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iu khin qu trnh

Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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Ni dung chng 5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Cu hnh chun ca h iu khin phn hi Chun ha m hnh Pht biu bi ton chun nh gi cht lng trn min thi gian nh gi cht lng trn min tn s

Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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Mc ch bi ging
Lm r cc yu t lin quan ti cht lng ca mt h thng iu khin phn hi Nhng nguyn tc c bn nht trong thit k mt b iu khin phn hi

Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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5.1 Cu hnh chun


d Qu trnh KT B iu khin r P

Gd u K
+

G
+ +

ym r u y ym d n tn hiu t, gi tr t tn hiu iu khin tn hiu ra c iu khin tn hiu o, tn hiu phn hi nhiu qu trnh (khng c o) nhiu o

G Gd K P

m hnh i tng m hnh nhiu khu iu chnh khu lc trc

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V d h thng iu khin nhit


dT 2 1 = 1 FT + F T FT 1 1 2 2 dt V V V

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Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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M hnh tuyn tnh ha ti im lm vic


F2(s) T (s) = Gp (s)F1(s) + Gd (s) T1(s) T2(s) kp 1 Gp (s) = , Gd (s) = k k ] [k 1 + s 1 + s d 1 d 2 d 3 = V T T T T F F , kp = 1 1 , kd 1 = 2 2 , kd 2 = 1 1 , kd 3 = 2 2 F F F F F

M hnh van iu khin v thit b o


v (s) = G v k v s + 1 m (s) = G m k m s + 1

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Cu trc n gin ha h K nhit

m , t ra l h C cn c chn sao cho c c tnh gn ging vi G

s khuch i tnh. m . m hoc C = k Trong thc t ta c th chn C = G

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2006 - HMS

V d h thng iu khin thnh phn


Ah dx = (w1 + w2 )((x1 x 2 )R x + x 2 ) dt R = w1/(w1+w2)

Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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2006 - HMS

dx = (w1 + w2 )((x1 x 2 )R x + x 2 ) dt Tuyn tnh ha xung quanh im lm vic Ah V d x + x = (x1 x 2 )R + Rx1 + (1 R)x 2 w dt Gp (s) =
1 x1 x 2 R 1 R , Gd = s + 1 s + 1
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= V / w
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Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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5.2 Chun ha m hnh


M hnh ban u ca qu trnh cha c chun ha:
m (s)Gp (s)G v (s)u m (s)G d (s)d (s) (s) = G (s) + G y

Chun ha tn hiu:
/ Sd / Sy , u = u / Su , d = d y =y Sy l di tn hiu o, Su l di tn hiu iu khin v Sd l di nhiu qu trnh

M hnh chun ha
y(s) = G(s)u(s) + Gd (s)d(s)

m (s) G v (s) = Gm (s)Gp (s)Gv (s) G(s) = Gp (s)SuG Sy m (s) G d (s) = Gm (s)SdG d (s) Gd (s) = SdG Sy
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V d h thng iu khin nhit

Sy = Su = 16 mA
Gd =

F2,max 0 Sd = 0

0 T1,max 0

0 0 T2,max

km km d = SdG k T k T2,max ] [ k F 1 + ms (1 + ms)(1 + s) d 1 2,max d 2 1,max d 3


Tm = Syym m y ym y = = 1 = m m m m km k k Sy k
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m C Tsp r k r = = = Tsp = km Tsp Sy Sy Sy


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5.3 Pht biu bi ton chun


Cho trc cc m hnh G v Gd, xc nh khu iu chnh K v khu lc trc P sao cho: 1. H thng hot ng n nh, m bo cc iu kin vn hnh theo yu cu ca quy trnh cng ngh, 2. Cht lng v tc p ng ca u ra y vi gi tr t r v nhiu qu trnh d c ci thin, sai lch iu khin e = r y nhanh chng c trit tiu hoc t ra l nm trong phm vi cho php, v 3. Tn hiu iu khin u c gi tr nh, thay i chm v trn tru (nhm tit kim chi ph nng lng v tng tui th cho thit b chp hnh) trong iu kin tn ti nhiu o n, sai lch m hnh v gii hn vt l ca qu trnh (gii hn tn hiu iu khin, kh nng p ng ca qu trnh).
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Cc quan h c bn

p ng h kn

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Yu cu cht lng iu khin


Tnh n nh: mc tiu duy tr im lm vic, bo m vn hnh h thng trn tru v an ton Tc v cht lng p ng: Kh nng bm gi tr bin ch o, kh nng khng nhiu, nhm mc tiu m bo nng sut, cht lng sn phm v cc iu kin vn hnh Tnh bn vng: Tnh n nh v cht lng c m bo vi sai lch m hnh, c tnh qu trnh thay i v vi tc ng ca nhiu o Din bin trn tru v t thay i ca bin iu khin, nhm mc tiu tit kim chi ph nng lng v tng tui th cho thit b chp hnh.
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Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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Cc yu cu cn tha hip
Tc p ng v cht lng p ng c tnh bm gi tr t/loi b nhiu qu trnh v tnh bn vng vi nhiu o p ng u ra v p ng tn hiu iu khin Cht lng iu khin ti u v tnh bn vng vi sai lch m hnh

Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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5.4 nh gi cht lng trn min thi gian


nh gi thng qua phn tch hoc thng qua m phng nh gi bng phng php i s hoc phng php th nh gi da trn tng ch tiu ring r hoc da trn ch tiu tng hp

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p ng vi thay i gi tr t

Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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Cc ch tiu cht lng trn min thi gian


Thi gian p ng (response time, Tr): Thi gian cn cho u ra ln u tin t c 90% gi tr cui cng. Thi gian p ng cng nh cng tt. Thi gian qu (settling time, Ts): Sau thi gian ny u ra y(t) nm li trong phm vi sai lch cho php so vi gi tr xc lp (thng thng 5% hoc 2% ty theo yu cu). Thi gian qu cng nh cng tt. qu iu chnh (overshoot): Chnh lch gia gi tr nh v gi tr xc lp (A) chia cho gi tr u ra xc lp. Thng thng, qu iu chnh c qui nh khng c php vt qu 20%-25%. H s tt dn (decay ratio): T s gia nh th hai v nh th nht (so vi gi tr xc lp), tc B/A. H s tt dn yu cu thng khng ln hn 0.3. Sai lch tnh (steady state error, ): Sai lch gia gi tr xc lp ca u ra so vi gi tr t (e = r y). Sai lch tnh cng nh cng tt, thng thng ch yu cu nm trong mt gii hn no .
Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi
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Tiu chun tch phn (chun tn hiu)


Tch phn bnh phng sai lch (Integral Squared Error, ISE)
e(t )
2

= (

e( ) 2 d )1 / 2

Tch phn sai lch tuyt i (Integral Absolute Error, IAE)


e(t )
1

e( ) d

M rng quan tm ti din bin ca bin iu khin:


J = (
0

e( ) d )

1/2

+ (

u( ) 2 d )1 / 2

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p ng qu vi nhiu qu trnh

Chng 5: Phn tch h iu khin phn hi

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5.5 nh gi cht lng trn min tn s


c tnh bm tim cn - Thuyt m hnh ni Di thng v tn s ct d tr bin-pha

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c tnh bm tim cn

iu kin bm tim cn: Gi thit h n nh ni v d = n = 0. a) Nu r thay i dng bc thang th sai lch iu khin tin ti khng (khi cho ) khi v ch khi S(s) c t nht mt im khng ti gc ta , hoc L(s) c t nht mt im cc ti gc ta . b) Nu r thay i dng tn hiu dc th sai lch iu khin tin ti khng (khi cho ) khi v ch khi S(s) c t nht hai im khng ti gc ta , hoc L(s) c t nht hai im cc ti gc ta .
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Nguyn l m hnh ni

h kn c c tnh bm tim cn th hm truyn h h L(s) phi cha bn trong mt m hnh ni ca cc im cc khng n nh ca tn hiu t.

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Di thng ca h kn

Di thng: Phm vi tn s ca mt tn hiu u vo m h thng cho qua vi mt h s khuch i (hay ni cch khc l bin ca c tnh tn) ln hn hoc bng 1 2 0.707 Di thng phn nh c tnh p ng vi gi tr t, nhiu qu trnh v nhiu o
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Vai tr ca b iu khin phn hi?

C th m rng di thng mt cch ty ?

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c tnh bin l tng ca T v S

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Hai nh ngha v di thng h kn

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c tnh tn h h
L(s) = G(s)K (s)

a) th Bode
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b) th Nyquist
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Tn s ct c(crossover frequency):
Tn s nh nht m L( jc ) = 1 ngha gn tng ng vi di tn

d tr bin Am, thng thng yu cu > 2 1 Am = L( j 180 )


ngha: H s tng ln cho php ca h s khuch i ca qu trnh m vn bo m tnh n nh h kn

d tr pha m, thng thng yu cu m > 30


m = 180 + arg L( j c )
ngha: Cho php lch pha ca qu trnh tng ln R (v d do bt nh v thi gian tr) m vn m bo tnh n nh h kn d tr pha cn phn nh cht lng p ng ca h kn, v d vi qu trnh l khu FOPDT v b iu khin c thnh phn I th m[O]+ qu iu chnh [%] ~ 70
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