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CONTENT

1.

MEASUREMENTS RELATED TO AC GENERATOR ....................................................................................... 4 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. MEASURING EQUIPMENT ...................................................................................................................... 4

HARMONIC CURRENT FACTOR (HCF) ........................................................................................................ 8

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS OF CURRENTS ............................................................................................... 9 RATIO OF THE NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENT OF CURRENT TO THE RATED CURRENT (I2/IN) ............................. 11

VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY VARIATIONS DURING OPERATION......................................................................... 12 VOLTAGE DEPENDENCE OF THE GENERATOR FREQUENCY .............................................................................. 15 SUMMARY OF THE REPORT ................................................................................................................... 15

2.

MEASUREMENTS RELATED TO 110 KV DISTRIBUTION NETWORK .......................................................... 17 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. MEASURING EQUIPMENT .................................................................................................................... 17 POWER FREQUENCY ASSESSMENT .......................................................................................................... 17 LONG TERM FLICKER SEVERITY ............................................................................................................... 19 VOLTAGE UNBALANCE ASSESSMENT ....................................................................................................... 20 HARMONICS ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................................... 21 SUPPLY VOLTAGE VARIATION ................................................................................................................ 24 EVENTS ........................................................................................................................................... 25 SUMMARY OF THE REPORT ................................................................................................................... 26

3.

LITERATURE........................................................................................................................................... 26

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AC GENERATOR PARAMETERS ................................................................................................................ 4

1. Measurements related to AC generator


In this chapter, the power quality (PQ) report contains assessment of set of PQ parameters

recommended values. Power quality report includes assessment of : harmonic current factor (HCF) [4]

system of currents symmetrical components [4]

ratio of the negative-sequence component of current to the rated current [4] voltage and frequency variations during operation [4] voltage dependence of the generator frequency [5] recorded power quality events and transients

Measurements were done on the voltage and current transformers terminals in the XXX Localization of the power quality recorder in the generator circuitry presents XX

1.1. Measuring equipment

Fluke 1760, Three-Phase Power Quality Recorder Topas, Serial No. Y760588, GPS time synchronization, Class-A compliance.

Manufacturer: XXX Type: XXX

Air cooled turbo generator, apparent power 76 MVA, rated voltage 10,5 kV, current 4205 A,

power factor 0,85, speed 3000 rpm.

The generator parameters during 1 week assessment time are shown in Table 1-1:

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1.2. AC Generator Parameters

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recorded indirectly at the AC generator (10,5 kV). Recorded values were compared with

Table 1-1. Generator parameters during the assessment period

Values Parameter min Active power P [MW] Reactive power Q [MVAr] Apparent Power S [MVA] cos tan 24,515 2,604 Percentile 95% 62,975 18,361 64,802 0,994 0,110 0,993 max 64,291 22,961 66,782 0,999 0,382 0,998

PF is defined as: PF=(P/|S|)(Qh/|Qh|)

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Fig. 1.1. Visualization of the generators active power in 1 week. (yellow line sum of three phase quantities)

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24,752 0,934 0,045 0,964 Power factor PF

Fig. 1.2. Visualization of the generators reactive power in 1 week.

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Fig. 1.3. Visualization of the generators apparent power in 1 week.

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Fig. 1.4. Visualization of the generators power factor (cos) in 1 week.

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Fig. 1.5. Visualization of the generators power factor (PF=(P/|S|)*(Qh/|Qh|)) in 1 week.

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Fig. 1.6. Localization of the power quality measurements in the generator circuitry.

1.3. Harmonic current factor (HCF)


Three-phase a.c. generators shall be suitable for supplying circuits which, when supplied by a system of balanced and sinusoidal voltages result in currents not exceeding a harmonic

The HCF shall be computed by using the following formula:

where in is the ratio of the harmonic current In to the rated current IN; n is the order of harmonic; k = 13. Harmonic components are shown in Fig. 1.7.

1,01% 1,83%, all below the limit of 5%.

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During 100% of the assessment period the maximum HCF values are within the range of

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Table 1-2. Assessment of the HCF HCF assessment min HCF [%] 1,01 1,69 1,83 Percentile 95% max

current factor (HCF) of 5% [4].

Fig. 1.7. Visualization of the currents harmonics averaged over 1 week. (in all figures the plots of L1 are blue, L2-red, L3-green)

1.4.Symmetrical components of currents

Three-phase a.c. generators shall be suitable for supplying circuits which, when supplied by a

system of balanced and sinusoidal voltages result in a system of currents where neither the

positive-sequence component [4]. Currents symmetrical components are shown in Fig. 1.8 and 1.9.

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negative-sequence component nor the zero-sequence component exceed 5% of the

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Fig. 1.8. Visualization of currents Zero to Positive sequence ratio.

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Fig. 1.9. Visualization of currents Negative to Positive sequence ratio.

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Table 1-3. Assessment of the negative and zero-sequence components Components ratio Components ratio assessment min Zero/Pos Neg/Pos 0,43 0,55 [%] Percentile 95% 0,50 1,11 max 0,50 2,35

During 100% of the assessment period measured values hold in range from 0,43% to 0,50% for zero sequence component and from 0,55% to 2,35% for negative sequence component, all below the limit of 5%.

1.5.Ratio of the negative-sequence component of current to the rated current (I2/IN)

Three-phase synchronous machines shall be capable of operating continuously on an unbalanced system in such a way that, with none of the phase currents exceeding the rated current, the ratio of the negative-sequence component of maximum current for continuous

operation (I2) to the rated current (IN) does not exceed the value of 8% for a.c. generators with direct cooled (inner cooled) rotor windings [4].

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I2/IN I2/IN I2/IN

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Table 1-4. Assessment of the I2/IN I2/IN assessment min I2/IN [%] 0,008 0,152 0,356 Percentile 95% max

Figure 1.10 and Table 1-4 contains statistical parameters which confirmed that in the

investigated case requirements for I2/IN are fulfilled. The recorded r.m.s. values hold in range from 0,008% to 0,356%.

1.6. Voltage and frequency variations during operation

For a.c. machines rated for use on a power supply of fixed frequency supplied from an a.c. generator (whether local or via a supply network), combinations of voltage variation and frequency variation are classified as being either zone A or zone B, in accordance with Figure 1.11 for generators and synchronous condensers. A machine shall be capable of performing

its primary function, continuously within zone A, but need not comply fully with its performance at rated voltage and frequency [4].

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Fig. 1.10. Visualization of currents I2/IN ratio.

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U,

Fig. 1.11. Voltage and frequency limits for generators with plotted limit range of recorded values (red rectangle).

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Table 1-5. Assessment of voltage and frequency limits Voltage and frequency limits min f Percentile 95% max U [p.u.] 0,9997 1,0255 1,0257 f [p.u.] 0,9981 1,0010 1,0016

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Fig. 1.13. Visualization of frequency variation in 1 week.

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Fig. 1.12. Visualization of voltage variation in 1 week.

Visualization of the recorded data in Figures 1.12 and 1.1.3 and Table 1-5 contain statistical parameters which confirmed that in the investigated case requirements for voltage and frequency limits are fulfilled.

1.7. Voltage dependence of the generator frequency


The generating unit should maintain the following relationship between the frequency of the generator and voltage [5]

where f is the change of frequency in p.u. and Ug is the change of generator voltage corresponding to the change of frequency, in p.u.

Table 1-6. Assessment of voltage dependence on generator frequency

Ug/f10min

For measured data, the maximum of numerical approximate gradient showed the point

Corresponding change of voltage was determined and the ratio Ug/f computed at this time point [2]. The requirements are fulfilled.

Presented in previous section assessment of crucial power quality parameters indicates that: in case of harmonic current factor (HCF), requirements are fulfilled in case of system of currents symmetrical components, requirements are fulfilled in case of the ratio of the negative-sequence component of current to the rated current , requirements are fulfilled in case of voltage and frequency variations during operation , requirements are fulfilled in case of voltage dependence of the generator frequency, requirements are fulfilled

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where the change of frequency was the highest (22.11.2010 06:00:00), see Table 1-6.

1.8.Summary of the report

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for
Ug/f
[p.u.]

Ug f

1,64910-5 8,39910-4 0,0196

max

During the assessment period no events were detected (with exception to one generator disconnection from the grid due to causes not relevant to power quality assessment).

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2. Measurements related to 110 kV distribution network


In this chapter, the power quality (PQ) report contains assessment of set of PQ parameters

compared with recommended values. Power quality report includes assessment of : power frequency

long term flicker severity voltage unbalance harmonics

recorded power quality events and transients

2.1.Measuring equipment

Fluke 1760, Three-Phase Power Quality Recorder Topas, Serial No. UO13379, GPS time synchronization, Class-A compliance. Measurements were done on the voltage and current transformers terminals of transmission line 1 in XXX.

No. 1 presents XX

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below 220 kV:

The standards [3] and [4] indicate that the nominal frequency of the supply voltage shall be 50 Hz. Under normal operating conditions the mean value of the fundamental frequency measured over 10 s shall be within a range of: for systems with synchronous connection to an interconnected system with the voltage

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Localization of the power quality recorder in the distribution network of the 110 kV line

Fig. 2.1. Localization of the power quality measurements in 110 kV distribution network.

2.2. Power frequency assessment

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recorded indirectly at power line of the distribution network (110 kV). Recorded values were

50 Hz 1 % (i.e. 49,5 Hz... 50,5 Hz) during 99 ,5 % of a week; 50 Hz + 4 % / - 6 % (i.e. 47 Hz... 52 Hz) during 100 % of the week;

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f10s f10s f10s

Visualization of the recorded set of frequency values is shown in Fig. 2.2. Figure 2.2 and Table 1-2 contains the statistical parameters which confirmed that in the investigated case requirements for frequency standards are fulfilled. During 100% of the assessment period frequency values hold in range from 49,905 to 50,109 Hz.

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Fig. 2.2. Visualization of power frequency variation. Table 2-1. Assessment of power frequency variation f Frequency assessment min [Hz] 49,905 50,009 50,109 Percentile 99,5% max

2.3.Long term flicker severity

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Plt2h

Visualization of the recorded set of long-term flicker coefficient values is shown in Fig 2.3. The standards indicate that under normal operating conditions, in any period of one week

the long term flicker severity caused by voltage fluctuation should be Plt 0,8 for 95 % of the time [5].

Table 2-2 contains the statistical parameters which confirmed that in the investigated case requirements for flicker severity are fulfilled. 95% of the recorded long-term flicker values hold in range from 0,15 to 0,75. Moreover 100% of the recorded values follows by the standard expectation.

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Fig. 2.3. Visualization of long-term flicker severity Table 2-2. Assessment of long-term flicker severity L1 [-] L2 Flicker assessment min L3 [-] [-] 0,15 0,73 0,75 0,16 0,65 0,15 0,63 Percentile 95% max 0,66 0,64

2.4. Voltage unbalance assessment

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Neg/Pos10min

Visualization of the recorded set of unbalance values is shown in Fig. 2.4. The standard [4] indicates that under normal operating conditions, during each period of one week, 95 % of

the 10 min mean r.m.s. values of the negative phase sequence component (fundamental) of the supply voltage shall be within the range 0 % to 1 % of the positive phase sequence component (fundamental). Table 2-3 contains statistical parameters which confirm that in the investigated case requirements for unbalance standards are fulfilled. The recorded unbalance coefficient hold in range from 0,15% to 0,29%.(with 95% values not greater than 0,26%).

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Fig. 2.4. Visualization of the voltage unbalance variation Table 2-3. Assessment of unbalance variation Unbalance assessment min Neg/Pos [%] 0,15 0,26 0,29 Percentile 95% max

2.5.Harmonics assessment
Table 2-4. Assessment of harmonic variations

Harmonic assessment Percentile95% Order Nr.


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Max L3 [%]
0,06 0,15 0,02 0,71 0,02 0,39 0,03 0,04 0,03 0,15 0,02 0,19 0,02 0,02 0,01 0,12 0,02 0,06 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,08 0,01 0,07 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 L1 L2

Limits [%]
1,50 2,00 1,00 2,00 0,50

L1

L2

L3 [%]
0,08 0,19 0,04 0,95 0,03 0,50 0,05 0,07 0,07 0,19 0,02 0,28 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,15 0,03 0,08 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,11 0,02 0,13 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02

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26* 27* 28* 29* 30* 31*

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0,06 0,26 0,03 0,74 0,02 0,41 0,03 0,04 0,03 0,14 0,02 0,19 0,02 0,02 0,01 0,10 0,01 0,07 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,07 0,01 0,07 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,06 0,30 0,02 0,66 0,02 0,39 0,02 0,04 0,03 0,16 0,02 0,19 0,02 0,09 0,28 0,04 0,90 0,04 0,53 0,05 0,07 0,07 0,18 0,02 0,27 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,13 0,02 0,09 0,02 0,03 0,02 0,11 0,02 0,13 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,09 0,33 0,03 0,89 0,03 0,48 0,05 0,07 0,06 0,19 0,02 0,28 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,12 0,03 0,10 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,14 0,03 0,11 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 2,00 0,50 1,00 0,50 1,50 0,50 1,50 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,00 0,50 0,02 0,01 0,10 0,01 0,06 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,08 0,01 0,06 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 1,00 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,70 0,50 0,70 0,68 0,66 0,65 0,63 0,62 0,60

[%]

[%]

[%]

[%]

32* 33* 34* 35* 36* 37* 38* 39* 40* 41* 42* 43* 44* 45* 46* 47* 48* 49*

0,59 0,58 0,57 0,56 0,55 0,54 0,53 0,52 0,51 0,50 0,50 0,49 0,48 0,48 0,47 0,47 0,46 0,46

0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,01

0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,03 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01

0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,03 0,01 0,03 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01

0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,01

0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,03 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01

0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,03 0,01 0,03 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,01

0,01 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,01 50* 0,45 th *For harmonics higher than 25 the formula for the harmonic limit is 0,2+0,5(25/h) [%] [5].

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Fig, 2.5. Visualization of the voltages harmonic spectrum averaged in 1 week.

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0,02 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,02 0,02 0,01 0,02

Table 2-4 contains limits for particular harmonics defined in [5] and statistical parameters of recorded data. Distribution of the harmonics is also visible in Fig, 2.5. Performed measurements has detected no values over the limit.

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THDV
10min

Visualization of the recorded set of total harmonics distortion in voltage is shown in Fig. 2-6, [5] indicates THD of the supply voltage (including all harmonics up to the order 40) shall be less than or equal to 3 %. Table 2-5 contains the statistical parameters of THDV which confirmed that in the investigated case requirements are fulfilled, 95% of the recorded THDV coefficient hold in

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Fig, 2.6. Visualization of THDV variation Table 2-5. Assessment of THDV variation THDVL1 [%] 0,37 0,88 0,99 THDV assessment min THDVL2 [%] 0,38 0,81 0,99 THDVL3 [%] 0,29 0,83 1,02 Percentile 95% max

range from 0,83% to 0,88%, Moreover 100% of the recorded values follow by the standard expectation.

2.6. Supply voltage variation

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U10min

Visualization of the recorded set of supply voltage values is shown in Fig, 2.7. The [5] indicates that under normal operating conditions: - during each period of one week 95 % of the 10 min mean r.m.s. values of the supply voltage shall be within the range of Un 10 %, i.e. in the range 57157,68 69859,38 V. Table 2-6 contains statistical parameters which confirmed that in the investigated case requirements for r.m.s. supply voltage standards are fulfilled, 95% of the recorded r.m.s.,

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Fig. 2.7. Visualization of supply voltage variation. Table 2-6. Assessment of supply voltage variation VL1 [V] 67609,00 69407,25 69677,00 VL2 [V] 67837,00 69648,00 69948,00 VL3 [V] 67683,00 69441,50 69698,00 Voltage assesment min Percentile 95% max

values hold in range from 69407,25 V to 69648,00 V Moreover 100% of the recorded values follows by standard expectation, i.e. are within the range of 50806,82 V 76210,23 V.

2.7.Events
During the assessment period the following events were detected:
Overvoltages Designation Number Maximum value [V] Maximum duration

Event Voltage Swells Voltage Swells Voltage Swells Voltage Swells Voltage Swells Voltage Swells Voltage Swells 3-ph Voltage Swells 3-ph Voltage Swells 3-ph Voltage Swells 3-ph RMS Upper Limit RMS Upper Limit RMS Upper Limit RMS Upper Limit RMS Upper Limit h06 Harmonics h06 Harmonics h06 Harmonics h06 Harmonics

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L1 1 L2 4 L3 1 L123-N 4 70136 69879 70136 69900 4h 56m 26s 8h 51m 14s 6h 9m 33s 8h 51m 14s Details of recorded events Detection Date & Time 21.11.2010 00:45:43,71 21.11.2010 00:45:43,71 21.11.2010 00:51:22,33 21.11.2010 03:05:31,08 21.11.2010 04:18:47,43 21.11.2010 05:00:50,17 22.11.2010 00:47:40,70 22.11.2010 00:47:40,70 22.11.2010 00:53:02,94 22.11.2010 08:33:09,62 22.11.2010 08:33:09,62 23.11.2010 13:20:18,80 23.11.2010 18:55:21,73 24.11.2010 01:43:38,14 24.11.2010 01:43:38,14 24.11.2010 09:15:00,91 24.11.2010 14:27:37,11 24.11.2010 15:38:24,90 25.11.2010 02:05:16,99 Location V L3 V L1 V L2 V L2 V L2 V L2 Duration Value 6h 9m 33s 6,99e+04 [V] 4h 56m 26s 8h 51m 14s 5h 16m 0s 4h 8m 3s 4h 5m 8s 6,988e+04 [V] 7,014e+04 [V] 7,003e+04 [V] 6,999e+04 [V] 6,991e+04 [V] 7,014e+04 [V] 7,003e+04 [V] 6,999e+04 [V] 6,991e+04 [V] 6,987e+04 [V] 7,012e+04 [V] 7,001e+04 [V] 6,996e+04 [V] 6,989e+04 [V] 0,5343 [%] 0,5235 [%] 0,501 [%] 0,5519 [%] V L123-N V L123-N V L123-N V L123-N V L3 V L2 V L2 V L2 V L2 V L2 V L1 V L1 V L1 8h 51m 14s 5h 16m 0s 4h 8m 3s 4h 5m 8s 4h 44m 5s 10h 19m 45s 6h 11m 40s 4h 33m 42s 4h 23m 59s 200,06ms 200,05ms 199,88ms 999,77ms

h06 Harmonics h06 Harmonics h06 Harmonics h06 Harmonics h12 Harmonics

V L1 V L1 V L1 V L3 V L1

2.8.Summary of the report

Presented in previous section assessment of crucial power quality parameters indicates that: in case of power frequency, requirements are fulfilled in case of voltage supply, requirements are fulfilled

in case of flicker severity, requirements are fulfilled

in case of voltage unbalance, requirements are fulfilled

in case of THD of the supply voltage, requirements are fulfilled in case of harmonics, requirements are fulfilled

Multiple events were detected during the recording time. Closer follow-up require the overvoltages.

3. Literature

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[1] IEC 61000-4-30:2008, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC): Testing and measurement techniques -Power quality measurement method [2] Bollen M,H,J, Irene Yu-Hua Gu, Signal Processing of Power Quality Disturbances, 2006 The Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, Inc [3] EN 50160: Voltage characteristics of electricity supplied by public distribution networks [4] IEC 60034-1: Rotating electrical machines: 7 Electrical operating conditions [5] Regulations of the operation and exploitation of the distribution network

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25.11.2010 02:05:16,99 25.11.2010 02:05:19,01 25.11.2010 05:29:01,27 25.11.2010 07:55:14,98 25.11.2010 12:44:23,45

199,99ms 1,0002s 200,05ms 200,11ms 199,96ms

0,5788 [%] 0,5491 [%] 0,5054 [%] 0,5294 [%] 0,7392 [%]