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A Study On LABOUR WELFARE With reference to SRI LAKSHMI SRINIVASA JUTE MILL LTD A Project Report s !

"#tte$ to A%$&r' U%#(ers#t)* #% p'rt#'+ , +,#++"e%t o, t&e Re- #re"e%ts ,or t&e '.'r$ o, t&e $e/ree o,

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION B0 I1SRI SAT0A SAI 2IRI 3RE2ISTER1NO455667898689:; U%$er t&e estee"e$ / #$'%ce o, Mr1V1S1K1VARMA* Assoc#'te Pro,essor

DEPARTMENT OF MANA2EMENT STUDIES MAHARAJAH<S POST 2RADUATE =OLLE2E A,,#+#'te$ to A%$&r' U%#(ers#t)* V#s'>&'p't%'"* Appro(e$ !) AI=TE* Ne. De+&# PHOOL BAU2H* VI?IANA2ARAM 6856@6859

A=KNOWLED2EMENT
I feel to render my thankful acknowledgement to the following distinguished personalities who stretched their helping hand to me in completing my project work successfully. I am grateful to THAVITINAIDU Garu of MAHARAJAAS POST 2RADUATE college, Vizianagaram for his endower and co operation in doing the project study.

I am also grateful to Mr1V1S1K1VARMA* of MAHARAJAAS POST 2RAUATE college, Vizianagaram for his endower and co operation in doing the project study.

I e!press my profound sense of gratitude to "rof 1 BSN1RAJU /'r #ead of the department, who had e!tended his $alua%le time and guidance to me in structuring of the report. I am $ery much great full to Mr1 M1BALAJI, &anager #' ( "roduction In charge of SRI LAKASHMI SRINIVASA JUTE MILLS LTD who was the root cause for doing my project work in the organization.

I am also inde%ted to the #') group of jute mill for their $alua%le ad$ises to prepare this "roject and at e$ery state of my stay for the purpose.

P+'ce4 RAJAM D'te4 87@8B@685:

M1BALAJI MANA2ER 3HR;

DE=LARATION

I here%y solemnly declare that this "roject 'eport entitled LABOUR WELFARE<< .#t& re,ere%ce to SRI LAKSHMI SRINIVASA JUTE MILL LTD is a %onafide work done %y me. *his report is su%mitted to +ndhra ,ni$ersity in partial fulfillment of the re-uirements for the award of degree of &aster of .usiness +dministration and has not %een su%mitted to any other ,ni$ersity or Institute earlier.

=ONTENTS =HAPTER54 INTRODU=TION


Introduction /eed and significance of the study 0%jecti$es of the study &ethodology 1ramework

=HAPTER 64 OR2ANI?ATION PROFILE


#istory &anufacturing process 1unctional departments 0rganizational structure

=HAPTER :4 =ON=EPT OF LABOUR WELFARE


)efinition 2lassification of welfare 3tatutory welfare measures Welfare +ct and 1actories +ct

=HAPTER 94 WELFARE MEASURE AT SLS JUTE MILL


"rinciples of welfare #ousekeeping in industry 2anteen in industry +nalysis and interpretation

=HAPTER 74* SUMMAR0 AND SU22ESTION


1indings 3uggestion 2onclusion

BIBLO2RAPH0

=&'pter@5

INTRODU=TION
*he term 4la%our welfare4 is one which tends itself to $arious interpretations and it has not always the same significance in $arious countries. +s pointed out %y the 'oyal 2ommission on 5a%our, the term 4welfare4 as applied to the industrial workers is one which must necessarily %e elastic, %e elastic, %aring a somewhat different interpretation in one country form another, according to the different social custom the degree of industrialization and the educational de$elopment of workers. therefore, it is not easy to define the term precisely. )ifferent interpretations are gi$en to the term welfare acti$ities %y different people. 0ne definition confines it to $oluntary efforts on the part of the employers to pro$ide employees the %est conditions of employment in their factories. *he other $iew is that it is anything for the comfort and impro$ement intellectual or social of the employees o$er and a%o$e the wages paid which is not the necessity of the industry nor re-uired %y law. +t present, the welfare acti$ities are %eing %rought more and more under the legislation rather than %eing left to the good sense of the employers. *he go$ernment, has made certain facilities o%ligatory on the part of employers. *he go$ernment, has made certain facilities o%ligatory on the pat of employers under legislations. *he employers ha$e limited financial resources and moreo$er their attitude towards la%our is apathetic. *hey consider the e!penditure on la%our welfare acti$ities as waste of money rather than an in$estment. 6$en so, some enlightened employers, on their own initiati$e, ha$e %een doing a %it in the direction of welfare. *hey ha$e pro$ided medical aids, hospital and dispensary facilities, canteens, fair prices shops, co operati$e societies, recreation clu% etc. these facilities are apart from their lia%ility under $arious control of state legislations. *he )elhi 2loth and General &ills ha$e an 6mployees .enefit 1und *rust managed %y a .oard of trustees.

NEED FOR THE STUD0


I propose to take up "roject work with the a%o$e title, as part of curriculum of &.+ of +ndhra ,ni$ersity. *his project re-uirement pro$ided me an opportunity to apply knowledge and skills ac-uired during the &.+ programe and to analyze the chosen topic in the work situation in a systematic manner and also to suggest impro$ements. *he Go$ernment has pro$ided the social security co$er to most of the workers in the organized sector through the 6mployees "ro$ident 1und 0rganization 76"108 and 6mployees 3tate Insurance 2orporation 763I28 within the legal framework. #owe$er, no such social security co$er has %een pro$ided to the workers in the unorganized sector who constitute 9:; of the total work force. *he concept of 5a%our Welfare 1und was, therefore, e$ol$ed in order to e!tend a measure of social assistance to workers in the unorganized sector. *owards this end, separate legislations ha$e %een enacted %y "arliament to set up fi$e Welfare 1unds to %e administered %y &inistry of 5a%our ( 6mployment to pro$ide housing, medical care, educational and recreational facilities to workers employed in %eedi industry, certain non coal mines, and cine workers. *he scheme of Welfare 1unds is outside the framework of specific employer and employee relationship in as much as the resources are raised %y the Go$ernment on a non contri%utory %asis and deli$ery of welfare ser$ices affected without linkage to indi$idual worker4s contri%ution. Welfare funds, which follow a sectoral approach, are in addition to a large num%er of $arious other po$erty alle$iation and employment generation programs, which follow a regional approach and for which most of these workers are eligi%le

OBJE=TIVES OF THE STUD0

*he study was conducted in order to achie$e the following o%jecti$es.

<. *o understand $arious statutory and non statutory welfare measures pro$ided %y,3'I 5+=3#&I 3'I/IV+3+ >,*6 &I55 "V* 5*), towards their employees. ?. *o study the role of welfare measures in creating harmonious relations %etween employer and employees. :. *o study how the welfare facilities pro$ided %y the company helps in increasing the "roducti$ity and >o% satisfaction of the employees. @. *o e$aluate the role and influence of welfare in impro$ing production and producti$ity of the organization. A. *o offer useful suggestions for impro$ing the effecti$eness of welfare measures.

METHODOLO20
*he researche was mainly %ased on two sources of the data $iz, <. ?. primary source secondary sources

51 Pr#"'r) so rce4@
*he primary source of data is applied for getting the re-uired and rele$ant information directly form the department heads and in the course of discussion with 6!ecuti$es. *he following are the data collected through primary sources. Type of welfare measures provides under SRI LAKSHMI SRINIVASA JUTE MILL VT LT!" Refres#men$ %ourses %ondu%$ed in $#e $e%#ni%al ins$i$u$e& A'ou$ $#e %ourse %overed $#rou(# dis%ussion wi$# $#e employee and $#rou(# )ues$ionnaires&

2. secondary sources:*he secondary source of data was collected through o%taining records and files from the #') . +nd the institutional guide ga$e us the remaining necessary information and the staff relating to +dministration ga$e me all the necessary information to complete the study.

FRAMEWORK OF THE STUD0


=&'pter 5 consists of /ature( scope of study, o%jecti$es of study, research design, , methodology. =&'pter 6 deals with organization profile, company introduction, company $ision and mission, functional department. =&'pter : consists of theoretical frame work of workers a%senteeism, causes of a%senteeism in industries, measures to control a%senteeism. =&'pter 9 deals with welfare measure of >ute &ills =&'pter 7 consists of summary of the study

=HAPTER 6

HISTOR0
>ute industries are located in West .engal, +ndhra "radesh, .ihar, ,ttarpradesh , &adhya "radesh in India. West .engal is ha$ing B: jute industries mainly %ecause the raw jute is cheap and its does not effort much transport cost. *here is also a$aila%ility of cheap power especially cost in west .engal. In <9CD, the #industan management started jute industry in Vizianagaram. In <9C<, the production was started in initial stage, this was taken %y =urdha group in <9C9, the mill was closed and at that time the mill was madan gopal kedia. In <9C9, the east coast commercial ltd. 2ompany re opened this mill and runned it till <9E?. 5ater on, the )65*+ 2ompany under took this mill and the management runs this till <9EC, and in <9EC 3eptem%er the mill was again closed. +fter sometimes the mill was gone under the control of local management are the taken o$er this up to <9E9. In <9EA, #ooghly mills project ltd 7#&"58 in corporate this mill. *he #&"5 is traditional and a jute %ased industry which is at cantonment %oard VF& and it is an 6ast coast unit. 0n <C DA D9, #&"5 left from this organization and the entire group jute mills purchased our 2ompany 3'I 5+=3#&I 3'I/IV+3+ >,*6 &I553, '+>+& under G'0," 01 =V' UNITS OF SRI LAKSHMI SRINIVASA JUTEMILL4@ K1V1R1 /ro p o, #%$ str#es &'s 5 %#t #% R'j'" '%$ : %#ts 't V?M1 T&e) 're 's ,o++o.s4 *& Sri La+s#mi Srinivasa ,u$e mill uni$-.Aruna a$ V&T&A(ra#aram in V&/&M& 0& Sri La+s#mi Srinivasa ,u$e mill uni$-.Eas$ %oas$ a$ %an$onmen$ in V&/&M& 1& Sri La+s#mi Srinivasa ,u$e mill uni$-.in 2o''ili a$ V&/&M dis$ri%$&

OBJE=TIVE4@
*he main o%jecti$e of this mill is to produces gunny %ags in which these %ags are transporting to many places.

=USTOMERS4@
*he 9A; of the production dispatched to Go$ernment %odies i.e 0rissa Gujarat ( West .engal and remaining A; in local sales and the remaining production in +ndhra "radesh 'ice &illers and Whole sale dealers in entire 3tate

MANUFA=TURIN2 PRO=ESS4@
o B'tc&#%/ o Dr'.#%/ o Sp#%%#%/ o W#%$#%/ o Re'"#%/ o We'(#%/ o F#%#s&#%/ o Press#%/

JUTE PUR=HASED DEPARTMENTS4@


*he raw material in different -ualities are purchased from $arious areas such as +ssam, West .engal, 0rissa in addition to them from local areas also %rings to jute %y lorry transport to the mill.

BAT=HIN2 DEPARTMENT4@
In this, the process starts from softener machines. *he jute is feed to the machines which makes the jute softener %y rollers with wet process of pouring emertion oil which is supplying in #"25 in Vishakhapatnam. >ute yarn softener mechanism is taken and filled %eing kept for a period of ?@ 9C hours depending upon the -uantity of the jute the sli$er rolls are then %rought to preparing department

DRAWIN2 C PREPARIN2 DEPARTMENTS4@


It consists of drawing and finishers the finished sli$er rolls are %rought to feed on drawing machines. *he thinner sli$er is collected in sli$er rolls.

SPINNIN2 DEPARTMENT4@
In this spinning machines will work. 6ach spinning consists of <DD spinners. *he sli$er comes from preparing department. *hese machines produces yarn from %o%%ins made of fi%er fi!ed to %oarder.

WINDIN2 DEPARTMENT4@
*his department consists of winding in which these are working to spool yarn %o%%ing are %rought to this department for production depending upon the demand of the -uantity from customers.

BEAMIN2* WEAVIN2* FINISHIN2 DEPARTMENT4@


Initially, the raw jute is processed in %atching department. >ungle jute is used as rough raw material. *hen the selection opens raw material %ale after selection raw jute mill %e softener after that ne!t step in jute carrier. 1i%er will %e sent to finisherGs card and then transferred to spinning department. +fter wards, this yarn will go to %eaming and wea$ing departments. *his yarn wea$ed only wea$ing machines and collected in %eam rolls which are sent to wea$ing departments.

PRESSIN2 DEPARTMENT4@
+ power %oiling press ha$ing <?D items of capacity operated with electrical power in located adjusting the pressing departments these twine %undles weight a%out <Ekgs each of such ?A %undles and after that shifted to finished goods

STA=TI=AL DUALIT0 =ONTROL DEPARTMENT4@


*he function is to e!amine the -uality in each and e$ery stage. *his department consists e$ery mill one General &anager and +sst. General manager "roduction In charges <D mem%ers of staff. 0ut of C, A are super$isors and < is in charge. *hese mem%ers will o%ser$e in each department.

=OMPETITORS4@
a8 /ellimarla jute mill %8 2hintala$alasa jute mil

FINAN=IAL STRU=TURE4@
+t present in$estment <AD2crores.

DEPARTMENTS IN THIS MILL4@


51 Pro$ ct#o% $ep'rt"e%t1 61 F#%'%ce $ep'rt"e%t1 :1 M'r>et#%/ $ep'rt"e%t1 91 Rese'rc& C $e(e+op"e%t $ep'rt"e%t1

71 Perso%'+ C+'!or $ep'rt"e%t B1 D '+#t) $ep'rt"e%t1

PRODU=TION DEPARTMENTS4@
In this jute mill, production department is the most important one so that this department o%ser$es the -uality and control of production in this mill. *he production manager will see the production of gunny %ags in the mills.

FINAN=E DEPARTMENT4@
In the jute mill, another department which o%ser$es the accounts, profits and loss in the organization and the finance manager prepares the %alances sheets, profits ( loss accounts in the mills.

MARKETIN2 DEPARTMENT4@
*he marketing department is to sell the gunny %ags in the market and o%ser$es the rates of gunny %ags in the market, makes, deals with in the market.

RESEAR=H C DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT4@


'() department is the one of the important one is any organization.

PERSONAL C LABOR DEPATMENT4@


"ersonal and la%or department is one of the most important departments in the jute mill. *he department is to sol$e the pro%lems and disputes among the workers and employees in the organization. In this department the personal officers play an important role in sol$ing these disputes and pro%lems in the organization.

DUALIT0 DEPARTMENT4@
In the jute mill, the -uality department which o%ser$es the -uality department which o%ser$es the -uality of the production in the final stage.

=HAPTER :

=ON=EPT OF WELFARE DEFINITION4


*he concept of la%or is fle!i%le and elastic widely with times, region, industry, country, social $alues and customs degree of industrialization the general socio economic de$elopment of the people and the political ideologies pre$ailing at particular moments. It is also molded according to the age. Group se!, socio cultural le$el of workers in $arious industries. #owe$er efforts ha$e %een made %y e!pert %odies their concept in their own way. + few of these definitions are gi$en %elow. *he la%or welfare in$estigation committee preferred to include under la%or welfare, including sickness and maternity %enefit schemes, pro$ided fund %enefits and8 pension etc. *hus the term welfare is a comprehensi$e term, which includes any acti$ity, which is, connects with social, &oral, 6conomic %etterment of workers pro$ided %y any agency. 3uch acti$ities may differ from country to country and from region to region to firm to firm. *he o!ford dictionary defines H5a%our welfare as efforts to make life worth li$ing for workmenH. Welfare in organization is essential %ecause it forms the total package on offer for the employees. *he topic for this study isI #ow effecti$e are the welfare measures %eing implemented at 353 jute mill. *he aim of this study is to %e a%le to analyze and find out areas for impro$ement in the implementation of the welfare program, so as to make necessary suggestions for making it more effecti$e.

=&'"!erEs $#ct#o%'r)I
HWelfare as a state of faring or doing well freedom from calamity enjoyment of health prosperityH.

T&e e%c)c+ope$#' o, soc#'+ sc#e%ces $e,#%es .e+,'re 's4


H*he $oluntary efforts of the employers to esta%lish with in the e!isting industrial item working and something as li$ing and cultural conditions of employees %eyond J at is re-uired %y law the customs of the industry and the conditions of marketH.

R1R1Hop>#%sI
Welfare is fundamentally an attitude of mind on the part of management acti$ities are undertaken. Welfare in the %order sense means well %eing of the personnel working in the organization. Welfare measures are the steps taken %y the management to create a good en$ironment in which the workers feel satisfied %oth physically and mentally and in the end produce %est result %y putting their ma!imum efforts. Welfare in organization is essential %ecause it forms the total package on offer for the employees. *he topic for this study isI #ow effecti$e are the welfare measures %eing implemented at 353 jute mill. *he aim of this study is to %e a%le to analyze and find out areas for impro$ement in the implementation of the welfare program, so as to make necessary suggestions for making it more effecti$e.

IMPORTAN=E OF WELFARE MEASURES4@


Welfare measures directly relate to human resources of an organization. In the initial stage of industrialization, welfare measures of personnel in an industry were gi$en $ery less importance. *he primiti$e concept of workers linked is to a commodity or an intimate o%ject without any human characteristics. *his came the concept of la%our as the machine, which has to %e kept in a good working order with proper lu%rication to enhanced production, %ut still regards as lifeless. *here was also the goodwill concept of la%our, which was the %eginning of the humanization of la%our from the state of

commodity or a machine. .ut it was only the 42itizen concept of la%our that ga$e the workers human dignity with the right to discuss, decide and $ote as a citizen of a welfare state. *his concept ga$e rise to the philosophy of industrial democracy. +s now, we are in the final stage of the partnership concern when la%our is regarded as an e-ual and responsi%le partner in industry compared to other countries, India has much greater need and importance of la%or welfare work. 3uch a condition is caused %y certain deficiencies in Indian la%or force that are not found in its counterpart in other countries. It is these defects of deficiencies that increase the importance of la%or welfare acti$ity in the country. .riefly, the following are the reasons why la%or welfare work in India assumes greater importance than in other countries.

LA=K OF STRON2 LABOUR UNION MOVEMENT4@


In India, e$en today the workers are no united into a class. =eeping in $iew the num%ers, la%or ,nion mo$ement is still in its infancy. 6$en in the la%or union that does e!ist, there is a lack of enlightened leadership, and there is no unity %etween these unions themsel$es. In a%sence of properly organized la%or ,nion the workers can neither, place their demands effecti$ely %efore the employer, nor can they think clearly and systematically of their own interests. +s this is force lacking in India, it is essential that the welfare of la%orers in the country %e efficiently looked after %y the employers and the Go$ernment.

ILLITERA=04@
+s compared with other countries, the percentage of educated workers is $ery low, most of them %eing illiterate. 2onse-uently, they are not in a position to recei$e ad$anced industrial training, understand the pro%lems in industries their own interests and those of nation as a whole. *his can pro$e a source of harm not only to the workers %ut also to the country. #ence efficient, and %ecome responsi%le citizens of the country.

PROBLEM OF ABSENTEEISM AND MI2RATION4@


2ompared to the workers of other countries the Indian la%orer is more restless and does tendentious towards fre-uent migration %ecause life in the town does not pro$ide for his needs, and the atmosphere in general does not suit him. +lso due to inade-uate le$el of

wages the la%orer cannot comforta%ly settle down in one place. *his may in turn also gi$e rise to +%senteeism. *his workers migratory tendency can %e cur%ed %y pro$iding him with ade-uate facilities and conditions, and this also shows a positi$e effect o$er the a%senteeism in the factory.

LOW LEVEL OF HEALTH AND NUTRITION4@


*he Indian worker as compared with his counterpart in most 6uropean countries is unhealthy and ill fed. *his shows a definite affect o$er the production potential. #ence, he is $ery great need of ine!pensi$e nutriti$e food and good facility in case of hospitalization.

EFTREME POVERT04@
*he percentage of people under the po$erty line in our country is comparati$ely high than other countries. 3o the standard of li$ing is $ery low. +n Indian worker is una%le to pro$ide a healthy li$ing for his family and in the case of female workers she is not pro$ide with assistance in case of need. #ence, the la%or welfare has much to do in the country. It must assist them %y pro$iding them maternity %enefits, in old age i.e., pro$ident fund, pensions and gratuity etc. LA=K OF TRAININ24@ +s the percentage of trained workers in India is $ery low, it is necessary to ha$e training facilities for such a $ast la%or force. #ealthy recreation is also at a premium in the country, the efficiency of la%or force is diminished %y energy %eing employed in all kinds of undesira%le channels. #ence, it is essential that recreation and enjoyment of a healthy kind %e pro$ided.

INDUSTRIAL BA=KWARDNESS OF INDIA4


In India, industrial progress is %eing aimed through the medium of the fi$e year plans, %ut industrial progress is dependent on the efficiency of the la%or force. *he welfare work moti$ates the workers and maintains efficiency and producti$ity. 3o, we can say that the importance of these acti$ities is great for India in comparison to western countries.

H)uring the pre independence period, industrial relations policy of the .ritish Go$ernment was one of laissez faire and also of selecti$e inter$ention. *here were hardly any la%our welfare schemes. +fter independence, la%our legislations ha$e formed the %asis for %ipartite and tripartite consultations for settlement of disputes. 3oon after independence, the go$ernment at a tripartite conference in )ecem%er <9@B adopted the industrial truce resolution. 3e$eral legislations, including the following, were enacted to maintain industrial peace and harmonyI 1actories +ct, <9@E, 6mployees 3tate Insurance +ct, <9@E and &inimum Wages +ct, <9@E. *he payment of %onus act was passed in <9CA. In the early <99Ds, the process of economic reforms was set in motion when the go$ernment introduced a series of measures to reduce control on industries, particularly large industries. *he workers ha$e opposed economic li%eralization policy for fear of unemployment while entrepreneurs ha$e welcomed it in the hope of new opportunities to impro$e Indian industries. *he new economic policy has directly affected industrial relations in the country, %ecause the go$ernment has to play a dual role, one of protecting the interest of the workers, and second to allow a free interplay of the market forces. 6conomic reforms, %y remo$ing %arriers to entry, ha$e created competiti$e markets. 1iscal sta%ilization has resulted in drastic reduction in %udgetary support to the pu%lic sector commercial enterprises while e!posing these enterprises to increased competition from pri$ate sector. for industrial relations and social security. *hese legislations ha$e also pro$ided machinery

=HILD LABOUR4@
+ccording to the <99< 2ensus, the num%er of working children in the country was of the order of <<.?E million 73tate wise details are a$aila%le in +nne!ure A.B.B8. *he e!istence of child la%our in hazardous industries is a great pro%lem in India. /on a$aila%ility of accurate, authentic and up to date data on child la%our has %een major handicap in planned inter$ention for eradication of this social e$il. 6fforts are underway in the /inth "lan to modify and impro$e the e!isting /ational 2hild 5a%our "roject. + major acti$ity undertaken under this scheme is the esta%lishment of special schools to

pro$ide non formal education, $ocational training, supplementary nutrition, stipends, health care, etc. to children withdrawn from employment in hazardous industries.

+ re$iew of the implementation of $arious programmers for elimination of child la%our re$eals that e$en though a good %eginning has %een made from <99@ 9A onwards, in order to make a significant dent on this age old social e$il a multi pronged strategy coupled with a massi$e mo%ilization of resources, %oth physical and financial, is re-uired. .efore considering any e!pansion of the programme, it was considered appropriate to get the e!isting projects e$aluated through independent e$aluation agencies. +ccordingly, fi$e e$aluation agencies were identified for e$aluating child la%our projects in the 3tates of ,ttar "radesh, *amil /adu, +ndhra "radesh, 0rissa and 'ajasthan. *he reports recei$ed showed, inter alia, that the magnitude of the child la%our pro%lem can %e considera%ly reduced through reha%ilitation measures %y the projects and that there is need to continue the component of special schools or camp approach. *he need for awareness generation among the pu%lic has also %een highlighted.

REHABILITATION OF BONDED LABOUR4@


*he 2entrally sponsored "lan scheme for reha%ilitation of %onded la%our was formulated %y the &inistry of 5a%our in <9BE. ,nder the %onded la%our system, the responsi%ility for identification, release and reha%ilitation of free %onded la%orers rest entirely with the 3tate Go$ernments. #owe$er, with a $iew to supplementing the efforts of the 3tate Go$ernments, a 233 was launched %y the &inistry of 5a%our in <9BE B9. *he e!penditure is shared e-ually %y the 2entral and 3tate Go$ernments on ADIAD %asis. ,nder the scheme, a %onded la%our on release is immediately paid 's. <DDD as su%sistence allowance and heKshe is reha%ilitated as per situation with a reha%ilitation package of 's.<D, DDD keeping in $iew the price escalation and increase in the cost of the reha%ilitation package, cost of %uffaloes, cows and other inputs during the last four years, the scheme has %een modified recently %y raising the reha%ilitation package from the e!isting amount of 's.<D,DDD to

's.?D,DDD per %onded la%our and with pro$ision for conducting sur$eys for identification of %onded la%our, creation of awareness, conducting e$aluation studies etc. "lanning 2ommission has also agreed to pro$ide <DD per cent su%sidy to the /orth 6astern 3tates keeping in $iew the financial constraints faced %y these 3tates. re$iew will %e done %efore the start of *enth "lan. 3ince the inception of the scheme ?,ED,@<< %onded la%our ha$e %een identified and released, out of which ?, A<,AC9 ha$e %een reha%ilitated %y :<.:. ?DDD and 's.AD.:? crore ha$e %een released to the 3tate Go$ernment as 2entral +ssistance up to :<.:.?DDD. 3tate wise %reak up of achie$ement is in +nne!ure A.B.9. In order to re$iew the progress and proper monitoring of the 2entrally 3ponsored 3cheme and other po$erty alle$iation programmes which are in operation for the purpose of effecti$e reha%ilitation of %onded la%orer, it is proposed that monitoring of the schemes may %e done at there le$els i.e. /ational 3tate ( )istrict 5e$els. In this regard, at least two workshopsKmonitoring meetings may %e organized %y the &inistry of 5a%our at the 2entral 5e$el. #igh "owered committees at district and 3tate le$els may %e constituted on permanent %asis for monitoring the schemes. *he monitoring will help in remo$ing the shortcomings noticed in the process of their implementation and %ringing impro$ements and e-uipping officers with crucial skills needed for identification, release and reha%ilitation of %onded la%our with e!tra care and dedication. *his is important so that once a %onded la%orer is released and reha%ilitatedJ heKshe does not go %ack to %ondage once again. *he modified scheme would %e implemented in the remaining period of the /inth "lan and a

WOMEN LABOUR4@
*he &inistry of 5a%our has set up a Women 5a%our 2ell in <9BA. *he intention was to focus attention on the lot of working women with a $iew to impro$ing it. *he Go$ernment has enacted the 6-ual 'emuneration +ct, <9BC. *he Women 2ell has %een created in the &inistry to monitor implementation of this +ct. + 2entral +d$isory 2ommittee has %een set up to ad$ise the Go$ernment on pro$iding increasing employment opportunities for women. 3imilarly, 3tate +d$isory 2ommittee has %een constituted to monitor the +ct at the 3tate le$el. *he 2ell also gi$es grants in aid to $oluntary organizations to carry out research studies on pro%lems of women workers, their

employa%ility and the e!tent of their displacement on account of technological and $arious other changes.

SO=IAL SE=URIT04@
*here are also laws enacted and schemes esta%lished %y the 2entralK3tate Go$ernments pro$iding for social security and welfare of specific categories of working people. *he principal social security laws enacted centrally are the followingI L *he WorkmenGs 2ompensation +ct, <9?:. L *he 6mployees 3tate Insurance +ct, <9@E. L *he 6mployees "ro$ident 1unds and &iscellaneous "ro$isions +ct, <9A:. L *he &aternity .enefit +ct, <9C<. L *he "ayment of Gratuity +ct, <9B?. *he 6.".1. ( &.". +ct is administered e!clusi$ely %y the Go$ernment of India through the 6"10. *he cash %enefits under the 63I are administered %y the 2entral Go$ernment through the 6mployees 3tate Insurance 2orporation 763I28 whereas medical care under the 63I +ct is %eing administered %y the 3tate Go$ernments and ,nion *erritory +dministrations. *he "ayment of Gratuity +ct is administered %y the 2entral Go$ernment in esta%lishments under its control, esta%lishments ha$ing %ranches in more than one 3tate, major ports, mines, oil fields and the railways and %y the 3tate Go$ernments and ,nion *erritory +dministrations in all other cases. In mines and circus industry, the pro$isions of the &aternity .enefit +ct are %eing administered %y the 2entral Go$ernment through the 2hief 5a%our 2ommissioner 72entral8 and %y the 3tate Go$ernments in factories, plantation and other esta%lishments. *he pro$isions of the WorkmenGs compensation +ct are %eing administered e!clusi$ely %y 3tate Go$ernments. 6mployees "ension 3cheme, <99A was amended in 1e%ruary, <999 to pro$ide for pension to dependent fatherKmother in respect of a deceased mem%er, who has no eligi%le family mem%ers and if no nomination was e!ecuted %y him during his life time. "ermanent and totally disa%led children of the "1 mem%ers were made entitled w.e.f. 1e%ruary, <999 to payment of monthly childrenKorphan pension irrespecti$e of age and num%er of children in the family. )is%ursement of pension and pro$ident fund %enefits on the date of retirement in "u%lic 3ector ,ndertaking and model pri$ate sector esta%lishment was introduced. 0ne hundred and thirty si! %eneficiaries were paid %enefits on the date of

retirement during the two months )ecem%er <99E and >anuary, <999. ,nder the Workmen 2ompensation +ct, 1or workers of poor families not co$ered under any insurance scheme or any law statute, the 2entral Go$ernment has introduced a scheme of "ersonal +ccident Insurance 3ocial 3ecurity 3cheme. *he 3cheme is applica%le to all persons in the age group of <E AA who are earning mem%ers of poor families and meet with fatal accidents. *he -uantum of %enefits is 's.:,DDD. *he 3cheme is implemented through the General Insurance 2orporation. + new initiati$e has %een taken %y the &inistry of +griculture and 2ooperation %y pro$iding insurance co$er to unorganized la%our working in construction industry, agriculture fields and forests where the insurance co$er will %e pro$ided through the 2o operati$es on ADIAD %asis through the national insurance co$er and 5a%our 2o operati$es. + premium of 's.A.?A per annum will %e paid %y the 2o operati$es. *he insurance co$er has the pro$ision that in the case of death of a la%orer, his family will %e paid 's.?A, DDD

STATUTOR0 WELFARE MEASURES4@


<. ?. :. @. A. C. B. E. 9. 1actories +ct, <9@E. &ines +ct, <9A? Workmen4s 2ompensation +ct <9?:. &aternity %enefits +ct, <9C<. 6mployee4s 3tate Insurance +ct, <9@E. 2ontract 5a%or 7' ( +8 +ct, <9BD. *he 6-ual 'emuneration +ct, <9BC. 2hild 5a%or 7"rohi%ition and 'egulation8 +ct, <9EC. 5imestone, )olomite Welfare 1und +ct, <9B?.

<D. Iron 0re &ines, &anganese 0re &ines ( 2hrome 0re &ines Welfare 1und +ct <9BC <<. +.". 5a%or Welfare 1und +ct <9EB

<?. 6mployee4s "ro$ident 1und and &iscellaneous "ro$isions +ct, <9A? <:. "ayment of Gratuity +ct <9B?

FA=TORIES A=T4@
T#e Factory Acts were a series of A%$s passed 'y $#e arliamen$ of $#e Uni$ed Kin(dom $o limi$ $#e num'er of #ours wor+ed 'y women and %#ildren firs$ in $#e $e3$ile indus$ry" $#en la$er in all indus$ries& T#e fa%$ory reform movemen$ 4*5 spurred $#e passa(e of laws $o limi$ $#e #ours $#a$ %ould 'e wor+ed in fa%$ories and mills& T#e firs$ aim of $#e movemen$ was for a 6$en #ours 'ill6 $o limi$ $o $en #ours $#e wor+in( day of %#ildren& Ri%#ard 7as$ler was one of $#e movemen$8s mos$ prominen$ leaders&

F'ctor) Act 5G86


*he F'ctor#es Act 5G86 7citation @? Geo.lll c.B:, sometimes also called the H#ealth and &orals of +pprentices +ctH8 was an +ct of the "arliament of the ,nited =ingdom which regulated factory conditions, especially in regard to child workers in cotton and woolen mills. It was the culmination of a mo$ement originating in the <Eth century, where reformers had tried to push se$eral acts through "arliament to impro$e the health of the workers and apprentices. *he act had the following pro$isionsI

1actory owners must o%ey the law. +ll factory rooms must %e well $entilated and lime washed twice a year. 2hildren must %e supplied with two complete outfits of clothing. 2hildren %etween the ages of 9 and <: can work ma!imum E hours. +dolescents %etween <@ and <E years old can work ma!imum <? hours.

2hildren under 9 years old are not allowed to work %ut they must %e enrolled in the elementary schools that factory owners are re-uired to esta%lish.

*he work hours of children must %egin after C a.m., end %efore 9 p.m., and not e!ceed <? hours a day.

2hildren must %e instructed in reading, writing and arithmetic for the first four years of work.

&ale and female children must %e housed in different sleeping -uarters. 2hildren may not sleep more than two per %ed. 0n 3undays children are to ha$e an hour4s instruction in 2hristianity. 1actory owners are also re-uired to tend to any infectious diseases. 1ines of %etween M? and MA could %e imposed on factory owners, %ut the +ct esta%lished no inspection regime to enforce conditions. *he act failed to pro$ide a clear law of the hours one is permitted to work and failed to include super$ision to make sure the law was %eing followed. *he law was largely ignored %y the factories %ut pa$ed the way for more 1actory +cts to follow. 'ichard 0astler in <ED@ comments on the actI

=otto% M#++s* etc1 Act 5G5H


*he <E<9 2otton &ills and 1actories +ct 7A9 Geo. III cCC8 stated that no children under 9 were to %e employed and that children aged 9N<C years were limited to <C hours4 work per day.O:P

L'!o r #% =otto% M#++s Act 5G:5


+n +ct to repeal the 5aws relating to +pprentices and other young "ersons employed in 2otton 1actories and in 2otton &ills, and to make further "ro$isions in lieu thereof 7< ( ? Will. IV c:98 /o night work for persons under the age of ?<.

L'!o r o, =&#+$re%* etc1* #% F'ctor#es Act 5G::

*he 1actory +ct <E:: 7: ( @ Will. IV8 2<D: was an attempt to esta%lish a regular working day in the te!tile industry. *he act had the following pro$isionsI

2hildren 7ages <@N<E8 must not work more than <? hours a day with an hour lunch %reak. /ote that this ena%led employers to run two 4shifts4 of child la%our each working day in order to employ their adult male workers for longer.

2hildren 7ages 9N<:8 must not work more than E hours with an hour lunch %reak. 2hildren 7ages 9N<:8 must ha$e two hours of education per day. 0utlawed the employment of children under 9 in the te!tile industry. 2hildren under <E must not work at night. "ro$ided for routine inspections of factories.

F'ctor#es Act 5G99


*he 1actories +ct <E@@ 7citation B ( E Vict c. <A8 further reduced hours of work for children and applied the many pro$isions of the 1actory +ct of <E:: to women. *he act applied to the te!tile industry and included the following pro$isionsI

2hildren 9N<: years could work for 9 hours a day with a lunch %reak. Women and young people now worked the same num%er of hours. *hey could work for no more than <? hours a day during the week, including one and a half hours for meals, and 9 hours on 3undays.

1actory owners must wash factories with lime e$ery fourteen months. +ges must %e $erified %y surgeons. +ccidental death must %e reported to a surgeon and in$estigated. *horough records must %e kept regarding the pro$isions of the act. &achinery was to %e fenced in.

F'ctor) Act 5G9I


&ain articleI 1actories +ct <E@B +fter the Whigs gained power in "arliament, the *en #our .ill 7also known as the *en #our +ct8 was passed %ecoming the 1actories +ct <E@B 7citation <D ( << Vict c. ?98. *his law limited the work week in te!tile mills 7and other te!tile industries e!cept lace and silk production8 for women and children under <E years of age. 6ach work week contained C: hours effecti$e < >uly <E@B and was reduced to AE hours effecti$e < &ay <E@E. In effect, this law limited the workday to <D hours. *his law was successfully passed due to the contri%utions of the *en #ours &o$ement. *his campaign was esta%lished during the <E:Ds and was responsi%le for $oicing demands towards limiting the work week in te!tile mills. *he leaders of the mo$ement were 'ichard 0astler 7who led the campaign outside "arliament8, as well as >ohn 1ielden and 5ord 3haftes%ury 7who led the campaign inside "arliament8. 0f course, employers found a ten hour limit accepta%le as it meant that workers could %e run in shifts, keeping the factory open for up to twenty hours a day.

F'ctor) Act 5G78


*his +ct 7citation <: ( <@ Vict c. A@8 redefined the workday which had %een esta%lished under the 1actory +cts of <E@@ and <E@B. /o longer could employers decide the hours of work. *he workday was changed to correspond with the ma!imum num%er of hours that women and children could work. *he act included the following pro$isions.

2hildren and Women could only work from C a.m. to C p.m. in the summer and B a.m. to B p.m. in the winter. +ll work would end on 3aturday at ? p.m... *he work week was e!tended from AE hours to CD hours. +n hour of work for age 9 to <E was changed to <D.A hours night and day.

F'ctor) Act 5G7B


*his +ct 7citation <: ( <@ Vict c. A@8 redefined the workday which had %een esta%lished under the 1actory +cts of <E@@ and <E@B. /o longer could employers decide the hours of work. *he workday was changed to correspond with the ma!imum num%er of hours that women and children could work. *he act included the following pro$isions.

2hildren and women could only work from C a.m. to C p.m. in the summer and B a.m. to B p.m. in the winter +ll work would end on 3aturday at ? p.m. *he work week was e!tended from AE hours to CD hours +n hour of work for age 9 to <E was changed to <D hours night and day.

F'ctor) Act 5GIG


*he Factory and Workshop Act 1878 7@< ( @? Vict. c. <C8 %rought all the pre$ious +cts together in one consolidation.

/ow the 1actory 2ode applied to all trades. /o child anywhere under the age of <D was to %e employed. 2ompulsory education for children up to <D years old. <D <@ year olds could only %e employed for half days. Women were to work no more than AC hours per week.

F'ctor) Act 5GH5


*he 1actory +ct <E9< made the re-uirements for fencing machinery more stringent. ,nder the heading 2onditions of 6mployment were two considera%le additions to pre$ious

legislationI the first is the prohi%ition on employers to employ women within four weeks after confinementJ the second the raising the minimum age at which a child can %e set to work from ten to ele$en.

F'ctor) '%$ Wor>s&op Act 5H85


&inimum working age is raised to <?. *he act also introduced legislation regarding education of children, meal times, and fire escapes.

F'ctor#es Act 5H:I


*he <9:B +ct 7< 6dw. E ( < Geo. C c.CB8 consolidated and amended the 1actory and Workshop +cts from <9D< to <9?9. It was introduced to the #ouse of 2ommons %y the #ome 3ecretary, 3ir >ohn 3imon, on ?9 >anuary <9:B and gi$en 'oyal +ssent on :D >uly.
O@POAP

F'ctor#es Act 5HB5


&ain articleI 1actories +ct <9C< *his +ct consolidated the <9:B and <9A9 +cts. +s of ?DDE, the <9C< +ct is su%stantially still in force, though workplace health and safety is principally go$erned %y the #ealth and 3afety at Work etc. +ct <9B@ and regulations made under it.

=HAPTER 9

WELFARE MEASURES AT SRI LAKSHMI SRINIVASA JUTEMILL4@ LABOUR WELFARE B0 2OVERNMENT4


3tate go$ernments ha$e also played an important role in pro$iding the welfare acti$ities to la%ours in their state. 3tates of &aharashtra, ,ttar "radesh and West .engal are the leading states in organizing $arious welfare acti$ities.

M'&'r's&tr'4 In <9:9, .om%ay go$ernment organized for the first time in the state the
&odel Welfare 2entreGs. In <9A:, the go$ernment passed the 5a%our Welfare 1und +ct and transferred all welfare acti$ities to the .om%ay 5a%our Welfare .oard constituted under the act ha$ing representati$es of employers independent persons and women. + welfare fund consisting of underutilized fines and unpaid wages, donation etc., was set up. 5a%our welfare %oards maintain a mem%er of la%our welfare centers catering to the $arious welfare acti$ities for workers and their families. *he 3tate go$ernment also set up an Institute for training 5a%our welfare officers for the factories in the state.

Utt'r Pr'$es&4
In <9:B, the go$ernment created a new )epartment of 5a%our under a commissioner of la%our. *he department has organized la%our welfare centre in almost all %ig industrial centers. *he regular centers are di$ided in to three categories on the %asis of the acti$ities undertaken %y them. /early all %asic welfare facilities like hospitals and dispensaries, li%raries and reading rooms, sewing classes, maternity centers, crQches in door and outdoor games etc. are pro$ided %y these centers. *he ,.". Go$ernment framed factories welfare offices rules. +ccording to these rules, e$ery factory employing ADD workers or more will ha$e to appoint a 5a%our Welfare 0fficers and factories employing ?,ADD workers or more will ha$e appoint an additional

welfare officer. *here are also la%our welfare ad$isory committees, one for the whole state <9 in districts to ad$ise the go$ernment in organizing la%our welfare acti$ities. *he go$ernment passed ,.". Welfare 1und +ct <9AC to pro$ide funds for welfare acti$ities.

West Be%/'+4
*he go$ernment started la%our welfare centers at different place and the $arious acti$ities undertaken %y these centers are pu%licity, li%rary, reading rooms, radio, sports, dispensary etc. 6ach centre is under the charge of a la%our welfare worker, assisted %y a la%our Welfare +ssistant and a 5ady Welfare Workers.

Ot&er St'te 2o(er%"e%ts4


*he go$ernments of others state ha$e also started la%our welfare centers catering to almost all the la%our almost welfare facilities. *he states ha$e also undertaken the projects of housing for la%orers in the state.

51 AS PER FA=TORIES A=T* 5H9G4@

='%tee% F'c#+#t#es4 3Sect#o% 9B;4


*he state go$ernment may make rules re-uiring that in any specified 1actory where in more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed, a canteen or canteens shall %e pro$ided and maintained %y the occupier for the use of the workers. Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may pro$ided for *he day %y which such canteen shall %e pro$ided *he standards in respect of construction, accommodation, furniture and other re-uirement of the canteen, *he food stuffs to %e ser$ed there in and the charges which may %e made there forJ *he constitution of managing committee for the canteen and representation of the workers in the management of the canteenJR7dd8 the items of e!penditure in the running of the

canteen which are not to %e taken into account in fi!ing the cost of food stuffs and which shall %e %orne %y the employerJ *he delegation to the chief inspector, su%ject to such conditions as may %e prescri%ed, of the power to make under the clause. +ccording to section @C of the 1actories +ct, a state go$ernment makes rules for pro$ision of canteen %y the occupier in any specified factory where in more than ?AD workers are ordinary employees.

A; =rJc&es 3Sect#o%@9G;4
In e$ery factory where in more than ?O:D woman workersP are ordinarily employed there shall %e pro$ided and maintained a suita%le room for the use of children under the age of C years of such women, 3uch rooms shall pro$ide ade-uate accommodation shall %e ade-uately lighted and $entilated. 3hall %e under the maintained in a clean and sanitary + %a%y crQches for children of women 2ondition and shall %e under the change of women trained in the care of children and infants. <. Ins .%y +ct 9@ of <9BC 7w.e.f.?C <D <9BC8 ?. 3u%s. %y +ct 9@ of <9BC 7w.e.f.?C <D <9BC8

*he state go$ernment may make rules N


I. prescri%ing the location and the standards in respect of construction, furniture and other e-uipment of rooms to %e pro$ided under this sectionJ II. 'e-uiring the pro$ision in factories to which this section applies of additional facilities for the care of children %elonging to women workers, including suita%le pro$ision of facilities for washing and changing their clothingJ III. 'e-uiring the pro$isions in any factory of free milk or refreshment 0r %oth for such childrenJ IV. 'e-uiring that facilities shall %e gi$en in any factory for the mothers of such children to feed them at the necessary inter$als. 3ection @E of the 1actories +ct pro$ided for the setting up of crQches in e$ery factory where in more than :D women workers are ordinarily employed for the use of children accommodation,

under the age of C years of such women the rooms must pro$ide ade-uate accommodation and they should %e ade-uately lighted and $entilated and under the change of women trained in the care of children and infinity

=; F#rst A#$ App+#'%ces* A"! +'%ce Roo" 3Sect#o% K 97;4


a8 *here shall in e$ery factory %e pro$ided and maintained, so as to %e readily accessi%le during all working hours first aid %o!es or cup%oards e-uipped with the prescri%ed contents, and the num%er of such %o!es or cup%oards to %e pro$ided and maintained shall not %e less than one for e$ery one hundred and fifty workers ordinarily employed 7at any time8 in the factory. %8 /othing e!pect the prescri%ed contents shall %e kept in a first N aid %o! or cup %oard. c8 6ach first N aid %o! or cup%oard shall %e kept in the change of separate responsi%le person 7who holds a certificate in first N aid treatment recognized %y the state go$ernment8 and who shall always %e readily a$aila%le during the working hours of the factory. In e$ery factory wherein more than fi$e hundred are ordinarily employed there shall %e pro$ided and maintained an am%ulance room of prescri%ed size, containing the prescri%ed e-uipment and in the charge of such medical and nursing staff as may %e prescri%ed. :. Ins. %y +ct ?A of <9A@, 3.9. @. 3u%s. %y i%id. 1or original su% N section7?8 A. 3u%s. %y +ct 9@ of <9BC 7w.e.f. ?C <D <9BC8 C. 'enum%ered for 7:8 %y +ct ?A of <9A@, s.9. B. 3u%s. %y +ct 9@ of <9BC 7w.e.f. ?C <D <9BC8 O+nd those facilities shall always %e made readily a$aila%le during the working hours of the factory.P *he 'oyal 2ommission on 5a%our recommended that, in the case of all factories where mechanical power is used, a first aid %o! of prescri%ed standard, which need not in$ol$e any great outlay, should %e pro$ided and maintained in different departments according to the num%er of workers employed on the %asis to %e laid down %y local go$ernments.

D; F'c#+#t#es For S#tt#%/ 3Sect#o% K 99;4


In e$ery factory suita%le arrangements for sitting shall %e pro$ided and maintained for all workers o%liged to work in a standing position, in order that they may take of any opportunities for test which may occur in the course of their work. If, in the opinion of the chief inspector, the workers in any factory engaged in a particular manufacturing process or working in a particular room are a%le to do their work efficiently in a sitting position, he may, %y order in writing, re-uire the occupier of the factory to pro$ide %efore a specified date such seating arrangements as may %e practica%le for all workers so engaged or working. *he state go$ernment may, %y notification in the official gazette, declare that the pro$ision of su% N section 7<8 shall not apply to any specified factory or class or description of factories or to any specified manufacturing process. 6$ery factory has to pro$ide necessary sitting arrangements, particularly for workers who are o%liged to work in a standing position.

E; We+,'re O,,#cer 3Sect#o% K 9H;4


In e$ery factory wherein fi$e hundred or more workers are ordinarily employed the occupier shall employ in the factory such num%er of welfare officer as may %e prescri%ed. *he state go$ernment may %e prescri%ing the duties, -ualifications and conditions of ser$ice of officers employed under the su% N station 7<8.

S',et) O,,#cers 3Sect#o% K 98B;4


a8 In e$ery factory N i. Wherein, one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed, or

ii. Wherein, in the opinion of the state go$ernment, any manufacturing disease, or any other hazard to the person employed in the factory, Ins. %y +ct 9@ of <9BC 7w.e.f. ?C <D <9BC8

process or operation

is carried on, which process or operation in$ol$es any risk of %odily, injury, poisoning or

%8 *he duties, -ualification and conditions of ser$ice of safety officers shall may %e prescri%ed %y the state go$ernment.

%e such as

*he 1actories +ct of <9@E pro$ides for the statutory appointment of a welfare officer in a factory, sec. @9 7<8 and 7?8 of the factories +ct, lay down thatI i. In e$ery factory where in ADD workers or more workers are ordinarily employed the occupier shall employ in the factory such mem%er of welfare officers as may %e prescri%ed. ii. *he state Go$ernment may prescri%e the duties, -ualifications and conditions of ser$ice of officerGs employees under su% sec. *he function of a welfare officer could %roadly %e classified under : areas of manpower management. a8 5a%or welfare %8 5a%or +dministration c8 5a%or 'elations 2oming to the welfare of the steel plant, there is la%or welfare department. 2onsisting of la%or officers i.e. ?C welfare inspectors one per each zone.

F %ct#o%s o, We+,'re O,,#cers4


<. *o look after the health and safety of workers. ?. *o look after the working conditions. :. *o look after sanitation and cleanliness. @. *o look after welfare amenities. A. *o look after the workers education. C. Information of welfare committees. B. *o implement the welfare acts. E. *o look after the organizational discipline. 9. In the administration of legislation co$ering industrial relations. <D. *o settle the grie$ances of the workers.

<<. *o increase the relation %etween trade union and management.

S&e+ters* Rest roo"s '%$ L %c&roo"s 3Sect#o% K 9I;4


In e$ery factory wherein more than one hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed, ade-uate and suita%le shelter or rest rooms and a suita%le lunchroom, with pro$ision for drinking water, where workers can eat meals %rought %y them, shall %e pro$ided and maintained for the use of the workersI "ro$ided that any canteen maintained in accordance with the pro$isions of section @C shall %e regarded as part of the re-uirements of this su% N sectionI "ro$ide further that where a lunchroom e!ists no workers shall eat any food in the workroom. a. *he shelters or restrooms or lunchrooms to %e pro$ided under su% N section 7<8 shall %e sufficiently lighted and $entilated and shall %e maintained in cool clean condition. %. *he state Go$ernment may N "rescri%ed the standards in respect of construction, accommodation, furniture and other e-uipment of shelters, restrooms to %e pro$ided under this sectionJ .y notification in the official gazette, e!empt any factory or class or description of factories from the re-uirements of this section. 6$ery factory employing more than <AD workers must pro$ide ade-uate and suita%le shelters or rest rooms and a lunch rooms, with pro$ision for drinking water, which worker eat meals %rought %y them. .ut in case a canteen is maintained in accordance with the pro$ision of sec. @C it will %e allowed to eat food in the workroom. *hese are to %e maintained in a cool and clean condition. In 353 jute mills all these facilities are pro$ided to the employees for taking rest after lunch. =ONTRIBUTOR0 PROVIDENT FUNDS AND MIS=ELLAN=E PROVISIONS A=T 5H764 *he main o%ject of this +ct is to pro$ide for pro$ident 1und, 6mployee pension id )eposit linked Insurance for employees working in 1actories and other esta%lishment. *he +ct contemplates a contri%ution %y the employer towards "1. It also pro$ides for an employee

pension, out of the 2ontri%utions made %y employer as prescri%ed in the +ct and scheme. 6mployees are allowed withdraws for certain specific purposes like, #ouse .uildingI 2hildren4s marriageKeducation etc. WELFARE MEASURES FOR =ONTRA=T LABOUR AS PROVIDED IN THE =ONTRA=T LABOUR A=T* 5HI84 *he main o%ject of this +ct is to regulate the employment of the contract la%or in certain esta%lishment and to pro$ide for itGs a%olitions under certain circumstances on the ad$ice of the +d$isory committee. *he +ct pro$ides for welfare and health of contract la%our including pro$isions relating to canteen, rest rooms, and first aid facilities.

MATERNIT0 LEAVES AS PER MATERNIT0 BENEFIT A=T* 5HB54 *he o%ject of the +ct is to pro$ide for &aternity .enefit and certain other %enefits to women employees working in factories and other esta%lishments. 5ea$e with pay of <? weeks for the purpose of maternity related confinement and si! weeks for miscarriageKa%ortion is re-uired to %e gi$en %y the employer to women employees, under this +ct.

THE EDUAL REMUNERATIION A=T* 5HIB4 *he 6-ual 'emuneration +ct pro$ides for payment of e-ual remuneration to men and women workers for it work or work of a similar nature and for the pre$ention of discrimination on grounds of se!, against women in the matter of employment.

A ,e. st'te"e%ts 're , r%#s&e$ &ere %$er .#t& ,#(e opt#o%s o, respo%ses1 0o 're re- este$ to p+e'se #%$#c'te )o r #""e$#'te respo%se to e'c& o, t&e st'te"e%ts !) "'r>#%/ ' t#c> #% t&e "ost re+e('%t co+ "% '/'#%st e'c&1 T&#s st $) #s "'$e p re+) ,or 'c'$e"#c p rpose. <. *otally agree

?. +gree :. 2annot say @. )isagree A. *otally disagree <. It is the responsi%ility of the &anagement to take care of welfare of its employees

S1NO
Tot'++) '/ree A/ree ='%%ot s') Tot'++) $#s'/ree D#s'/ree

D't' AB :B < D D

PER=ENTA2E B8 :H 5 8 8

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI*hrough the present 3tudy we want to collect the opinion of employee a%out the welfare facilities pro$ied %y the company.*he responses of the employees are classified into A degrees of acceptance le$els. 1rom the study we notice that CD; of people totally agree that the welfare should %e monitored and pro$ided %y the management.

?. +ny welfare measure is aimed towards well%eing of employees. S1NO *otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree DATA :9 A< A D D PER=ENTA2E @D AA A D D

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONIit is noticed from the study that AA percent of the people agree with the statement that welfare is aimed at impro$ing wel%eing of the employees.@D percent of the employees totally agree with the a%o$e statement.only A percent of the people ha$e no response for the statement.

:. *he statutory welfare measures are only for %arest minimum %enefits. S1NO *otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree DATA <A :9 :: E D PER=ENTA2E <A @? :A E D

TOTAL

H7

588

@. &ostly employees and ,nions %argain on welfare measures. S1NO *otally agree +gree 2annot say *otally disagree )isagree TOTAL DATA B C: ?< : < H7 PER=ENTA2E B CB ?? : < 588

INTERPRETATIONI CB; of the employees %elie$e and they agree that employees and union %argain on welfare measures whereas ??; of the employee has no opinion. *his shows that there is a considera%le num%er of employees ha$e $ery passi$e in$ol$ement in the trade unions.

A. 6mployees ha$e the tendency to stick to the organization %ased on the a$aila%le welfare amenities. S1NO *otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree DATA <A A? ?? A < PER=ENTA2E <A AA ?@ A <

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI AA; of the employees agree the statement that employees ha$e the tendency to stick to the organization %ased on the a$aila%le welfare amenities. *his shows the strong correlation %etween welfare and employee loyalty.

C. 2ertain times it may %e difficult to e!tend all statutory welfare measures in a organization like 353 jute mills

S1NO
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

DATA PER=ENTA2E
<D :9 <C ?B : <D @< <E ?E :

*0*+5

9A

<DD

INTERPRETATIONI @<; of the employees accepted the statement it may %e difficult to e!tend all statutory welfare measures in a $ast organization .Where as ?E; of employees disagree with the a%o$e statement.

B. Welfare measures are directly related to the production and producti$ity.

S1NO
*otally agree

DATA
9

PER=ENTA2E
<D

+gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

:9 ?< ?@ ?

@< ?? ?A ?

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI@<; of the employees accept the $iew that welfare measures are directly related to the production and producti$ity. Whereas ?A; of the employees disagree with the a%o$e statement from this we can understand that employee %elie$e that %y pro$iding those welfare facilities emolyee producti$ity can %e impro$ed.

E. *here may not %e any limit to the demands on welfare measures.

3./0
*otally agree +gree 2annot say disagree *otally )isagree

)+*+
B :? ?? ?C E

"6'26/*+G6
B :A ?: ?B E

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI:A;of the employees that there

may not %e any limit to the

demands on welfare measures. Whereas ?B; of people disagree with the a%o$e statement. *his is an honest acceptance of the employee a%out their welfare e!pectation.

9. 353 &anagement e!tends more welfare measures than the statutory re-uirements re-uired.

S1NO
*otally agree

DATA PER=ENTA2E
9 9

+gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

AD ?B 9 D

A: ?9 9 D

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI1rom the study we noticed a strong accecptance A:; for the statement that $sp mangement is e!tend more welfare measures than the 3tatutory re-uirements. Whereas 9; of people are dis agree with the a%o$e statement. *his is a positi$e sign for the hr department and the company %ecause they are ha$ing a complete faith and satisfaction on the management regarding the Sof welfare measures.

<D. 6mployees not only consider the Wage related issues %ut also the welfare amenities to decide to continue in any organization.

3./0
*otally agree A/ree 2annot say )isagree *otally

)+*+ "6'26/*+G6
<@ B7 <? @ D <A; BG <: @ D

disagree

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI1rom the a%o$e graph we can I/*6'"'6*+*I0/ that and CE; employees agree and @; disagree that employees not only consider the wage related issues %ut also the welfare amenities to decide to continue in any organization.

<<. 6mployees show resentment if any of the e!isting welfare pro$isions are withdrawn.

3./0
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )s agree *otally disagree

)+*+ "6'26/*+G6
<C CC E @ < <B C9 9 @ <

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI from the sur$ey we found significant num%er of empolees C9; agree that if e!isting welfare pro$isions are withdrawn.employees will %e dispointed..where as $ery few people @; disagree with the statement .this is a important point to %e taken %y the management.it is not ad$isa%le to discontinue any of the e!isting welfare measures.

<?. + welfare measure is not only to reduce some %urden of the employee %ut also looked towards humanitarian grounds.

S1NO
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

DATA PER=ENTA2E
<B B? A < D <9 BA A < D

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI1rom the a%o$e study we found BA; of employees agree that welfare measure is not only to reduce some %urden of the employees %ut they are important as humanitarian grounds as well.

<:. 353 &anagement allocates considera%le amount to meet the offered to employees.

welfare measures

S1NO
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

DATA PER=ENTA2E
<< C< <9 : < << C@ ?< : <

*0*+5

9A

<DD

INTERPRETATIONI form the analysis of opinions we noticed an agrement %y the majority of the people C@; that $spmanagement allocates considera%le amount to meet the welfare measures offered to the employees.this will impro$e employee morale and loyalty considera%ly.

<@. 6mployees work for the wage related issues %ut many times the welfare measures moti$ate them to a larger e!tent.

S1NO
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

DATA PER=ENTA2E
<A CE 9 ? < <B; B<; 9; ?; <;

TOTAL

H7

588L

INTERPRETATIONI from our study we noticed that employee agree B<; the statement that welfare measures can moti$ate employees of a larger e!tent e$en though they will work for wages.ths acceptance emphasis the need for more welfare measures in addition to regular wage related %enefits.

<A. &any of the /on statutory welfare measures are negotiated in the wage re$ision settlements

3./0
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

)+*+ "6'26/*+G6
<< A@ ?C : < <? AB ?B : <

*0*+5

9A

<DD

INTERPRETATIONI 1rom the a%o$e graph we can analyze that <?; employees totally agree and AB; employees agree ?B; canGt say :; disagree <; totally disagree that many of the /on statutory welfare measures are negotiated in the wage re$ision settlements.

<C. *rade ,nions ha$e the %argaining capacity on welfare measures

S1NO
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

DATA PER=ENTA2E
<: C@ <B < < <@ CB <B < <

*0*+5

9A

<DD

INTERPRETATIONI 1rom the a%o$e graph we can analyze that <@; employees totally agree and CB; employees agree <B; canGt say <; disagree <; totally disagree that trade union ha$e the %argaining capacity on welfare measures.

<B. 353 e!tends the statutory welfare measures for the contract workers

3./0
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

)+*+ "6'26/*+G6
: A9 ?E @ < : C: ?9 @ <

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI 1rom the a%o$e graph we can analyze that :; employees totally agree and C:; employees agree ?9; cant say @; disagree and <; totally disagree that 353 e!tends the statutory welfare measures for the contract workers.

<E. &anagement will calculate welfare measures in terms of maintaining production and producti$ity

S1NO
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

DATA PER=ENTA2E
@ @D :9 << < @ @: @< << <

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI 1rom the a%o$e graph we can analyze that @; employees totally agree and @:; agree @<; canGt say <<; disagree and <; totally disagree that management calculate welfare measures in terms of maintaining production and producti$ity.

<9. +ll flourishing organizations ha$e satisfactory welfare measures to its employees.

S1NO
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

DATA PER=ENTA2E
<< C< <A E D <? C@ <C E D

TOTAL

H7

588

INTERPRETATIONI1rom the a%o$e graph we can analyze that <?; employees totally agree and C@; employees agree <C; cant say and E; disagree that all flourishing organization ha$e satisfactory welfare measures to its employees.

?D. Welfare measure

will gi$e a mental satisfaction resulting in higher moti$ation

towards employeesG discharge of duties.

3./0
*otally agree +gree 2annot say )isagree *otally disagree

)+*+ "6'26/*+G6
:: A: C : D :C AA C : D

*0*+5

9A

<DD

INTERPRETATIONI 1rom the a%o$e graph we can analyze that :C; employees totally agree and AA; employees agree C; canGt say and :; disagree that welfare measure will gi$e mental satisfaction resulting in higher moti$ation towards employeeGs discharge of duties.

=HAPTER 7

ANNEFURE
<. It is the responsi%ility of the &anagement to take care of welfare of its employees a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree ?. +ny welfare measure is aimed towards well%eing of employees. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree :. *he statutory welfare measures are only for %arest minimum %enefits. %8 agree d8 disagree %8 agree d8 disagree

a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree

%8 agree d8 disagree

@. &ostly employees and ,nions %argain on welfare measures. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree A. 6mployees ha$e the tendency to stick to the organization %ased on the a$aila%le welfare amenities. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree %8 agree d8 disagree %8 agree d8 disagree

C. 2ertain times it may %e difficult to e!tend all statutory welfare measures in a organization like 353 jute mills a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree B. Welfare measures are directly related to the production and producti$ity. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree E. *here may not %e any limit to the demands on welfare measures. %8 agree d8 disagree %8 agree d8 disagree

a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree

%8 agree d8 disagree

9. 353 &anagement e!tends more welfare measures than the statutory re-uirements re-uired. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree <D. 6mployees not only consider the Wage related issues %ut also the welfare amenities to decide to continue in any organization. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree %8 agree d8 disagree %8 agree d8 disagree

<<. 6mployees show resentment if any of the e!isting welfare pro$isions are withdrawn. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree <?. + welfare measure is not only to reduce some %urden of the employee %ut also looked towards humanitarian grounds. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree <:. 353 &anagement allocates considera%le amount to meet the offered to employees. welfare measures %8 agree d8 disagree %8 agree d8 disagree

a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree

%8 agree d8 disagree

<@. 6mployees work for the wage related issues %ut many times the welfare measures moti$ate them to a larger e!tent. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree <A. &any of the /on statutory welfare measures are negotiated in the wage re$ision settlements a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree %8 agree d8 disagree %8 agree d8 disagree

<C. *rade ,nions ha$e the %argaining capacity on welfare measures a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree <B. 353 e!tends the statutory welfare measures for the contract workers a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree <E. &anagement will calculate welfare measures in terms of maintaining production and producti$ity %8 agree d8 disagree %8 agree d8 disagree

a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree

%8 agree d8 disagree

<9. +ll flourishing organizations ha$e satisfactory welfare measures to its employees. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree ?D. Welfare measure will gi$e a mental satisfaction resulting in higher moti$ation %8 agree d8 disagree

towards employeesG discharge of duties. a8 *otal agree c8 cannot say e8 *otal disagree %8 agree d8 disagree

SUMMAR0
*he >ute industry occupies significant place in the Indian economy. *he Indian >ute Industry is a $ery old ( predominant in the eastern part of India. *he Go$ernment of India has included the >ute Industry for special attention in its /ational 2ommon &inimum "rogramme. It forms an integral part of the Indian *e!tile Industry. 1urther, the >ute industry contri%utes to the national e!che-uer from e!ports ( ta!es. *he Indian >ute industry has %een e!panding really fast spanning from a wide range of life style consumer products, with courtesy to the $ersatility of >ute. Inno$ati$e ways of %leaching, dyeing and finished goods processes the jute industry now pro$ides finished jute products that are softer, ha$e a lustre with aesthetic appeal. *oday >ute has %een defined as eco friendly natural fi%er with utmost $ersatility ranging from low $alue geo

te!tiles to high $alue carpets, decorati$es, apparels, composites, upholstery furnishings, etc. *he Indian >ute Industry plays a key role in the Indian economy, pro$iding direct employment to a%out D.?C million workers, and supporting the li$es of around @.D million farm families. +round D.<@ million people are engaged in the tertiary sector, thatsupports the jute industry.. Go$ernment of India has included the >ute "roduction for special attention in its /ational 2ommon &inimum "rogramme. 1or this mission, it has appro$ed a sum of 's.:AA.AA crore. +nd also in the year ?DDC DB the appro$ed allocations for &ini &ission I and &ini &ission II under the >*& for the remaining year of T "lan was at 's.?.@C crore. *he &inistry of +griculture allocated 9.BA crore su%ject to the condition that the )epartment of 6!penditure will find sa$ings from the e!isting allocation of &inistry of +griculture. *he remaining year4s allocations for &ini &ission III and &ini &ission IV of the T "lan at 's.B.9A crore and 's.:D.EA crore respecti$ely ha$e %een appro$ed, which would %e funded from the "lan sa$ings of &inistry of *e!tiles.

FINDIN2S
It is found in that 3'I 5+=3#&I 3'I/IV+3+ >,*6 &I55 "V* 5*), pro$ide the employment without much -ualifications %ecome most of the employees are illiterate and $ery few are a%o$e secondary education It is found that trade unions are doing great jo%. *he study re$eals that management partly considers to the trade union suggestions decision makings. *he num%er of employeeGs opinion is that the trade union leaders are capa%le to negotiate. *he num%er of employeeGs opinion is that the organization has some discipline policies. It is found that the management treats the employees like as employees. *hough it has pro$ided employment on a large %asis salaries are not reasona%le as per present standard of li$ing.

*he study re$eals that it has not well any medical facilities for the workers. It is found that the organization not pro$ided -ualitati$e canteen facilities for the workers

SU22ESTIONS
*he analysis of causes for poor industrial relations has lead to certain practical suggestions. *hey are 'egular checks on the maintain of the premises should %e carried on, so that littering of cigarette %utts and pan marks in premises can %e curtailed. 2onduct safety programs to educate workers on safety. &aintain the canteen %e clean and healthy. *he organization has to pro$ide ade-uate medical facilities. &anagement with an open mind has %een considering the different measures and also taking $iew of the representati$e of employee in this regard.

&anagement is strictly to adhereghy to the constitution pro$ision with regard to welfare measure. .esides statutory welfare measure the management has %een also e!tending many of the %enefits with a $iew to satisfy the psychological needs of la%our.

=ON=LUSION
.ased on the data a$ailed from the su%ject of the random access sampling the analysis of the data itGs interpretation, interaction with the employees at different le$el it is concluded as follows. <. 353 management is implementing statutory non statutory welfare schemes for the purpose of satisfactory discharge of duties %y its la%our. ?.Going %y the different welfare measures and the importance gi$en %y the management including the responses it is concluded that the different welfare measures e!tend to the employees ha$e %earing o$er there functioning within the organization and also of the producti$ity and production.

BIBILO2RAPH0

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