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Today in Physics 217:

vector analysis

Vectors:

have direction have magnitude Vector operations include vector addition vector multiplication by a scalar the dot product the cross product Vector components Vector transformation Second-rank tensors

by a scalar the dot product the cross product Vector components Vector transformation Second-rank tensors L01-1
by a scalar the dot product the cross product Vector components Vector transformation Second-rank tensors L01-1

Vector operations

Vector addition:

Adding two vectors produces a third vector:

ABC

Vector addition is commutative:

ABC

BA

Vector subtraction is equivalent to adding the opposite of a vector:

AB A B

a)

B A C = A + B
B
A
C = A + B

b)

C = B + A A B
C = B + A
A
B

Vector operations (continued)

Vector multiplication by a scalar:

The result of vector multiplication by a scalar is a vector. The magnitude of the resulting vector is the product of the magnitude of the scalar and the magnitude of the vector. The direction of the resulting vector is the same as the direction of the original vector if a > 0 and opposite to the direction of the original vector if a < 0. Vector multiplication is

distributive:

a AB

aaA

B

a)

if a < 0. Vector multiplication is distributive: a AB aa A B a) A aA
A
A

A

A

aA (a > 0)

b)

A

aA (a < 0)
aA (a < 0)

Vector operations (continued)

The dot product (scalar product):

The results of the dot product is a scalar:

AB

AB

cos

AB cos

The dot product is commutative:

AB

BA

The dot product is distributive:

A

B C AB

AC

A

AB AB cos AB cos The dot product is commutative: AB BA The dot product is
AB AB cos AB cos The dot product is commutative: AB BA The dot product is
AB AB cos AB cos The dot product is commutative: AB BA The dot product is

B

Vector operations (continued)

Cross product (vector product):

The result of the cross product is a vector perpendicular to the two original vectors.

• Magnitude:

C

ABsin

AB

• Direction: use right-hand rule The cross product is not commutative:

AB

BA

The cross product is distributive:

A

BC AB

AC

rule The cross product is not commutative: AB BA The cross product is distributive: A BC

C

rule The cross product is not commutative: AB BA The cross product is distributive: A BC
rule The cross product is not commutative: AB BA The cross product is distributive: A BC

A

B

Vector components

A vector can be identified by specifying its three Cartesian components:

A

ˆˆˆ

AAAxyz

xyz

Unit vectors

Vector operations:

To add vectors, add like components. To multiply a vector by a scalar, multiply each component.

add like components. To multiply a vector by a scalar, multiply each component. z axis A

z axis

A

z axis A
add like components. To multiply a vector by a scalar, multiply each component. z axis A
add like components. To multiply a vector by a scalar, multiply each component. z axis A

y axis

add like components. To multiply a vector by a scalar, multiply each component. z axis A

x axis

Vector components (continued)

To calculate the dot product of two vectors, multiply like components and add:

A

B

AB

xx

AB

yy

AB

zz

To calculate the cross product of two vectors, evaluate the following determinant:

A

B

xyz ˆˆˆ

AAA

x

y

z

BBB

x

y

z

of two vectors, evaluate the following determinant: A B xyz ˆˆˆ AAA x y z BBB

z axis

A

z axis A
of two vectors, evaluate the following determinant: A B xyz ˆˆˆ AAA x y z BBB
of two vectors, evaluate the following determinant: A B xyz ˆˆˆ AAA x y z BBB

y axis

of two vectors, evaluate the following determinant: A B xyz ˆˆˆ AAA x y z BBB

x axis

Vector transformation

The components of a vector depend on the choice of the coordinate system. Different coordinate system will produce different components for the same vector. The choice of coordinate system being used can significantly change the complexity of problems in electrodynamics.

z' z A '
z'
z
A
'

y'

y

Vector transformation (continued)

The coordinates of vector A in coordinate system S are related to the coordinates of vector A in coordinate system S’:

A

A

y

z

cos

sin

sin

cos

A

A

y

z

z' z A '
z'
z
A
'

The rotation considered here leaves the x axis untouched. The x coordinate of vector A will thus not change:

A

A

A

x

y

z

10

0

0

cos

sin

0

sin

cos

x

y

A

z

A

A R A

y'

y

L01-9

Vector transformation (continued)

Coordinate transformation resulting from a rotation around an arbitrary axis can be written as:

A

A

A

x

y

z

R

R

R

xx

yx

zx

R

R

R

xy

yy

zy

R

R

R

xz

yz

zz

A

A

A

x

y

z

RA

xx

RA

yx

RA

zx

x

x

x

RA

RA

xy

yy

RA

zy

y

y

y

RA

xz

z

RA

yz

z

RA

zz

z

or, more compactly, with x denoted as 1, y as 2, z as 3:

A

3

i

j 1

RA

ij

j

Vector transformation (continued)

The rotation matrix R is an example of a unitary

transformation: one that does not change the magnitude of the object on which it operates:

A

RA

If R is unitary,then

3

i 1

R

ij

where

jk

1 if j

k

0 otherwise

R

and

ik

A A.

jk

,

(the Kroneker delta),

as you will make plausible in this week’s homework.

Second-rank tensors

Vectors are first-rank tensors, having three independent

components that can be represented by a column matrix. An

object

multiply a vector and produce a vector result,

T with nine independent components that can

B TA

are called second-rank tensors. They behave as follows under rotations:

3

3

T

ij

k

1

l

1

R

ik

RT

jl

kl