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A PAPER BY: K.DEEPTHI (III CSE) C.KASTHURI (III CSE) E MAIL-ID: deepthir !"ir#$% i&.'(% ) *th+ri'*e,-#$% i&.'(%

Abstract Wi-Max
Here we try to introduce you to the new concept of Wi-Max - a yet to be implemented and revolutionizing concept. This phenomenon which introduces the concept of last mile access in the world of networ!ing would help a person-on-the-go to access net facilities wirelessly "ust li!e our already dedicated Wi-#i stations. The foremost advantage being that$ it will cover a larger area in terms of radius under % base station. That is to say a single Wi-Max station will service a &'!m area thereby blan!eting a whole city in its coverage. (t will ma!e mobile networ!ing as robust as the current fixed line broadband networ!s. Through the medium of this paper we will explain you the following concepts which are the !ey milestones of our research in the current concept. What is Wi-Max ) We*ll give you an overview of the phenomenon Wi-Max and explain you the basics of it. How Wi-Max wor!s ) This will be beneficial to understand the wor!ing process of a Wi-Max connection and the associating peripherals. Wi-Max +omponents ) We ta!e you through the in-depth view of the components used for such a dedicated Wi-Max connection. This will include the fixed as well as the mobile connection devices. , perfect fit ) Here we explain you the perfect fitting nature of Wi-Max. -ou*ll see how it blends itself fully to comply with various other technologies currently widely used. ,dvantages ) This will give you the advantages of using Wi-Max over the traditional technologies. #uture .rospects ) ,t this point we give you the current interest and ongoing investments for this particular technology by the global players li!e- (ntel$ ,ircel$ /ify$ etc.

This is not the end of research and future enhancements in this concept are expected to influence better mingling of Wi-Max with the already present and in future forthcoming technologies.

What is Wi-Max
Thin! about how you access the (nternet today. There are basically three different options0 Broadband access - (n your home$ you have either a 1/2 or cable modem. ,t the office$ your company may be using a T% or a T3 line. Wi Fi access - (n your home$ you may have set up a Wi-#i router that lets you surf the Web while you lounge with your laptop. 4n the road$ you can find Wi-#i hot spots in restaurants$ hotels$ coffee shops and libraries. Dia! "# access - (f you are still using dial-up$ chances are that either broadband access is not available$ or you thin! that broadband access is too expensive. The main problems with broadband access are that it is pretty expensive and it doesn5t reach all areas. The main problem with Wi-#i access is that hot spots are very small$ so coverage is sparse. What if there was a new technology that solved all of these problems6 This new technology would provide0 The $i%$ s#eed of broadband service Wire!ess rather than wired access$ so it would be a lot less expensive than cable or 1/2 and much easier to extend to suburban and rural areas 7road co&era%e li!e the cell phone networ! instead of small Wi-#i hotspots

This system is actually coming into being right now$ and it is called WiMA'. WiM,8 is short for Wor!d(ide In)ero#erabi!i)* +or Micro(a&e Access$ and it also goes by the (999 name ,-./01.

Ho( WI Ma2 Wor3s

WiM,8 has the potential to do to broadband (nternet access what cell phones have done to phone access. (n the same way that many people have given up their :land lines: in

favor of cell phones$ WiM,8 could replace cable and 1/2 services$ providing universal (nternet access "ust about anywhere you go. WiM,8 will also be as painless as Wi-#i -turning your computer on will automatically connect you to the closest available WiM,8 antenna. (n practical terms$ WiM,8 would operate similar to Wi-#i but at higher speeds$ over greater distances and for a greater number of users. WiM,8 could potentially erase the suburban and rural blac!out areas that currently have no broadband (nternet access because phone and cable companies have not yet run the necessary wires to those remote locations. , WiM,8 system consists of two parts0 , WiMA' )o(er$ similar in concept to a cell-phone tower - , single WiM,8 tower can provide coverage to a very large area -- as big as 3$''' s;uare miles <=>$''' s;uare !m?. , WiMA' recei&er - The receiver and antenna could be a small box or .+M+(, card$ or they could be built into a laptop the way Wi-#i access is today. , WiM,8 tower station can connect directly to the (nternet using a high-bandwidth$ wired connection <for example$ a T3 line?. (t can also connect to another WiM,8 tower using a line-of-sight$ microwave lin!. This connection to a second tower <often referred to as a bac3$a"!?$ along with the ability of a single tower to cover up to 3$''' s;uare miles$ is what allows WiM,8 to provide coverage to remote rural areas. What this points out is that WiM,8 actually can provide two forms of wireless service0 There is the non !ine o+ si%$)$ Wi-#i sort of service$ where a small antenna on your computer connects to the tower. (n this mode$ WiM,8 uses a !o(er +re4"enc* ran%e -- @ AHz to %% AHz <similar to Wi-#i?. 2ower-wavelength transmissions are not as easily disrupted by physical obstructions -- they are better able to diffract$ or bend$ around obstacles.

There is !ine o+ si%$) service$ where a fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiM,8 tower from a rooftop or pole. The line-of-sight connection is stronger and more stable$ so it5s able to send a lot of data with fewer errors. 2ine-of-sight transmissions use $i%$er +re4"encies$ with ranges reaching a possible BB AHz. ,t higher fre;uencies$ there is less interference and lots more bandwidth.

Wi-#i-style access will be limited to a C-to-B mile radius <perhaps @& s;uare miles or B& s;uare !m of coverage$ which is similar in range to a cell-phone zone?. Through the stronger line-of-sight antennas$ the WiM,8 transmitting station would send data to WiM,8-enabled computers or routers set up within the transmitter5s 3'-mile radius <@$>'' s;uare miles or D$3'' s;uare !m of coverage?. This is what allows WiM,8 to achieve its maximum range.

Wi Ma2 Ne)(or3 Co5#onen)s

Typical Wi-Max e;uipment contains a baseband-physical <.H-? processor and a M,+ networ! processor besides memory and other peripherals. Wi-Max system consists of the following A Wi Ma2 )o(er or base s)a)ion This is similar to a cell phone tower and can provide coverage to an area as large as 3''' s; miles. , Wi-Max tower station can connect directly to the internet using a high bandwidth$ wired connection. (t can also connect to another Wi-Max tower using a 2ine-4f-/ight microwave lin!. This connection to a second tower along with the ability of a single tower to cover a large area is what allows Wi-Max to provide coverage to remote rural areas. Wi Ma2 H"bs These are the core base stations from where data is transmitted to the base stations. These act as the source or the brain of the networ!. Wi Ma2 Recei&er The receiver and the antennae could be a small box or they could be built into a 2aptop the way Wi-#i access is today.

Access Poin)s These are optional and are used mainly when there are more than three-four wireless gadgets needing to access the Wi-Max networ!.

A Per+ec) Fi)
With increasing focus on mobile telephony and fixed broadband access$ the @ fastest growing mar!ets today$ the opportunity for bringing mobility and broadband access together has never been greater. Wi-Max has proved to be a perfect fit for both purposes. The Wi-Max standard delivers high speed broadband access over a wireless connection. Wi-Max doesn*t re;uire a direct line-of-sight between the source and the endpoint$ and has a service range of &'!m. (t provides a shared data rate of up to E'Mbps$ which is enough to service up to a thousand homes with high-speed access. /ince it can be used over relatively long distances$ it is an effective last-mile solution for delivering broadband to locations where wired connections would be difficult or costly. Therefore$ it can be effectively used for delivering broadband to rural areas where high speed lines have not yet became available. , Wi-Max connection can also be bridged or routed to a standard wired or wireless local area networ! <2,F?. (n other words$ it has the potential to serve everything- from low-density residential applications to enterprise solutions. Wi-Max is an (999 standards-based wireless technology that addresses fre;uencies from %'AHz to BBAHz in its original standard$ ,-./01. This standard was updated in @''C to >'@.%Bd$ also !nown as #ixed Wi-Max$ which added specifications for @AHz t %%AHz. The mobile version of this technology$ !nown as >'@.%Be$ came out in @''& and uses the more efficient scalable orthogonal fre;uency division multiplexing </4#1M? modulation scheme. The mobile version of the technology also brings multiple antennae support through Multiple-(nput-Multiple-4utput <M(M4? communication. This brings potential benefits in terms of coverage$ self-installation$ power consumption and fre;uencies reuse and bandwidth efficiency.

(n the Fon-2ine-4f-/ight type of coverage$ service is limited to C-B miles radius. (n this$ a small antenna on the user*s computer connects to the tower. (n this mode$ the technology uses a lower fre;uency range- @AHz to %%AHz <similar to Wi-#i?. The second is the 2ine-4f-/ight service where fixed 1ish antennae points straight at the Wi-Max tower from a roof top or pole. 2ine-4f-/ight connection is stronger and more stable$ so it is able to send a lot of data which fewer errors. The 2ine-4f-/ight transmissions use higher fre;uencies$ which ranges reaching a possible BBAHz. ,t higher fre;uencies$ there is less interface and more bandwidth.

Ad&an)a%es Wi Ma2
Las) 5i!e access Wi-Max is especially suitable for providing last mile broadband access. (n areas without pre-existing physical cable installations or telephone networ!s$ WiMax has emerged as a financially viable alternative. Wide co&era%e Wi-Max utilizes orthogonal fre;uency division multiplexing <4#1M? technology$ which enables wider coverage. (n Fon-2ine-4f-/ight conditions$ Wi-Max can offer connectivity up to %&Gm from the base station. ,lternatively$ in 2ine-4f-/ight conditions$ it can provide long range transmissions of up to &'Gm from the base station. This is enough to blan!et an entire city. Eas* ins)a!!a)ion (nstalling Wi-Max is also a relatively simple tas!. While many other radio technologies re;uire clear line of sight to operate$ Wi-Max can operate in Fon-2ine-4f/ight condition as well.

Increased F!e2ibi!i)* Wi-Max can be deployed both as a .oint-To-Multiple-.oint last mile connection and as part of the bac!haul to the public switched telephone networ! <./TF? and the internet networ! access points. Hence$ operators can easily adapt their networ! configuration to conform to their mar!eting strategies$ enhancing profitability. S)andardi6a)ion 9arlier$ broadband wireless access solutions used chipsets$ which were custom built for each vendor. This re;uired a great deal of time and money. However$ now WiMax is becoming a world wide technology based standard. Thus it guarantees interoperability$ which in turn ensures the availability of low cost e;uipments. Co5#!e5en)ar* Wi-Max can compliment the existing wireless technologies. (t can similarly complement the current public W2,F hotspot offerings$ and can also be used as the bac!haul to connect the hotspots. Por)abi!i)* #ixed Wi-Max provides internet broadband connectivity much li!e 1/2. However$ unli!e 1/2$ it is often referred to as Fomadic because a 2aptop$ for instance$ can be moved around the home$ the office or cafH while remaining connected. /imilarly user can connect to a Wi-Max #ixed networ! at home$ ta!e their Wi-max enabled device to wor! or play and connect to Wi-Max #ixed networ! at these locations as well. (n addition$ users can maintain their broadband connection as they move around within the Wi-Max fixed networ! coverage areas. Mobi!e WI Ma2 Mobile Wi-Max systems$ slated to be commercially deployed in the coming years$ are more advanced than fixed Wi-Max networ!s. They are designed to deliver more broadband data services and voice.

F")"re #ros#ec)s
The potential for Wi-Max in (ndia is vast$ even the overall lac! of fixed access alternatives in the country$ the ongoing 3A spectrum hiatus$ and the governments intension to broadband enable rural as well as urban mar!ets. Si+* /ify$ for instance$ is wor!ing in partnership with .I48(M wireless and the @ companies with have recently The launched the Wi-Max solution mobility features. companies are planning to deploy over E'' base stations in addition to 3&'' subscriber units to provide internet access$ voice and video broadband services. BSNL 7/F2 is planning to roll out Wi-Max networ!s and has deployed &''' base stations and 3'' subscriber units across B cities and C rural areas in (ndia. The B cities getting Wi-Max e;uipments are Gol!ata$ 7angalore$ +hennai$ ,hmedabad$ Hyderabad and .une. The plan is to implement the same in %''' cities in (ndia. Airce! ,ircel business solutions <,7/? part of ,ircel launched wireless internet services through Wi-Max using Fon-2ine-4f-/ight wireless e;uipments. In)e! (ntel a leading player in this field$ is currently wor!ing with service providers and state government to deploy Wi-Max in ,hmedabad$ 7angalore$ +handigarh and Mumbai +learly$ the Wi-Max race has begun and there is immense potential for the technology in emerging mar!ets where there is little #ixed-line infrastructure for broadband. Hence$ truly Wi-Max can be considered the technology of tomorrowJ

Hence the supposition is ripe that Wi-Max will be the technology of tomorrow which will blend the fixed and the mobile broadband connectivity. (t will give the consumers a highly reliable and robust networ!ing option on the go. The future prospects include its utilization in the areas deemed unfit for wired infrastructures. (t can very well be the technology of the day in (ndia where rural areas are still unconnected due to reasons very well managed by Wi-Max. #or a country li!e (ndia$ Wi-Max is truly a technology which can revolutionize connectivity.

%. Telnet Magazine ) , networ!ing Magazine. @. www.wi! ) The online public encyclopedia 3. +hip ) The computer magazine. C. 9lectronics ) the electronic Magazine.