithm. Abdesh et al. used the hybrid wavelet and neural network (WNN) for detection and classification of inverter single phasing and shoot [78]. Kyusung et al. used neuro-predictor and wavelet for extraction of non stationary signal features in the transient stage using negative sequence as electric faults and the ratio [79]:

s (k ) =

rhNs ( k )

Ns Ih (k )

(24)

Online detection of rotor bar faults was done using a wavelet with neural network after feature extraction with different resolutions of the stator current [80] - [81]. Guizhen et al. presented wavelet neural network, selecting the Morlet wavelet function as the neural transfer function with new bias threshold and weight techniques to detect asynchronous motor faults [82].

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

Guang et al. presented new fault diagnosis based on the collection of both WPA and hybrid support vector machines which gave better results compared to classical BP [83]. Xinsheng et al. dealt with the detection and diagnosis of a defect in ball bearings based on both WT and ANFIS classification [84]. Zacharias et al. used the Wavelet Transform (WT) analysis with ANN for the detection and diagnosis of winding faults in electrical machines [85], Van et al. presented a fault diagnosis method based on ANFIS in combination with decision trees. CART is used as a feature selection tool to select features from the data set [86]. Vilas et al. proposed an optimal MLP neural network based classifier for fault detection by employing the information obtained from stator current. Detailed design procedure for MLP and SOM neural network models is given [87]; G.K. Singh et al. presented a treatment of induction motor data obtained from physical parameters which is used to train the neural network [88]. Achmad et al. presented a new method of nonlinear kernel based on WSVM. Feature reduction and extraction using PCA and KPCA for the fault detection and diagnosis of induction motor [89], Zhongming et al. presented a novel method to detect a broken rotor bar using neural network with 4 layers (input -2hidden-1 output) depending on the CFC of the location of (1-2s)f of stator current [90], Qianjin et al. presented detection of rotor broken bar and stator interturn winding using new methods depending on MCSA techniques (generalized harmonic wavelet transform filter and HPSO based wavelet neural network) [91]. Xu et al. presented a novel method to detect the induction motor faults using both wavelet neural networks with genetic algorithm for optimization [92]. Erinc et al. applied MWA to the vibration signals with Shannon entropy to calculate the feature vectors after which the PCA using probabilistic neural networks was used [93]. Tan et al. proposed a hybrid neural and fuzzy network based on the integration of FAM and the rectangular basis function network. This project involved a power generation stations faults detection [94]. Saghafinia et al. presented a high performance induction motor control strategy using FOC with hybrid self tuning fuzzy logic to get optimal performance in niche application [95]. Subramanian et al. presented wavelet transform for differential protection and neural networks for fault classification using probability neural network and support vector machine [96]. A novel high impedance fault detection and location approach based on wavelet transform and ANN was shown in [97]. Increasing the efficiency and determination of the number of broken rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motors was carried out using wavelet neural network and PCA in [98]. Kouzi et al. described the improvement in sensorless vector control of induction motor drive through the use of fuzzy logic in a standard rotor flux Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) based estimator which suffered from pure integration problems, instability problems and sensitivity to parameter variations mismatch at low speed operation [99]. The

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

problem of bearing failure detection and diagnosis in induction motors was studied. The fault detection and diagnosis techniques were carried out using RBF with ANN in [100]. The most common wavelet software is listed in Table VI.

The complete circuit of the inverter with the DC voltage rectification is shown in Fig. 6.

V.

Higher performances achievements can be obtained by voltage source inverters, the inverter diagnostic techniques can be classified into current based methods and voltage based methods. There are specific faults in the inverters such as short circuit in one or more transistors in the same or different legs that may be lead to catastrophic effect. In some cases, the drive can function but with less performance due to pulsation torque and freewheeling diodes. Simple open loop inverter (PWM-VSI) fed induction motor to maintain the stability of the system by estimation of stator flux at zero voltage and low frequency through NN was introduced by [101]. Investigation of the connection path of uncontrolled rectifier of a variable V/F induction motor drive was done by [102]. The simulation of inverter as a switching technique to find the faults was done by [103]. Fault tolerant operations of soft starters and adjustable speed drives (ASDs) when experiencing power switch open circuit or short circuit faults were presented in [104]. In all these faults, the motor operation is influenced. The drive fault diagnosis is an important issue to detect the type of the faults to take action at an early stage and prevent complete failure. The percentages of component failures in adjustable speed drives can be shown in Fig. 5. Control circuits allow the performance increase of the power electronics converters and inverters through the implementation of advance control techniques. A lot of research has been done to improve the inverter to get optimal performance for the induction machines. Khan, et al developed an online protection of the induction motor from PWM-VSI using DWT [105]. For an induction motor controlled by fuzzy logic, Khanniche et al. presented a novel method of detection and identification of a transistor based drives open-circuit fault of a three phase VSI using wavelet transform [106]. Kim et al. used DWT to detect the discontinuity of the signal and then used SVM to isolate the 3-phase PWM inverters [107].

The percentages of component failure in switch power supplies are shown in Fig. 7.

A case study is presented here to demonstrate the utility of DC voltage in the detection of inverter and induction motor faults. DC voltage was measured using a DC voltage sensor (LV25P). The output of the voltage sensor has been conditioned to not exceed 3 V to be sufficient for the DSP as can be seen in Fig. 8 for a healthy inverter.

Fig. 9 shows the gate signal generated through DSP F28335 in the healthy induction motor. The amplitude of these signals is 2.8 V. The phase A and B induction motor current which are acquired by the current sensor LA25-NP indicate that the induction motor is healthy, in spite of some spikes in these signals as can be seen in Fig. 10.

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The distorted gate signals A and B are good indications of the faulty state of the induction motor as can be seen in Fig. 11. The sensor currents of phase A and B have been acquired to show the faulty status of the induction motor as can be shown in Fig. 12.

VI.

Many efforts in the control community have been recently devoted to study fault tolerant control (FTC) systems. A good review of fault tolerant control systems was provided in [108], with details about the types of fault tolerant control, its areas, architectures, the control systems that detect incipient faults in sensors and/or actuators, the adaptation of the control law in to preserve pre-specified performances in terms of quality of the production and even safety. Fault tolerant control consists of two steps: 1. Fault diagnosis 2. Re-design of the controller Currently, FTC in most real industrial systems is realized by hardware redundancy, for example, the majority voting scheme is used with redundant sensors to cope with sensor faults. However, due to two main limitations of the hardware redundancy, high cost and taking more space, solutions using analytical redundancy have been investigated over the last two decades. There are generally two different approaches using analytical redundancy: 1. Passive approaches as a part of classical control, 2. Active approaches as a part of adaptive control. Recently, an elegant design method of passive approach was proposed, in which the linear matrix inequality (LMI) method was used to synthesize the reliable controller. However, the passive approach has certain disadvantages. The method is based on an accurate linear state space model and therefore is not capable of controlling a nonlinear process for which an accurate analytical model is usually unavailable. Because the passive approaches consider fault tolerance in only the stage of controller design and without taking adaptation when faults occur, the amplitude of the faults that can be tolerable is usually small and cannot meet the requirements in practice. On the other hand, active fault tolerant control methods include linearization feedback, linear quadrature method, Pseudo inverse method, Eigen structure

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

assignment method, neural network, control law rescheduling, model predictive control MPC, H, norm optimization and four parameter controller. The main disadvantage of their designs is that they consider large fault effects which do not challenge the robustness problem. A consideration of smaller or incipient (and harder to detect) faults would give a more realistic and challenging robustness problem to be solved. Another classification of FTC is the following: 1. FTC with off board components: This has (nearly) unlimited computing power but has to cope with limited and possibly biased measurement data. 2. FTC with on board components has to work with restricted computing power and memory size which limits the algorithm complexity of the task to be performed. An FTC design consisting of two parts: a nominal performance controller and a fault detection element to provide fault compensating signals to the feedback loop was proposed in [109]-[138]. The nominal controller can have any given structure that satisfies the performance specification, the detection element will operate in parallel with the system until a fault is detected. A method for design switching control and analyzing achievable performance for motor drives to maintain the system operation was presented in [110]. A collection of results towards a unified framework for fault tolerant control in distributed control systems was given in [111]. A fault tolerant strategy for the problem of loss of one phase in a field oriented controlled three phase induction motor was given in [112]. A new strategy of fault tolerant operation in case of doubly fed induction machine (DFIM) was presented in [113]. The problem of designing a fault tolerant system for an IPMSM motor drive subjected to current sensor fault was considered by [114]. To achieve this goal, two control strategies were considered, the first based on field oriented control and an adaptive back stepping observer for fault-free operation. The second approach used an observer for faulty conditions. An online sliding mode control allocation scheme for fault tolerant control was proposed by [115]. In [116], a novel intelligent nonlinear state estimation strategy, which keeps diagnosing the root causes of the plant model mismatch by isolating the subset of active faults (abrupt changes in parameters/disturbances, biases in sensors/actuators, actuator/sensor failures) and auto corrects the model online so as to accommodate the isolated faults/failures was presented. A control system design for a rotor magnetic bearing system that integrated a number of fault tolerant control methods was considered in [117]. In [118], a bibliographical review of reconfigurable (active) fault tolerant control systems (FTCS) was presented. In [119], an adaptive FTC of nonlinearly parameterized systems with uncontrollable linearization was proposed. A novel feedback design technique that added a power integrator and was motivated by

homogeneous feedback stabilization was presented. A multisensory switching control strategy for fault tolerant control using direct torque and flux control of the induction motor was proposed in [120]. A fault tolerant technique valid for both open loop and vector control motor drive systems are introduced [121]. The technique was presented for AC motors with delta connected circuits in their stator windings. It enabled the operation of the three phase motor upon a failure in one of its phases without the need of a special fault detection algorithm. It also significantly mitigated torque pulsations caused by an open delta configuration in the stator windings. Hardware redundancies have inflicted the FTC in most of the real industrial systems. The redundant sensors are used in majority of the voting schemes to deal with the sensor faults. Since the last two decades, limitations such as hardware redundancies, high cost and occupying large spaces have motivated solutions based on analytical redundancies. The reliability and the availability characteristic defines the fault tolerance of any system [139]. By reliability we refer to the systems ability to continue its operation under damaging conditions. Availability refers to the systems readiness to attempt a correct action. The addition or a spare available in a system to replace the unit that fails to perform in a manner that the system is able to continue with its operation in spite of the failure, is referred to as the redundancy of a system. VI.1. Stator Winding Fault Tolerant The failure of the motor windings is behind 30% of all the motor faults. The stator winding faults can be classified as follows [122]: 1. Open circuit faults 2. Short between any turns in the winding 3. Short circuit between line to ground voltage 4. Short circuit fault between coil to coil 5. Short circuit between line to line voltage The above mentioned faults are explained in Fig. 13.

Various fault diagnosis methods for the detection of stator winding faults have been mentioned in the

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

literature. Developments are still required in the detection methods of delay times between two turn faults and its intensity. Dangerous affects can be prevented if the stator winding faults are detected as early as possible and will give enough time to plan an action to maintain the required performance. During the short turn fault, a large circulating current will be induced which creates excessive heat. Majority of the stator winding fault detection methods proposed revolve around the perturbation in the motor parameters through the second order harmonic in the air gap torque; zero sequence voltage; negative sequence current and impedance; mismatches in the sequence impedance matrix and the AI techniques, the wavelet, and negative sequence approaches. The action of the controller does not influence these methods but they need the voltage sensors in the circuit. The systems smooth operation in the presence of stator winding faults is very important for any fault tolerant control system. The critical operations of a system may be damaged severely by an unexpected shut down. To maintain the operations in the presence of a stator winding fault, the redundancy action is a commonly adopted solution. The main preference has been given to stopping the operations at the initial stage as it is sometimes difficult to maintain satisfactory functions in the presence of a fault. The voltage of the faulty area is set at zero or to the minimum quantity to label the shorted stator winding. The parallel resistance is assumed to be at the lowest possible value and is varied between the original stator winding and the reduced value by ten times. This has been demonstrated in Fig. 14.

According to the equation (25), the induction motor equations can also be arranged for both the rotor and stator [125]:

vs Rs 0 I s d s = + vr 0 Rr I r dt r

(25)

The supply voltage and the stator windings are symmetrical in the healthy induction motor, thus no change is required in the system parameters. The system parameters should be changed to make them applicable and matched with Kirchhoffs current rule in case of a fault. The above stated equation can be expanded for both the stator short winding and stator open winding. The simulation of the stator delta connection can be expressed as a voltage drop in parallel for the stator winding, with a specific phase winding. The faulty phase is B in Fig. 17.

Fig. 14. Stator resistance configuration during short winding fault

A resistance of a greater value is introduced in the series with the original stator resistance to denote the open stator winding fault. The series resistance is considered to be high and variable. It is assumed to range between the original stator winding resistance and up to a ten times increased value. This is demonstrated in Fig. 15. There will be no change in the induction motor mathematical model, inductance, resistance and the corresponding magnetic field equation. Fig. 16 shows the simulation circuit [123].

Fig. 17. Stator winding configuration with an inter-turn short fault

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

The following expression shows an arrangement of the induction motor mathematical model:

Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ia vsa Ra Rb Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ib vsb = Ra + vsc Ra Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ic Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc vd Ra id sa d sb + dt sc d

Rd + Rc Rd + Rc ia vsa Ra Rb Rb Rd + Rc Rd + Rc ib vsb = Ra + vsc Ra Rb Rd + Rc Rd + Rc ic Rb Rd + Rc Rd + Rc vd Ra id

(26)

sa d sb + dt sc d

(31)

The magnetic field equation can be written in the form of the following matrix for the voltages with the stator LL voltages:

sa Laa Lab Lac sb = Lba Lbb Lbc sc Lca Lcb Lcc sd Lda Ldb Ldc Lad ia Lbd ib + Lcd ic Ldd id Lar Lbr + [ Ir ] Lcr Ldr

Following formulas helps in calculating the value of the inductances of open and short stator winding, respectively [127]:

(27)

(32)

Rsh

(33)

The input to the DWT based fault diagnosis algorithm is the stator current. The open or short stator winding is the only thing which can alter the resistance of the any faulty branch as mentioned above. VI.2. Speed Sensor Fault Tolerant Operating Strategy Two types of measurements are present in the induction motor; electrical and mechanical. The electrical is associated with the currents and voltages for the stator or rotor, while the mechanical is associated with the rotor position [128]. The speed encoders mounted in the motor shaft are used to measure the angular shafts position. The possibilities of faults arise from the presence of noise, drift, offset and disconnections [129]. The motors performance will deteriorate due to the failure in the encoder. Therefore, [130] introduced a fault control system with the controller reconfiguration to adapt the operations in accordance with the event of sensor loss or sensor recovery through speed observer. A fault detection process and isolation of the mechanical speed sensor in the induction motor was proposed by [131] according to the fuzzy logic technique.

The above equation is expressed for phase C in order for the current to satisfy the Kirchhoffs current rule:

Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ia vsa Ra Rb Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ib vsb = Ra + vsc Ra Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ic Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc vd Ra id sa d sb + dt sc d

(28)

The original stator resistance is connected with the faulty shunt voltage branch:

vsh = isf ( Rd || Rc )

(29)

Taking into consideration the magnetic flux, the stator short winding voltage can be described as follows [126]:

vsh = N sh d Rsh ish + sh Ns dt

VII.

Design Methodologies

(30)

The extra resistance for the stator open winding equation and the series combination of the phase C is

The basic topology of fault tolerant control is presented in [118] as shown in Fig. 18. In case of a non linear system being subjected to various faults, [132] introduced a fault tolerant controller. Temperature variations and sensor faults cause these faults. The internal and the external factors were dealt with the help of the passive FTC and active FTC strategies, as shown in Fig. 19.

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

electric vehicles. Two virtual sensors and a maximum likelihood voting algorithm constitute the architecture.

Fig. 18. Basic block diagram of the fault tolerant control scheme

Fig. 21. Fault tolerant control structure used in the above work

i s1 is 2

isd v s1

isq

isdr

P 1

vs 2 vs3

isqr

mes mes

Fig. 22. Fault tolerant control structure

Fig. 23 shows the new fault tolerant algorithm used in this paper.

Fig. 20. Fault tolerant control structure used in the above work

The performance specifications were maintained at acceptable levels through the main induction motor controllers. As the transition between the controllers was smooth, therefore the algorithm was successful. In [134], a logical variable that allowed a specific controller when (=0) was created. The best time for the replacement of the damage components was determined through the fault tolerant induction motor algorithm. This dealt with the short circuit or the open circuit failure in the power device. The isolation of the damaged elements by the blown fuse was the basis of the algorithm, through which the damage was replaced at the best suited time. This is shown in Fig. 21. New fault tolerant controller architecture was presented by [135] to obtain a PMSM drive that was both robust against the mechanical sensor failures. Fig. 22 shows this. To enhance the reliability was the main idea behind this paper, as this is the main concern in the

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

Fig. 23. Block diagram of the FTC algorithm used in this work

The key improvements introduced by this algorithm were: 1. The DWT input is stator current. 2. Four algorithms, namely sensor vector control, sensorless vector control, closed loop V/F and open loop V/F were implemented in Simulink. 3. The fault detection and diagnosis tracked the location, type and time of faults. 4. The control strategy was decided according to the wavelet index which is highly sensitive to signal changes. 5. Equations relating the wavelet index (and thus the faults) and the stator resistance after it is modified by a fault are found.

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TABLE IV SUMMARY OF THE FAULT DIAGNOSIS METHODS PROPERTIES [1] Required measurement Application Advantages One stator current *Rotor broken bar *Low cost *Stator winding turn *Non invasive fault *Air gap eccentricity Two stator currents *Rotor broken bar *Non invasive *Stator winding turn *Simple fault *Air gap eccentricity Axial flux *Rotor broken bar *Low cost *Stator winding turn fault *Air gap eccentricity Two stator currents and *Rotor broken bar *Mechanical fault voltages *Stator winding turn detection fault *Non invasive *Mechanical faults in load Two stator currents and Stator winding turn *Incipient faults detection voltages fault *Non invasive Two stator currents & voltages Stator winding turn fault *Incipient faults detection *Non invasive *Easily to adapt to each motor

Drawbacks *Frequencies vary from one motor to other *Limited to some states Mismatch faults

Non invasive

Required great measurement precision *Required training period *Not effective in the motors changes states

Type of software Lifting notebook [Mas97] Wavelet explorer Wavelet Toolbox [MOPM03]

TABLE V WAVELET SOFTWARE [105] Type of code 1D & 2D DWT and SWT compression (C) and de-noising (D) Research *************************************** Commercial 1D & 2D compression and de noising Commercial Global, level-dependent and/or interval/orientation dependent Hard or (for D only) soft threshold strategies: Noise (D): Scaled white, un-scaled white or colored. Donoho Johnstone methods (D): 1D & 2D: Fixed-form 1D: Heursure, rigsure, mini max. Empirical methods: Balance sparsity-norm (C) or (for 2D C & D) square root of this threshold. Birge Massart methods: Penalized high /medium/low (D) and (for C and non global thresholds) scarce high/medium/low. C Remove near 0. See [MMOP00] for details. Research High-level commands for the following 1D DWT de noising methods under the assumption of white Gaussian noise of variance 1: global threshold: Visually best (soft or hard) threshold (p2 log n) [DJ94b]. Mini max hard threshold [DJ94b]. Level- dependent thresholds: Hard SURE threshold. Soft modified SURE threshold [DJ95]. Visually best soft threshold [DJ94b] with level- dependent noise level estimation. Soft or hard threshold Variance estimator: MAD (mean absolute deviation) or STD (classical numerical std estimate). **************************************** **************************************** **************************************** **************************************** **************************************** ****************************************

Very general

General

Research

TF Toolbox [AFLG99] Wave kit [Oja98] Wave++ [FKK00a] WZICwP [Rog02] WaveThresh3 [Nas03] Lifting notebook [Mas97]

This case study presents the fault detection of short switch using the DC voltage measurement technique, which measures the voltage at the terminal of inverter and comparing the voltages. The detection of short switch can be done by noticing the voltage reduction in the DC voltage [136]-[140].

The DC voltage was acquired through DC voltage sensor as can be seen in Fig. 24. The output of the DC measurement can be either using oscilloscope as mentioned earlier in Fig. 8 or using serial communication interface through RS232 cable that connects the DSPF28335 to the PC. Fig. 24 shows the DC voltage in a healthy induction motor and inverter.

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

Fig. 26 shows zoom in view of the hardware implementation. Fig. 27 shows the complete set up used in this project.

IX.

Conclusion

When a short switch fault was occur, the DC voltage level became lower than 150 V as can be seen in Fig. 25.

Inverter

Current sensor

DC voltage

sensor

This paper reviewed the use of wavelets with induction motors fault tolerant control. A number of conclusions can be derived from this review: 1) The wavelet is considered a powerful tool in the fault detection and diagnosis of induction motors. 2) Fault tolerant control is used to maintain the operation at acceptable of performance level. 3) Many wavelet classes can be generated by different kinds of mother wavelets and can be constructed by filter banks. 4) Improvement of fault detection and diagnosis can be achieved by exploiting the wavelet properties to get high effectiveness in detection and diagnostics. 5) DC voltage measurement is considered a good choice to detect the faults either in the inverter or induction motor. 6) The wavelet transform can be used to detect and identify the inverter faults. 7) Stator current acquire can be considered another indication of induction motor fault.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge University of Malaya, provision of high impact research, Grant No, D00002216601, hybrid solar energy research suitable for rural electrification.

Gate drives TI DSP TMSF28335

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Authors information

1

University of Malaya, Electrical Engineering department, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-mail: salimhazim2010@gmail.com Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Electrical Machines, str. Memorandumului nr. 28, 400114 Cluj-Napoca, Romania. E-mail: Lorand.Szabo@mae.utcluj.ro

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid was born in Iraq in 1969.He received the B.Eng. and M.Sc. from the University of Technology in 1993, 2003 respectively, all in electrical engineering, specializing in control systems. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering, control and machine drive, University of Malaya. Mr. Khalaf research interests include fault tolerant control, control of induction machines, and applications of wavelet theory to electrical signals, fault diagnosis of induction machines. Hew Wooi Ping was born in Malaysia in 1957. He received the BE, University Technology MALAYSIA (UTM), MENG, University Technology Malaysia (UTM) and Ph.D, University OF Malaya (UM) He is associate professor in electrical engineering, machine drive, University of Malaya. Institution of electrical engineering , Member, Charted Electrical Engineers, 20012005, (International),engineering council UK, Charted Engineer, 2001-2010, (International),Institution Of Engineering And Technology, UK, Corporate Member, 1999-2020, (National),Board of Engineers, Malaysia, Professional Engineer, 1998-2008, (National)Institution Jurutera Malaysia, Corporate Member, 1997-2008, Dr Hew research interests machines and drives (vector drives, PMSM, axial flux machines).

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

Mustafa Khalid Masood was born in Saudia Arabia in 1987. He received his B.Eng degree in Mechatronics Engineering from the International Islamic University, Malaysia. He is currently pursuing a Masters degree at the University of Malaya, researching under University Malayas Power Electronics Dedicated Advanced Centre (UMPEDAC). Szabo Lorand was born in Oradea (Romania) in 1960. He received the B.Sc. and Ph.D. degree from Technical University of Cluj (Romania) in electrical engineering in 1985, respectively in 1995. Currently, he is a Professor and Head of the Department of Electrical Machines of the same university. His research interests are in the areas of variable reluctance machines, fault detection, fault tolerant electrical machines and drives, etc. Dr.Szabo published over 195 scientific papers and books in these fields.

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1827-6679(201205/06)7:3;1-M

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