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Introduction Patient safety is arguably a hospitals most important core philosophy with their delivery of health care to the

populations they serve. Patient safety in hospitals also happens to cover a very large amount of material and can be very complex and is interwoven throughout every process that takes place in a hospital setting. As a result of the complex and extensive amount of material involved, patient safety is often a confusing and difficult topic to understand fully. Furthermore, patient safety is an issue that must be considered with every single process and policy that carried out in a hospital which makes the issue and understanding of patient safety the utmost of importance. For this reason, our group has decided to compare and contrast two of the videos that were created by our classmates on the topic of patient safety. The videos that we chose to review were the videos entitled Patient Safety Initiatives, made by group 1, and UOIT Hospital Episode 1: Patient Safety, made by group 12. Our group has reviewed both of our peers videos and will review, compare, and contrast the videos in order to further explore the topic of patient safety. Group 1 Video Background This video discusses how important patient safety is and initiatives that can be taken to ensure high quality of care, safe environments and affordable health care. It also discusses the different priority areas of patient safety within different countries and what may play a large role in either a developing or developed country. Mainly, the most important part of patient safety initiatives is to monitor health care associated infections, whether acquired through human error, improper device use or procedures not being performed properly. These methods could all lead to the spread of infection and harm the patients. Many of the medical errors that are seen in hospitals can also be attributed to human factors such as inexperienced clinicians, poor communication, and poor medical records. The video also discusses different policies and legislations that are currently in place to regulate best practices in hospital settings and to understand the information collected to find the best methods. In order to understand the information collected a broad definition of patient safety must first be established, and then methods can be established to continuously monitor and improve the health care system. Other topics group one discussed about patient safety initiatives include the five barriers hospitals usually experience, methods to overcome barriers and how patient satisfaction can help to advance these barriers. Some different methods to measure patient satisfaction are by comparing care received at different locations, receiving different perspectives on services, warning signs of decreasing efficiency and how often it generates repeat business. With the use of a skit the video shows a good example of real life situations pertaining to patient safety that may occur in a hospital environment as well as methods to avoid such situations. Group one did a good job discussing the topic of patient safety in quite a bit of detail, especially on policies and legislations that are current today. They could have first clearly described patient safety such as the world health organization (WHO) has, as the prevention of errors and the harmful effects those errors can have on patients associated with health care (WHO, 2013). This might help people that are unaware of what patient safety is to better understand patient safety initiatives. Also, the group went into great detail about policies and legislations that are in place to regulate the best practices. Another policy they could have mentioned would be the Patient Safety Indicator Public Reporting Mandate, which through the Public Hospital Act (PHA), requires hospitals to report hospital acquired infections so actions

could be taken to reduce the spread of infection and mortality of the top nine diseases (Patient Safety, 2008). Group 12 Video Background From the beginning of the video, group 12 points out that there are gaps within a hospital that are seen in many different healthcare settings. The gaps in the hospital that the video points out are the lack of communication between physicians and nurses, nurses and nurses and patients and healthcare professionals, as well as nurse disruptions, insufficient staffing, unqualified staffing, and poor nursing surveillance. The intro to this movie was very creative especially with the music, the camera work, and the introduction to each character that are involved in the video. This helped to easily identify what was going on throughout the skits. The group proposed and effectively portrayed the confusion going on within the hospital and how this can affect a patients health. The group used a process maps in order to explain what went wrong. These were well thought out, showing what each step was and how the steps can affect the outcome. With the use of the process maps they show how the process can have a positive outcome and how it could have a negative outcome, showing where the information got lost in these situations. Although this was a good example of how a process map works when analyzing patient safety within a hospital it would have been useful to show which gap in the hospital was most likely to happen in an everyday situation. The group could have improved the video by talking about patient safety initiatives that are available to help hospitals change the problems that are seen within these settings. The Ontario Patient Safety department is a department that works with Ontario hospitals to help improve the quality of care for patients with the development of new strategies that suit each hospital setting (Ontario Hospital Association, 2011). There was no inclusion of statistics that would have been helpful to show the rate in which patient safety is a problem within Ontario hospitals. There are reporting systems involved that will show us how often scenarios such as the ones seen in the video are happening in hospitals within Canada (CIHI, 2007). Comparison Both of the videos explored patient safety, the factors that influence it, and strategies to improve safety for patients within a healthcare setting. The videos identified similar problems in the healthcare system that can compromise patient safety. They both conveyed that within the healthcare setting there are numerous factors that can affect patient safety. The two videos both acknowledged how important it is for the staff to be involved in the care of the patient and that the correct information gets passed along. The videos identified one very important factor that is crucial to patient safety. They both argued that the first step in patient safety is to ensure you are treating the correct patient. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (2008) reported that patient misidentification was the root cause of many errors in the healthcare system. The college also reported that a majority of the patient misidentification errors usually has to do with drug administration; during transfusions and in surgical situations (College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, 2008). The videos identified several reasons why a patient might be misidentified. Both videos acknowledge that a majority of the errors usually occurs when the patient has changed wards, facilities or when the hospital is unusually busy. Both videos submitted several suggestions for reducing the risk of misidentifying the patient. They both pointed out that mistakes are more likely to be made if the

hospital is understaffed and overworked. Both videos suggested that hospitals ensure that their staff is not only well trained but also well rested. They argue that if a ward is properly staffed then there is less of chance that a mistake will be made. The videos suggested that policies be put in place to regulate how patients are transferred between wards and other facilities. This means that the nurses, doctors and other healthcare professionals should find a way to communicate effectively with each other. This will reduce the possibility of misplacing their patient. The videos also both advocated the use of patient centred care model to improve patient safety. Patient centred care is defined as, care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values [that ensures] that patient values guide all clinical decisions (Barry & Edgman-Levitan, 2012 ). By focusing on the patient and not the disease healthcare workers will be more likely to make decisions that benefit the patient and will reduce the risk to them. Contrast Both videos demonstrate how important patient safety is. The video called Patient Safety Initiatives goes more into depth about patient safety. It underlines and describes a lot of aspects where improvement needs to be made to assure patient safety. Group ones video also specifies that policies and legislations are very important to assure patient safety as they provide health care practitioners with guidelines and norms that they need to follow. Moreover, the video named patient safety initiatives highlights how important patient satisfaction is. It states that patients satisfactions is important because it provides another measure for comparing health care facilities, it generates repeat business and it might also help to reduce costs. On the other hand, the video called UOIT Hospital Episode 1: Patient Safety makes an excellent demonstration on how important communication between healthcare practitioners is for patient safety. It shows how problems can be avoided by simply communicating. Even though, both videos are different in content and one has more information than the other, at the end they both describe and demonstrate the importance of patient safety. Conclusion After reviewing the two videos submitted by groups 1 and 12, it is evident that patient safety is an important and robust topic, with many different aspects that all culminate together to determine the safety of the patients at a hospital. Group 1s video, Patient Safety Initiatives, focused heavily on the legislation and policy aspect of patient safety, going into great depth over the five main barriers that a hospital faces in terms of their patients safety. Knowledge of the five main barriers involved in patient safety is paramount when trying to ensure patient safety. Group 12s video, UOIT Hospital Episode 1: Patient Safety, had a different focus than Group 1s video. Group 12 focused on human errors and their effect on patient safety. The video describes, in great detail, the issues that can arise due to human error; more specifically a breakdown in communication between healthcare professionals. Group 12s video largely comprised of a skit, which acted out a human error scenario that was coupled with a process map in order to determine where, when, and how the problems arose and also allowed for improvements to be made to the hospitals process. Together, the two videos gave our group an extremely thorough picture of the issue of patient safety in hospitals. However, the material and examples covered in the videos were very broad, as to incorporate all aspects of patient safety, which didnt allow for a closer look at the more complex interactions and events that determine patient safety. After

watching the videos it was clear that further coverage of all aspects related to a patients care must be examined in order to fully cover patient safety since every decision and action made by healthcare professionals will directly impact patient safety.

References Barry, M. J., & Edgman-Levitan, S. (2012). Shared Decision Making The Pinnacle of PatientCentered Care. The New England Journal of Medicine, 366, 780-781. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1109283 Canadian Institute for Health [CIHI]. (2007). Patient Safety in Canada: An Update. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from https://secure.cihi.ca/estore/productSeries.htm?locale=en&pc=PCC447 Ontario Hospital Association. (2011). Patient Safety. Retrieved March 31, 2013, from http://www.oha.com/currentissues/keyinitiatives/PatientSafety/Pages/Default.aspx Patient Safety. (2013). WHO/Europe | World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Retrieved April 3, 2013, from http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we-do/health topics/Health-systems/patient-safety. Patient Safety Indicator Public Reporting. (2008). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Retrieved April 3, 2013, fro http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/public/programs/patient_safety/. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. (2008). Patient Identification. Retrieved March 29,2013, from

https://www.cpso.on.ca/members/resources/practicepartner/patientsafety/default.aspx?id 1932